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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141638, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858297

RESUMO

Cadmium is a common environmental pollutant that accumulates in the bone and kidneys and causes severe health and social problems. However, the effects of Cd on the occurrence of osteoporosis and its mechanism of action in this process are unclear. To test whether Cd-induced osteoporosis is mediated via P2X7/PI3K/AKT signaling, duck bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and bone marrow macrophage cells (BMMs) were treated with Cd for 5 days, and duck embryos were treated with Cd. Micro-CT analysis indicated that Cd-induced osteoporosis occurs in vivo, and histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses also revealed that Cd induced bone damage and the downregulation of osteogenic and bone resorption-related proteins. Cd exposure significantly inhibited the differentiation of BMSCs and BMMs into osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro, and promoted osteoblast and osteoclast apoptosis. Cd exposure significantly downregulated the P2X7/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro, and inhibition of this signaling pathway significantly aggravated osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. Cd exposure also upregulated the OPG/RANKL ratio in vivo and in vitro, further inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. These results demonstrate that Cd causes osteoporosis in duck by inhibiting P2X7/PI3K/AKT signaling and increasing the OPG/RANKL ratio. These results establish a previously unknown mechanism of Cd-induced osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Osteoclastos , Osteoporose , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Diferenciação Celular , Patos , Osteoblastos , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt
2.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(11): 837-877, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome sulfate in ducklings and goslings after IV or IM administration of a single dose. ANIMALS: 216 healthy Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata) and 216 healthy Sichuan white goslings (Anser cygnoides). PROCEDURES: Ducklings and goslings were each randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 72/group) that received a single dose (2 mg/kg) of injectable cefquinome sulfate administered IV or IM or of injectable cefquinome sulfate suspension administered IM. Blood samples were collected at various points after drug administration (n = 6 birds/time point). Plasma cefquinome concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with a 2-compartment model method. RESULTS: After IV injection, mean distribution half-life of cefquinome was longer in goslings (0.446 hours) than in ducklings (0.019 hours), whereas volume of distribution at steady state was greater (0.432 vs 0.042 L/kg) and elimination half-life was slower (1.737 vs 0.972 hours). After IM administration of injectable cefquinome sulfate, bioavailability of the drug was higher in goslings (113.9%) than in ducklings (67.5%). After IM administration of injectable cefquinome sulfate suspension, bioavailability was also higher in goslings (123.1%) than in ducklings (96.8%), whereas elimination half-life was slower (6.917 vs 1.895 hours, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In goslings, IV administration of cefquinome resulted in slower distribution and metabolism of the drug than in ducklings and IM administration resulted in higher bioavailability. The delayed-release effect of the injectable cefquinome sulfate suspension when administered IM was observed only in goslings.


Assuntos
Patos , Gansos , Animais , Antibacterianos , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cefalosporinas , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Sulfatos
3.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 2931-2936, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011831

RESUMO

In 2019, flocks of Muscovy ducks presented with clinical signs typical of MDPV infection. The MDPV GD201911 strain was isolated by inoculating samples from positive birds into Muscovy duck embryos. Challenge with the isolate GD201911 caused typical MDPV disease symptoms and resulted in 25%-40% mortality, depending on the challenge dose, indicating the high pathogenicity of GD201911 for Muscovy ducks. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that GD201911 clustered with recombinant MDPV strains, indicating that recombinant MDPV is circulating in China. Epidemiological monitoring should be performed continuously to assist with decision making for disease control.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirinae/classificação , Animais , China , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Recombinação Genética
4.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13461, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020974

RESUMO

The effects of heat stress on lipid oxidation and volatile compounds in duck meat were investigated. To simulate heat stress on ducks, room-temperature was controlled at 25°C, except that a raised temperature of 32°C for 8 hr each day was conducted. After stress for 1 and 3 weeks, respectively, the birds were euthanized and the breast meat was separated to evaluate the changes of lipid oxidation and volatile flavor compounds. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the lipoxygenase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and reduced the contents of free unsaturated fatty acids in duck meat. A total of 85 volatile flavor compounds were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Interestingly, when exposed to heat stress, the volatiles generation in raw duck meat was promoted, which was then inhibited after cooking. These data reveal meat oxidative changes and flavor loss caused by heat stress and provide useful information for potential labels and meat flavor preservation against the negative effects of heat stress.


Assuntos
Patos/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Carne/análise , Odorantes/análise , Animais , Culinária , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Lipoxigenase/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201680, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901574

RESUMO

In this investigation, we used a combination of field- and laboratory-based approaches to assess if influenza A viruses (IAVs) shed by ducks could remain viable for extended periods in surface water within three wetland complexes of North America. In a field experiment, replicate filtered surface water samples inoculated with duck swabs were tested for IAVs upon collection and again after an overwintering period of approximately 6-7 months. Numerous IAVs were molecularly detected and isolated from these samples, including replicates maintained at wetland field sites in Alaska and Minnesota for 181-229 days. In a parallel laboratory experiment, we attempted to culture IAVs from filtered surface water samples inoculated with duck swabs from Minnesota each month during September 2018-April 2019 and found monthly declines in viral viability. In an experimental challenge study, we found that IAVs maintained in filtered surface water within wetlands of Alaska and Minnesota for 214 and 226 days, respectively, were infectious in a mallard model. Collectively, our results support surface waters of northern wetlands as a biologically important medium in which IAVs may be both transmitted and maintained, potentially serving as an environmental reservoir for infectious IAVs during the overwintering period of migratory birds.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , América do Norte
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008773, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881988

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype I (GI) replicates more efficiently than genotype III (GIII) in birds, and this difference is considered to be one of the reasons for the JEV genotype shift. In this study, we utilized duck embryo fibroblasts and domestic ducklings as in vitro and in vivo models of a JEV amplifying avian host to identify the viral determinants of the differing replication efficiency between the GI and GIII strains in birds. GI strains induced significantly lower levels of interferon (IFN)-α and ß production than GIII strains, an effect orrelated with the enhanced replication efficiency of GI strains over GIII strains. By using a series of chimeric viruses with exchange of viral structural and non-structural (NS) proteins, we identified NS5 as the viral determinant of the differences in IFN-α and ß induction and replication efficiency between the GI and III strains. NS5 inhibited IFN-α and ß production induced by poly(I:C) stimulation and harbored 11 amino acid variations, of which the NS5-V372A and NS5-H386Y variations were identified to co-contribute to the differences in IFN-α and ß induction and replication efficiency between the strains. The NS5-V372A and NS5-H386Y variations resulted in alterations in the number of hydrogen bonds formed with neighboring residues, which were associated with the different ability of the GI and GIII strains to inhibit IFN-α and ß production. Our findings indicated that the NS5-V372A and NS5-H386Y variations enabled GI strains to inhibit IFN-α and ß production more efficiently than GIII strains for antagonism of the IFN-I mediated antiviral response, thereby leading to the replication and host adaption advantages of GI strains over GIII strains in birds. These findings provide new insight into the molecular basis of the JEV genotype shift.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/imunologia , Encefalite Japonesa/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Interferon beta/farmacologia , Mutação , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Replicação Viral/genética , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Patos , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Encefalite Japonesa/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalite Japonesa/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Suínos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Toxicon ; 187: 181-187, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920016

RESUMO

The Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) frequently contaminate grain crops, especially maize, the basis of poultry's feed. Mycotoxins enter the food chain and induce pathological changes in edible tissues. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been used for the treatment of liver disease in humans because of its antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects, but its utility in veterinary use is poorly examined. To investigate possible protective properties against mycotoxin caused oxidative stress in poultry, pressed form of milk thistle seed (0.5%) was tested in white, female, Hungarian ducks over a feeding period of 47 days. Ducks were separated into 3 groups. The first group was fed with normal diet. The second group was fed with normal diet contaminated with DON (4.9 mg/kg) and ZEA (0.66 mg/kg). The third group received mycotoxin contaminated feed with milk thistle supplementation. Histological examination, markers of the redox status and metal element concentration measurements were carried out. The results showed alterations in the histological examination and in the redox homeostasis markers as a short-term effect by strengthening the antioxidant system. Acute exposure of mycotoxins caused an oxidative stress, which induced an effective antioxidant defensive response of the organism indicated by the free sulfhydryl group content (from 0.72 ± 0.06 to 0.77 ± 0.11) and the reducing power (0.49 ± 0.06 to 0.52 ± 0.08) elevation. The short-term free radical injury may be compensated by the liver resulting in decreased lipid peroxidation markers (malondialdehyde concentration: from 16.86 ± 0.49 to 0.94 ± 0.15, conjugated diene concentration: from 0.21 ± 0.07 to 0.17 ± 0.03). Silymarin further strengthtened the antioxidant defense by the elevation of sulfhydryl groups concentration and reducing power property resulted in decreased total scavenger capacity. However the concentration of lipid peroxidation markers were further elevated by the used antioxidant treatment (MDA: 5.2 ± 0.35, DC: 0.26 ± 0.08). In conclusion, the mycotoxin-contamination activated effectively the antioxidant system. The milk thistle supplementation has cytoprotective effects according to the histological findings, activated the antioxidant system, however the elevation of lipid peroxidation products need further explanation.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Cardo-Mariano , Micotoxinas , Ração Animal , Animais , Patos , Flavonoides , Homeostase , Hungria , Fígado , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866175

RESUMO

Individuals reared in captivity are exposed to distinct selection pressures and evolutionary processes causing genetic and phenotypic divergence from wild populations. Consequently, restocking with farmed individuals may represent a considerable risk for the fitness of free-living populations. Supportive breeding on a massive scale has been established in many European countries to increase hunting opportunities for the most common duck species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). It has previously been shown that mallards from breeding facilities differ genetically from wild populations and there is some indication of morphological differences. Using a common-garden experiment, we tested for differences in growth parameters between free-living populations and individuals from breeding facilities during the first 20 days of post-hatching development, a critical phase for survival in free-living populations. In addition, we compared their immune function by assessing two haematological parameters, H/L ratio and immature erythrocyte frequency, and plasma complement activity. Our data show that farmed ducklings exhibit larger morphological parameters, a higher growth rates, and higher complement activity. In haematological parameters, we observed high dynamic changes in duckling ontogeny in relation to their morphological parameters. In conclusion, our data demonstrate pronounced phenotype divergence between farmed and wild mallard populations that can be genetically determined. We argue that this divergence can directly or indirectly affect fitness of farmed individuals introduced to the breeding population as well as fitness of farmed x wild hybrids.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Selvagens/imunologia , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/imunologia , Animais , Cruzamento , República Tcheca , Fazendas , Fenótipo
9.
Science ; 369(6506): 928, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820116
10.
Virology ; 548: 101-108, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838930

RESUMO

Viral metagenomics coupled to high-throughput sequencing has provided a powerful tool for large-scale detection of known and unknown viruses associated to distinct hosts and environments. Using this approach, known and novel viruses have been characterized from sylvatic and commercial avian hosts, increasing our understanding of the viral diversity in these species. In the present work we applied an exploratory viral metagenomics on organs (spleen, liver and bursa of Fabricious) of Pekin ducks from Southern Brazil. The virome contained sequences related to a known duck pathogen (duck circovirus) and a number of other circular ssDNA viruses. Additionally, we detected avian gyrovirus 9 (to date detected only in human feces) and one new avian gyrovirus species, to which is proposed the name avian gyrovirus 13 (GyV13). This study is expected to contribute to the knowledge of the viral diversity in Pekin ducks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/genética , Patos/virologia , Gyrovirus/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Brasil , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/classificação , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral , Gyrovirus/classificação , Gyrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111188, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836151

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates autophagy and apoptosis are involved in the toxicity mechanism of heavy metals. Our previous studies showed that cadmium (Cd) could induce autophagy and apoptosis in duck kidneys in vivo, nevertheless, the interaction between them has yet to be elucidated. Herein, the cells were either treated with 3CdSO4·8H2O (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 µM Cd) or/and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (2.5 µM) for 12 h and the indictors related autophagy and apoptosis were detected to assess the correlation between autophagy and apoptosis induced by Cd in duck renal tubular epithelial cells. The results demonstrated that Cd exposure notably elevated intracellular and extracellular Cd contents, the number of autophagosomes and LC3 puncta, up-regulated LC3A, LC3B, Beclin-1, Atg5 mRNA levels, and Beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3I protein levels, down-regulated mTOR, p62 and Dynein mRNA levels and p62 protein level. Additionally, autophagy inhibitor 3-MA decreased Beclin-1, LC3II/LC3I protein levels and increased p62 protein level. Moreover, co-treatment with Cd and 3-MA could notably elevate Caspase-3, Cyt C, Bax, and Bak-1 mRNA levels, Caspase-3 and cleaved Caspase-3 protein levels, and cell apoptotic rate as well as cell damage, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), Bcl-2 mRNA level and the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax compared to treatment with Cd alone. Overall, these results indicate Cd exposure can induce autophagy in duck renal tubular epithelial cells, and inhibition of autophagy might aggravate Cd-induced apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Patos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810175

RESUMO

Bowel health is an important factor for duck rearing that has been linked to feed uptake and growth and death rates. Because the regulatory networks associated with acute stress-mediated injury in the duck gastrointestinal tract have not clearly elucidated, we aimed to explore potential miRNA-mRNA pairs and their regulatory roles in oxidative stress injury caused by transport stress. Here, 1-day-old mallard ducklings from the same breeder flock were collected and transported for 8 h, whereas the control group was not being transported. Various parameters reflecting oxidative stress and the tissue appearance of the intestine were assessed. The data showed that the plasma T-AOC and SOD concentrations were decreased in the transported ducklings. The intestine of the transported ducklings also displayed significant damage. High-throughput sequencing of the intestine revealed 44 differentially expressed miRNAs and 75 differentially expressed genes, which constituted 344 miRNA-mRNA pairs. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the metabolic, FoxO signaling, influenza A and TGF-ß signaling pathways were mainly involved in the mechanism underlying the induction of intestinal damage induced by simulated transport stress in ducks. A miRNA-mRNA pair, miR-217-5p/CHRDL1, was selected to validate the miRNA-mRNA negative relationship, and the results showed that miR-217-5p could influence CHRDL1 expression. This study provides new useful information for future research on the regulatory network associated with mucosal damage in the duck intestine.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Transportes , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/genética
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111588, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853840

RESUMO

Although seabirds are frequently used as sentinel species for anthropogenic pollution, the extent and impacts of synthetic debris ingestion remains poorly studied for many water bird species. Here, we assess ingestion of synthetic particles (≥0.5 mm) by barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, wintering on a remote island. Faecal samples were collected over a period of four wintering seasons. In total, 71 individual samples were assessed, with 79% of samples displaying at least one debris particle (maximum lengths 0.5-5 mm) from anthropogenic sources. The recovered synthetic debris were identified as micro-fibres (n = 166) and micro-fragments (n = 165). The number of synthetic particles detected per sample was generally low at 4.7 ± 0.9, 43 (mean ± SE, maximum): micro-fibres 2.3 ± 0.3, 10; micro-fragments 2.3 ± 0.8, 40. Particle numbers detected per gram of faecal sample differed amongst wintering seasons. Our results suggest that non-marine water birds can frequently ingest low quantities of synthetic particles in remote coastal habitats.


Assuntos
Gansos , Thoracica , Animais , Ilhas Atlânticas , Patos , Estações do Ano
14.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(10): 5287-5295, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841110

RESUMO

Four unknown strains belonging to the genus Arthrobacter were isolated from plateau wildlife on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the four isolates were separated into two clusters. Cluster I (strains 785T and 208) had the greatest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Arthrobacter citreus (98.6 and 98.7 %, respectively), Arthrobacter luteolus (98.0 and 98.1%, respectively), Arthrobacter gandavensis (97.9 and 98.0 %, respectively) and Arthrobacter koreensis (97.6 and 97.7 %, respectively). Likewise, cluster II (strains J391T and J915) had the highest sequence similarity to Arthrobacter ruber (98.6 and 98.3 %, respectively) and Arthrobacter agilis (98.1 and 97.9  %, respectively). Average nucleotide identity and the digital DNA-DNA hybridization values illustrated that the two type strains, 785T and J391T, represented two separate novel species that are distinct from all currently recognized species in the genus Arthrobacter. These strains had DNA G+C contents of 66.0-66.1 mol% (cluster I) and 68.0 mol% (cluster II). The chemotaxonomic properties of strains 785T and J391T were in line with those of the genus Arthrobacter: anteiso-C15:0 (79.3 and 40.8 %, respectively) as the major cellular fatty acid, MK-8(H2) (65.8 %) or MK-9(H2) (75.6 %) as the predominant respiratory quinone, a polar lipid profile comprising diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and phospholipid, and A3α or A4α as the cell wall peptidoglycan type. On the basis of our results, two novel species in the genus Arthrobacter are proposed, namely Arthrobacter yangruifuii sp. nov. (type strain, 785T=CGMCC 1.16725T=GDMCC 1.1592T=JCM 33491T) and Arthrobacter zhaoguopingii sp. nov. (type strain, J391T=CGMCC 1.17382T=GDMCC 1.1667T=JCM 33841T).


Assuntos
Arthrobacter/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Arthrobacter/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Patos/microbiologia , Equidae/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Lagomorpha/microbiologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
15.
J Vet Sci ; 21(4): e56, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The live bird market (LBM) plays an important role in the dynamic evolution of the avian influenza H5N1 virus. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to monitor the genetic diversity of the H5N1 viruses in LBMs in Indonesia. METHODS: Therefore, the disease surveillance was conducted in the area of Banten, West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Jakarta Province, Indonesia from 2014 to 2019. Subsequently, the genetic characterization of the H5N1 viruses was performed by sequencing all 8 segments of the viral genome. RESULTS: As a result, the H5N1 viruses were detected in most of LBMs in both bird' cloacal and environmental samples, in which about 35% of all samples were positive for influenza A and, subsequently, about 52% of these samples were positive for H5 subtyping. Based on the genetic analyses of 14 viruses isolated from LBMs, genetic diversities of the H5N1 viruses were identified including clades 2.1.3 and 2.3.2 as typical predominant groups as well as reassortant viruses between these 2 clades. CONCLUSIONS: As a consequence, zoonotic transmission to humans in the market could be occurred from the exposure of infected birds and/or contaminated environments. Moreover, new virus variants could emerge from the LBM environment. Therefore, improving pandemic preparedness raised great concerns related to the zoonotic aspect of new influenza variants because of its high adaptivity and efficiency for human infection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Patos , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Indonésia , Filogenia
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1250: 3-13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601934

RESUMO

Collagen is an important component that makes 25-35% of our body proteins. Over the past decades, tissue engineers have been designing collagen-based biocompatible materials and studying their applications in different fields. Collagen obtained from cattle and pigs has been mainly used until now, but collagen derived from fish and other livestock has attracted more attention since the outbreak of mad cow disease, and they are also used as a raw material for cosmetics and foods. Due to the zoonotic infection using collagen derived from pigs and cattle, their application in developing biomaterials is limited; hence, the development of new animal-derived collagen is required. In addition, there is a religion (Islam, Hinduism, and Judaism) limited to export raw materials and products derived from cattle and pig. Hence, high-value collagen that is universally accessible in the world market is required. Therefore, in this review, we have dealt with the use of duck's feet-derived collagen (DC) as an emerging alternative to solve this problem and also presenting few original investigated bone regeneration results performed using DC.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Colágeno , Patos , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Colágeno/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236069, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692763

RESUMO

Adipocytes are derived from pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells through adipogenesis. Pre-adipocyte differentiation in poultry greatly influences fat deposition and meat quality. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have an important function in cancer and some differentiation processes. Herein, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing was used to detect circRNAs present in cherry valley duck pre-adipocyte and adipocyte differentiation over 3 days. We identified 9,311 circRNAs and 141 differentially expressed circRNAs. Sequencing results were verified through qRT-PCR using seven randomly selected circRNAs, and competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks were exhibited by ten important circRNAs in duck adipocyte differentiation. circRNA plexin A1 (circ-PLXNA1) was detected in duck adipocytes and mainly expressed in adipose, leg muscle and liver. Inhibition of circ-PLXNA1 limited the differentiation of duck adipocyte. There were four corresponding miRNAs for circ-PLXNA1 and 313 target genes for those miRNAs. CeRNA"circ-PLXNA1/miR-214/CTNNB1 axis" was focused and verified by a dual-luciferase reporter experiment. After co-transfection of cells with si-circ-PLXNA1 and miR-214 mimics, the expression level of CTNNB1 was down-regulated, triglyceride content and the adipogenic capacity of preadipocytes decreased. While there were no significant change after si-CTNNB1 transfection. All these results provide further insight into the circRNAs, especially for circ-PLXNA1 in duck adipocyte differentiation.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Patos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , RNA Circular/sangue , RNA Circular/genética , Animais , MicroRNAs/genética
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108790, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693316

RESUMO

Salmonella, one of the most important foodborne pathogens, can be the cause of bacterial food-borne illness and is commonly associated with the consumption of retail meat. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates with high adaptability, have been responsible for many foodborne disease outbreaks. Here we present an investigation on the contamination and the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in retail meat obtained from supermarkets and from open markets in Guangxi, China. From the years 2009 to 2016, a total of 604 Salmonella isolates were recovered from a total of 3340 meat samples including 797 beef, 911 pork, 942 chicken and 690 duck, representing 18.08% of the samples tested. Pork was the most contaminated meat. Salmonella was detected in 322 samples from supermarkets and the positive rate of 21.03% was higher than that of 15.70% in 284 samples from open markets (P<0.05). The prevalence of Salmonella in retail meat in the summer and fall months: June (2015, 40.63%), October (2012, 34.6%; 2016, 43.75%) was higher than in other seasons of the year. One hundred and twenty-seven serotypes were identified among the 604 Salmonella enterica isolates, and S. Derby (28.48%), S. Agona (9.77%), S. London (4.97%) and S. Enteritidis (4.47%) were the most common serotypes. Tests of susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents showed that 87.58% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and 57.79% exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR), as they were resistant to at least three antimicrobials. The presence of most of the antimicrobial-resistant genes tested was consistent with the resistant phenotypes found. Among all the antimicrobial resistant genes (ARGs) examined in this study, blaTEM-1, aadA1, cmlA, tetA, sul1 and sul2 were the most prevalent resistant genes in the multidrug resistant isolates. Our findings show that there was a trend that the Salmonella contamination in retail meat had increased and isolates showed an MDR phenotype and that the MDR had become more and more serious. Twenty-one isolates of S. Agona were randomly analyzed by using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) and six different types were found, indicating the existence of cross-contamination in the food market. The results indicate that the hazard analysis of the critical control points (HACCP) system for the whole food chain of retail meat should be further analyzed and improved.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas/microbiologia , China , Patos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0226532, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716933

RESUMO

We analysed intraclutch egg-size variation over the laying sequence in relation to clutch size, and the relation between clutch size and female body condition, in the Common Eider Somateria mollissima during an 8-year period. The aim was to assess if eiders adjusted egg size within the laying sequence depending on clutch sizes in response to body condition, as such an adjustment could have adaptive implications on reproductive success through a size advantage for the hatchlings. The analyses were performed on a population level; and then at the individual level using data from recaptured females that changed clutch size between years. Based on 1,099 clutches from 812 individual females, population clutch size averaged 4.13 eggs (range: 1-6), with 4- and 5-egg clutchesconstituting c.70% of all clutches, taking turns in being the most represented clutch size. Clutch size was positively related to female pre-laying body condition at both the population and individual levels. Egg size varied significantly within and between clutch sizes and changes were significantly related to the laying sequence. First eggs were significantly larger in 4-egg clutches and second eggs marginally smaller than in 5-egg clutches, a pattern also found among individual females changing clutch size between years. The relationship between female pre-laying body condition and clutch size, and the intraclutch egg-size pattern indicate that both clutch size and egg size are actively adapted to the pre-breeding body condition of the female. As egg size potentially optimise reproductive success through a size advantage in hatchlings, the observed pattern of intraclutch egg-size variation suggests that female eiders possesses a finely tuned conditional dependent mechanism that may optimize reproductive output in years were females are in suboptimal body condition for breeding.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Ovos/análise , Animais , Cruzamento , Tamanho da Ninhada/fisiologia , Feminino
20.
Arch Virol ; 165(9): 2087-2089, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524264

RESUMO

A novel picornavirus, referred to as Duck/FC22/China/2017, was isolated from breeding ducks in China and genetically characterized by conducting metagenomics studies. The complete genome consists of a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA made up of 7448 nucleotides (nt) and follows the common picornavirus genome layout: 5' UTR-VP0-VP3-VP1-2A-2B-2C-3A-3B-3C-3D-3' UTR. A typical type-IV internal ribosomal entry site and a conserved 'barbell-like' structure were identified in the 5' UTR and 3' UTR, respectively. The unique 6423-nt open reading frame was predicted to encode a 2141-amino-acid (aa) polyprotein precursor. A pairwise aa sequence identity comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that Duck/FC22/China/2017 is closely related to duck aalivirus, duck hepatitis A virus, turkey avisivirus, and red-crowned crane picornavirus.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , Patos/virologia , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética
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