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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250607, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355881

RESUMO

Abstract Newcastle disease (ND) is an infectious, highly contagious and lethal disease of avian species. It is considered that ducks are natural reservoir or carrier for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and are resistant against different strains of NDV. Current study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in domestic ducks through histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and serum biochemical changes. For this purpose, eighty ducks were reared for 42 days and divided in two groups A and B. Ducks in group A were challenged with (NDV) at rate of 0.1 ml of ELD50 (virus titer 107.32/100µl) on second week of age, whereas Group B was control negative. Splenomegaly, atrophy of thymus and necrotic lesion in kidney were observed on 9th day of post infection. Hepatic degeneration and mononuclear cell infiltration were noticed in proventriculus and intestine in challenged ducks. Viral antigen detected in lungs, intestine, proventriculus and lymphoid organs of infected ducks through IHC. Albumin and total protein values were significantly low in infected groups A as compared to control group B. ALT, AST, and ALP values were significantly high in infected group A. On 5th and 7th day of post infection oropharyngeal swabs were negative for NDV and cloacal swabs were positive for NDV through Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. It is concluded that ducks are susceptible to NDV and virulent strain of NDV caused disease in ducks.


Resumo A doença de Newcastle (DN) é uma doença infecciosa, altamente contagiosa e letal de espécies aviárias. Considera-se que os patos são reservatórios ou portadores naturais do vírus da doença de Newcastle (VDN) e são resistentes a diferentes cepas de VDN. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a patogênese da DN em patos domésticos por meio de histopatologia, imuno-histoquímica (IHQ) e alterações bioquímicas séricas. Para este propósito, 80 patos foram criados por 42 dias e divididos em dois grupos A e B. Os patos do grupo A foram submetidos ao VDN a uma taxa de 0,1 ml de ELD50 (título viral de 107,32 / 100 µl) na segunda semana de idade, enquanto o Grupo B foi controle negativo. Esplenomegalia, atrofia do timo e lesão necrótica no rim foram observadas no 9º dia pós-infecção. Degeneração hepática e infiltração de células mononucleares foram observadas no proventrículo e intestino em patos infectados. Antígeno viral foi detectado em pulmões, intestino, proventrículo e órgãos linfoides de patos infectados por IHQ. Os valores de albumina e proteína total foram significativamente baixos no grupo A infectado em comparação com o grupo B. Os valores de ALT, AST e ALP foram significativamente altos no grupo A. No 5º e no 7º dia após a infecção, os esfregaços orofaríngeos foram negativos para VDN, enquanto os esfregaços cloacais foram positivos para VDN por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa. Conclui-se que os patos são suscetíveis ao VDN e à cepa virulenta de VDN que causou doenças em patos.


Assuntos
Animais , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Patos , Doença de Newcastle/diagnóstico
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1046, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658173

RESUMO

Mule ducks have been force-fed to develop a hepatic steatosis, also called "foie gras", which is similar to the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) described in humans and mammals. However, in hepatic steatosis resulting from force-feeding of ducks, very little is known about the fine biochemical events that occur due to the enormous and very rapid increase in total lipids that mainly accumulate in hepatocytes. To begin to reduce this lack of knowledge associated with the development of this specific hepatic steatosis, liver samples were taken at different times to follow the overall biochemical transformation of the liver as well as different markers of oxidative stress, hypoxia and apoptosis. The results indicate that the lipid content increases rapidly in the liver throughout the force-feeding period while the protein content decreases. The amount of hydroxyproline remains constant indicating that no liver fibrosis develops during the force-feeding period. On the contrary, all the tested biomarkers of cellular oxidative stress increase rapidly but without any visible disorder in the coordination of paired activities. At the same time, hypoxia-inducible factors also increase indicating that a hypoxia situation is gradually occurring in hepatocytes. This leads, in addition to the lipotoxicity induced by the accumulation of lipids, to an increased number of liver cells to enter into apoptosis. A relative variability in the level of these cellular responses was also observed indicating that, probably, certain animals support the development of this steatosis differently. This leads us to imagine that the physiological status of these birds may differ widely for reasons that remain to be clarified.


Assuntos
Patos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Humanos , Patos/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Mamíferos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674699

RESUMO

Retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA) is a well-characterized factor that regulates lipid metabolism; however, the regulatory mechanism in muscle cells of poultry is still unknown. The overexpression and the knockdown of RXRA in myoblasts (CS2 cells), RT-PCR, and western blotting were used to detect the expression levels of genes and proteins related to PPAR-signaling pathways. Intracellular triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol (CHOL), and nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs) were detected by the Elisa kit. Fat droplets were stained with Oil Red O. The double-fluorescein reporter gene and chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) were used to verify the relationship between RXRA and candidate target genes. The RXRA gene was highly expressed in duck breast muscle, and its mRNA and its protein were reduced during the differentiation of CS2 cells. The CS2 cells, with the overexpression of RXRA, showed reduced content in TGs, CHOL, NEFAs, and lipid droplets and upregulated the mRNA expression of CD36, ACSL1, and PPARG genes and the protein expression of CD36 and PPARG. The knockdown of RXRA expression in CS2 cells enhanced the content of TGs, CHOL, NEFAs, and lipid droplets and downregulated the mRNA and protein expression of CD36, ACLS1, ELOVL6, and PPARG. The overexpression of the RXRA gene, the activity of the double-luciferase reporter gene of the wild-type CD36 promoter was higher than that of the mutant type. RXRA bound to -860/-852 nt, -688/-680 nt, and -165/-157 nt at the promoter region of CD36. Moreover, the overexpression of CD36 in CS2 cells could suppress the content of TGs, CHOL, NEFAs, and lipid droplets, while the knockdown expression of CD36 increased the content of TGs, CHOL, NEFAs, and lipid droplets. In this study, the transcription factor, RXRA, inhibited the accumulation of TGs, CHOL, NEFAs, and fat droplets in CS2 cells by promoting CD36 expression.


Assuntos
Patos , Fatores de Transcrição , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Patos/genética , Receptor X Retinoide alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Colesterol , Mioblastos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Antígenos CD36/genética , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 172: 113593, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596445

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), as the most toxic secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus flavus, is a serious threat to human and animal health. Curcumin, a polyphenol from the plant turmeric, has demonstrated unique anti-damage properties in several studies. But, its ability to alleviate AFB1-induced liver damage in ducks and the underlying mechanisms are not completely elucidated. In this study, we investigated the intervention of curcumin on AFB1-induced hepatotoxicity in ducks. Research data showed that the combination of curcumin and AFB1 alleviated oxidative stress, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and relieved hepatotoxicity after 28 days of treatment, compared with AFB1. Also, curcumin upregulated the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream antioxidant enzymes (SOD, HO-1), which enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the liver. In addition, curcumin inhibited AFB1-induced lysosomal damage in the liver, with the character of reduced lysosomal membrane permeabilization, restored autophagic flux, and promoted lysosomal biogenesis, thereby enhancing the self-protective capacity of the liver. In conclusion, our results suggest that curcumin alleviates AFB1-induced duck hepatotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress and lysosomal damage.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Curcumina , Animais , Humanos , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Curcumina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fígado/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114339, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508825

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the most harmful aflatoxins, is a frequent contamination in feed and food items, raising global concerns in animal production and human public health. Also, AFB1 induces oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, mutations, and DNA lesions through its metabolic transformation into aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO) by cytochrome P450 (CYP450). Hedyotis diffusa (HD) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine known for its multiple pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory. Yet, the influence of HD on AFB1-induced liver injury in ducks is still unknown. Here, we investigated whether HD positively affects AFB1-induced liver injury in ducks. Results revealed that I) AFB1 caused significant changes in serum biochemical indices and decreased growth performance of ducks (such as ALT, AST, ALP, TP, ALB, final body weight, and body weight gain), whereas HD supplementation at 200 mg/kg mitigated these alterations. II) HD alleviated hepatic histopathological changes and liver index induced by AFB1 in ducks. III) HD significantly attenuated AFB1-induced oxidative stress, as measured by increased antioxidant enzyme activities such as SOD, GPx, and T-AOC and decreased MDA levels. Furthermore, HD reduced the level of AFB1-DNA adduct in duck liver. IV) HD significantly promoted the transcriptional expression of NF-E2-related nuclear factor 2 (Nrf2) and associated genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that HD could activate the Nrf2 pathway in ducks to reduce the hepatotoxicity driven by AFB1. This finding also provides theoretical and data support for a deeper understanding of the toxic mechanisms of AFB1 and its prevention.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Hedyotis , Animais , Humanos , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Patos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Hedyotis/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Peso Corporal
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 277: 109621, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525908

RESUMO

Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) infection causes an acute and highly fatal disease in young ducklings. Exosomes are nano-sized small extracellular vesicles secreted by various cells, which participate in intercellular communication and play a key role in the physiological and pathological processes. However, the role of exosomes in DHAV-1 transmission remains unknown. In this study, through RT-PCR, WB analysis and TEM observation, the complete DHAV-1 genomic RNA, partial viral proteins, and virions were respectively identified in the exosomes derived from DHAV-1-infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). The productive DHAV-1 infection was transmitted by exosomes in DEFs, duck embryos, and ducklings, and high titers of neutralizing antibodies completely blocked DHAV-1 infection but did not significantly neutralize exosome-mediated DHAV-1 infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that exosome-mediated DHAV-1 infection was resistant to antibody neutralization in vivo and in vitro, which might be an immune evasion mechanism of DHAV-1.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato , Hepatite Viral Animal , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/genética , Exossomos/patologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Patos
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 277: 109620, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543090

RESUMO

Since March 2021, an infectious characterized by white necrotic foci throughout the goose body has appeared in the major goose-producing regions in China. This disease has caused economic hardship for goose farms in many regions of China with approximately 50 % mortality. A novel goose-origin orthoreovirus was isolated from the spleen of diseased geese and designated as N-GRV/HN/Goose/2021/China (N-GRV-HN21) strain. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate was a reassortant virus containing viral gene segments from three ARV serotypes that infect duck, muscovy duck, and goose. Geese infection test showed that both N-GRV-HN21-infected and contacted geese displayed whole-body white necrotic foci. N-GRV RNA was detected in different organs of both infected and contacted geese, indicating that the N-GRV isolate is pathogenic and transmissible in geese. Seroconversion was also observed in experimentally infected and contacted geese. A prevalence study of 323 goose serum samples collected from different goose breeding areas showed that 86 % of the geese were positive for N-GRV. In conclusion, all results warrant the necessity to monitor orthoreovirus epidemiology and reassortment as the orthoreovirus could be an important pathogen for the waterfowl industry and a novel orthoreovirus might emerge to threaten animal and public health.


Assuntos
Orthoreovirus Aviário , Orthoreovirus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Infecções por Reoviridae , Animais , Orthoreovirus/genética , Filogenia , Virulência , Infecções por Reoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , China/epidemiologia , Necrose/veterinária , Patos , Recombinação Genética , Gansos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 277: 109635, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563583

RESUMO

Duck adenovirus 3 (DAdV-3), identified as the causative agent of a disease characterized by swelling and hemorrhage of liver and kidney, has caused substantial economic losses to duck industry in China. However, the neutralizing epitopes and the infection mechanism of DAdV-3 have not been extensively elucidated. In this study, a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting Fiber-2 protein of DAdV-3 was generated and designated as mAb 3E7. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that mAb 3E7 specifically reacted with the Fiber-2 in LMH cells transfected with pcDNA3.1-Fiber-2 or infected with DAdV-3. Moreover, mAb 3E7 could immunoprecipitate the Fiber-2 and efficiently inhibit the infection of DAdV-3 in vitro. Further epitope mapping revealed mAb 3E7 recognized the epitope 108LALGDGLE115 in Fiber-2, which was highly conserved among DAdV-3 strains. These findings not only identified a novel neutralizing epitope in Fiber-2, but also paved the way for further elucidating the vital roles of Fiber-2 in the infection and pathogenesis of DAdV-3.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Aviadenovirus , Animais , Patos , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Epitopos , Mapeamento de Epitopos/veterinária
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(1): 170-174, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573541

RESUMO

In late 2021, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) clade 2.3.4.4b viruses were detected in domestic ducks in poultry markets in Cambodia. Surveillance, biosafety, and biosecurity efforts should be bolstered along the poultry value chain to limit spread and infection risk at the animal-human interface.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8 , Influenza Aviária , Influenza Humana , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Humanos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Camboja/epidemiologia , Aves , Patos , Aves Domésticas , Filogenia
10.
Theriogenology ; 197: 275-282, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527864

RESUMO

We previously analyzed the genome-wide gene expression at the transcription level in pre-hierarchical ovarian follicles (approximate 5 mm in diameter) between two groups of ducks representing high and low fertility. Orthodenticle homeobox 2 (otx2) was identified with significantly differential expression in the high-fertility group versus the low-fertility group. To identify the relationships between genotypes and phenotypes, we recorded the reproductive performance in advance, including fertility, hatchability, and fertile period of female ducks. To ensure coverage of the entire duration of the fertile period, we extended the egg collection period after artificial insemination. Naturally, sperm cannot survive after a certain period of time in the female reproductive tract (sperm is not immortal); therefore, lower average values for fertility were observed in this study than that observed after a normal egg collection period, i.e., the lower average values of fertility (18 days after artificial insemination), were not due to the effect of otx2. The otx2 genomic sequence of Tsaiya ducks was firstly amplified with a primer pair of i3F and i3R for polymerase chain reaction based on Pekin duck sequence and a resultant 444-base pair fragment was obtained for DNA sequencing. Using multiple sequence alignment, new single-nucleotide polymorphisms g.366T > C and g.182G > T were discovered in the otx2 gene. With respect to g.366T > C, ducks were classified into CC, CT, and TT genotypes. For g.182G > T, three genotypes (GG, GT, and TT) were identified. Ducks were genotyped using novel specific primers and probes to rapidly screen their single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The results indicated that ducks with the CC genotype of g.366T > C exhibited the highest fertility among the CC, CT, and TT genotypes (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the fertile period and hatchability among three genotypes of g.366T > C. Moreover, no association was found between g.182G > T genotypes and the three reproductive phenotypes examined in this study. Collectively, the otx2 g.366T > C genotype is associated with duck females, and can be used as a marker for farming a flock of ducks with high fertility, as well as for genetic selection of breeders.


Assuntos
Patos , Sêmen , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Patos/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Reprodução/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 276: 109628, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36508857

RESUMO

Riemerella anatipestifer secretes proteins through the type IX secretion system (T9SS). Recent studies have shown that the R. anatipestifer T9SS component proteins GldM and GldK also act as crucial virulence factors. In our previous study, the disruption of AS87_RS00460 gene, which encodes the predicted protein GldG, significantly reduced the bacterial virulence of R. anatipestifer wild-type strain Yb2, but the mechanism was unclear. In this study, we investigated the function of the GldG in bacterial virulence and protein secretion using the mutant strain Yb2ΔgldG and complementation strain cYb2ΔgldG. Our results demonstrate that the gldG gene encodes a gliding-motility-associated ABC transporter substrate-binding protein GldG, which was localized to the bacterial membrane in an immunoblotting analysis, and functions in the bacterium's adherence to and invasion of host cells and its survival in host blood. The resistance of mutant strain Yb2ΔgldG to complement-dependent killing was significantly reduced. Yb2ΔgldG displayed reduced gliding motility and deficient protein secretion. Label-free quantification (LFQ) with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) showed that 10 proteins with a conserved T9SS C-terminal domain were differentially secreted by Yb2ΔgldG and Yb2. The secretion levels of those 10 proteins were determined with immunoblotting, and the results were consistent with the LFQ LC-MS data. All of these effects were rescued by complementation with a plasmid encoding Yb2 gldG. Our results demonstrate that the R. anatipestifer gldG gene encodes the protein GldG, which is involved in bacterial virulence and protein secretion.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Riemerella , Animais , Virulência/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Patos/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
12.
Food Funct ; 14(1): 445-456, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36519382

RESUMO

The difference in the allergenicity of chicken ovalbumin (C-OVA) and duck ovalbumin (D-OVA) can be related to their differences in antigen presentation. This study explored the differences in uptake between C-OVA and D-OVA through fluorescence dye-labeling, DC antigen presentation, and the immune response of T cells by using C-OVA and D-OVA allergic animal and cell models. The ileum DCs of mice in the C-C group took up more C-OVA than that of D-D and C-D groups through in vivo imaging. Furthermore, C-OVA induced the maturation of DCs in mice in the C-C group as shown in the up-regulation of the expressions of MHC II, CD86 and CD80 on the surface of DCs, and enhanced the ability of antigen presentation. In addition, C-OVA induced the maturation of DCs, promoted the differentiation of T cells into Th2 cells, increased the secretion of the cytokine IL-4 and specific antibody s-IgE, and thus generated an immune response. However, sensitized and cross sensitized D-OVA (D-D and C-D groups) couldn't induce the maturation of DCs, and induced less differentiation of T cells and lower secretion of cytokines compared to C-OVA. In conclusion, the differences in antigen presentation was one of the important factors resulting in the differences in the sensitization between C-OVA and D-OVA.


Assuntos
Apresentação de Antígeno , Patos , Camundongos , Animais , Ovalbumina , Patos/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Células Th2 , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
13.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 127: 431-440, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522075

RESUMO

Direct discharge of aquaculture wastewater may have toxic effects, due to the presence of heavy metals, antibiotics, and even resistant pathogens, but little attention has been given. Here, tanks simulating a wild ecosystem were built to study the effects of long-term exposure to duck wastewater containing oxytetracycline (OTC) and/or arsenic (As) on the growth, physiological function, and gut microbiota evolution of Xenopus tropicalis. The results showed that duck wastewater had no apparent impact on X. tropicalis, but the impact increased significantly (P < 0.05) with exposure to OTC and/or As, especially the impact on body weight and growth rate. Biochemical indicators revealed varying degrees of oxidative stress damage, hepatotoxicity (inflammation, necrosis, and sinusoids), and collagen fibrosis of X. tropicalis in all treated groups after 72 days of exposure, which indirectly inhibited X. tropicalis growth. Moreover, 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing results showed that the gut microbiota structure and metabolic function were perturbed after chronic exposure, which might be the leading cause of growth inhibition. Interestingly, the abundance of intestinal resistance genes (RGs) increased with exposure time owing to the combined direct and indirect effects of stress factors in duck wastewater. Moreover, once the RGs were expressed, the resistance persisted for at least 24 days, especially that conferred by tetA. These results provide evidence of the toxic effects of DW containing OTC (0.1-4.0 mg/L) and/or As (0.3-3.5 µg/L) on amphibians and indicate that it is vital to limit the usage of heavy metals and antibiotics on farms to control the biotoxicity of wastewater.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oxitetraciclina , Animais , Oxitetraciclina/toxicidade , Patos , Arsênio/toxicidade , Xenopus , Ecossistema , Antibacterianos/toxicidade
14.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120574, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351481

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) and excess molybdenum (Mo) have multiple organ toxicity, and testis is one of their important target organs, but the reproductive toxicity of Mo and Cd combined treatment is still unclear. To explore the effects of Mo and Cd co-exposure on DNA damage and autophagy from the insight of ATM/AMPK/mTOR axis in duck testes, we randomly assigned 40 healthy 8-day-old ducks to control, Mo (100 mg/kg Mo), Cd (4 mg/kg Cd), and Mo + Cd groups for 16 weeks. Results found that Mo and/or Cd exposure caused trace elements imbalance, oxidative stress with a decrease in the activities of GSH-Px, CAT, T-SOD and GSH content, an increase in the concentrations of H2O2 and MDA and pathological damage. Additionally, Mo and/or Cd markedly raised DNA damage-related factors expression levels and 8-OHdG content, caused G1/S arrest followed by decreasing CDK2 and Cyclin E protein levels and increasing CDK1 and Cyclin B protein levels, and activated ATM/AMPK/mTOR axis by enhancing p-ATM/ATM, p-AMPK/AMPK and reducing p-mTOR/mTOR protein levels, eventually triggered autophagy by elevating LC3A, LC3B, Atg5, Beclin-1 mRNA levels and LC3II/LC3I, Beclin-1 protein levels and reducing P62, Dynein, mTOR mRNA levels and P62 protein level. Moreover, these changes were most apparent in the combined group. Altogether, the results reveal that autophagy caused by Mo and/or Cd may be associated with activating the DNA damage-mediated ATM/AMPK/mTOR axis in duck testes, and Mo and Cd co-exposure exacerbates these changes.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Patos , Animais , Masculino , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Autofagia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Patos/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Molibdênio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 424, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella as an important food-borne zoonotic bacterial pathogen, infection in ducks is a recessive infection, however, it can also cause high mortality and threat to food safety. Preventing and controlling the infection and transmission of Salmonella in ducks critically require rapid and sensitive detection method. Full-length Salmonella-specific protein PagN was induced and expressed in E.coil BL21 and was purified as an antigen to establish an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELSA) detection kit. RESULTS: The recombinant PagN protein has a molecular weight of 43 kDa containing a His-tag, was recognized by an anti-Salmonella positive serum by Western blot assay. The optimal concentration of PagN as a coating antigen in the iELISA was 1 µg/mL, and the optimal dilution of enzyme-labeled secondary antibody was 1:4000 (0.025 µg/mL). The cutoff OD450 value was established at 0.268. The iELISA kit showed high selectivity since no cross-reaction with E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus was observed. iELISA method and Dot-blot test were performed on 100 clinical sera samples collected from duck farms, and the actual coincidence rate was 89% (89/100). 613 duck serum samples from 3 different farms were tested using established method and commercial ELISA kit. The concordance between the two methods was 94.1%. CONCLUSION: Anti-PagN based iELISA can serve as a useful tool for diagnosis of Salmonella infection.


Assuntos
Patos , Escherichia coli , Animais , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Anticorpos Antivirais
16.
J Therm Biol ; 110: 103384, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462846

RESUMO

To address the problem that duck egg mortality is not easily detected at mid-incubation, this paper explored a method to detect mid-incubation egg activity information based on temperature drop curve (TDC) features. In this paper, we used a thermal infrared camera to obtain continuous thermal images of death fertilized duck eggs (DFDE) on the 16th day of incubation and alive fertilized duck eggs (AFDE) hatched for 16-19 days in a 20 °C environment. By observing the temperature drop curve of egg surface, we extracted and visualized five features that could reflect the activity information of duck eggs. And we used K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Naive Bayesian (NB) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to establish the activity information detection models for different incubation days. The results showed that KNN could better distinguish the activity of eggs at the 16th and the 17th day of incubation, with F1-score of 85.43% and 85.98%, respectively. The SVM showed better results at the 18th and the 19th day of incubation, with F1-score of 90.57% and 96.3%, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that the activity detection method based on the temperature drop curve features in this paper could efficiently and nondestructively detect the activity information of mid-incubation duck eggs, which provided a technical foundation for detecting the activity information of duck eggs at mid-incubation.


Assuntos
Patos , Ovos , Animais , Temperatura , Teorema de Bayes , Zigoto
17.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0277820, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584004

RESUMO

Habitat modification and introduced mammalian predators are linked to global species extinctions and declines, but their relative influences can be uncertain, often making conservation management difficult. Using landscape-scale models, we quantified the relative impacts of habitat modification and mammalian predation on the range contraction of a threatened New Zealand riverine duck. We combined 38 years of whio (Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos) observations with national-scale environmental data to predict relative likelihood of occurrence (RLO) under two scenarios using bootstrapped boosted regression trees (BRT). Our models used training data from contemporary environments to predict the potential contemporary whio distribution across New Zealand riverscapes in the absence of introduced mammalian predators. Then, using estimates of environments prior to human arrival, we used the same models to hindcast potential pre-human whio distribution prior to widespread land clearance. Comparing RLO differences between potential pre-human, potential contemporary and observed contemporary distributions allowed us to assess the relative impacts of the two main drivers of decline; habitat modification and mammalian predation. Whio have undergone widespread catastrophic declines most likely linked to mammalian predation, with smaller declines due to habitat modification (range contractions of 95% and 37%, respectively). We also identified areas of potential contemporary habitat outside their current range that would be suitable for whio conservation if mammalian predator control could be implemented. Our approach presents a practical technique for estimating the relative importance of global change drivers in species declines and extinctions, as well as providing valuable information to improve conservation planning.


Assuntos
Patos , Rios , Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Extinção Biológica , Probabilidade , Mamíferos
18.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(12)2022 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548773

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exists widely in feed and food with severe hazards, posing a serious threat to human and animal health. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and glutathione (GSH) have been reported as having anti-oxidative and other functions. The present study aimed to investigate the detoxification effect of EGCG and GSH alone or in combination on AFB1 exposure in ducklings. Fifty one-day-old male ducklings were randomly assigned into five experimental groups (n = 10): 1. Control (CTR); 2. 0.3 mg/kg BW AFB1 (AFB1); 3. 0.3 mg/kg BW AFB1 + 100 mg/kg BW EGCG (AFB1 + EGCG); 4. 0.3 mg/kg BW AFB1 + 30 mg/kg BW GSH (AFB1 + GSH); 5. 0.3 mg/kg BW AFB1 + 100 mg/kg BW EGCG + 30 mg/kg BW GSH (AFB1 + EGCG + GSH). The experiment lasted for seven days. Compared with the CTR group, AFB1 reduced growth performance, total serum protein and albumin content, increased serum enzyme activity (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase), and caused pathological damage to the ducklings' livers. AFB1 exposure increased malondialdehyde content and decreased superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, catalase, glutathione peroxidase activities, and glutathione content in the liver. EGCG and GSH alone or in combination mitigated these adverse effects. Meanwhile, EGCG and GSH attenuate apoptosis of hepatocytes, and regulated AFB1-induced changes in the abundance of genes contained in the Keap1/Nrf2 signalling and apoptotic pathways. Collectively, these results suggest that EGCG and GSH alleviate the hepatocyte injury induced by AFB1 by inhibiting oxidative stress and attenuating excessive mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1 , Patos , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose , Patos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fígado , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
19.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 857, 2022 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the late phase of production, ducks untimely cease laying, leading to a lower feed conversion. Liver plays a vital role in the synthesis and transport of yolk materials during egg formation in birds. However, the molecular mechanism of liver in ceased-laying duck is far from clear, higher resolution and deeper analysis is needed. Sing-cell RNA-sequencing of 10 × Genomics platform can help to map the liver single cell gene expression atlas of Shaoxing duck and provide new insights into the liver between egg-laying and ceased-laying ducks. RESULTS: About 20,000 single cells were profiled and 22 clusters were identified. All the clusters were identified as 6 cell types. The dominant cell type is hepatocyte, accounted for about 60% of all the cells. Of note, the heterogeneity of cells between egg-laying duck and ceased-laying duck mainly occurred in hepatocytes. Cells of cluster 3 and 12 were the unique hepatocyte states of egg-laying ducks, while cells of cluster 0 and 15 were the unique hepatocyte states of ceased-laying ducks. The expression mode of yolk precursor transporters, lipid metabolizing enzymes and fibrinogens were different in hepatocytes between egg-laying duck and ceased-laying duck. APOV1, VTG2, VTG1, APOB, RBP, VTDB and SCD might be activated in egg-laying ducks, while APOA1, APOA4, APOC3, FGB and FGG might be activated in ceased-laying ducks. CONCLUSIONS: Our study further proofs that APOV1 and APOB play key roles in egg production, rather than APOA1 and APOA4. It is also the first to detect a correlation between the higher expression of APOC3, FGB, FGG and ceased-laying in duck.


Assuntos
Patos , Fígado , Animais , Patos/genética , Patos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Oviposição , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Apolipoproteínas B/genética , Apolipoproteínas B/metabolismo , Reprodução
20.
Ann Parasitol ; 68(3): 507-518, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584360

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the body condition, and the number of parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), using the Akaike information criterion. Absolute and relative measurements of 197 ducks were taken. Liver mass was positively associated with the number of parasites in the duodenum (ß = 0.5). Heart mass affected positively the number of parasites in the rectum (ß = 2.3), the number of nematodes in the jejunum (ß = 7.45), the total number of trematodes (ß = 1.7), their number in the ceca (ß = 7.3) and rectum (ß = 4.2), and the number of cestodes in the ceca (ß = 8.2). Beak length influenced the number of nematodes in the rectum (ß = 1.7). Left tarsometatarsus length (ß = 1.4) and relative head height (ß = -2.0) affected the number of trematodes in the ceca. Tail length influenced negatively the number of cestodes in the ileum (ß = -0.2). Similarly, a ratio of body mass to body length was negatively associated with the total number of parasites (ß = -0.1), their number in the ceca (ß = -0.2) and rectum (ß = -0.3), the total number of trematodes (ß = -0.3), and their number in the ceca (ß = -0.5) and rectum (ß = -0.4). A ratio of keel-skin length to keel length affected differently the total number of parasites in the ceca (ß = 9.1), the number of nematodes in the jejunum (ß = -17.9) and the number of trematodes in the duodenum (ß = -5.8). A ratio of fat mass to body length affected the number of cestodes in the jejunum (ß = 1.8). The present study indicates some morphological and anatomical parameters that may be useful for determining the correlation between the body condition and the level of parasitic infection.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Parasitos , Trematódeos , Animais , Patos/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal
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