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1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302161, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Episiotomy is associated with side effects, such as pain and wound infection. Additionally, discomfort after episiotomy affects the quality of life of both the mother and the baby. Medicinal herbs are one alternative method for the treatment of episiotomy wounds. This study will investigate the effectiveness of the combination of olive and black seed oil on pain intensity and the healing of episiotomy wounds in primiparous women. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial will be conducted on primiparous women who have had a normal delivery with an episiotomy. There are 3 groups in this study: one group will receive a combination of olive oil and black seed oil, another group will receive olive oil alone, and the use of oils will start 24 hours after delivery. Ten drops will be applied topically 3 times a day for 10 days. The third group (control) will receive only routine care. Data will be collected through a demographic characteristics questionnaire, REEDA (Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, and Approximation) Scale, and Visual Analog Scale. To determine and compare the effects of pharmaceutical interventions on pain intensity and episiotomy wound healing in the groups, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with repeated measurements will be used with SPSS version 22. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will show the effects of a combination of olive and black seed oil, as well as olive oil alone, on pain intensity and episiotomy wound healing in primiparous women. The positive effects observed in this trial with these oils could be valuable for women who have undergone an episiotomy.


Assuntos
Episiotomia , Azeite de Oliva , Óleos de Plantas , Cicatrização , Humanos , Feminino , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Adulto , Gravidez , Medição da Dor , Paridade , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(4): 672-676, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and risk factors of breast cancer patients in a tertiary care setting. METHODS: The retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, and comprised data of all patients diagnosed with breast cancer from March 2017 to December 2021. Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, stage of the disease and histopathological characteristics were noted. Data related to all the variables was not available in all cases. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Of the 690 patients, 683(99%) were females and 7(1%) were males. The mean age at presentation was 49.3±13.5 years, while the mean duration of symptoms was 10.24±17.64) months. Most of the females were married 642(93%) and multiparous 484(70.9%), while 293(42.5%) had breastfed their children for >1 year, and 412(59.7%) had no history of contraception use. The most common stage at presentation was stage II (48.6%), and most patients had grade II 395(57.2%) invasive ductal carcinoma, with Luminal A molecular subtype noted in 287(41.6%) cases. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of breast cancer in the sample had certain distinctions compared to other populations. It is important to integrate all datasets and develop guidelines appropriate to Pakistani population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Paridade , Idoso , Gradação de Tumores , Estado Civil
3.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1385896, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715606

RESUMO

Introduction: Peripartal cows are susceptible to a negative energy balance due to inadequate nutrient intake and high energy requirements for lactation. Improving the energy metabolism of perinatal dairy cows is crucial in increasing production in dairy cows. Methods: In this study, we investigated the impact of rumen-protected branched-chain amino acid (RPBCAA) on the production performance, energy and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and immune function of primiparous dairy cows using metabolomics through a single-factor experiment. Twenty healthy primiparous Holstein cows were selected based on body condition scores and expected calving date, and were randomly divided into RPBCAA (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups. The control group received a basal diet from calving until 21 d in milk, and the RPBCAA group received the basal diet and 44.6 g/d RPLeu, 25.14 g/d RPIle, and 25.43 g/d RPVal. Results: In comparison to the control group, the supplementation of RPBCAA had no significant effect on milk yield and milk composition of the dairy cows. Supplementation with RPBCAA significantly increased the concentrations of insulin, insulin growth factor 1, glucagon, and growth hormones, which are indicators of energy metabolism in postpartum cows. The very low density lipoprotein, fatty acid synthase, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, and hormone-sensitive lipase contents of the RPBCAA group were significantly greater than that of the control group; these metrics are related to lipid metabolism. In addition, RPBCAA supplementation significantly increased serum glutathione peroxidase and immunoglobulin G concentrations and decreased malondialdehyde concentrations. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis revealed 414 serum and 430 milk metabolic features. Supplementation with RPBCAA primarily increased concentrations of amino acid and lipid metabolism pathways and upregulated the abundance of serotonin, glutamine, and phosphatidylcholines. Discussion: In summary, adding RPBCAA to the daily ration can influence endocrine function and improve energy metabolism, regulate amino acid and lipid metabolism, mitigate oxidative stress and maintain immune function on primiparous cows in early lactation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada , Lactação , Metabolômica , Leite , Rúmen , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Gravidez , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ração Animal/análise , Paridade , Estresse Oxidativo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Metaboloma
4.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(5): e14578, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715446

RESUMO

To the best of the authors' knowledge, no study has previously investigated whether the concentration of minerals is related to reproductive outcomes in primiparous cows. For this reason, two objectives were set in the present study: (i) to assess serum mineral levels, macrominerals, and trace elements during the transition period (period of high nutritional requirements) in primiparous cows, considering reproductive efficiency, and (ii) to address if the serum mineral levels of primiparous cows are related to reproductive efficiency. Blood samples were taken (i) one month before calving, (ii) one week before calving, (iii) one week postpartum, and (iv) one month postpartum. At the beginning and the end of the study, a body condition score (BCS) was assigned to each lactating cow with no clinical signs of disease. The difference between one month before and one month after calving was the body condition loss (ΔBCS). Optimal prepartum concentrations of K and Cl were associated with fewer days open and a shorter interval calving. Furthermore, macrominerals in the serum decreased immediately after calving (one week) but recovered at one month postpartum. In contrast, the highest concentration of trace elements was found at one week postpartum. Primiparous cows with higher postpartum Se, Mn, Co, and Mo concentrations exhibited better reproductive efficiency, and the concentrations of trace elements in serum were correlated with interval calving and the number of inseminations. Finally, primiparous cows with a greater ΔBCS (at least one point) in period 4 exhibited both a longer calving interval and a greater number of days open. In summary, this study showed, for the first time in primiparous cows, that the concentration of some serum minerals not only plays a crucial role during the transition period but is also related to crucial reproductive parameters, such as interval calving and days open.


Assuntos
Lactação , Minerais , Paridade , Período Periparto , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos/fisiologia , Bovinos/sangue , Período Periparto/sangue , Gravidez , Minerais/sangue , Reprodução/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Oligoelementos/sangue , Período Pós-Parto/sangue
5.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(5): e14579, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715456

RESUMO

This study evaluates factors influencing pregnancy rates per artificial insemination (P/AI) and pregnancy loss in Lohi ewes undergoing laparoscopic AI with frozen-thawed semen under sub-tropical conditions. Data from three experiments comprising ewes (n = 358) of mixed parity (nulliparous; NP and parous; P), various body condition score (BCS) and assigned to long-term (LTP, 11 days) and short-term (STP, 5 days) oestrus synchronization regimen across high breeding season (HBS) and low breeding season (LBS) were analysed. Laparoscopic insemination was conducted 54 h post-sponge removal. Pregnancy diagnosis and loss were evaluated on days 35 and 90 post-insemination via ultrasonography. Results showed parity significantly influenced P/AI, with nulliparous ewes achieving higher pregnancy ratios than parous ewes (p = .001). BCS significantly influenced P/AI (p < .05), with a quadratic relationship observed between BCS and season (BCS*BCS*Season; p = .07). Progestin treatment did not significantly influence the ratio of pregnant ewes (p = .07). Pregnancy losses were significantly higher during LBS than HBS (p < .05), irrespective of progestin treatment. In conclusion, parity and BCS significantly influenced P/AI, with BCS demonstrating a quadratic association with season. Ewes bred during LBS experienced higher pregnancy losses than HBS, irrespective of progestin treatment.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Sincronização do Estro , Inseminação Artificial , Laparoscopia , Taxa de Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Preservação do Sêmen , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Laparoscopia/veterinária , Masculino , Criopreservação/veterinária , Aborto Animal , Carneiro Doméstico , Paridade , Ovinos
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 58(5): 656-664, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715506

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effects of pelvic-abdominal mechanics exercises during pregnancy on improving pelvic floor function in primiparous women during the perinatal period. Methods: A single-center prospective study selected 200 primipara of singleton pregnancies with prenatal care and delivery established at Shanghai Tongren hospital from June 2022 to June 2023 as the study subjects. Participants were divided into two groups: the exercise group (100 cases) and the control group (100 cases) by using a random number table method, five participants dropped out of the study due to reasons such as follow-up failure. Ultimately, the exercise group consisted of 97 cases, while the control group consisted of 98 cases. Participants who engaged in pelvic-abdominal mechanics exercises for at least 3 months, exercising once a week, were included in the exercise group. Those who did not engage in exercise were included in control group. Comparing the two groups in terms of pregnancy discomfort symptoms, delivery outcomes, postpartum pelvic floor electromyography results, postpartum quality of life, and pelvic floor disease incidence. The statistical methods utilized included independent t-test, Pearson chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In the late stage of pregnancy, the VAS score for low back pain was 5.05±1.22 in the exercise group and 5.47±1.55 in the control group, with a statistically significant difference (t=2.090, P<0.05). The PFDI-20 score was 23.33±8.41 in the exercise group and 25.76±8.34 in the control group, with a statistically significant difference (t=2.026, P<0.05). The PFIQ-7 score was 19.21±7.69 in the exercise group and 26.66±6.19 in the control group, with a statistically significant difference (t=6.851, P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in sleep quality and incidence of urinary incontinence between the two groups in late pregnancy (t=1.252, P=0.396, P>0.05). In terms of childbirth outcomes, the exercise group had a vaginal delivery rate of 81.44% (79 cases), while the control group had a rate of 64.28% (63 cases), with a statistically significant difference (χ2=9.022, P<0.05). The duration of the second stage of labor was (42.68±21.38) minutes in the exercise group and (50.54±21.33) minutes in the control group, with a statistically significant difference (t=2.178, P<0.05). At 42 days postpartum, the evaluation of pelvic floor function showed that the vaginal pressure in the exercise group was 62.19±10.04, while in the control group it was 52.68±15.55, with a statistically significant difference (t=-5.074, P<0.05). The MOS grading in the exercise group was 3.82±1.26, whereas in the control group it was 2.34±1.55, with a statistically significant difference (t=-7.355, P<0.05). In terms of the incidence of postpartum pelvic floor disorders, the occurrence of pelvic organ prolapse was 7.22% in the exercise group and 12.24% in the control group, with no statistically significant difference (χ2=1.402, P>0.05). The occurrence rate of stress urinary incontinence was 13.4% in the exercise group and 30.61% in the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.015, P<0.05). Conclusion: Pelvic-abdominal mechanics exercises may have some advantages in reducing symptoms related to perinatal pelvic floor dysfunction, enhancing pelvic floor function, and preventing the occurrence of pelvic floor disease.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Diafragma da Pelve , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Adulto , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Paridade
7.
Cuad Bioet ; 35(113): 59-69, 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734923

RESUMO

This paper analyses the prenatal representations on motherhood of 15 Spanish primiparous women who were in the dilemma of whether or not to continue with their pregnancies. Based on a qualitative methodological approach, semi-structured interviews were carried out which included in their design theoretical approaches of the so-called Maternal Constellation of Daniel Stern (1997). Through a content analysis of the interviews, an absence of mental representations of the baby in terms of both physical and characterological appearance was found in the sample, possibly due to the emotional impact generated by the news of the pregnancy. This absence of representations of the baby would reveal the importance of support and/or accompaniment by social and health care providers. It would also reveal the importance of the law in force maintaining the time for reflection, which, implemented with personalised, face-to-face and verbal counselling, would allow women who find themselves in this situation to choose freely, by providing them with all the information on alternatives for continuing their pregnancy with support and accompaniment.


Assuntos
Paridade , Gravidez não Planejada , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Mães/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10514, 2024 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714721

RESUMO

Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) affect a large proportion of pregnancies and represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Yet the pathophysiology of APOs is poorly understood, limiting our ability to prevent and treat these conditions. To search for genetic markers of maternal risk for four APOs, we performed multi-ancestry genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for pregnancy loss, gestational length, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia. We clustered participants by their genetic ancestry and focused our analyses on three sub-cohorts with the largest sample sizes: European, African, and Admixed American. Association tests were carried out separately for each sub-cohort and then meta-analyzed together. Two novel loci were significantly associated with an increased risk of pregnancy loss: a cluster of SNPs located downstream of the TRMU gene (top SNP: rs142795512), and the SNP rs62021480 near RGMA. In the GWAS of gestational length we identified two new variants, rs2550487 and rs58548906 near WFDC1 and AC005052.1, respectively. Lastly, three new loci were significantly associated with gestational diabetes (top SNPs: rs72956265, rs10890563, rs79596863), located on or near ZBTB20, GUCY1A2, and RPL7P20, respectively. Fourteen loci previously correlated with preterm birth, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia were found to be associated with these outcomes as well.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Resultado da Gravidez , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Resultado da Gravidez/genética , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Adulto , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Paridade/genética
9.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 58: e20230290, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze the relationship between pregnancy-related anxiety, prenatal distress, and individual resilience in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and compare it with the obstetric variable of parity. METHOD: Quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study using non-probabilistic circumstantial sampling. A total of 144 women participated. The Prenatal Distress Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale, and the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire were used. A descriptive analysis with measures of central tendency was performed, and the reliability of the instruments was assessed. RESULTS: The average age was 33.57 years. 58.3% were multiparous and 41.7% primiparous. Anxiety was found in 21.5% and very high levels of resilience in 54.9%. Primiparous women showed higher levels of worry about the future and fear of childbirth than multiparous women. Pregnant women with high resilience showed lower levels of anxiety and stress. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women with higher levels of resilience show less anxiety and stress during the first trimester of pregnancy. Primiparous women show more anxiety and stress than multiparous women.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Complicações na Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Paridade , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 265: 107469, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705081

RESUMO

The first parity, or first pregnancy, of ruminant females has negative effects on offspring during fetal, perinatal, and pre-weaning periods which ultimately lead to diminished pre-weaning productivity. Offspring born to primiparous ruminant females can have decreased fetal and pre-weaning growth, resulting in lower body weights at birth and weaning in cattle, sheep, and goats. Moreover, mortality is greater during both neonatal and pre-weaning periods. Insults during these critical developmental windows likely also have long-term consequences on first-parity offspring through developmental programming, but less research has been done to investigate effects in the post-weaning period. Many potential physiological, metabolic, and behavioral mechanisms exist for the outcomes of dam primiparity. Although competition for nutrient partitioning between maternal and fetal growth or lactation is often cited as a major contributor, we hypothesize that the most important mechanism causing most first-parity outcomes is the relative physiological inexperience of reproductive tissues such as the uterus and mammary gland during the first pregnancy and lactation, or a "first use theory" of tissues. More research is necessary to explore these areas, as well as if primiparous dams respond differently to stressors than multiparous dams, and if stress during the first parity affects subsequent parities.


Assuntos
Paridade , Ruminantes , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia
11.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 166, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global studies exploring the relationship between parity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are scarce. Furthermore, no study has examined the relationship between parity and CKD in Japan. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between parity and the prevalence of CKD in a Japanese population, considering the clinical history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and current body mass index (BMI) based on menopausal status. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 26,945 Japanese multiparous women (5,006 premenopausal and 21,939 postmenopausal women) and 3,247 nulliparous women (1,599 premenopausal and 1,648 postmenopausal women). Participants were divided into two groups based on their menopausal status (premenopausal and postmenopausal women). The relationship between parity and the prevalence of CKD was evaluated using a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for several covariates, including a clinical history of HDP and current BMI. RESULTS: The relationship between parity and the prevalence of CKD was not statistically significant in either premenopausal or postmenopausal multiparous women. A clinical history of HDP was significantly associated with an increased risk of CKD in premenopausal and postmenopausal multiparous women. However, the relationship between a clinical history of HDP and CKD in premenopausal women was weakened after adjusting for current BMI. Furthermore, the current BMI was significantly associated with an increased risk of CKD in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Parity is not significantly associated with the prevalence of CKD in premenopausal and postmenopausal multiparous women. A clinical history of HDP is a risk factor for CKD in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Current BMI is also associated with an increased risk of CKD in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Therefore, continuous surveillance and preventive measures against CKD should be provided to women with a clinical history of HDP. In addition, maintaining an appropriate body weight is beneficial in reducing the risk of CKD.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Paridade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco , Idoso
12.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(5): e14572, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698636

RESUMO

This study was conducted to assess the disparities in camel activities such as eating, drinking, sitting, standing, and sleeping between primiparous and multiparous females before parturition using computer vision. Also, any extraordinary behaviours during the final 2 h before parturition and the necessary manual interventions were meticulously recorded. Five primiparous (age: 4.5-7 years) and 7 multiparous (age: 8-14 years; parity: 2.1 ± 1.5) dromedary camels, were included in this study. Pre-partum females were housed double in a parturition pen provided with two Reolink RLC-810A cameras and the data were collected and recorded for each female. Two primiparous and 1 multiparous female required assistance in pulling the calf from both forelimbs to complete their parturition (27.3%). The drinking and sleeping activities were similar in primiparous and multiparous females during the recorded 32 h leading up to calving. Only eating activity exhibited a longer period in primiparous females compared to multiparous females specifically during the 12-h before calving. Sitting activity was longer, and standing activity was shorter in multiparous than in primiparous females during the 24, 12, and 6 h before calving. All parturient camels, whether primiparous or multiparous, exhibited signs of distress. Some extraordinary behaviours were observed, such as two multiparous females attempting to deter their primiparous counterparts from eating. Additionally, three females displayed a distinctive standing position on their knees while their hind limbs were in a complete standing position for 3-5 min before transitioning to sitting or standing positions. Furthermore, one primiparous female stood while the head and forelimbs of the calf partially protruded from her vulva. In conclusion, the application of computer vision and deep learning technology proves valuable for observing prepartum camels under farm conditions, potentially reducing economic losses stemming from delayed human intervention in dystocia cases.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Camelus , Paridade , Animais , Feminino , Camelus/fisiologia , Gravidez , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Parto/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia
13.
Theriogenology ; 223: 22-28, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657436

RESUMO

This study assessed the effects of dexamethasone treatment on farrowing performance and piglet traits in the first 5 days of life in multiparous sows, a high-risk group for stillbirths and prolonged farrowing. In this study, 185 multiparous sows (parity 4.25 ± 0.14) were selected on the day of farrowing and divided into three treatments: CON - control, without dexamethasone treatment; DexaPF - treatment with dexamethasone (20 mg im per female) at the time of copious colostrum secretion (pre-farrowing); and DexaFO - treatment with dexamethasone (20 mg im per female) when the first piglet was born (farrowing onset). All sows and their litters were monitored for farrowing duration, obstetric interventions, colostrum yield and intake, newborn piglet traits, and piglet performance until 5 d of age. A subsample of 106 females (∼35 per treatment) had their blood glucose concentration checked hourly shortly after the first piglet was born until the end of farrowing. Additionally, blood samples from 42 litters were collected for immunocrit evaluation. The results showed no differences regarding farrowing duration (CON = 258.02 ± 13.81 min; DexaPF = 251.29 ± 13.60 min; DexaFO = 294.92 ± 13.89 min; P = 0.06) and obstetric intervention rates among treatments (CON = 36.58 ± 6.78 %; DexaPF = 42.16 ± 6.89 %; DexaFO = 48.05 ± 7.08 %; P = 0.45). The blood glucose concentration during farrowing was higher in DexaPF (94.56 ± 1.57 mg/dL; P < 0.001) than in CON (73.50 ± 1.72 mg/dL) and DexaFO (87.94 ± 1.80 mg/dL). No differences were observed regarding total piglets born and born alive, stillborn, newborn piglet vitality, colostrum intake, immunocrit, colostrum yield, and glycemia and rectal temperature at 24 h of age (P ≥ 0.13). Regarding meconium staining, higher percentages of piglets born without meconium staining were observed in DexaFO (54.77 ± 5.21 %; P = 0.02) compared with CON (48.58 ± 5.26 %), and no difference was observed for the DexaPF group (53.23 ± 5.21 %). In addition, a higher unbroken umbilical cord rate was observed in DexaFO (92.41 ± 1.31 %; P < 0.01) than the CON or DexaPF (86.91 ± 1.97 % and 89.31 ± 1.67 %, respectively). However, the treatments did not affect piglet performance (weight gain and survival) until 5 d of age (P ≥ 0.15). In summary, dexamethasone treatment in periparturient multiparous sows did not improve farrowing performance and key production parameters, such as the piglet weight gain and survival up to 5 d of age.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Dexametasona , Animais , Feminino , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Suínos/fisiologia , Gravidez , Paridade , Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Período Periparto , Colostro/química
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 227: 106208, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676966

RESUMO

Mastitis, a multifactorial disease influenced by both cow and herd-level factors, results in significant losses throughout the dairy chain. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between milking frequency (MF), parity order (PO), days in milk (DIM), and milk yield (MY) on somatic cell count (SCC) and the odds of a cow having subclinical mastitis (SCM) in Brazilian Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Our dataset consisted of 747,520 test-day records from 52,954 cows, including 49,089 Holstein cows and 3865 Jersey cows and 498 herds. The SCC was evaluated using a generalized linear mixed model, whereas SCM occurrence was evaluated using a logistic regression model. A case of SCM was defined when a cow had >200×103 cells/mL. Our results indicated that the SCC increases with higher PO and DIM and decreases in cows milked three times a day and those with higher MY in both breeds (>40 and >25 L/d for Holstein and Jersey, respectively). Increasing MF from two to three times a day reduced the chances of a Holstein and Jersey cow having SCM by 10 and 20 %, respectively. For Holstein and Jersey cows, those with ≥quadriparous had 3.9 times and 2.2 times higher chances, respectively, of having SCM compared to primiparous cows. Cows with >305 DIM had 2.0 times greater chances of having SCM for both, Holstein and Jersey cows, compared to cows with ≤105 DIM. Holstein cows yielding ≥40 L/d had a 75 % lower chance of having SCM compared to those yielding <20 L/d, while Jersey cows with ≥25 L/d had a 60 % lower chance compared to those yielding <15 L/d. In conclusion, higher PO and DIM pose risks, whereas a MF of three times a day and higher MY are protective factors against increases in SCC and SCM occurrence in Brazilian Holstein and Jersey cows.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Mastite Bovina , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Leite/citologia , Lactação , Paridade
15.
Early Hum Dev ; 192: 106007, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, China has adjusted its fertility policies to optimize the population structure by implementing the two-child and three-child policies. Some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are considering the possibility of having a second child. The issue is whether the offspring from the second childbirth will have favorable long-term developmental outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The research aims to investigate the long-term physical, neurological, and social-emotional development outcomes of children born to mothers with SLE at different parities. This study aims to offer valuable insights and references for SLE patients who are considering subsequent pregnancies and require information about potential developmental outcomes for their future children. METHODS: The study conducted a follow-up of children born to SLE mothers who were admitted to the obstetrics department between January 1, 2016, and September 30, 2021. The SLE patients were categorized into two groups based on their history of live delivery: the primiparity group and the multiparity group. The physical development status, including weight, height (length), and other relevant factors, was evaluated in both groups. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (ASQ-3) was utilized to assess the neurological development in five domains, encompassing communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving and personal-social. Social-emotional development was assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE). The weight, height (length), body mass index, and ASQ-3 domain scores were standardized into Z-scores to enable comparison across various ages and genders. RESULTS: The study revealed that the weight Z-score and BMI Z-score of the children in the multiparity group were significantly higher compared to those in the primiparity group. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the proportions of overweight and obesity between the two groups. In terms of neurological developmental outcomes, the Z-scores of the communication and gross motor domains in the ASQ-3 assessment were significantly higher in the multiparity group compared to those in the primiparity group. The proportion of abnormal screening for social and emotional development in the children of the multiparity group was lower than that of the primiparity group, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term weight development, communication and gross motor development of children born to SLE patients in the multiparity group were better than those in the primiparity group. However, there was no significant difference in social-emotional development between the two groups.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Masculino , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Paridade , Complicações na Gravidez , Lactente , China
16.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e075965, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the time to initiation of antenatal care (ANC) and its predictors among pregnant women in Ethiopia. DESIGN: Retrospective follow-up study using secondary data from the 2019 Ethiopian Mini-Demographic and Health Survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 2933 women aged 15-49 years who had ANC visits during their current or most recent pregnancy within the 5 years prior to the survey were included in this study. Women who attended prenatal appointments but whose gestational age was unknown at the first prenatal visit were excluded from the study. OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were interviewed about the gestational age in months at which they made the first ANC visit. Multivariable mixed-effects survival regression was fitted to identify factors associated with the time to initiation of ANC. RESULTS: In this study, the estimated mean survival time of pregnant women to initiate the first ANC visit in Ethiopia was found to be 6.8 months (95% CI: 6.68, 6.95). Women whose last birth was a caesarean section (adjusted acceleration factor (AAF)=0.75; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.93) and women with higher education (AAF)=0.69; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.95) had a shorter time to initiate ANC early in the first trimester of pregnancy. However, being grand multiparous (AAF=1.31; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.63), being previously in a union (AAF=1.47; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.00), having a home birth (AAF=1.35; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.61) and living in a rural area (AAF=1.25; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.52) were the impediments to early ANC initiation. CONCLUSION: Women in this study area sought their initial ANC far later than what the WHO recommended. Therefore, healthcare providers should collaborate with community health workers to provide home-based care in order to encourage prompt ANC among hard-to-reach populations, such as rural residents and those giving birth at home.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seguimentos , Cesárea , Paridade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
17.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 27(4): 489-495, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38679772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The preoperative prediction of intraperitoneal adhesion (IPA) before repeated cesarean deliveries (CD), which are becoming more prevalent, is crucial for maternal health. AIM: The aim of the study was to preoperatively predict IPA in repeated CD with the stria gravidarum (SG) scoring system. METHODS: A total of 167 patients with at least one previous CD at or beyond 37 weeks of gestation were analyzed. Preoperative SG was calculated according to the Davey scoring system: 0-2 score were defined as mild SG (Group 1; n: 94, 56.2%), and 3-8 score were defined as severe SG (Group 2; n = 73, 43.8%). Preoperative previous cesarean incision features were evaluated according to the Vancouver scar scale. IPA was evaluated according to the Nair's and modified Nair's scoring systems. RESULTS: Parity, younger age at first pregnancy, higher body mass index, number of previous CDs, rate of scar symptoms, Nair's and the modified Nair's scores were statistically significant in Group 2 (P = 0.01; P = 0.04; P = 0.007; P = 0.004; P < 0.001; P = 0.007; P = 0.02, respectively). Davey score ≥3 and Vancouver score ≥4.5 were determined as the cut-off value to predict IPA (P = 0.1 and 0.07, respectively). According to multivariate analysis, both Davey and Vancouver scores are independent factors in predicting IPA (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSION: Evaluating the SG score through the Davey score in women with a history of previous CD may assist in predicting IPA status before the planning of a subsequent surgery.


Assuntos
Recesariana , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Aderências Teciduais , Estudos Transversais , Recesariana/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Peritoneais/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Paridade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(4)2024 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38674321

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Pelvic floor muscles (PFM) play a core role in defecation and micturition. Weakening of PFM underlies urogynecological disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Vaginal delivery damages PFM. Muscle trauma implies an inflammatory response mediated by myeloid cells, essential for subsequent recovery. Molecular signaling characterizing the pro-inflammatory phase shifts M1 macrophages to M2 macrophages, which modulate muscle repair. The present study aimed to evaluate histological characteristics and the presence of M1 and M2 macrophages in bulbospongiosus (Bsm) and pubococcygeus muscles (Pcm). Materials and Methods: Muscles from young nulliparous (N) and multiparous rabbits on postpartum days three (M3) and twenty (M20) were excised and histologically processed to measure the myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and count the centralized myonuclei in hematoxylin-eosinstained sections. Using immunohistochemistry, M1 and M2 macrophages were estimated in muscle sections. Kruskal-Wallis or one-way ANOVA testing, followed by post hoc tests, were conducted to identify significant differences (p < 0.05). Results: The myofiber CSA of both the Bsm and Pcm of the M3 group were more extensive than those of the N and M20 groups. Centralized myonuclei estimated in sections from both muscles of M20 rabbits were higher than those of N rabbits. Such histological outcomes matched significant increases in HLA-DR immunostaining in M3 rabbits with the CD206 immunostaining in muscle sections from M20 rabbits. Conclusions: A shift from the pro- to anti-inflammatory phase in the bulbospongiosus and pubococcygeus muscles of multiparous rabbits matches with centralized myonuclei, suggesting the ongoing regeneration of muscles.


Assuntos
Diafragma da Pelve , Período Pós-Parto , Regeneração , Animais , Coelhos , Diafragma da Pelve/fisiopatologia , Diafragma da Pelve/fisiologia , Feminino , Regeneração/fisiologia , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Inflamação , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Paridade/fisiologia , Gravidez , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 348: 116826, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581812

RESUMO

Provider bias based on age, marital status, and parity may be a barrier to quality contraceptive care. However, the extent to which bias leads to disparities in care quality is not well understood. In this mixed-methods study, we used four different data sources from the same facilities to assess the extent of bias and how much it affects contraceptive care. First, we surveyed providers in Tanzania and Burkina Faso (N = 295) to assess provider attitudes about young, unmarried, and nulliparous clients. Second, mystery clients anonymously visited providers for contraceptive care and we randomly assigned the reported age, marital status, and parity of each visit (N = 306). We used data from these visits to investigate contraceptive care disparities across 3 domains: information provision and counseling quality, contraceptive method provision, and perceived treatment. Third, we complemented mystery client data with client exit surveys (N = 31,023) and client in-depth interviews (N = 36). In surveys, providers reported biased attitudes against young, unmarried, and nulliparous clients seeking contraceptives. Similarly, we found disparities according to these characteristics in the reporting of contraceptive care quality; however, we found that each characteristic affected a different quality of care domain. Among mystery clients we found age-related disparities in the provision of methods; 16/17-year-old clients were 18 and 11 percentage points less likely to perceive they could take a contraceptive method relative to 24-year-old clients in Tanzania and Burkina Faso, respectively. Unmarried mystery clients perceived worse treatment from providers compared to married clients. Nulliparous mystery clients reported lower quality contraceptive counseling than their parous counterparts. These results suggest that clients of different characteristics likely experience bias across different elements of care. Improving care quality and reducing disparities will require attention to which elements of care are deficient for different types of clients.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Humanos , Burkina Faso , Feminino , Tanzânia , Adulto , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/normas , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Estado Civil
20.
Open Vet J ; 14(3): 805-813, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38682134

RESUMO

Background: Hypocalcemia is one of the most common transition period disorders that affects dairy cows and has been divided into clinical and subclinical types. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between postpartum serum calcium (Ca) concentrations with metabolic disorders and body condition score (BCS) in Holstein dairy cows. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-one Holstein cows were blocked from two commercial dairy herds based on parity (primiparous and multiparous) and serum Ca concentrations on calving day, 1 and 2 days postpartum were allocated to 1 of 3 groups: 1) Serum Ca concentration >8.5 mg/dl at the calving day, 1 and 2 days postpartum (normocalcemic); 2) serum Ca concentration ≤8.5 mg/dl on the calving day and 1 or 2 day postpartum (transient subclinical hypocalcemia (TSCH)); and 3) serum Ca concentration ≤8.5 mg/dl on the calving day, 1 and 2 days postpartum (persistent subclinical hypocalcemia (PSCH)). Results: The results showed that the primiparous and multiparous cows had the highest TSCH and PSCH percentages, respectively. Ca status after calving did not affect the BCS changes, incidence of milk fever, hypomagnesemia and hyperketonemia, and clinical and subclinical endometritis. The incidence of retained placenta, metritis, and subclinical mastitis was affected by Ca status after calving, so PSCH cows experienced 6.28, 6.43, and 5.9 times more retained placenta, metritis, and subclinical mastitis than normocalcemic cows, respectively. The culling rate within the first 60 days in milk for PSCH cows was 4.61 times more than for normocalcemic cows. Conclusion: Overall, the results of the study showed that cows with PSCH had a higher incidence of retained placenta; uterine infections, subclinical mastitis, and culling rate, but cows with TSCH were similar to healthy cows in terms of metabolic disorders and culling rate.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Hipocalcemia , Período Pós-Parto , Animais , Bovinos , Hipocalcemia/veterinária , Hipocalcemia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Gravidez , Cálcio/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/veterinária , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Paridade
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