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1.
Infect Immun ; 92(3): e0003824, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391206

RESUMO

Histophilus somni is one of the predominant bacterial pathogens responsible for bovine respiratory and systemic diseases in cattle. Despite the identification of numerous H. somni virulence factors, little is known about the regulation of such factors. The post-transcriptional regulatory protein Hfq may play a crucial role in regulation of components that affect bacterial virulence. The contribution of Hfq to H. somni phenotype and virulence was investigated following creation of an hfq deletion mutant of H. somni strain 2336 (designated H. somni 2336Δhfq). A comparative analysis of the mutant to the wild-type strain was carried out by examining protein and carbohydrate phenotype, RNA sequence, intracellular survival in bovine monocytes, serum susceptibility, and virulence studies in mouse and calf models. H. somni 2336Δhfq exhibited a truncated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) structure, with loss of sialylation. The mutant demonstrated increased susceptibility to intracellular and serum-mediated killing compared to the wild-type strain. Transcriptomic analysis displayed significant differential expression of 832 upregulated genes and 809 downregulated genes in H. somni 2336Δhfq compared to H. somni strain 2336, including significant downregulation of lsgB and licA, which contribute to LOS oligosaccharide synthesis and sialylation. A substantial number of differentially expressed genes were associated with polysaccharide synthesis and other proteins that could influence virulence. The H. somni 2336Δhfq mutant strain was attenuated in a mouse septicemia model and somewhat attenuated in a calf intrabronchial challenge model. H. somni was recovered less frequently from nasopharyngeal swabs, endotracheal aspirates, and lung tissues of calves challenged with H. somni 2336Δhfq compared to the wild-type strain, and the percentage of abnormal lung tissue in calves challenged with H. somni 2336Δhfq was lower than in calves challenged with the wild-type strain. In conclusion, our results support that Hfq accounts for the regulation of H. somni virulence factors.


Assuntos
Haemophilus somnus , Pasteurellaceae , Animais , Bovinos , Camundongos , Virulência/genética , Haemophilus somnus/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Monócitos , Pasteurellaceae/genética
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38415662

RESUMO

The misclassification of the species Pasteurella caecimuris Lagkouvardos et al. 2016 along with the heterotypic synonymy between P. caecimuris and Rodentibacter heylii Adhikary et al. 2017 has long been recognized. However, no formal assignment of P. caecimuris to its correct taxonomic position has been made accordingly and therefore the nomenclatural consequences have not been implemented. In the present study, the author first re-evaluates the taxonomic relationships of P. caecimuris using genome-based approaches, confirming the need of reclassification to the genus Rodentibacter and presenting evidence of the synonymy between R. heylii and P. caecimuris. Next, the author proposes a new name Rodentibacter caecimuris comb. nov. and, based on the priority of their specific epithets, treats Rodentibacter heylii as a later heterotypic synonym of Rodentibacter caecimuris.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Pasteurella , Pasteurellaceae , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Composição de Bases , Ácidos Graxos/química
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 51, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract diseases cause significant economic loss in beef cattle. This study aimed to determine whether the application of hyperimmune serum (HS) containing antibodies against selected antigens of Gram-negative bacteria would improve the health and growth of different breeds of beef calves kept on three farms. Two recombinant protein antigens (Histophilus somni rHsp60 and rOMP40) were used to immunize four cows to produce HS. Eighty seven beef calves (Charolaise n = 36, Limousine n = 34, and crossbreed n = 17) were included into study. One hundred milliliters of serum were administered subcutaneously to 43 beef calves (Charolaise n = 18, Limousine n = 17, and crossbreed n = 8) twice, between 1 and 5 and 21-28 days of life. Calves were examined three times, and blood samples were taken to evaluate immunoglobulin M, G1, and G2, fibrinogen, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin concentrations and reactivity of these Ig classes of antibodies against H. somni rHsp60 and rOMP40. Average daily weight gain during the first month and until weaning was calculated. RESULTS: HS showed higher (p ≤ 0.05) reactivity in calf sera against H. somni rHsp60 and OMP40 in IgG1 and IgG2. In experimental calves, compared to control calves, the reactivity of IgG1 against rOMP40 in the second sampling was higher in Limousine calves (p ≤ 0.001) and in the other two herds (p ≤ 0.05). Serum IgG2 antibody activity against H. somni rHsp60 in the second sampling was higher in experimental calves than in control calves in charolaise (p ≤ 0.05) and limousine (p ≤ 0.001) herds. The reactivity of IgG2 against rOMP40 in the second sampling of experimental calves was higher in herds with Charolaise and Limousine calves (p ≤ 0.001) and in crossbred calves (p ≤ 0.05). In the third sampling, serum IgG1 antibody reactivity against rOMP40 in Limousine calves was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in the experimental group. Among the other evaluated parameters, only SAA in the second sampling in the herd with Charolaise calves and heart rate in the herd with Limousine calves were significantly higher in the control calves (p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION: The application of HS to calves in all herds had an impact on specific reactivity in IgG1 and IgG2 classes against H. somni rOMP40 and rHsp60, antigens which were used for serum production.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Pasteurellaceae , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Proteínas Recombinantes , Imunoglobulina M , Pasteurellaceae/fisiologia , Imunoglobulina G , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 109995, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301451

RESUMO

Gallibacterium anatis is a Gram-negative bacterium found in the respiratory and genital tracts of various animals, primarily poultry. Its association with septicemia and high mortality in poultry, along with the rise in multidrug-resistant strains, has amplified concerns. Recent research uncovered significant variability in antibiotic resistance profiles among G. anatis isolates from different Austrian flocks, and even between different organs within the same bird. In response, in the present study 60 of these isolates were sequenced and a combination of comparative genomics and genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis was applied to understand the genetic variability of G. anatis across flocks and organs and to identify genes related to antibiotic resistance. The results showed that each flock harbored one or two strains of G. anatis with only a few strains shared between flocks, demonstrating a great variability among flocks. We identified genes associated with resistance to nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, cefoxitin, tetracycline, ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole. Our findings revealed that G. anatis may develop antibiotic resistance through two mechanisms: single-nucleotide mutations and the presence of specific genes that confer resistance. Unexpectedly, some tetracycline-resistant isolates lacked all known tetracycline-associated genes, suggesting the involvement of novel mechanisms of tetracycline resistance that require additional exploration. Furthermore, our functional annotation of resistance genes highlighted the citric acid cycle pathway as a potential key modulator of antibiotic resistance in G. anatis. In summary, this study describes the first application of GWAS analysis to G. anatis and provides new insights into the acquisition of multidrug resistance in this important avian pathogen.


Assuntos
Pasteurellaceae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Galinhas/microbiologia , Tetraciclina , Aves Domésticas/genética , Resistência a Tetraciclina/genética , Genômica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(6): 383, 2023 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37889324

RESUMO

Gallibacterium anatis (G. anatis), a member of the Pasteurellaceae family, normally inhabits the upper respiratory and lower genital tracts of poultry. However, under certain circumstances of immunosuppression, co-infection (especially with Escherichia coli or Mycoplasma), or various stressors, G. anatis caused respiratory, reproductive, and systemic diseases. Infection with G. anatis has emerged in different countries worldwide. The bacterium affects mainly chickens; however, other species of domestic and wild birds may get infected. Horizontal, vertical, and venereal routes of G. anatis infection have been reported. The pathogenicity of G. anatis is principally related to the presence of some essential virulence factors such as Gallibacterium toxin A, fimbriae, haemagglutinin, outer membrane vesicles, capsule, biofilms, and protease. The clinical picture of G. anatis infection is mainly represented as tracheitis, oophoritis, salpingitis, and peritonitis, while other lesions may be noted in cases of concomitant infection. Control of such infection depends mainly on applying biosecurity measures and vaccination. The antimicrobial sensitivity test is necessary for the correct treatment of G. anatis. However, the development of multiple drug resistance is common. This review article sheds light on G. anatis regarding history, susceptibility, dissemination, virulence factors, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, and control measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pasteurellaceae , Pasteurellaceae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Feminino , Animais , Aves Domésticas , Galinhas , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência , Escherichia coli , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 73(10)2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37882672

RESUMO

Forty-one isolates of Bisgaard taxon 6 obtained from guinea pigs, pandas, pigs and muskrat and isolates of taxon 10 from horses and horse bites in humans were subjected phenotypic characterization. Production of acid from (-)-d-mannitol, (-)-d-sorbitol and (+)-d-glycogen separated taxon 10 (positive) from taxon 6 (negative), while from two to 11 phenotypic characteristics separated taxa 6 and 10 from the 32 genera of Pasteurellaceae reported so far. Forty-four strains were genetically characterized. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes documented a monophyletic relationship at the species level and the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.6 % to other species was found between strain CCUG 15568T and the type strain of Mannheimia glucosida (CCUG 38457T). Digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values predicted from whole genomic sequences between CCUG 15568T and other characterized strains of taxa 6 and 10 were 69.3-99.9 %. The average nucleotide identity values were higher than 95 % for all strains. The highest dDDH value of 29 % outside the taxa 6 and 10 group was obtained with the genome of the type strain of [Actinobacillus] succinogenes, indicating a separate taxonomic status at species level to taxa 6 and 10. The phylogenetic comparison of concatenated conserved protein sequences showed the unique position of the taxa investigated in the current study which qualified for the status of a new genus since the highest identity was found with Basfia with 79 %, well below the upper threshold between genera of 85 %. Based upon the low genetic similarity to other genera of the family Pasteurellaceae and a unique phenotype, we suggest that Bisgaard taxa 6 and 10 should be classified as Exercitatus varius gen. nov., sp. nov. The G+C of the type strain of Exercitatus varius, 8.5T (=CCUG 15568T=DSM 115565T), is 46.2 mol%, calculated from the whole genome.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Pasteurellaceae , Humanos , Animais , Cobaias , Cavalos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Ácidos Graxos/química
7.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 62(5): 409-415, 2023 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37758466

RESUMO

Soiled bedding sentinel programs have long been the cornerstone of rodent health monitoring surveillance. Many recent studies have evaluated methods to replace live animals in these programs; however, the type of ventilated rack being used greatly influences the detection rate of adventitious pathogens. This study evaluated 4 alternative sampling techniques across 5 distinct vivaria and assessed their accuracy in detecting 5 pathogens. Testing was done in an operational (real-world) setting using IVC racks that vent air at the cage level. The 5 agents surveyed were mouse norovirus, Helicobacter spp., Rodentibacter spp. Entamoeba muris, and Spironucleus muris. Samples were collected for subsequent PCR assays as follows: 1) cages with live sentinels exposed to soiled bedding; 2) filter paper placed on the lid of an unoccupied cage containing soiled bedding; 3) filter paper placed in the bedding of an unoccupied cage that contained soiled bedding; 4) swabs from an unoccupied sentinel cage that contained soiled bedding; and 5) pooled swabs from colony cages admixed with swabs from soiled bedding sentinel mice. Cumulative accuracy for all pathogens of interest was highest with the existing soiled bedding sentinel program, followed by pooled swabs of colony cages mixed with swabs from occupied soiled bedding sentinel cages. Soiled bedding sentinel cages detected mouse norovirus, Helicobacter spp., and S. muris with the highest accuracy; the pooled swabs were best in detecting Rodentibacter spp. and E. muris. The findings suggest that with the type of rack and caging used in our facilities, the soiled bedding sentinel method has highest concurrence with the expected health status of an animal room, and the results from this method can be enhanced with the addition of pooled swabs of colony animals.


Assuntos
Helicobacter , Norovirus , Pasteurellaceae , Doenças dos Roedores , Animais , Camundongos , Abrigo para Animais , Filtração , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Doenças dos Roedores/diagnóstico
8.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 62(3): 229-242, 2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37127407

RESUMO

Rodents used in biomedical research are maintained as specific pathogen-free (SPF) by employing biosecurity measures that eliminate and exclude adventitious infectious agents known to confound research. The efficacy of these practices is assessed by routine laboratory testing referred to as health monitoring (HM). This study summarizes the results of HM performed at Charles River Research Animal Diagnostic Services (CR-RADS) on samples submitted by external (non-Charles River) clients between 2003 and 2020. Summarizing this vast amount of data has been made practicable by the recent introduction of end-user business intelligence tools to Excel. HM summaries include the number of samples tested and the percent positive by diagnostic methodology, including direct examination for parasites, cultural isolation and identification for bacteria, serology for antibodies to viruses and fastidious microorganisms, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for pathogen-specific genomic sequences. Consistent with comparable studies, the percentages of pathogen-positive samples by diagnostic methodology and year interval are referred to as period prevalence estimates (%PE). These %PE substantiate the elimination of once common respiratory pathogens, such as Sendai virus, and reductions in the prevalence of other agents considered common, such as the rodent coronaviruses and parvoviruses. Conversely, the %PE of certain pathogens, for example, murine norovirus (MNV), Helicobacter, Rodentibacter, and parasites remain high, perhaps due to the increasing exchange of genetically engineered mutant (GEM) rodents among researchers and the challenges and high cost of eliminating these agents from rodent housing facilities. Study results also document the growing role of PCR in HM because of its applicability to all pathogen types and its high specificity and sensitivity; moreover, PCR can detect pathogens in samples collected antemortem directly from colony animals and from the environment, thereby improving the detection of host-adapted, environmentally unstable pathogens that are not efficiently transmitted to sentinels by soiled bedding.


Assuntos
Helicobacter , Pasteurellaceae , Ratos , Animais , Camundongos , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Bactérias , Abrigo para Animais
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0520922, 2023 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37212663

RESUMO

Avibacterium paragallinarum is the pathogen involved in infectious coryza (IC), an acute infectious upper respiratory disease in chickens. The prevalence of IC has increased in China in recent years. There is a lack of reliable and effective procedures for gene manipulation, which has limited the research on the bacterial genetics and pathogenesis of A. paragallinarum. Natural transformation has been developed as a method of gene manipulation in Pasteurellaceae by the introduction of foreign genes or DNA fragments into bacterial cells, but there has been no report on natural transformation in A. paragallinarum. In this study, we analyzed the existence of homologous genetic factors and competence proteins underlying natural transformation in A. paragallinarum and established a method for transformation in it. Through bioinformatics analysis, we identified 16 homologs of Haemophilus influenzae competence proteins in A. paragallinarum. We found that the uptake signal sequence (USS) was overrepresented in the genome of A. paragallinarum (1,537 to 1,641 copies of the core sequence ACCGCACTT). We then constructed a plasmid, pEA-KU, that carries the USS and a plasmid, pEA-K, without the USS. These plasmids can be transferred via natural transformation into naturally competent strains of A. paragallinarum. Significantly, the plasmid that carries USS showed a higher transformation efficiency. In summary, our results demonstrate that A. paragallinarum has the ability to undergo natural transformation. These findings should prove to be a valuable tool for gene manipulation in A. paragallinarum. IMPORTANCE Natural transformation is an important mechanism for bacteria to acquire exogenous DNA molecules during the process of evolution. Additionally, it can also be used as a method to introduce foreign genes into bacteria under laboratory conditions. Natural transformation does not require equipment such as an electroporation apparatus. It is easy to perform and is similar to gene transfer under natural conditions. However, there have been no reports on natural transformation in Avibacterium paragallinarum. In this study, we analyzed the presence of homologous genetic factors and competence proteins underlying natural transformation in A. paragallinarum. Our results indicate that natural competence could be induced in A. paragallinarum serovars A, B, and C. Furthermore, the method that we established to transform plasmids into naturally competent A. paragallinarum strains was stable and efficient.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus , Haemophilus paragallinarum , Pasteurellaceae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Pasteurellaceae/genética , Haemophilus paragallinarum/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0286158, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37220152

RESUMO

Small RNAs (sRNA), in association with the global chaperone regulator Hfq, positively or negatively regulate gene expression in bacteria. For this study, Histophilus somni sRNAs that bind to Hfq were identified and then partially characterized. The Hfq-associated sRNAs in H. somni were isolated and identified by co-immunoprecipitation using anti-Hfq antibody, followed by sRNA sequencing. Sequence analysis of the sRNA samples identified 100 putative sRNAs, out of which 16 were present in pathogenic strain 2336, but not in non-pathogenic strain 129Pt. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that the sRNAs HS9, HS79, and HS97 could bind to many genes putatively involved in virulence/biofilm formation. Furthermore, multi-sequence alignment of the sRNA regions in the genome revealed that HS9 and HS97 could interact with sigma 54, which is a transcription factor linked to important bacterial traits, including motility, virulence, and biofilm formation. Northern blotting was used to determine the approximate size, abundance and any processing events attributed to the sRNAs. Selected sRNA candidates were confirmed to bind Hfq, as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays using sRNAs synthesized by in vitro transcription and recombinant Hfq. The exact transcriptional start site of the sRNA candidates was determined by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends, followed by cloning and sequencing. This is the first investigation of H. somni sRNAs that show they may have important regulatory roles in virulence and biofilm formation.


Assuntos
Pasteurellaceae , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido , Northern Blotting , Agregação Celular , Biologia Computacional
11.
Gene ; 867: 147359, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36918048

RESUMO

Several Pasteurella like organisms isolated from various avian species were recently reclassified into new genus based on whole genome sequence analysis. One such Pasteurella like organism, Bisgaard taxon 14 was classified as Spirabiliibacterium mucosae. In the present study, a Gram-negative organism was isolated from ailing pigeons with respiratory infection from a farm in Tamil Nadu, India and the organism was misidentified as Burkholderia mallei by Vitek 2 compact system based on biochemical characterization. Since, B. mallei is highly pathogenic and zoonotic, to further confirm, 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis was carried out which revealed that the strain belonged to Bisgaard taxon 14 (Spirabiliibacterium mucosae). To further confirm the findings, whole genome sequencing of the isolate was performed. Whole genome phylogeny and average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis showed that the genome was closely matching with Spirabiliibacterium mucosae type strain 20,609 /3. Hence, the strain from pigeon was named as Spirabiliibacterium mucosae TN_CUL_2021 and the genome was submitted in NCBI SRA database. The genome of S. mucosase TN_CUL_2021 is only the second genome available worldwide in the NCBI database. Comparative genome analysis of 26 Pasteurellaceae family strains revealed 1101 genes specific for Spirabiliibacterium mucosae. Similarly, luxS virulence gene was found only in S. mucosae and Bisgaardia hudsonensis strains. Since there are only 2 genomes available in the NCBI genome database, further studies on isolation of S. mucosae needs to be carried out to identify its epidemiology and pathogenesis so as to develop better diagnostic assays and vaccines.


Assuntos
Pasteurellaceae , Animais , Índia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Pasteurellaceae/genética , Genômica , Aves/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 35(1): 13-21, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401513

RESUMO

Gallibacterium spp., particularly G. anatis, have received much attention as poultry pathogens in recent years. We report here the presence and antimicrobial resistance profile of 69 Gallibacterium isolates obtained from 2,204 diagnostic submissions of broiler and layer chickens in 2019-2021. Gallibacterium-positive chickens had lesions primarily in the respiratory tract, reproductive tract, and related serosal surfaces. Gallibacterium spp. were initially identified based on their typical cultural characteristics on blood agar. The isolates were confirmed by a genus-specific PCR spanning 16S-23S rRNA and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed distinct clades. Of the 69 isolates, 68 clustered with the reference strains of G. anatis and 1 with Gallibacterium genomospecies 1 and 2. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 58 of the 69 isolates by a MIC method showed variable responses to antimicrobials. The isolates were all susceptible to enrofloxacin, ceftiofur, florfenicol, and gentamicin. There was a high level of susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98.0%), streptomycin (98.0%), amoxicillin (84.0%), sulfadimethoxine (71.0%), and neomycin (71.0%). All of the isolates were resistant to tylosin. There was resistance to penicillin (98.0%), erythromycin (95.0%), clindamycin (94.0%), novobiocin (90.0%), tetracycline (88.0%), oxytetracycline (76.0%), and sulfathiazole (53.0%). A high rate of intermediate susceptibility was observed for spectinomycin (67.0%) and sulfathiazole (40.0%). Our findings indicate a potential role of G. anatis as an important poultry pathogen and cause of subsequent disease, alone or in combination with other pathogens. Continuous monitoring and an antimicrobial susceptibility assay are recommended for effective treatment and disease control.


Assuntos
Pasteurellaceae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Filogenia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária
13.
Can J Microbiol ; 69(3): 123-135, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495587

RESUMO

Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transferable mobile genetic elements that play a significant role in disseminating antimicrobial resistance between bacteria via horizontal gene transfer. A recently identified ICE in a clinical isolate of Histophilus somni (ICEHs02) is 72 914 base pairs in length and harbours seven predicted antimicrobial resistance genes conferring resistance to tetracycline (tetR-tet(H)), florfenicol (floR), sulfonamide (Sul2), aminoglycosides (APH(3″)-Ib, APH(6)-Id, APH(3')-Ia), and copper (mco). This study investigated ICEHs02 host range, assessed effects of antimicrobial stressors on transfer frequency, and examined effects of ICEHs02 acquisition on hosts. Conjugation assays examined transfer frequency of ICEHs02 to H. somni and Pasteurella multocida strains. Polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed the presence of a circular intermediate, ICE-associated core genes, and cargo genes in recipient strains. Susceptibility testing examined ICEHs02-associated resistance phenotypes in recipient strains. Tetracycline and ciprofloxacin induction significantly increased the transfer rates of ICEHs02 in vitro. The copy numbers of the circular intermediate of ICEHs02 per chromosome exhibited significant increases of ∼37-fold after tetracycline exposure and ∼4-fold after ciprofloxacin treatment. The acquisition of ICEHs02 reduced the relative fitness of H. somni transconjugants (TG) by 28% (w = 0.72 ± 0.04) and the relative fitness of P. multocida TG was decreased by 15% (w = 0.85 ± 0.01).


Assuntos
Transferência Genética Horizontal , Pasteurellaceae , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina , Tetraciclinas , Conjugação Genética
14.
Vet Res Commun ; 47(2): 683-691, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342628

RESUMO

The purpose of this report is to provide information about the different presentations of cardiac and extra-cardiac histophilosis and, to assess the antimicrobial (ATM) susceptibility of Histophilus somni isolated from these cardiac lesions to different ATM agents commonly used for treating bovine bacterial respiratory pathogens. Eight feedlot calves, which died after suffering from food rejection, apathy, hyperthermia, cough and nasal mucous discharge, and lack of response to ATM therapy, were studied. Cardiac lesions observed at necropsy included valvular/mural endocarditis, myocardial infarction, and necrotizing myocarditis, miliar non-suppurative myocarditis, myocardic necrotic sequestrum, and/or pericarditis. Histopathological, bacteriological and molecular studies confirmed the presence of a fastidious microorganism in the affected organs. H. somni showed no resistance to most ATM tested (ceftiofur, gamithromycin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tilmicosin). The results obtained in this study confirmed that H. somni was the main cause of the subacute cardiac lesions associated with hyperthermia, apathy and respiratory signs observed in cattle examined in this research. These presentations must be considered by veterinary practitioners in order to establish a rational therapeutic.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Miocardite , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae , Pasteurellaceae , Bovinos , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Miocardite/microbiologia , Miocardite/veterinária , Morte
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 409, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacterial infections are a serious problem in beef and dairy cattle. Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) play a pivotal role in cellular survival and the host-bacterium interaction. Histophilus somni OMP40 was identified as a porin with homology between its N-terminal amino acid sequence and the sequences of porins of other gram-negative bacteria The aim of this study was to produce recombinant H. somni OMP40 (rOMP40), optimize its production and evaluate its immunogenic properties in calves. The cross-reactivity of anti-rOMP40 antibodies were also checked. RESULTS: The highest overexpression of rOMP40 was demonstrated by Escherichia coli C41 using the autoinduction process. Double immunization of calves (20 µg rOMP40 per animal) induced a significant increase of anti-rOMP40 antibodies in the IgG1 (P ≤ 0.01) and IgG2 (P ≤ 0.01, after first immunization only) subclasses, but not IgM. ELISA revealed increased reactivity of the IgG against surface antigens of E. coli and Pasteurella multocida after the second immunization (P < 0.01). Cross reactivity of anti-rOMP40 antibodies with ~ 40 kDa antigens of most common gram-negative pathogens was shown by Western blotting. CONCLUSION: Immunization with H. somni rOMP40 induced a humoral response in cattle with broad cross-reactivity with similar antigens of other species of Pasteurellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae families and the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. The obtained results encourage further study to evaluate the protective effect of the produced protein as a subunit vaccine in cattle.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Pasteurellaceae , Bovinos , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Imunoglobulina G
16.
Microb Pathog ; 172: 105785, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150554

RESUMO

The ptsG (hpIIBCGlc) gene, belonging to the glucose-specific phosphotransferase system, encodes the bacterial glucose-specific enzyme IIBC. In this study, the effects of a deletion of the ptsG gene were investigated by metabolome and transcriptome analyses. At the transcriptional level, we identified 970 differentially expressed genes between ΔptsG and sc1401 (Padj<0.05) and 2072 co-expressed genes. Among these genes, those involved in methane metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, phosphotransferase system (PTS), biotin metabolism, Two-component system and Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis showed significant changes in the ΔptsG mutant strain. Metabolome analysis revealed that a total of 310 metabolites were identified, including 20 different metabolites (p < 0.05). Among them, 15 metabolites were upregulated and 5 were downregulated in ΔptsG mutant strain. Statistical analysis revealed there were 115 individual metabolites having correlation, of which 89 were positive and 26 negative. These metabolites include amino acids, phosphates, amines, esters, nucleotides, benzoic acid and adenosine, among which amino acids and phosphate metabolites dominate. However, not all of these changes were attributable to changes in mRNA levels and must also be caused by post-transcriptional regulatory processes. The knowledge gained from this lays the foundation for further study on the role of ptsG in the pathogenic process of Glaesserella parasuis (G.parasuis).


Assuntos
Glucose , Pasteurellaceae , Sistema Fosfotransferase de Açúcar do Fosfoenolpiruvato , Adenosina/metabolismo , Aminas/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Amino Açúcares/metabolismo , Benzoatos/metabolismo , Biotina/genética , Biotina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metano , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Fosfatos , Sistema Fosfotransferase de Açúcar do Fosfoenolpiruvato/genética , Piruvatos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Terpenos , Transcriptoma , Pasteurellaceae/enzimologia
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(8): e0041922, 2022 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852371

RESUMO

Avibacterium (Av.) gallinarum is an opportunistic pathogen in poultry, which, however, has also been associated with human disease. There is currently no approved method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of this pathogen, so this study aimed at developing a harmonized broth microdilution method for Av. gallinarum that is suitable for diagnostic laboratories. For this, the Av. gallinarum CCUG 12391T type strain and 42 field isolates were collected and their species was confirmed by using a species-specific PCR assay and biochemical reactions. To select epidemiologically unrelated isolates, ApaI macrorestriction analysis was performed. Preliminary growth experiments were conducted with six culture media, and based on the results, four media were selected to compile growth curves with four isolates. Independent repetitions of MIC determinations were then performed to evaluate the reproducibility of the values. Cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB) was initially selected as broth medium, but did not show sufficient homogeneity of MICs. Therefore, CAMHB plus 1% chicken serum and 0.0025% NADH was selected and showed a good homogeneity of MICs after 20 h and 24 h of incubation at 35 ± 2°C. This was reflected in essential MIC agreements ranging between 96% and 100%. Testing of a larger Av. gallinarum collection (n = 43) revealed that easily readable MICs could be obtained for the type strain and all isolates. Some Av. gallinarum showed elevated MICs of enrofloxacin (n = 35), nalidixic acid (n = 35), penicillin (n = 2), tetracycline (n = 19), and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (n = 1). By using PCR analyses, the following antimicrobial resistance genes were detected: blaTEM, dfrA14, sul2, tet(B), tet(H). The study demonstrated that the proposed medium is suitable for a harmonized broth microdilution susceptibility testing of Av. gallinarum with a recommended incubation time of 20 to 24 h.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pasteurellaceae , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Infect Genet Evol ; 102: 105314, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675867

RESUMO

Rodentibacter spp. are opportunistic pathogens that are often isolated from the upper respiratory tracts of laboratory rodents. In particular, R. pneumotropicus and R. heylii require considerable caution in rodent colonies, as they cause lethal pneumonia in rodents. A new species, R. haemolyticus, has recently been classified in the genus, and a very closely related strain, Rodentibacter sp. strain JRC, has been isolated in Japan. This study focused on strain JRC by performing genomic and pathogenic analyses. Draft genome sequencing of strain JRC identified several genes coding for putative virulent proteins, including hemolysin and adhesin. Furthermore, we found a new RTX (repeats-in-structural toxin) toxin gene in the genome, which was predicted to produce a critical virulence factor (RTXIA) similar to Enterobacteriaceae. The concentrated culture supernatant containing RTX toxin (RTXIA) showed cytotoxicity toward RAW264.7 cells. Pre-incubation with anti-CD11a attenuated the cytolysis, suggesting that the concentrated culture supernatant containing RTXIA is cell surface LFA-1 mediated cytolysin. Experimental infection of strain JRC intranasally with 5 female BALB/c-Rag2-/- mice showed 60% lethality and was not significantly different from those of R. pneumotropicus ATCC 35149T using the log-rank test. Combined with our finding that RTXIA has an almost identical amino acid sequence (98% identity) to that of R. haemolyticus 1625/19T, these results strongly suggest that RTXIA-producing strain JRC (and related R. haemolyticus) is pathogenic to immunodeficient rodents, and both agents should be excluded in laboratory rodent colonies.


Assuntos
Pasteurellaceae , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/biossíntese , Feminino , Genômica , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pasteurellaceae/genética , Roedores
19.
Microb Pathog ; 169: 105621, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688413

RESUMO

Bovine gammaherpesvirus 6 (BoGHV6), formerly known as bovine lymphotropic virus, is a member of the Macavirus genus, subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, family Herpesviridae, that was initially associated with proliferative diseases in cattle. While the Macavirus genus contains agents, including alcelaphine gammaherpesvirus 1 (AlGHV1), ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 (OvGHV2), and caprine gammaherpesvirus-2 (CpGHV2), known to cause malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), and are collectively referred to as MCF virus (MCFV) group of organisms, diseases and/or clinical syndromes have not been associated with BoGHV6 and porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV). This report investigated the occurrence of BoGHV6 in tissues of aborted dairy fetuses known to be infected by Histophilus somni to identify possible disease patterns associated with infection by this Macavirus. A nested-PCR (nPCR) assay was used to amplify the BoGHV6 polymerase gene from multiple tissues of 13 fetuses and the cow of one of these which were derived from seven dairy herds located in three geographical regions of Brazil. Direct sequencing confirmed the results of the nPCR assays. Additionally, all fetal tissues were previously investigated for the presence of H. somni, Listeria monocytogenes, Neospora caninum, Brucella abortus, Leptospira spp., bovine alphaherpesvirus 1, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by PCR and/or RT-PCR assays. The nPCR assay amplified BoGHV6 DNA from fetuses of most dairy herds (85.7%; 6/7) investigated, resulting in the amplification of BoGHV6 from 76.9% (10/13) of all fetuses evaluated from two geographical and important cattle-producing regions of Brazil. Furthermore, only BoGHV6 was identified in the spleen (n = 3), myocardium, and kidney (n = 2) of five fetuses, and BoGHV6 was the only agent associated with myocarditis in one of these. Nevertheless, dual, triple, and quadruple infections (including BVDV, B. abortus, and N. caninum) were identified in fetuses that were concomitantly infected by H. somni. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain herein identified has 100% nucleotide (nt) sequence identity with wild type strains of BoGHV6 circulating in ruminants from Brazil and 99.8% nt identity with the reference strain of BoGHV6 but was 72.2-73.3% and 67.4-68.2% different from members of the MCFV group and PLHV, respectively. These results demonstrated that 76.9% of the fetuses evaluated were infected by BoGHV6, most likely via vertical infection resulting in transplacental transmission. Considering that most fetuses were concomitantly infected by BoGHV6 and H. somni the real impact of this viral infection cannot be efficiently determined. However, since BoGHV6 was the only pathogen identified in the myocardium of one fetus with myocarditis by histopathology, the possible participation of this Macavirus in the etiopathogenesis of the myocardial disease observed in this fetus cannot be ignored or discarded. However, the mere amplification of BoGHV6 DNA from the myocardium is not enough to establish a definite association between cause and effect, since in situ evaluations and experimental studies would be needed to confirm this agent in the etiopathogenesis of fetal diseases and/or abortions in cattle. Consequently, additional studies are needed to determine the exact role, if any, of BoGHV6 in the development of fetal disease, and possibly fetal mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Gammaherpesvirinae , Miocardite , Neospora , Pasteurellaceae , Feto Abortado , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Cabras , Humanos , Filogenia , Gravidez , Ovinos , Suínos
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 269: 109419, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576692

RESUMO

Animal husbandry requires practical measures to limit antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Therefore, a novel management and housing concept for veal calf fattening was implemented on 19 intervention farms (IF) and evaluated regarding its effects on AMR in Escherichia (E.) coli, Pasteurella (P.) multocida and Mannheimia (M.) haemolytica in comparison with 19 conventional control farms (CF). Treatment intensity (-80%) and mortality (-50%) were significantly lower in IF than in CF, however, production parameters did not differ significantly between groups. Rectal and nasopharyngeal swabs were taken at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. Susceptibility testing by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration was performed on 5420 isolates. The presence of AMR was described as prevalence of resistant isolates (%), by calculating the Antimicrobial Resistance Index (ARI: number of resistance of one isolate to single drugs/total number of drugs tested), by the occurrence of pansusceptible isolates (susceptible to all tested drugs, ARI=0), and by calculating the prevalence of multidrug (≥3) resistant isolates (MDR). Before slaughter, odds for carrying pansusceptible E. coli were higher in IF than in CF (+65%, p=0.022), whereas ARI was lower (-16%, p=0.003), and MDR isolates were less prevalent (-65%, p=0.001). For P. multocida, odds for carrying pansusceptible isolates were higher in IF before slaughter compared to CF (+990%, p=0.009). No differences between IF and CF were seen regarding the prevalence of pansuceptible M. haemolytica. These findings indicate that easy-to-implement measures to improve calf management can lead to a limitation of AMR in Swiss veal fattening farms.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Pasteurellaceae , Carne Vermelha , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária
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