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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3938, 2024 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366002

RESUMO

Zeolite, as a natural mineral, could be a good additive for ducks, in line with pro-environmental trends. The study aimed to evaluate zeolite additives in feed for broiler ducks of both sexes on production results, meat quality, and the strength of the jejunum, tibia, and femur. The experiment used 200 Cherry Valley ducks, divided into a control group of males (CM) and females (CF) and an experimental group of males (ZM) and females (ZF). In the control groups, a commercial diet was used. In the experimental groups, 1% zeolite was added. The ZM group demonstrated higher body weight and weight gain than the CM group. Zeolite reduced the feed conversion ratio. A higher liver weight was found in the experimental group (ZM). Notably, zeolite influenced the weight of male pectoral muscles. Higher water loss in the pectoral muscles and higher protein content in the leg muscles were found in the same group. Females had a higher weight of neck and wings with skin. Female pectoral muscles had lower protein and water content. Zeolite in feed at a 1% level for broiler ducks could be recommended as a natural additive that positively affects the ducks' production results concerning good quality meat.


Assuntos
Patos , Zeolitas , Feminino , Animais , Masculino , Patos/metabolismo , Jejuno , Galinhas , Dieta , Ossos da Perna , Carne/análise , Água/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise
2.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0288948, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359003

RESUMO

Swimmer's itch (SI) is a dermatitis in humans caused by cercariae of avian and mammalian schistosomes which emerge from infected snails on a daily basis. Mitigation methods for SI have long been sought with little success. Copper sulfate application to the water to kill the snail hosts is the historically employed method, but is localized, temporary, and harmful to many aquatic species. Here, we test an alternative method to control Trichobilharzia stagnicolae, a species well-known to cause SI in northern Michigan and elsewhere in North America. Summer relocation of broods of the only known vertebrate host, common merganser (Mergus merganser), greatly reduced snail infection prevalence the following year on two large, geographically separated lakes in northern Michigan. Subsequent years of host relocation achieved and maintained snail infection prevalence at ~0.05%, more than an order of magnitude lower than pre-intervention. A Before-After-Control-Intervention (BACI) study design using multiple-year snail infection data from two intervention lakes and three control lakes demonstrates that dramatic lake-wide reduction of an avian schistosome can be achieved and is not due to natural fluctuations in the parasite populations. The relevance of reducing snail infection prevalence is demonstrated by a large seven-year data set of SI incidence in swimmers at a high-use beach, which showed a substantial reduction in SI cases in two successive years after relocation began. In addition, data from another Michigan lake where vertebrate-host based intervention occurred in the 1980's are analyzed statistically and show a remarkably similar pattern of reduction in snail infection prevalence. Together, these results demonstrate a highly effective SI mitigation strategy that avoids the use of environmentally suspect chemicals and removes incentive for lethal host removal. Biologically, the results strongly suggest that T. stagnicolae is reliant on the yearly hatch of ducklings to maintain populations at high levels on a lake and that the role of migratory hosts in the spring and fall is much less significant.


Assuntos
Dermatite , Schistosomatidae , Esquistossomose , Dermatopatias Parasitárias , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Humanos , Lagos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/etiologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Patos , Caramujos/parasitologia , Mamíferos
3.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 31, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The duck (Anas platyrhynchos) is one of the principal natural hosts of influenza A virus (IAV), harbors almost all subtypes of IAVs and resists to many IAVs which cause extreme virulence in chicken and human. However, the response of duck's adaptive immune system to IAV infection is poorly characterized due to lack of a detailed gene map of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). RESULTS: We herein reported a chromosome-scale Beijing duck assembly by integrating Nanopore, Bionano, and Hi-C data. This new reference genome SKLA1.0 covers 40 chromosomes, improves the contig N50 of the previous duck assembly with highest contiguity (ZJU1.0) of more than a 5.79-fold, surpasses the chicken and zebra finch references in sequence contiguity and contains a complete genomic map of the MHC. Our 3D MHC genomic map demonstrated that gene family arrangement in this region was primordial; however, families such as AnplMHCI, AnplMHCIIß, AnplDMB, NKRL (NK cell receptor-like genes) and BTN underwent gene expansion events making this area complex. These gene families are distributed in two TADs and genes sharing the same TAD may work in a co-regulated model. CONCLUSIONS: These observations supported the hypothesis that duck's adaptive immunity had been optimized with expanded and diversified key immune genes which might help duck to combat influenza virus. This work provided a high-quality Beijing duck genome for biological research and shed light on new strategies for AIV control.


Assuntos
Patos , Genoma , Animais , Humanos , Patos/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Família Multigênica
4.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 17, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302909

RESUMO

The quality of swans' nutrition at spring migration stopovers is important for their successful breeding. It is of great interest to study the differences in nutrition of different swan species when sharing the same habitat. Microscopic analysis of Cygnus olor, C. cygnus, and C. columbianus bewickii feces collected in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland in February-April 2014-2019 was performed. We measured food preferences of the three swan species using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The width and overlap of dietary niches were also calculated. The diet of C. olor consists almost entirely of soft submerged aquatic vegetation, mainly macroalgae. Samples of the other two species except macroalgae contained large amounts of young shoots and roots of rigid semi-submerged and coastal vegetation. The dietary niche of C. cygnus is the most isolated because it is dominated by thick rhizomes of Phragmites australis, which are hardly used by other swan species. The diet of Bewick's swans was similar in many respects to that of the Mute swan, but Bewick's swans much more often preferred vegetative parts of submerged and semi-submerged plants, such as Stuckenia pectinata, Potamogeton perfoliatus, Sparganium sp., Nuphar lutea, and others. Notably, the dietary niches of Mute swan and Whooper swan overlapped as much as possible in February March during a period of severe food shortage, in contrast to later periods in spring when food was more abundant and varied. In general, differences in diets are well explained by differences in the morphology of birds. Comparison of tarsometatarsus indices shows that C. olor is the most water-related species. C. olor has the longest neck and its beak has the strongest filter features, whereas beaks of the other two species shows noticeable "goose-like grazing" features. Moreover, C. Cygnus has the most powerful beak. These features are due to the history of species. The formation of C. olor occurred during the Miocene-Pliocene of the Palaearctic in the warm eutrophic marine lagoons of the Paratethys with abundant soft submerged vegetation. The evolution of C. cygnus and C. c. bewickii took place in Pleistocene. At that time, periglacial and thermokarst water bodies on permafrost became widespread in the Palearctic, as well as dystrophic peat lakes with much poorer submerged aquatic vegetation, but well-developed coastal and semi-submerged vegetation.


Assuntos
Anseriformes , Melhoramento Vegetal , Animais , Filogenia , Dieta , Patos , Água
5.
Avian Dis ; 67(4): 345-348, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300656

RESUMO

Developer ducks are ducks being reared for breeding. Like breeder candidate chickens, they are raised with appropriate light and feed programs. A commercial Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) developer flock experienced an extraordinary, elevated mortality event at 6 wk of age. Weekly mortality rate that week was 162 ducklings out of a flock of 6420 (2.5%). Mortality jumped to 988 (15.4%) ducklings the next week. On first elevated mortality, six dead ducks from that flock were submitted for diagnostic investigation at Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Myocarditis, pale striping or diffuse pallor of the epicardium, was grossly evident in five of the six submitted ducklings. All of the ducklings had hydropericardium, three had ascites, and three had congested meninges. Histology confirmed myocarditis with myocardial necrosis. Cerebrum and brainstem had lymphocytic vasculitis with rare neuronal necrosis in affected areas, as well as Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. West Nile virus was confirmed by PCR the day after submittal and by immunohistochemistry soon thereafter.


Reporte de caso- Infección por el virus del Nilo occidental en una parvada en desarrollo de patos Pekin (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) reproductores. Los patos reproductores en desarrollo son patos que se crían para la reproducción. Al igual que los pollos candidatos para reproducción, se crían con programas de iluminación y alimentación adecuados. Una parvada comercial en desarrollo de pato Pekín (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) experimentó un evento de mortalidad elevada y extraordinaria a las seis semanas de edad. La tasa de mortalidad semanal de esa semana fue de 162 patitos de una parvada de 6420 (2.5%). La mortalidad se elevó a 988 (15.4%) patitos la semana siguiente. En el primer aumento de mortalidad, seis patos muertos de esa bandada fueron enviados para una investigación de diagnóstico en el Laboratorio de Diagnóstico Veterinario de la Universidad Estatal de Michigan. La miocarditis, caracterizada por rayas pálidas o palidez difusa del epicardio, fue evidente en cinco de los seis patitos presentados. Todos los patitos mostraron hidropericardio, tres tenían ascitis y tres tenían meninges congestionadas. La histología confirmó miocarditis con necrosis miocárdica. El cerebro y el tronco del encéfalo tenían vasculitis linfocítica con rara necrosis neuronal en las áreas afectadas, así como de las células de Purkinje en el cerebelo. El virus del Nilo Occidental se confirmó mediante PCR el día después de la llegada al laboratorio y mediante inmunohistoquímica poco tiempo después.


Assuntos
Miocardite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/diagnóstico , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Patos , Miocardite/veterinária , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Necrose/veterinária
6.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(2): e13254, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314064

RESUMO

Background: The introduction of multiple avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes into Nigeria has resulted in several poultry outbreaks purportedly linked to trade and wild birds. The role of wild birds in perpetuating AIV in Nigeria was, therefore, elucidated. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among wild aquatic bird species at the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands in Northeastern Nigeria between March and April 2022. A total of 452 swabs (226 cloacae and 226 oropharyngeal) were collected using a mist net to capture the birds. These samples were tested by RT-qPCR, followed by sequencing. Results: Highly pathogenic AIV of the H5N1 subtype was identified in clinically healthy wild bird species, namely, African jacana, ruff, spur-winged goose, squared-tailed nightjar, white-faced whistling ducks, and white stork. A prevalence of 11.1% (25/226) was recorded. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete HA gene segment indicated the presence of clade 2.3.4.4b. However, these H5N1 viruses characterized from these wild birds cluster separately from the H5N1 viruses characterized in Nigerian poultry since early 2021. Specifically, the viruses form two distinct genetic groups both linked with the Eurasian H5N1 gene pool but likely resulting from two distinct introductions of the virus in the region. Whole-genome characterization of the viruses reveals the presence of mammalian adaptive marker E627K in two Afro-tropical resident aquatic ducks. This has zoonotic potential. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the key role of surveillance in wild birds to monitor the diversity of viruses in this area, provide the foundations of epidemiological understanding, and facilitate risk assessment.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Humanos , Animais , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Áreas Alagadas , Aves , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Animais Selvagens , Aves Domésticas , Patos , Mamíferos
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 109976, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198922

RESUMO

Birds including domestic and wild birds, as the amplifying or reservoir hosts of JEV, were sensitive to JEV infection and could develop a sufficiently high viremia to infect mosquitoes. However, most of JEV positive reports in birds were based on molecular detection, with few viruses isolated from clinical cases. In this study, one JEV strain, designated duck/2022-SD-1, was first isolated and identified from blood samples of ducks in 2022 in Shandong province of China. The JEV duck/2022-SD-1 strain was classified into genotype I cluster and shared 96.5 to 99.5 % nucleotide sequence identity with other GI JEV strains. Biological characteristics revealed that duck/2022-SD-1 possessed similar replication ability to a virulent strain Beijing/2020-1. Based on the amino acid identity comparison of E protein, amino acid sites responsible for JEV virulence were conserved between duck/2022-SD-1 and other virulence strains. Through virulence assays in mice, we further determined that duck/2022-SD-1 was a highly virulent JEV strain with highly neuroinvasive in mice, which is similar to the virulence of another virulent strain Beijing/2020-1. Thus, the potential threat of JEV strains originating from domestic birds should be brought to people's attention.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa , Doenças dos Roedores , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Patos , Encefalite Japonesa/veterinária , Virulência , Aminoácidos/genética , Genótipo , Filogenia
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 290: 109987, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38246107

RESUMO

The duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) causes rapid death in ducklings by triggering a severe cytokine storm. Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death that is directly related to an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Only a few studies have explored the mechanisms underlying pyroptosis in virus-infected avian cells. In this study, we established an avian infection model in vitro by infecting duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) with the virulent DHAV-1 LY0801 strain. DHAV-1 infection induced pyroptosis in the DEFs by activating gasdermin E (GSDME) protein via caspase-3-mediated cleavage. The genes encoding the different structural and non-structural DHAV-1 proteins were cloned into eukaryotic expression plasmids, and the 2A2 protein was identified as the key protein involved in pyroptosis. The HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) analysis established that DHAV-1 2A2 directly interacted with the mitochondrial anti-viral signaling protein (MAVS) both intracellularly and in vitro. Furthermore, we got the results that N-terminal 1-130 aa of 2A2 was involved in the interaction with MAVS and the C-terminal TM domain of MAVS is necessary for the interaction with 2A2 by Co-IP analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal that DHAV-1 protein interacts with host proteins to induce pyroptosis. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of DHAV-1 infection, and a scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of duck viral hepatitis.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Patos , Gasderminas , Piroptose , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/veterinária , Fibroblastos , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária
9.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 57, 2024 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disease caused by Riemerella anatipestifer (R. anatipestifer, RA) results in large economic losses to the global duck industry every year. Serovar-related genomic variation, such as the O-antigen and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) gene clusters, has been widely used for serotyping in many gram-negative bacteria. RA has been classified into at least 21 serovars based on slide agglutination, but the molecular basis of serotyping is unknown. In this study, we performed a pan-genome-wide association study (Pan-GWAS) to identify the genetic loci associated with RA serovars. RESULTS: The results revealed a significant association between the putative CPS synthesis gene locus and the serological phenotype. Further characterization of the CPS gene clusters in 11 representative serovar strains indicated that they were highly diverse and serovar-specific. The CPS gene cluster contained the key genes wzx and wzy, which are involved in the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway of CPS synthesis. Similar CPS loci have been found in some other species within the family Weeksellaceae. We have also shown that deletion of the wzy gene in RA results in capsular defects and cross-agglutination. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the CPS synthesis gene cluster of R. anatipestifer is a serotype-specific genetic locus. Importantly, our finding provides a new perspective for the systematic analysis of the genetic basis of the R anatipestifer serovars and a potential target for establishing a complete molecular serotyping scheme.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Riemerella , Animais , Sorogrupo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Riemerella/genética , Patos/genética , Patos/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 131, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38229301

RESUMO

A novel aspartic protease gene (TaproA1) from Trichoderma asperellum was successfully expressed in Komagataella phaffii (Pichia pastoris). TaproA1 showed 52.8% amino acid sequence identity with the aspartic protease PEP3 from Coccidioides posadasii C735. TaproA1 was efficiently produced in a 5 L fermenter with a protease activity of 4092 U/mL. It exhibited optimal reaction conditions at pH 3.0 and 50 °C and was stable within pH 3.0-6.0 and at temperatures up to 45 °C. The protease exhibited broad substrate specificity with high hydrolysis activity towards myoglobin and hemoglobin. Furthermore, duck blood proteins (hemoglobin and plasma protein) were hydrolyzed by TaproA1 to prepare bioactive peptides with high ACE inhibitory activity. The IC50 values of hemoglobin and plasma protein hydrolysates from duck blood proteins were 0.105 mg/mL and 0.091 mg/mL, respectively. Thus, the high yield and excellent biochemical characterization of TaproA1 presented here make it a potential candidate for the preparation of duck blood peptides. KEY POINTS: • An aspartic protease (TaproA1) from Trichoderma asperellum was expressed in Komagataella phaffii. • TaproA1 exhibited broad substrate specificity and the highest activity towards myoglobin and hemoglobin. • TaproA1 has great potential for the preparation of bioactive peptides from duck blood proteins.


Assuntos
Ácido Aspártico Proteases , Hypocreales , Saccharomycetales , Trichoderma , Animais , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Patos , Mioglobina , Peptídeos , Ácido Aspártico Proteases/genética , Ácido Aspártico Proteases/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Hemoglobinas , Trichoderma/genética
11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 136, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38229327

RESUMO

Livestock farms are major reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that are discharged into the environment. However, the abundance, diversity, and transmission of ARGs in duck farms and its impact on surrounding environments remain to be further explored. Therefore, the characteristics of ARGs and their bacterial hosts from duck farms and surrounding environment were investigated by using metagenomic sequencing. Eighteen ARG types which consist of 823 subtypes were identified and the majority conferred resistance to multidrug, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicols, MLS, and sulfonamides. The floR gene was the most abundant subtype, followed by sul1, tetM, sul2, and tetL. ARG abundance in fecal sample was significantly higher than soil and water sample. Our results also lead to a hypothesis that Shandong province have been the most contaminated by ARGs from duck farm compared with other four provinces. PcoA results showed that the composition of ARG subtypes in water and soil samples was similar, but there were significant differences between water and feces samples. However, the composition of ARG subtypes were similar between samples from five provinces. Bacterial hosts of ARG subtypes were taxonomically assigned to eight phyla that were dominated by the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. In addition, some human bacterial pathogens could be enriched in duck feces, including Enterococcus faecium, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus, and even serve as the carrier of ARGs. The combined results indicate that a comprehensive overview of the diversity and abundance of ARGs, and strong association between ARGs and bacterial community shift proposed, and benefit effective measures to improve safety of antibiotics use in livestock and poultry farming. KEY POINTS: • ARG distribution was widespread in the duck farms and surroundings environment • ARG abundance on the duck farms was significantly higher than in soil and water • Human bacterial pathogens may serve as the vectors for ARGs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Patos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/análise , Bactérias/genética , China , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Fazendas , Genes Bacterianos , Solo , Água/farmacologia
13.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 17, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specific pathogen-free ducks are a valuable laboratory resource for waterfowl disease research and poultry vaccine development. High throughput sequencing allows the systematic identification of structural variants in genomes. Copy number variation (CNV) can explain the variation of important duck genetic traits. Herein, the genome-wide CNVs of the three experimental duck species in China (Jinding ducks (JD), Shaoxing ducks (SX), and Fujian Shanma ducks (SM)) were characterized using resequencing to determine their genetic characteristics and selection signatures. RESULTS: We obtained 4,810 CNV regions (CNVRs) by merging 73,012 CNVs, covering 4.2% of the duck genome. Functional analysis revealed that the shared CNVR-harbored genes were significantly enriched for 31 gene ontology terms and 16 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (e.g., olfactory transduction and immune system). Based on the genome-wide fixation index for each CNVR, growth (SPAG17 and PTH1R), disease resistance (CATHL3 and DMBT1), and thermoregulation (TRPC4 and SLIT3) candidate genes were identified in strongly selected signatures specific to JD, SM, and SX, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we investigated the genome-wide distribution of experimental duck CNVs, providing a reference to establish the genetic basis of different phenotypic traits, thus contributing to the management of experimental animal genetic resources.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Patos , Animais , Patos/genética , Genoma , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Vet Res ; 55(1): 2, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172999

RESUMO

During the replication process, the herpesvirus genome forms the head-to-tail linked concatemeric genome, which is then cleaved and packaged into the capsid. The cleavage and packing process is carried out by the terminase complex, which specifically recognizes and cleaves the concatemeric genome. This process is governed by a cis-acting sequence in the genome, named the a sequence. The a sequence and genome cleavage have been described in some herpesviruses, but it remains unclear in duck plague virus. In this study, we analysed the location, composition, and conservation of a sequence in the duck plague virus genome. The structure of the DPV genome has an a sequence of (DR4)m-(DR2)n-pac1-S termini (32 bp)-L termini (32 bp)-pac2, and the length is 841 bp. Direct repeat (DR) sequences are conserved in different DPV strains, but the number of DR copies is inconsistent. Additionally, the typical DR1 sequence was not found in the DPV a sequence. The Pac1 and pac2 motifs are relatively conserved between DPV and other herpesviruses. Cleavage of the DPV concatemeric genome was detected, and the results showed that the DPV genome can form a concatemer and is cleaved into a monomer at a specific site. We also established a sensitive method, TaqMan dual qRT‒PCR, to analyse genome cleavage. The ratio of concatemer to total viral genome was decreased during the replication process. These results will be critical for understanding the process of DPV genome cleavage, and the application of TaqMan dual qRT‒PCR will greatly facilitate more in-depth research.


Assuntos
Patos , Herpesviridae , Animais , Patos/genética , DNA Viral/química , Sequência de Bases , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Herpesviridae/genética , Genoma Viral
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(2): 299-309, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215495

RESUMO

During October 2022-March 2023, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) clade 2.3.4.4b virus caused outbreaks in South Korea, including 174 cases in wild birds. To understand the origin and role of wild birds in the evolution and spread of HPAI viruses, we sequenced 113 HPAI isolates from wild birds and performed phylogenetic analysis. We identified 16 different genotypes, indicating extensive genetic reassortment with viruses in wild birds. Phylodynamic analysis showed that the viruses were most likely introduced to the southern Gyeonggi-do/northern Chungcheongnam-do area through whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) and spread southward. Cross-species transmission occurred between various wild bird species, including waterfowl and raptors, resulting in the persistence of HPAI in wild bird populations and further geographic spread as these birds migrated throughout South Korea. Enhanced genomic surveillance was an integral part of the HPAI outbreak response, aiding in timely understanding of the origin, evolution, and spread of the virus.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Aviária , Influenza Humana , Animais , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Filogenia , Animais Selvagens , Aves , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Patos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
16.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103365, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38157791

RESUMO

The threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is on the rise globally, especially with the development of animal husbandry and the increased demand for antibiotics. Livestock and poultry farms, as key sites for prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), can spread antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) through microbial aerosols and affect public health. In this study, total suspended particulate matter (TSP) and airborne culturable microorganisms were collected from duck houses in Tai'an, Shandong Province, and the bacterial communities and airborne ARGs were analyzed using metagenomics and PCR methods. The results showed that the bacterial communities in the air of duck houses were mainly Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobactria, Chlamydia, and Bcateroidetes at the phylum level. At the genus level, the air was dominated by Corynebacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium, and Megacoccus, and contained some pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which were also potential hosts for ARGs. The airborne ARGs were mainly macrolides (10.97%), penicillins (10.73%), cephalosporins (8.91%), streptozotocin (8.91%), and aminoglycosides (8.02%). PCR detected 27 ARGs in airborne culturable microorganisms, and comparative analysis between PCR and the metagenomic data revealed that a total of 9 ARGs were found to the same, including macrolides ErmA, ErmF, tetracyclines tetG, tetX, methicarbamazepines dfrA12, dfrA15, aminoglycosides APH3-VI, ANT2-Ⅰ, and sulfonamides sul2. Moreover, inhalation exposure modeling showed that the workers in duck houses inhaled higher concentrations of ARB, human pathogenic bacteria (HPB) and human pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria (HPARB) than hospital workers. These results provide new insights into airborne microorganisms and ARGs in animal farms and lay the foundation for further study.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Patos , Animais , Aminoglicosídeos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Galinhas/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Patos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Macrolídeos , Metagenoma , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
17.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103303, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38096667

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to explore the regulatory mechanism of differences in embryonic gonadal development between intergeneric distance hybrid offspring Mulard ducks and parent ducks. The morphological differences gonadal tissues of Muscovy ducks, Pekin ducks and Mulard ducks at 12.5-day embryonic age were observed by sectioning and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Then followed by transcriptome sequencing to screen for gonadal development-related differentially expressed circRNAs and mRNAs to construct a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network. Finally, qRT-PCR and luciferase reporter system were used to verify the sequencing data and targeting relationship of ceRNA pairs. The results showed that the seminiferous tubule lumen of Mulard ducks was not obvious, while there were obvious seminiferous tubules and tubular structures in testis of Pekin ducks and Muscovy ducks, with number and shape indicating maturity. There were 18 upregulated circRNAs and 16 downregulated circRNAs in Mulard ducks and Pekin ducks, respectively, and 39 upregulated circRNAs and 1 downregulated circRNA in Mulard ducks and Muscovy ducks, respectively. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis found that genes involves in dorso-ventral axis formation, for example, neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 1 (NOTCH1), were significantly enriched (P < 0.05). The novel_circ_0002265-gga-miR-122-5p-PAFAH1B2 regulatory network was constructed. The qRT-PCR results showed that the sequencing results were reliable. The dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that gga-miR-122-5p exists binding site of circ_0002265 and PAFAH1B2, indicating circ_0002265-gga-miR-122-5p-PAFAH1B2 targeting relationship. In summary, the embryonic gonadal development of intergeneric hybrid Mulard ducks may be regulated by differentially expressed circRNAs and genes, such as novel_circ_0000519, novel_circ_0003537, NOTCH1, FGFR2, PAFAH1B1, and PAFAH1B2, among which circ_0002265-gga-miR-122-5p-PAFAH1B2 may participate in the targeted regulation of gonadal development in Mulard ducks. The findings of this study are helpful for analyzing the mechanism of embryonic gonadal development differences in avians.


Assuntos
Patos , MicroRNAs , Animais , Masculino , Patos/genética , RNA Circular/genética , Galinhas , MicroRNAs/genética , Luciferases
18.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103290, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100942

RESUMO

The mallard duck or wild duck (Anas platyrhynchos) is the world's most widespread and numerous dabbling duck, being traditionally hunted across many countries in Europe and North America. This study aims to provide a detailed characterization of mallard duck's meat lipid fraction obtained from farmed specimens, reared for hunting purposes, under semiextensive conditions. The mallard's duck meat total lipid content averaged 2.0 and 4.26 g/100 g of fresh meat in breast and leg meat portions, and its meat comprised 23 individual fatty acids (FA) and 3 dimethylacetals (DMA), independently of the sex or meat portion. The oleic (C18:1 cis-9), palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), linoleic (C18:2n-6), arachidonic (C20:4n-6), palmitoleic (C16:1 cis-9), and cis-vaccenic (C18:1 cis-11) acids were the predominant FA (representing >1% of total fatty acids in both breast and leg meat portions and independently of the sex), and together, these 7 fatty acids were accountable for 92.4 to 96.5% of total FA plus DMA in mallard duck meat. The monounsaturated, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were accountable for 40.4, 35.0, and 21.0% of total FA plus DMA in breast and 54.6, 38.7, and 5.7% of total fatty acids in leg, while total DMA were liable for 3.6 and 0.9% of total FA plus DMA in breast and leg, respectively. The mallard duck meat total cholesterol content averaged 49.8 and 57.1 mg/100 g of fresh meat for breast and leg meat portions. Five tocochromanols were quantified in mallard duck meat, affording it with a total vitamin E content of 5.48 and 3.63 µg/g of fresh meat in breast and leg portions. The sex had no influence (P > 0.05) on mallard's duck meat lipid composition, but meat portion had a strong influence on mallard's duck meat lipid composition, influencing total lipid, total cholesterol, total vitamin E contents, FA partial sums, FA ratios (exception made for the n-6/n-3 ratio), and all nutritional lipid indices. The breast meat presented lower total lipid and total cholesterol contents, better FA ratios and nutritional quality indices and higher vitamin E content, being regarded as a healthier meat than leg. The study presented herein shows that mallard duck production in semiextensive conditions, similar to those used herein, could be used for the production of mallard duck beyond hunting. A production of duck's meat under natural or organic production practices, oriented to a market niche within the gourmet/organic markets.


Assuntos
Patos , Caça , Animais , Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Lipídeos , Carne/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Vitamina E , Colesterol
19.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103332, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38128459

RESUMO

In late 2020, an outbreak of Tembusu virus (TMUV)-associated disease occurred in a 45-day-old white Roman geese flock in Taiwan. Here, we present the identification and isolation of a novel goose-origin TMUV strain designated as NTU/C225/2020. The virus was successfully isolated using minimal-pathogen-free duck embryos. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein gene showed that NTU/C225/2020 clustered together with the earliest isolates from Malaysia and was most closely related to the first Taiwanese TMUV strain, TP1906. Genomic analysis revealed significant amino acid variations among TMUV isolates in NS1 and NS2A protein regions. In the present study, we characterized the NTU/C225/2020 culture in duck embryos, chicken embryos, primary duck embryonated fibroblasts, and DF-1 cells. All host systems were susceptible to NTU/C225/2020 infection, with observable lesions. In addition, animal experiments showed that the intramuscular inoculation of NTU/C225/2020 resulted in growth retardation and hyperthermia in day-old chicks. Gross lesions in the infected chicks included hepatomegaly, hyperemic thymus, and splenomegaly. Viral loads and histopathological damage were displayed in various tissues of both inoculated and naïve co-housed chicks, confirming the direct chick-to-chick contact transmission of TMUV. This is the first in vivo study of a local TMUV strain in Taiwan. Our findings provide essential information for TMUV propagation and suggest a potential risk of disease outbreak in chicken populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flavivirus , Flavivirus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Embrião de Galinha , Animais , Infecções por Flavivirus/veterinária , Gansos , Galinhas , Filogenia , Virulência , Cetuximab , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Patos
20.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103353, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38134462

RESUMO

Two kinds of reticulocytes, and atypical erythroid cells, were found in the blood of apparently healthy ducks with Wright-Giemsa (W-G) stain. The reticulin of network-type examples (nRtc) is of a large complex (3-D) form. The punctate reticulocyte (pRtc) contains small pin-point cytoplasmic granulations; both cells are distinct from a polychromatic RBC (pRBC). Atypical erythroid cells with oval or irregular shapes reminiscent of primary or yolk-sac RBCs (ysRBC) accompanied the Rtc. Rare binuclear cells (bi) were either polychromatic (pRBC and pRtc) or full hemoglobin (Hb) types (RBC). Some bi with equal-sized daughter nuclei were presumed mitotic products. Conversely, unequal daughter nuclei were amitotic products, a nuclear division without chromosomes or a spindle. Erythrocytes formed tight aggregations with thrombocytes or other cells called "toroids"; further indicating a reactive hemogram. Erythroplastids (ep) anuclear erythroid cells, found along with other atypia, were either pRBC or full Hb types. The total white blood counts (TWBC) of the study set ranged from 5 K/µL (embryo E [d24]) to >100 K/µL (older ducks) with heterophil ratios (H/L) ranging from 0.5 to >4.0. Atypical erythroid cells, like atypical leukocytes, indicate a transition from homeostasis to a reactive state. Recognition of nRtc, pRtc, and toroids as reactive forms, expands the utility of hematologic data in assessing stress levels, indicating pathology, and exploring welfare questions. The present observations support earlier work showing some reticulocytes are detected by W-G alone and do not require vital dyes. Cells and behaviors described here demonstrate the benefit that a description of overall cytology adds to H/L ratios in evaluating a hemogram.


Assuntos
Patos , Reticulócitos , Animais , Galinhas , Eritrócitos , Leucócitos
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