Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.123
Filtrar
1.
Arch Virol ; 165(1): 87-96, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707455

RESUMO

In May 2017, high mortality of chickens and Muscovy ducks due to the H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). In this study, we assessed the molecular, antigenic, and pathogenic features in poultry of the H5N8 HPAIV from the 2017 Congolese outbreaks. Phylogenetic analysis of the eight viral gene segments revealed that all 12 DR Congo isolates clustered in clade 2.3.4.4B together with other H5N8 HPAIVs isolated in Africa and Eurasia, suggesting a possible common origin of these viruses. Antigenically, a slight difference was observed between the Congolese isolates and a representative virus from group C in the same clade. After intranasal inoculation with a representative DR Congo virus, high pathogenicity was observed in chickens and Muscovy ducks but not in Pekin ducks. Viral replication was higher in chickens than in Muscovy duck and Pekin duck organs; however, neurotropism was pronounced in Muscovy ducks. Our data confirmed the high pathogenicity of the DR Congo virus in chickens and Muscovy ducks, as observed in the field. National awareness and strengthening surveillance in the region are needed to better control HPAIVs.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , África , Animais , Ásia , Galinhas , República Democrática do Congo , Patos/classificação , Patos/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Replicação Viral
2.
Oecologia ; 192(1): 43-54, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786666

RESUMO

Maternal effects affect offspring phenotype and fitness. However, the roles of offspring sex-specific sensitivity to maternal glucocorticoids and sex-biased maternal investment remain unclear. It is also uncertain whether telomere length (a marker associated with lifespan) depends on early growth in a sex-specific manner. We assessed whether maternal traits including corticosterone (CORT; the main avian glucocorticoid) and in ovo growth rate are sex-specifically related to offspring CORT exposure, relative telomere length (RTL) and body condition in eiders (Somateria mollissima). We measured feather CORT (fCORT), RTL and body condition of newly hatched ducklings, and growth rate in ovo was expressed as tarsus length at hatching per incubation duration. Maternal traits included baseline plasma CORT, RTL, body condition and breeding experience. We found that fCORT was negatively associated with growth rate in daughters, while it showed a positive association in sons. Lower offspring fCORT was associated with higher maternal baseline plasma CORT, and fCORT was higher in larger clutches and in those hatching later. The RTL of daughters was negatively associated with maternal RTL, whereas that of males was nearly independent of maternal RTL. Higher fCORT in ovo was associated with longer RTL at hatching in both sexes. Duckling body condition was mainly explained by egg weight, and sons had a slightly lower body condition. Our correlational results suggest that maternal effects may have heterogeneous and even diametrically opposed effects between the sexes during early development. Our findings also challenge the view that prenatal CORT exposure is invariably associated with shorter telomeres.


Assuntos
Corticosterona , Patos , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Glucocorticoides , Masculino , Fenótipo
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 277-286, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biodiversity-based agricultural systems can improve production efficiency and sustainability, with fewer negative environmental impacts and lower use of external inputs. Mixed-cropping and rice-duck co-culture have been shown to produce ecological benefits and to have positive effects on paddy soil. However, the effects of a combination of mixed cropping with different rice cultivars and duck co-culture on soil nutrients availability and grain yields have not been evaluated. A paddy field experiment was carried out over two rice growing seasons to test these effects. RESULTS: Several combinations of rice cultivars, when integrated with duck co-culture, significantly increased the soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents during the rice growing seasons, as compared to mono-cropping systems. In mixed-cropping combined with duck co-culture (MCDC) systems, the soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content ranged from 4.33% to 17.86% higher than that in mono-cropping systems. Similar increases were found for soil available phosphorus (8.71-15.91%) and soil available potassium (8.65-39.43%) contents. Furthermore, MCDC produced higher grain yields and harvest indexes for both study seasons. CONCLUSION: The integration of MCDC systems had positive effects on soil nutrient contents of paddy fields, which could, in turn, lead to yield enhancements, as well as additional income for farmers in the form of organic duck meat. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Animais , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo , Potássio/análise , Potássio/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 421-430, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of the 18 043 bird species, the eggs of only hen and quail are generally available to consumers. Thus people are deprived of the opportunity to benefit from the huge diversity of eggs offered by nature. Poultry eggs can vary in their color of albumen and yolk, smell, taste and texture. In this study, sighted and blind people were employed for sensory evaluation with the aim of determining the preferences of consumers toward hard-boiled and scrambled eggs of different species of birds, and whether the appearance of these eggs has an effect on the perception of other sensory impressions. RESULTS: Sighted people differently evaluated the texture of both boiled and scrambled eggs as compared with blind people. This was mainly because blind people largely used their sense of touch for evaluation. All other attributes of boiled eggs were evaluated similarly by both groups of panelists, whereas those of scrambled eggs were evaluated differently. CONCLUSION: The obtained results unequivocally demonstrated that differences in taste of scrambled eggs when served hot are easier to evaluate than those of boiled eggs. On the basis of ranking by the sensory panel, it was established that eggs of birds belonging to the order Galliformes are more preferred by consumers than those of duck and goose. By contrast, eggs of ostrich and emu are characterized by unfavorable sensory profiles; moreover, the albumen of boiled ostrich eggs has an unsightly appearance. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Preferências Alimentares , Adulto , Animais , Cegueira , Galinhas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Culinária , Patos , Ovos/classificação , Feminino , Gansos , Humanos , Masculino , Olfato , Struthioniformes , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
7.
Mol Immunol ; 116: 160-166, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675523

RESUMO

Duck viral enteritis (DEV) is a DNA virus that leads to heavy economic losses in the commercial duck industry. As a key cytoplasmic sensor, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) can recognize viral RNA and enhance the antiviral immune response. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and MDA5 both belong to the RIG-I-like receptors family, and RIG-I is known to be involved in the anti-DEV signaling pathway. However, the role of MDA5 in DEV infection remains unclear. In this study, we used overexpression and knockdown methods to determine if MDA5 affected DEV infection in ducks. We confirmed that DEV infection was significantly suppressed in MDA5-overexpressing DEF cells, while knockdown of MDA5 by siRNA markedly enhanced DEV growth. We demonstrated that overexpression of duck MDA5 significantly upregulated expression of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes, including myxovirus resistance protein (Mx), IFN-induced oligodenylate synthetase-like (OASL), IFN-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) and IFN-ß. In addition, the transcriptional level of MDA5 was upregulated both in vivo and in vitro upon DEV infection. We also showed that there was an association between MDA5 and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) in antiviral signaling. LGP2 functioned as a concentration-dependent switch between MDA5-specific enhancement and interference. Overall, these findings indicated that MDA5 restricted DEV replication and LGP2 plays a critical role in MDA5-mediated antiviral activity against DEV.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , 2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/genética , Animais , Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Patos , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/genética , Enterite/virologia , Interferon beta/genética , Interferons/genética , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180907, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644644

RESUMO

A total number of 300 (225 ducks and 75 drakes) Sudani ducks, 28-wk-old were divided into five groups to investigate the effects of dietary L-carnitine (LC) supplementation on productive, hatching and physiological performance as well as nutrients digestibility coefficients. The results indicated that the productive performance and Semen quality parameters (ejaculate volume, sperms concentration and advanced motility) were significantly improved by LC supplementation (150-450 mg /kg diet) as compared to the control. Hatchability of fertile eggs (%) was significantly improved, while total embryonic mortality was significantly decreased by supplementing 300 and 450 mg LC/kg diet. Supplementing different dietary LC levels resulted in significantly high values of hemoglobin, red and white blood cells count and lymphocyte (L) cells percentage, while it decreased heterophils (H) cells and H/L ratio. Serum albumin, total cholesterol and AST enzyme values were significantly low in ducks fed diets supplemented with LC. Serum triglycerides were significantly the lowest by feeding 300 and 450 mg LC/kg diet. Nutrients digestibility coefficients were significantly improved in drakes fed diet supplemented with 450 mg LC/kg diet. Conclusively, dietary LC supplementation at 300 or 450 mg/kg for duck breeders in summer could improve productive, hatching and physiological performance and nutrients digestibility coefficients.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Análise do Sêmen
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 238: 108425, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648723

RESUMO

Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has caused enormous economic losses to the poultry industry in China. In the current study, we generated chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) containing E protein of the DTMUV and HA2 protein of the H3N2 avian influenza virus (AIV). The chimeric VLPs could induce specific antibody responses in both mice (n = 5/group) and ducks (n = 10/group). After immunizing ducklings with the chimeric VLPs, all immunized ducks (n = 10/group) were 100% (10/10) protected against homologous DTMUV strain and virus shedding was not detected on day 5 post-challenge, whereas 60% (6/10) of the ducklings immunized with PBS presented typical symptoms with a virus shedding rate of 90% (9/10). Furthermore, viral loads were significantly decreased in the birds of the chimeric VLPs immunized group, comparing to that of the PBS immunized group. Our data demonstrated that the chimeric VLPs used in the current study could be applied as a potential vaccine candidate to control DTMUV infections in young ducks.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Flavivirus/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Patos , Flavivirus/genética , Infecções por Flavivirus/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/genética , Carga Viral
10.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 251-255, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599541

RESUMO

During the parasitological examination of 288 wild ducks from north-western Poland, 18 tapeworms were found in the intestines (jejunum, ileum and rectum) of six birds, which, based on the structure of the scolex, internal organs and the presence of cirrus with an internal additional sac, were determinated as Dicranotaenia stenosacculata Macko, 1988. Tapeworms were found in two young females Bucephala clangula, one young female Aythya marila as well as two adult males Aythya fuligula. The aim of the study was to present the morphological and ecological characteristics of the species, recently discovered for the first time in the fauna of Poland.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Patos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Patos/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Polônia
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 237: 108381, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585646

RESUMO

The H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) isolated in Japan during the 2014-2015 winter differed in their pathogenicity in chickens. In the present study, we examined the possibility that a comparatively less pathogenic strain was first brought into the country by migratory birds, and then acquired enhanced pathogenicity by infecting chicken flocks. We showed that the A/tundra swan/Tottori/C6nk/2014 (H5N8) (Tottori P0) strain required 10 days to kill all chickens via the intranasal route. However, Tottori P1-B, a strain recovered from the brain of a chicken infected with parental Tottori P0, showed enhanced pathogenicity; Tottori P1-B replicated significantly in the lung and liver, and killed all infected birds within 6 days, which was comparable to a chicken farm isolate obtained in the same season, A/environment/Miyazaki/11/2014 (H5N8). Tottori P1-B showed more marked proliferation in MDCK and chicken fibroblast cells, especially during the early phase of infection. Sequence analysis revealed a single mutation, M374 V, in nucleoprotein (NP) of the passaged virus, and this substitution was conserved after a further inoculation study. Position 374 in NP is located in the functional domain interacting with polymerase protein, PB2, indicating that viral polymerase activity was involved in the rapid growth of Tottori P1-B in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that HPAIV, which originally had comparatively low pathogenicity to chickens, can increase its pathogenicity through the infection from migratory birds to domestic chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Patos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Cães , Fibroblastos/virologia , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Virulência
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109736, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654909

RESUMO

Overwintering canvasbacks were collected in the Lake St. Clair region of the Great Lakes in the winter of 2008/09 and livers were analyzed for organochlorines, mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se). We found dramatic increases in hepatic concentrations of Hg, Se, sum PCBs, p,p'-DDE, and other organochlorines in canvasbacks in which concentrations in February were greater than concentrations in November when overwintering ducks arrived in the study area. Increases in contaminant burdens were generally greatest between December and January which also coincided with the period when ducks from Lake St. Clair (LSC) moved following freeze-up of the Lake to forage on the St. Clair River (SCR), an area of known historic contamination, and upstream of LSC. Body condition estimated using body metrics and measured using lipid reserves (after controlling for body size) increased in LSC ducks but subsequently decreased in SCR ducks. This rapid loss of body condition through loss of lipid reserves was one factor likely driving the dramatic increase in contaminant burdens and particularly for organochlorines which were inversely related to body condition in SCR ducks. Increased exposure due to foraging in closer proximity to contaminant sources and changes in diet associated with the movement of ducks may have also contributed to temporal trends. Concentrations overall were below those associated with toxicity with the exception of Se for which 30% of ducks exceeded the Se threshold that is considered elevated and one duck exceeded the threshold associated with possible toxicity. Fitness consequences of reduced lipid reserves include reduced survival, delayed migration, reduced breeding propensity, and transfer of contaminant burdens to eggs. Food availability, ice cover, and movements of canvasbacks are additional factors influencing contaminant accumulation and lipid reserves in waterfowl utilizing this important wintering location.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Lagos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Patos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(9): e1007999, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539404

RESUMO

The cellular DNA sensor cGMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) detects cytosolic viral DNA via the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) to initiate innate antiviral response. Herpesviruses are known to target key immune signaling pathways to persist in an immune-competent host. Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly pathogenic and oncogenic herpesvirus of chickens, can antagonize host innate immune responses to achieve persistent infection. With a functional screen, we identified five MDV proteins that blocked beta interferon (IFN-ß) induction downstream of the cGAS-STING pathway. Specifically, the MDV major oncoprotein Meq impeded the recruitment of TANK-binding kinase 1 and IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) to the STING complex, thereby inhibiting IRF7 activation and IFN-ß induction. Meq overexpression markedly reduced antiviral responses stimulated by cytosolic DNA, whereas knockdown of Meq heightened MDV-triggered induction of IFN-ß and downstream antiviral genes. Moreover, Meq-deficient MDV induced more IFN-ß production than wild-type MDV. Meq-deficient MDV also triggered a more robust CD8+ T cell response than wild-type MDV. As such, the Meq-deficient MDV was highly attenuated in replication and lymphoma induction compared to wild-type MDV. Taken together, these results revealed that MDV evades the cGAS-STING DNA sensing pathway, which underpins the efficient replication and oncogenesis. These findings improve our understanding of the virus-host interaction in MDV-induced lymphoma and may contribute to the development of novel vaccines against MDV infection.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/imunologia , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/patogenicidade , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Doença de Marek/imunologia , Doença de Marek/virologia , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Carcinogênese , Galinhas , DNA Viral/imunologia , Patos , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Doença de Marek/metabolismo , Modelos Imunológicos , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas Virais/imunologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Replicação Viral
14.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2837-2841, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494776

RESUMO

Since January 2019, abnormal molting has been observed frequently in approximately 40-day-old Pekin ducks in China. To investigate the possible involvement of a virus, we tested the prevalence of duck circovirus (DuCV), goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPyV), and goose parvovirus (GPV) in 11 molt cases in two provinces. GPV was detected in all cases, particularly in all samples collected from the feather area. The complete genome sequences of three GPV strains were determined and found to have 52 nucleotide changes relative to GPVs associated with short beak and dwarfism syndrome of Pekin ducks. These data will enhance our understanding of GPV diversity and outcomes of GPV infection in Pekin ducks.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Gansos/virologia , Muda/fisiologia , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Circovirus/genética , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral/genética , Parvovirinae/genética , Polyomavirus/genética , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
15.
Virol J ; 16(1): 112, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reverse genetics systems enable the manipulation of viral genomes and therefore serve as robust reverse genetic tools to study RNA viruses. A DNA-launched rescue system initiates the transcription of viral genomic cDNA from eukaryotic promoter in transfected cells, generating homogenous RNA transcripts in vitro and thus enhancing virus rescue efficiency. As one of the hazardous pathogens to ducklings, the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of duck astrovirus type 1 (DAstV-1) is limited. The construction of a DNA-launched rescue system can help to accelerate the study of the virus pathogenesis. However, there is no report of such a system for DAstV-1. METHODS: In this study, a DNA-launched infectious clone of DAstV-1 was constructed from a cDNA plasmid, which contains a viral cDNA sequence flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (HamRz) and a hepatitis delta virus ribozyme (HdvRz) sequence at both terminals of the viral genome. A silent nucleotide mutation creating a Bgl II site in the ORF2 gene was made to distinguish the rescued virus (rDAstV-1) from the parental virus (pDAstV-1). Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and western blot were conducted for rescued virus identification in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells pre-treated with trypsin. The growth characteristics of rDAstV-1 and pDAstV-1 in DEF cells and the tissue tropism in 2-day-old ducklings of rDAstV-1 and pDAstV-1 were determined. RESULTS: The infectious DAstV-1 was successfully rescued from baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells and could propagate in DEF cells pre-treated with 1 µg/ml trypsin. Upon infection of DEF cells pre-treated with trypsin, DAstV-1 mRNA copies were identified after serial passaging, and the result showed that rDAstV-1 and pDAstV-1 shared similar replication kinetics. Animal experiment showed that the rDAstV-1 had an extensive tissue tropism, and the virus was capable of invading both the central and the peripheral immune organs in infected ducklings. CONCLUSIONS: An improved DNA-launched reverse genetics system for DAstV-1 was firstly constructed. Infectious virus recovered from BHK-21 cells could propagate in DEF cells pre-treated with trypsin. This is the first report of the successful in vitro cultivation of DAstV-1. We believe this valuable experimental system will contribute to the further study of DAstV-1 genome function and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Avastrovirus/genética , Avastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Patos/virologia , Genética Reversa/métodos , Cultura de Vírus/métodos , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Avastrovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Complementar/genética , Genoma Viral , Plasmídeos , RNA Viral/genética , Transfecção , Tropismo Viral , Vírion/genética
16.
Infect Immun ; 87(12)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501251

RESUMO

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is an important human and animal pathogen. Despite the apparent similarities in their known virulence attributes, some ExPEC strains can cross the host species barrier and present a zoonotic potential, whereas other strains exhibit host specificity, suggesting the existence of unknown mechanisms that remain to be identified. We applied a transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) strategy to investigate the ExPEC XM strain, which is capable of crossing the host species barrier, and to screen for virulence-essential genes in both mammalian (mouse) and avian (duck) models of E. coli-related septicemia. We identified 151 genes essential for systemic infection in both mammalian and avian models, 97 required only in the mammalian model, and 280 required only in the avian model. Ten genes/gene clusters were selected for further validation, and their contributions to ExPEC virulence in both mammalian and avian models or mammalian- or avian-only models were confirmed by animal tests. This represents the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of virulence-essential genes required for systemic infections in two different host species and provides a further comprehensive understanding of ExPEC-related virulence, host specificity, and adaptation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/imunologia , Animais , Patos , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Sepse/imunologia , Sepse/microbiologia
17.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 688, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pekin duck is an important animal model for its ability for fat synthesis and deposition. However, transcriptional dynamic regulation of adipose differentiation driven by complex signal cascades remains largely unexplored in this model. This study aimed to explore adipogenic transcriptional dynamics before (proliferation) and after (differentiation) initial preadipocyte differentiation in ducks. RESULTS: Exogenous oleic acid alone successfully induced duck subcutaneous preadipocyte differentiation. We explored 36 mRNA-seq libraries in order to study transcriptome dynamics during proliferation and differentiation processes at 6 time points. Using robust statistical analysis, we identified 845, 652, 359, 2401 and 1933 genes differentially expressed between -48 h and 0 h, 0 h and 12 h, 12 h and 24 h, 24 h and 48 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively (FDR < 0.05, FC > 1.5). At the proliferation stage, proliferation related pathways and basic cellular and metabolic processes were inhibited, while regulatory factors that initiate differentiation enter the ready-to-activate state, which provides a precondition for initiating adipose differentiation. According to weighted gene co-expression network analysis, pathways positively related to adipogenic differentiation are significantly activated at the differentiation stage, while WNT, FOXO and other pathways that inhibit preadipocyte differentiation are negatively regulated. Moreover, we identified and classified more than 100 transcription factors that showed significant changes during differentiation, and found novel transcription factors that were not reported to be related to preadipoctye differentiation. Finally, we manually assembled a proposed regulation network model of subcutaneous preadipocyte differentiation base on the expression data, and suggested that E2F1 may serve as an important link between the processes of duck subcutaneous preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time we comprehensively analyzed the transcriptome dynamics of duck subcutaneous preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. The current study provides a solid basis for understanding the synthesis and deposition of subcutaneous fat in ducks. Furthermore, the information generated will allow future investigations of specific genes involved in particular stages of duck adipogenesis.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Patos/genética , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Patos/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 762, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poultry contaminations, the transmissibility is unclear and only limited information was available on poultry environment contaminations, especially in Fujian Province. METHODS: A total of 4901 environmental samples were collected and tested for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from six cities in Fujian Province through the Fujian Influenza Surveillance System from 2013 to 2017. Two patient-related samples were taken from Fujian's first confirmed H5N6 human case and his backyard chicken feces in 2017. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact probability test was used to compare the AIV and the viral subtype positive rates among samples from different Surveillance cities, surveillance sites, sample types, and seasons. Phylogenetic tree analysis and molecular analysis were conducted to track the viral transmission route of the human infection and to map out the evolutions of H5N6 in Fujian. RESULTS: The overall positive rate of the H5 subtype AIVs was 4.24% (208/4903). There were distinctive differences (p < 0.05) in the positive rates in samples from different cities, sample sites, sample types and seasons. The viruses from the patient and his backyard chicken feces shared high homologies (99.9-100%) in all the eight gene segments. Phylogenetic trees also showed that these two H5N6 viruses were closely related to each other, and were classified into the same genetic clade 2.3.4.4 with another six H5N6 isolates from the environmental samples. The patient's H5N6 virus carried genes from H6N6, H5N8 and H5N6 viruses originated from different areas. The R294K or N294S substitution was not detected in the neuraminidase (NA). The S31 N substitution in the matrix2 (M2) gene was detected but only in one strain from the environmental samples. CONCLUSIONS: The H5 subtype of AIVs has started circulating in the poultry environments in Fujian Province. The patient's viral strain originated from the chicken feces in his backyard. Genetic reassortment in H5N6 viruses in Fujian Province was indicated. The H5N6 viruses currently circulating in Fujian Province were still commonly sensitive to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir, but the resistance against Amantadine has emerged.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Patos/virologia , Meio Ambiente , Microbiologia Ambiental , Genes Virais , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9950-9957, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403788

RESUMO

Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification that modulates protein properties, thereby influencing bioactivities within a system. Duck egg white (DEW) proteins exhibit diverse biological properties compared with their chicken egg white (CEW) counterparts, which might be related to glycosylation. N-Glycoproteome analysis of DEW was conducted, and a total of 231 N-glycosites from 68 N-glycoproteins were identified. Gene ontology analysis was used to elucidate the biofunctions of DEW N-glycoproteins and compare them with those of CEW, which showed that the differences mostly involved molecular functions and biological processes. The biological functions of DEW N-glycoproteins were illuminated through bioinformatics analysis and comparison with CEW orthologues, which showed different allergenicities and antibacterial abilities. These divergences might be initiated by specific alterations in glycosylation, which can enhance the proteolysis resistance and protein steric hindrance. These results provide new insights for discovering the effects of N-glycosylation on biofunctions during the divergence of homologous proteins.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Patos/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Galinhas/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Clara de Ovo/química , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Proteômica
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 234-242, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383307

RESUMO

During 2012-2015, six H5N1 avian influenza viruses were isolated from domestic birds and the environment around Qinghai Lake. Phylogenetic analysis of HA genes revealed that A/chicken/Gansu/XG2/2012 (CK/GS/XG2/12) belonged to clade 2.3.2.1a, while A/environment/Qinghai/1/2013 (EN/QH/1/13), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH1/2015 (CK/QH/QH1/15), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH2/2015 (CK/QH/QH2/15), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH3/2015 (CK/QH/QH3/15), and A/goose/Qinghai/QH6/2015 (GS/QH/QH6/15) belonged to clade 2.3.2.1c. Further analysis of the internal genes of the isolates found that the PB2 gene of EN/QH/1/13 had 99.6% nucleotide identity with that of A/tiger/Jiangsu/1/2013 (H5N1), which clustered into an independent branch with PB2 from multiple subtypes. PB2, PB1, and M genes of CK/QH/QH3/15 were from H9N2, suggesting it was a reassortant of H5N1 and H9N2. Animal studies of three selected viruses revealed that CK/GS/XG2/12, EN/QH/1/13, and CK/QH/QH3/15 were highly lethal to chickens, with intravenous pathogenicity indexes (IVPIs) of 2.97, 2.81, and 3.00, respectively, and systemically replicated in chickens. In a mouse study, three selected H5N1 viruses were highly pathogenic to mice and readily replicated in the lungs, nasal turbinates, kidneys, spleens, and brains. Therefore, isolates in this study appear to be novel reassortants that were circulating at the interface of wild and domestic birds around Qinghai Lake and are lethal to chickens and mice. These data suggest that more extensive surveillance should be implemented, and matched vaccines should be chosen for the domestic birds in this area.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Lagos/virologia , Células A549 , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Cães , Patos/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/mortalidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Replicação Viral
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA