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1.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 25(1): 163-180, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823690

RESUMO

The popularity of backyard poultry (chickens, turkey, guinea fowl) and waterfowl (ducks and geese) is increasing in the United States, and these animals frequently present for veterinary care. Like other birds, these species have unique anatomy that should be clinically considered before anesthesia. A balanced approach to an injectable, inhalational, or combination anesthesia protocol must be taken to ensure a safe outcome for the patient and to achieve the procedural needs. A well-informed clinician may use both sedation and general anesthesia to care for backyard bird patients in practice.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Galinhas , Patos , Aves Domésticas , Estados Unidos
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150078, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525758

RESUMO

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) deposited by wild birds into the environment may lead to sporadic mortality events and economically costly outbreaks among domestic birds. There is a paucity of information, however, regarding the persistence of infectious IAVs within the environment following deposition. In this investigation, we assessed the persistence of 12 IAVs that were present in cloacal and/or oropharyngeal swabs of naturally infected ducks. Infectivity of these IAVs was monitored over approximately one year with each virus tested in five water types: (1) distilled water held in the lab at 4 °C and (2-5) filtered surface water from each of four Alaska sites and maintained in the field at ambient temperature. By evaluating infectivity of IAVs in ovo following sample retrieval at four successive time points, we observed declines in IAV infectivity through time. Many viruses persisted for extended periods, as evidenced by ≥25% of IAVs remaining infectious in replicate samples for each treatment type through three sampling time points (144-155 days post-sample collection) and two viruses remaining viable in a single replicate sample each when tested upon collection at a fourth time point (361-377 days post-sample collection). The estimated probability of persistence of infectious IAVs in all five water types was estimated to be between 0.25 and 0.75 during days 50-200 post-sample collection as inferred through Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Our results provide evidence that IAVs may remain infectious for extended periods, up to or even exceeding one year, when maintained in surface waters under ambient temperatures. Therefore, wetlands may represent an important medium in which infectious IAVs may reside outside of a biotic reservoir.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Alaska/epidemiologia , Animais , Patos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Áreas Alagadas
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1139, 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The alarming rise in multi-drug resistant (MDR) zoonotic pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., has been threatening the health sector globally. In Bangladesh, despite rapid growth in poultry sector little is known about the potential risks of zoonotic pathogens in homestead duck flocks. The aim of this study was to understand the occurrence, species diversity, and multi-drug resistance in Campylobacter spp., and identify the associated risk factors in duck farms in Bangladesh. METHODS: The study involved 20 duck farms at 6 sub-districts of Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Monthly occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in potential sources at the farms during February-September, 2018, was detected by culture and PCR-based methods. Campylobacter isolates were examined for resistance to different antimicrobials. Risk factors, concerning climatic and environmental disposition, farm management, and anthropogenic practices, of Campylobacter infection were estimated by participatory epidemiological tools. RESULTS: Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was detected in overall 36.90% (155/420) samples, more frequently in drinking water (60%, 30/50), followed by cloacal swab (37.50%, 75/200), egg surface swab (35%, 35/100) and soil of the duck resting places (30%, 15/50) but was not detected in feed samples (n = 20). PCR assays distinguished the majority (61.30%, 95/155) of the isolates as C. coli, while the rest (38.70%, 60/155) were C. jejuni. Notably, 41.7% (25/60) and 31.6% (30/95) strains of C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, were observed to be MDR. The dynamics of Campylobacter spp., distinctly showing higher abundance during summer and late-monsoon, correlated significantly with temperature, humidity, and rainfall, while sunshine hours had a negative influence. Anthropogenic management-related factors, including, inadequate hygiene practices, use of untreated river water, wet duck shed, flock age (1-6 months), and unscrupulous use of antimicrobials were identified to enhance the risk of MDR Campylobacter infection. CONCLUSION: The present study clearly demonstrates that duck farms contribute to the enhanced occurrence and spread of potentially pathogenic and MDR C. coli and C. jejuni strains and the bacterial dynamics are governed by a combined interaction of environmental and anthropogenic factors. A long-term holistic research at the environment-animal-human interface would be integral to divulge health risk reduction approaches tackling the spread of Campylobacter spp. from duck farms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter coli , Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Galinhas , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Patos , Fazendas , Humanos , Lactente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770605

RESUMO

Duck eggs are a good source of essential nutrients for the human body. However, transportation, processing, and handling can easily cause cracks in the eggshells. These cracks can lead to microbial contamination, reducing the shelf life and compromising food safety. In this study, a method for the nondestructive testing of cracks in duck eggshells was developed. First, the acoustic emission signals of intact and cracked eggshells were measured, and the most significant frequency features were selected to establish a calibration curve for cracked eggshells. Logistic regression using the frequency features was then adopted to predict intact and cracked eggshells. Then, we establish a set of optimal regression models and used independent samples for verification. The overall accuracy rates of the calibration and prediction models using five frequencies of bandwidth (1500, 5000, 6000, 8500, and 10,000 Hz) were 89.7% and 87.6%, respectively. Sound measurement enables a simple and quantitative method for duck egg crack detection and classification. This nondestructive and cost-effective method can be used for duck egg quality screening and can be integrated into duck egg processing machinery.


Assuntos
Patos , Casca de Ovo , Animais , Galinhas , Ovos , Humanos
5.
Acta Vet Scand ; 63(1): 47, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small poultry flock ownership has become a popular hobby in Europe and North America in recent years but there is a general lack of information regarding bird health and welfare. This retrospective analysis of routine post-mortem cases of non-commercial anseriform poultry aimed at providing information on causes of mortality mostly in relation to mortality events. For this purpose, birds that were submitted for routine post-mortem diagnostics to the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) in Sweden in 2011-2020 were retrospectively reviewed to determine main causes of mortality. RESULTS: Records from 79 necropsy submissions involving 120 birds (domestic ducks n = 41, Muscovy ducks n = 45, hybrid ducks n = 2 and domestic geese n = 32) were retrieved and analysed. Most submissions (72.2%) represented flock disease events and unexpected mortality was the most common cause of submission (70.9% of submissions). Twenty-two submissions (27.8%) were referred by veterinarians. There was a wide range of diagnoses of infectious and noninfectious aetiologies. Infectious causes of mortality included parasitic (19.2%), bacterial (13.3%), fungal (10.0%) and viral infections (3.3%) (at bird level of all 120 birds). Some of these infections such as duck virus enteritis (DVE), highly pathogenic influenza (HPAI H5N8) in Muscovy ducks and leucocytozoonosis (Leucocytozoon sp.) in all three species were most likely acquired from contact with wild free-living waterfowl. Generalised yeast infection (Muscovy duck disease) was diagnosed in Muscovy ducks and in a Muscovy duck/domestic duck hybrid. Other diseases were related to generalised noninfectious causes (27.5% of all birds) including diseases such as kidney disease, amyloidosis, cardiac dilatation, reproductive diseases and idiopathic inflammatory conditions. Nutritional or management-related diseases were diagnosed in 14.2% of all birds including rickets and gastrointestinal impaction/obstruction. Congenital/developmental, neoplastic, toxic and traumatic causes of mortality were rare. CONCLUSIONS: The information obtained in this study can be used to identify and evaluate risks and help owners and veterinarians to prevent disease and provide adequate veterinary care for non-commercial anseriform poultry.


Assuntos
Influenza Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Patos , Gansos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia
6.
Arch Razi Inst ; 76(3): 437-444, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824737

RESUMO

Ducks play an important role in the transmission of avian influenza to poultry farms. Because of the importance of vaccination in reducing virus shedding, this study evaluated avian influenza-killed vaccine H9N2 on tissue distribution and shedding of avian influenza virus H9N2 in ducklings. One hundred-day-old ducklings were purchased and, after bleeding from 20 birds, were kept in four separate rooms under standard conditions. Groups 1 and 2 were vaccinated at 9 days, and groups 2 and 3 were challenged with 0.1 ml of allantoic fluid containing 105 EID50 (A/chicken/Iran/Aid/2013(H9)) virus intranasally at 30 days. Group 4 chicks were kept as the control group. Chicks were observed two times daily. On days 1, 3, 5, and 8 after inoculation, 3 chicks were randomly selected from each group and cloaca and trachea swabs samples were collected from each bird. Then the ducklings were euthanized and trachea, lung, spleen, intestine, liver, and brain tissue samples were collected for molecular detection. The virus was detected in the tissues and tracheal and cloacal swabs by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and anti-AIV titres were measured by HI test. The results showed no clinical signs in the challenged groups. In the vaccinated challenged group, virus was detected only in cloacal swabs, but in the unvaccinated challenged group, virus was detected more in tracheal swabs than in cloacal swabs. In challenged-unvaccinated chicks, virus was detected in the trachea and lungs, and in challenged-vaccinated birds, virus was detected in the intestines. In conclusion, vaccinating ducks against the AI H9N2 virus reduced shedding and tissue distribution of AI viruses in challenged ducks.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Galinhas , Patos , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Distribuição Tecidual , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados
7.
Poult Sci ; 100(12): 101462, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731734

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the influence of zinc (Zn) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal development and intestinal barrier function in Pekin ducks. A total of 480, one-day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into 6 groups with 8 replicates: 0 mg/kg Zn, 0 mg/kg Zn +0.5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 30 mg/kg Zn, 30 mg/kg Zn +0.5 mg/kg LPS, 120 mg/kg Zn, 120 mg/kg Zn +0.5 mg/kg LPS. The duck primary intestinal epithelial cells (DIECs) were divided into 6 groups: D-Zn (Zinc deficiency, treated with 2 µmol/L zinc Chelator TPEN), A-Zn (Adequate Zinc, basal medium), H-Zn (High level of Zn, supplemented with 20 µmol/L Zn), D-Zn + 20 µg/mL LPS, A-Zn + 20 µg/mL LPS, H-Zn + 20 µg/mL LPS. The results were as follows: in vivo, with Zn supplementation of 120 mg/kg reduced LPS-induced decrease of growth performance and intestine damage (P < 0.05), and increased intestinal digestive enzyme activity of Pekin ducks (P < 0.05). In addition, Zn supplementation also attenuated LPS-induced intestinal epithelium permeability (P < 0.05), inhibited LPS-induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis-related genes (P < 0.05), as well as reduced LPS-induced the intestinal stem cells mobilization of Pekin ducks (P < 0.05). In vitro, 20 µmol/L Zn inhibited LPS-induced expression of inflammatory factors and apoptosis-related genes (P < 0.05), promoted the expression of cytoprotection-related genes, and attenuated LPS-induced intestinal epithelium permeability in DIECs (P < 0.05). Mechanistically, 20 µmol/L Zn enhanced tight junction protein markers including CLDN-1, OCLD, and ZO-1 both at protein and mRNA levels (P < 0.05), and also increased the level of phosphorylation of TOR protein (P < 0.05) and activated the TOR signaling pathway. In conclusion, Zn improves growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and intestinal barrier function of Pekin ducks. Importantly, Zn also reverses LPS-induced intestinal barrier damage via enhancing the expression of tight junction proteins and activating the TOR signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Patos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Animais , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Mucosa Intestinal , Masculino , Zinco
8.
J Avian Med Surg ; 35(3): 361-366, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677035

RESUMO

An Indian runner duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) was presented for a second opinion after a linear, metallic foreign body was identified on radiographic images. The primary veterinarian performed diagnostic imaging while investigating the presenting complaint of the duck's left pelvic limb lameness. The images obtained from a computed tomography scan performed during the second-opinion visit revealed a linear, metallic foreign body with an associated migration tract originating from the ventriculus and terminating in the proximal left femur. Significant osteomyelitis was noted at the proximal left femur associated with the presence of the linear, metallic object. The foreign body and the adhesions associated with its migration were removed in 2, staged, surgical procedures. Although penetrating ventricular foreign bodies have been previously reported, migration through the cortex of a long bone is an unusual presentation. This case demonstrates that perforating, migrating, gastrointestinal foreign bodies can result in lameness refractory to analgesia and ancillary supportive care.


Assuntos
Patos , Corpos Estranhos , Animais , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Moela das Aves , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101459, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614430

RESUMO

Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant, anti-inflammatory plant extract, was found to have a protective effect in poultry subjected to heat stress. In this study, we strove to characterize resveratrol on intestinal of duck exposed to acute heat stress and investigate the underlying mechanism. A total of 120 Shan-ma ducks (60 days old) were randomly divided into 2 groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, and the resveratrol group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg resveratrol. Animals in 2 groups were kept at a temperature of 24°C ± 2°C for 15 d. Then, animals of both groups were placed in an artificial climate room at 39°C. Twelve ducks of each group were sacrificed for sampling at 0, 30, and 60 min, respectively. Results indicated that resveratrol increased the ratio of villus height to crypt depth, increased the number of goblet cells, and reduced the histopathological damage of jejunum caused by acute heat stress. Furthermore, the gene expression of heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) and tight junction proteins (CLDN1 and OCLN) was significantly increased in the resveratrol group compared to that in the control groups. Simultaneously, resveratrol significantly activated the SIRT1-NRF1/NRF2 signaling pathways, improved ATP level of jejunum, and increased SOD and CAT antioxidant enzymes activities. In addition, we found that the NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathways were repressed under acute heat stress. Meanwhile, supplement resveratrol further inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, decreased protein level of NLRP3 and caspase1 p20, reduced the secretion of IL-1ß. Taken together, our results indicate that resveratrol against the oxidative damage and inflammation injury in duck jejunum induced by heat stress via active SIRT1 signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Patos , Animais , Galinhas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/veterinária , Jejuno , Estresse Oxidativo , Resveratrol
10.
J Immunol ; 207(11): 2878-2891, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697228

RESUMO

Ducks are an economically important waterfowl but a natural reservoir for some zoonotic pathogens, such as influenza virus and flaviviruses. Our understanding of the duck immune system and its interaction with viruses remains incomplete. In this study, we constructed the transcriptomic landscape of duck circulating immune cells, the first line of defense in the arthropod-borne transmission of arboviruses, using high-throughput single-cell transcriptome sequencing, which defined 14 populations of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLks) based on distinct molecular signatures and revealed differences in the clustering of PBLks between ducks and humans. Taking advantage of in vivo sex differences in the susceptibility of duck PBLks to avian tembusu virus (TMUV) infection, a mosquito-borne flavivirus newly emerged from ducks with a broad host range from mosquitos to mammals, a comprehensive comparison of the in vivo dynamics of duck PBLks upon TMUV infection between sexes was performed at the single-cell level. Using this in vivo model, we discovered that TMUV infection reprogrammed duck PBLks differently between sexes, driving the expansion of granulocytes and priming granulocytes and monocytes for antiviral immune activation in males but decreasing the antiviral immune activity of granulocytes and monocytes by restricting their dynamic transitions from steady states to antiviral states with a decrease in the abundance of circulating monocytes in females. This study provides insights into the initial immune responses of ducks to arthropod-borne flaviviral infection and provides a framework for studying duck antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flavivirus/imunologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Animais , Patos/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Células Mieloides/patologia , Células Mieloides/virologia
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(12): 101507, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715544

RESUMO

Poultry color perception of artificial light-emitting diode (LED) lighting mediates bird physiology and behavior; however, very limited research has focused on how changes in LED light color affect these same parameters in Pekin ducks. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to determine how four LED bulbs emitting various portions of the visible light spectrum - monochromatic blue (BLUE), monochromatic green (GREEN), monochromatic red (RED), and white (WHITE) - impact the stress, fear responses, eye development, and growth of 768 straight run Pekin ducks. Elevated plasma corticosterone concentration and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was observed in BLUE and RED ducks compared to WHITE and GREEN ducks (P = 0.005 and P = 0.001, respectively), and asymmetry scores were highest in BLUE ducks (P < 0.001), indicating BLUE and RED lighting increase the stress susceptibility of Pekin ducks. Eye weight was lowest in BLUE and RED ducks compared to GREEN and WHITE ducks (P < 0.01). No differences were observed in d 35 body weight, FCR, gait score, or fear response parameters (P > 0.05). These results indicate BLUE and RED lighting may not be adequate for Pekin duck growout, and Pekin ducks may require artificial light sources containing a broad range of wavelengths, as seen with WHITE and GREEN lights, rather than lights containing more concentrated ranges such as in RED and BLUE lights, but further investigation is needed to understand how eye weight affects duck light perception and welfare. The current findings emphasize that although Pekin ducks and chickens are both sensitive to light color, species-specific nuances in light perception may cause distinct differences in Pekin duck versus broiler physiological responses and must be considered when selecting artificial light color in Pekin duck growout facilities.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Patos , Animais , Corticosterona , Medo , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5932, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635656

RESUMO

Domestic ducks are raised for meat, eggs and feather down, and almost all varieties are descended from the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Here, we report chromosome-level high-quality genome assemblies for meat and laying duck breeds, and the Mallard. Our new genomic databases contain annotations for thousands of new protein-coding genes and recover a major percentage of the presumed "missing genes" in birds. We obtain the entire genomic sequences for the C-type lectin (CTL) family members that regulate eggshell biomineralization. Our population and comparative genomics analyses provide more than 36 million sequence variants between duck populations. Furthermore, a mutant cell line allows confirmation of the predicted anti-adipogenic function of NR2F2 in the duck, and uncovered mutations specific to Pekin duck that potentially affect adipose deposition. Our study provides insights into avian evolution and the genetics of oviparity, and will be a rich resource for the future genetic improvement of commercial traits in the duck.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Fator II de Transcrição COUP/genética , Patos/genética , Genoma , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/classificação , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Cruzamento , Fator II de Transcrição COUP/metabolismo , Domesticação , Casca de Ovo/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Zigoto/metabolismo
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2940-2943, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670650

RESUMO

In late 2020, we detected 32 highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses in migratory ducks in Shanghai, China. Phylogenetic analysis of 5 representative isolates identified 2 sublineages of clade 2.3.4.4b. Each sublineage formed separate clusters with isolates from East Asia and Europe.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8 , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aves , China/epidemiologia , Patos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Filogenia
14.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110651, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600653

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of spices on individual phospholipid molecules of water-boiled salted duck (WSD) processing. Shotgun lipidomics was used to determine the structure of individual phospholipid molecules in raw duck meat and changes of phospholipids in processed-WSD with or without spices. A total of 118 phospholipid molecules were determined during the whole processing. Spices had a significant effect on the changes of most individual phospholipid molecules during the processing, but the overall effect on the phospholipid profile was not obvious. Nine phospholipid molecule markers were screened by partial least squares discriminant analysis, which can be used to distinguish with or without spice treatment. The effect of spices on most phospholipid molecules began on the first day of dry-ripening, and gradually became more obvious in the subsequent processing. Spice's main function was to delay the degradation of individual phospholipid molecules.


Assuntos
Lipidômica , Produtos da Carne , Animais , Patos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Fosfolipídeos , Especiarias , Água
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 493, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599403

RESUMO

Proper health management is essential for productivity in duck farming. However, there is limited information on the effect of management conditions on rates of metabolic problems and parasitic infections in anatids. We evaluated the rates of metabolic syndromes and gastrointestinal parasite involvement in Muscovy ducks up to 12 weeks of age, under 3 management conditions: backyard, organized, and organized with probiotics. Individuals under organized management developed 2 metabolic problems: ascites, which was rare (3.5%), fatal, and affected both males and females, and angel wing syndrome, which was more frequent (10.6%), has low impact on general health, and only affected males. The treatments do not have a significant effect on the development of ascites, but only individuals in controlled conditions presented this syndrome, and due to its low prevalence, further studies with a larger sample size are required. The risk of angel wing syndrome increased significantly with probiotic supplementation. Regarding to parasitic infection, the improvement of sanitary management and the use of probiotics supplementation reduced the occurrence of coccidiosis. Similarly organized management with probiotic supplementation showed a protective effect on helminthiasis by reducing the frequency of Heterakis gallinarum and greatly reducing the helminth egg load. Coccidiosis and helminthiasis infections were not significantly correlated with the final weight of the ducks. Therefore, organized management and the use of probiotics seems to reduce the impact of parasitic infection, although it increases the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Doenças Transmissíveis , Síndrome Metabólica , Doenças Parasitárias , Animais , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Patos , Feminino , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/veterinária
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126138, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492927

RESUMO

Pyroptosis and autophagy are two different biological processes that determine cell fates. Our previous studies revealed that pyroptosis and autophagy were involved in cytotoxicity co-induced by molybdenum (Mo) and cadmium (Cd) in duck renal tubular epithelial cells, but crosstalk between them is unclear. Hence, the cells were treated with 500.0 µM Mo, 4.0 µM Cd, 10.0 µM Z-YVAD-fluoromethylketone (YVAD), 2.5 µM 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and 10.0 µM chloroquine (CQ) alone or in combination for 12 h (CQ for the last 4 h). Under Mo and Cd co-stress, data evidenced that YVAD addition decreased the number of autophagosomes, LC3 puncta, and AMPKα-1, Atg5, Beclin-1, LC3A, LC3B mRNA levels and LC3-II/LC3-I, Beclin-1 protein levels, and increased p62 expression levels. Besides, both 3-MA and CQ addition increased NLRP3, Caspase-1, NEK7, ASC, GSDMA, GSDME, IL-1ß, IL-18 mRNA levels, NLRP3, Caspase-1 p20, ASC, GSDMD protein and ROS levels, and NO, LDH, IL-1ß, IL-18 releases. Collectively, our results revealed that pyroptosis and autophagy co-induced by Mo and Cd were interrelated in duck renal tubular epithelial cells, and inhibiting pyroptosis might attenuate Mo and Cd co-induced autophagy, but inhibiting autophagy might promote Mo and Cd co-induced pyroptosis.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Piroptose , Animais , Autofagia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Patos , Células Epiteliais , Molibdênio
17.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4678-4690, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519371

RESUMO

The annual output of salted duck egg white (SDEW) is estimated to be over 1.5 million tons in China, most of which is discarded due to high salt content. This has led to serious waste and environmental impact. Therefore, we developed an eco-friendly biocoagulation separation technology by combining chitosan and sodium alginate in order to produce a novel iron-binding peptide (DPs-Fe2+) from SDEW. The structure of DPs-Fe2+ was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, followed by measuring DPs-Fe2+ response in a simulated digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Results showed that chitosan and sodium alginate complex could remove 91.21% of salt from SDEW, and the protein recovery rate reached 95.50%. Characterization results indicated that DPs bonded with Fe2+ to form a soluble chelate. Moreover, Caco-2 cell monolayer model indicated that the transport rate of Fe2+ was as high as 10.02% at 0.1 mg/ml concentration of digested chelates. The results demonstrate the potential application of DPs as a novel carrier for enhancing iron absorption. This research contributes to the development of an effective industrial desalination method and highlights an opportunity for recycling an otherwise discarded processing byproduct. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Salted duck egg whites (SDEW) are the primary byproduct of salted egg yolk production, most of which is discarded due to high salt content. Hence, efficient utilization of the high-value proteins in SDEW is an urgent problem that must be resolved. Herein, we developed an effective industrial desalination method by combining chitosan and sodium alginate, which achieved excellent SDEW desalination and protein recovery. Furthermore, we produced a novel iron-binding peptide (DPs-Fe2+), which enhanced the transportation and absorption of Fe2+ in Caco-2 cell model, suggesting its potential as an iron supplement.


Assuntos
Patos , Clara de Ovo , Resíduos Industriais , Ferro , Peptídeos , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/tendências , Clara de Ovo/química , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais/prevenção & controle , Ferro/química , Peptídeos/química
18.
Microb Pathog ; 160: 105196, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534643

RESUMO

Pasteurella multocida, an important gram-negative pathogen that mainly inhibits the upper respiratory tracts of domestic and wild animals such as chicken, duck, cattle and pig, which can cause cholera fowl, haemorrhagic septicaemia and infectious pneumonia. Currently, the prevalence and infection of P.multocida is still one of the most serious threats to the poultry industry in China, but studies on its characteristics are still insufficient. Here, this study was conducted to isolate and identify P.multocida in infected ducks and determined the leading serotypes and epidemiology of the diseases this pathogen causes. Results indicated that all the isolates were positive for KMT1 gene and the PCR amplified products were approximately 460 bp, demonstrating that these strains were all P.multocida. Moreover, all the isolated strains were identified as capsular type A and lipopolysaccharide type L1. Virulence factor identification results revealed that all strains possessed genes related to pili, adhesin, iron metabolism and uptake. In contrast, toxin coding gene (toxA) and sialidase encodes genes (nan B and nan H) were not detected in any isolates. The drug susceptibility results indicated that all the isolates were resistant to Lincomycin, Chloramphenicol, Clindamycin and Oxacillin but were sensitive to Ceftriaxone and Cefalotin. The animal experiments were also performed to further determine the pathogenicity of these isolated strains. Animal experiment revealed that the liver, kidney, and heart of infected ducks were swollen and had bleeding spots. We also observed hepatocyte hypertrophy, hepatic sinus congestion and single-cell infiltration in infected ducks through H&E staining. In summary, this study demonstrated that all the isolated strains belong to capsular A and lipopolysaccharide type L1 P.multocida, but their virulence factors, drug resistance and pathogenicity were different.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pasteurella , Pasteurella multocida , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Patos , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Suínos
19.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101404, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478911

RESUMO

Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) was firstly identified in 2010 in China; since then, it has caused enormous economic loss to breeding industry. Great efforts have been made to develop drugs and vaccines against DTMUV. However, current available vaccines or anti-DTMUV drugs are consistently inefficient. Hence, various more broadly effective drugs have become important for the treatment of DTMUV infection; among these, lycorine, one of the important sources of active alkaloids, is a promising example. Nevertheless, it is not known whether lycorine has any antiviral activities against DTMUV. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the anti-DTMUV abilities of lycorine. The cytotoxicity of lycorine was evaluated on BHK-21 cells by CCK-8 assay, and its antiviral effect against DTMUV was examined by real-time PCR assays, virus titer determination, Western blot and immunofluorescence (IFA) assays, respectively. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of the anti-DTMUV effects of lycorine were also investigated. The results indicated that the highest nontoxicity concentration of lycorine on BHK-21 cells was 5 µM. Lycorine possessed the antiviral ability against DTMUV on BHK-21 cells, as demonstrated by the reduction of virus titers and copy numbers in vitro. Western blot and IFA analysis showed the inhibitory effect of lycorine on DTMUV envelope (E) protein expression. Moreover, using time-of-addition assays, we found that lycorine displays its antivirus and virucidal activities through blocking viral internalization and entry in vitro. Taken together, our findings firstly demonstrate the antiviral activities of lycorine against DTMUV, suggesting that lycorine can be a potential drug for the treatment of DTMUV infection.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Internalização do Vírus , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Galinhas , Patos , Flavivirus , Fenantridinas
20.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1836): 20200243, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482734

RESUMO

Acquiring vocalizations by learning them from other individuals is only known from a limited number of animal groups. For birds, oscine and some suboscine songbirds, parrots and hummingbirds demonstrate this ability. Here, we provide evidence for vocal learning in a member of a basal clade of the avian phylogeny: the Australian musk duck (Biziura lobata). A hand-reared individual imitated a slamming door and a human voice, and a female-reared individual imitated Pacific black duck quacks. These sounds have been described before, but were never analysed in any detail and went so far unnoticed by researchers of vocal learning. The imitations were produced during the males' advertising display. The hand-reared male used at least three different vocalizations in the display context, with each one produced in the same stereotyped and repetitive structure as the normal display sounds. Sounds of different origins could be combined in one vocalization and at least some of the imitations were memorized at an early age, well before they were produced later in life. Together with earlier observations of vocal differences between populations and deviant vocalizations in captive-reared individuals, these observations demonstrate the presence of advanced vocal learning at a level comparable to that of songbirds and parrots. We discuss the rearing conditions that may have given rise to the imitations and suggest that the structure of the duck vocalizations indicates a quite sophisticated and flexible control over the vocal production mechanism. The observations support the hypothesis that vocal learning in birds evolved in several groups independently rather than evolving once with several losses. This article is part of the theme issue 'Vocal learning in animals and humans'.


Assuntos
Patos , Comportamento Imitativo , Aprendizagem , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Austrália , Masculino
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