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1.
Chemosphere ; 316: 137779, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36632955

RESUMO

Exposure to mercury can interfere with the expression of proteins and enzymes, compromise important pathways, such as apoptosis and glucose metabolism, and even induce the expression of metallothioneins. In this study, analytical techniques were used to determine the concentration of total mercury (THg) in muscle and liver tissue, protein pellets, and spots [using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS)], and molecular techniques were used to identify metalloproteins present in mercury-associated protein spots. Thirty individuals from three different fish species, Cichla sp. (n = 10), Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (n = 10), and Semaprochilodus sp. (n = 10) from the Brazilian Amazon were used. Oxidative stress indicators [such as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), a marker of lipid peroxidation (LPO)] and the possible expression of metallothioneins in muscle and liver tissues were investigated. The two piscivorous species, Cichla sp. and B. filamentosum, presented the highest concentrations of mercury in their hepatic tissue, 1219 ± 15.00 and 1044 ± 13.6 µg kg-1, respectively, and in their muscle tissue, 101 ± 1.30 µg kg-1 and 87.4 ± 0.900 µg kg-1, respectively. The non-carnivorous species Semaprochilodus sp. had comparatively low concentrations of mercury in both its hepatic (852 ± 11.1 µg kg-1) and muscle (71.4 ± 0.930 µg kg-1) tissues. The presence of mercury was identified in 24 protein spots using GFAAS; concentrations ranged from 11.5 to 787 µg kg-1, and mass spectrometry identified 21 metal-binding proteins. The activities of GSH-Px, CAT, and SOD, related to oxidative stress, decreased proportionally as tissue Hg concentrations increased, while the levels of LPO markers increased, indicating the presence of stress. Our study results demonstrate possible mercury interference in oxidative stress markers (GSH-Px, CAT, SOD, and LPO), in addition to the identification of 21 metal-binding proteins as possible biomarkers of mercury exposure in fish.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Ciclídeos , Mercúrio , Animais , Peixes/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Caraciformes/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fígado/metabolismo
2.
Biomolecules ; 13(1)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671542

RESUMO

In a previous work, the common gonadotrophic hormone α-subunit (ag-GTHα), the ag-FSH ß- and ag-LH ß-subunit cDNAs, were isolated and characterized by our research group from A. gigas pituitaries, while a preliminary synthesis of ag-FSH was also carried out in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. In the present work, the cDNA sequence encoding the ag-growth hormone (ag-GH) has also been isolated from the same giant Arapaimidae Amazonian fish. The ag-GH consists of 208 amino acids with a putative 23 amino acid signal peptide and a 185 amino acid mature peptide. The highest identity, based on the amino acid sequences, was found with the Elopiformes (82.0%), followed by Anguilliformes (79.7%) and Acipenseriformes (74.5%). The identity with the corresponding human GH (hGH) amino acid sequence is remarkable (44.8%), and the two disulfide bonds present in both sequences were perfectly conserved. Three-dimensional (3D) models of ag-GH, in comparison with hGH, were generated using the threading modeling method followed by molecular dynamics. Our simulations suggest that the two proteins have similar structural properties without major conformational changes under the simulated conditions, even though they are separated from each other by a >100 Myr evolutionary period (1 Myr = 1 million years). The sequence found will be used for the biotechnological synthesis of ag-GH while the ag-GH cDNA obtained will be utilized for preliminary Gene Therapy studies.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Animais , Humanos , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Peixes/genética , Peixes/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/genética
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672964

RESUMO

Parvalbumins (PVALBs) are low molecular weight calcium-binding proteins. In addition to their role in many biological processes, PVALBs play an important role in regulating Ca2+ switching in muscles with fast-twitch fibres in addition to their role in many biological processes. The PVALB gene family is divided into two gene types, alpha (α) and beta (ß), with the ß gene further divided into two gene types, beta1 (ß1) and beta2 (ß2), carrying traces of whole genome duplication. A large variety of commonly consumed fish species contain PVALB proteins which are known to cause fish allergies. More than 95% of all fish-induced food allergies are caused by PVALB proteins. The authentication of fish species has become increasingly important as the seafood industry continues to grow and the growth brings with it many cases of food fraud. Since the PVALB gene plays an important role in the initiation of allergic reactions, it has been used for decades to develop alternate assays for fish identification. A brief review of the significance of the fish PVALB genes is presented in this article, which covers evolutionary diversity, allergic properties, and potential use as a forensic marker.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Animais , Alérgenos/genética , Parvalbuminas/genética , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Peixes/genética , Peixes/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio
4.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677946

RESUMO

Type I and V collagens are the major components of fibrillogenic proteins in fish skin, and their hydrolysis products possess hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. In this study, for the first time, type I and V collagens were isolated from the skin of shortbill spearfish and striped marlin. Type I (2α1[I]α2[I]) and type V (α1[V]α3[V]α2[V]) collagens composed of distinct α-peptide chains with comparable structures were investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and UV spectrophotometric chromatography. After enzymatic digestion, the collagen peptides were purified by using ultrafiltration (30 KDa) and high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to yield CPI-F3 and CPV-F4 fractions with strong hyaluronidase inhibition rates (42.17% and 30.09%, respectively). Based on the results of simulated gastrointestinal fluid, temperature, and pH stability assays, CPI-F3 and CPV-F4 exhibited stability in gastric fluid and showed no significant changes under the temperature range from 50 to 70 °C (p > 0.05). The results of this first research on the bioactivity of type V collagen peptides provide valuable information for the biomedical industry and show the potential for future bioactivity investigations of type V collagen and its peptides.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo V , Hialuronoglucosaminidase , Animais , Colágeno Tipo V/análise , Colágeno/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida
5.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 2, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintaining osmotic equilibrium plays an important role in the survival of cold-water fishes. Heat stress has been proven to reduce the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase in the gill tissue, leading to destruction of the osmotic equilibrium. However, the mechanism of megatemperature affecting gill osmoregulation has not been fully elucidated. RESULTS: In this study, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) was used to analyze histopathological change, plasma ion level, and transcriptome of gill tissue subjected to 20℃, 24℃and 28℃. The results showed that ROS level and damage were increased in gill tissue with the increasing of heat stress temperature. Plasma Cl- level at 28℃ was distinctly lower than that at 20℃ and 24℃, while no significant difference was found in Na+ and K+ ion levels among different groups. Transcriptome analysis displayed that osmoregulation-, DNA-repair- and apoptosis-related terms or pathways were enriched in GO and KEGG analysis. Moreover, 194 osmoregulation-related genes were identified. Amongst, the expression of genes limiting ion outflow, occluding (OCLN), and ion absorption, solute carrier family 4, member 2 (AE2) solute carrier family 9, member 3 (NHE3) chloride channel 2 (CLC-2) were increased, while Na+/K+-ATPase alpha (NKA-a) expression was decreased after heat stress. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals for the first time that the effect of heat stress on damage and osmotic regulation in gill tissue of cold-water fishes. Heat stress increases the permeability of fish's gill tissue, and induces the gill tissue to keep ion balance through active ion absorption and passive ion outflow. Our study will contribute to research of global-warming-caused effects on cold-water fishes.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Brânquias , Animais , Brânquias/metabolismo , Temperatura , Água/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo
6.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112238, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596160

RESUMO

Fish provides a range of health benefits due to its nutritional and bioactive components. However, the bioactive peptides derived from Larimichthys crocea proteins were not fully investigated, especially the beneficial effects related to bone growth in vitro. In this study, the water extract protein was subjected to the simulated in vitro digestion process, and the osteogenic effect of enzymatic hydrolysate at different digestion stages was evaluated by the proliferation of osteoblast. The protein hydrolyzates of group pepsin treatment for 1 h and pepsin treatment for 2 h showed higher osteogenic activity in vitro. Two peptides including IERGDVVVQDSPSD from pepsin treatment for 1 h and RGDLGIEIPTEK from pepsin treatment for 2 h were identified, which revealed eminent effects in terms of promoting osteoblast proliferation and enhancing ALP activity. Moreover, the available nutrients in the proteins were determined by the molecular weight distribution and free amino acid composition. Those peptides also showed stronger interaction with RGD than integrins. Therefore, the peptides from Larimichthys crocea can be used as an effective ingredient for promoting bone growth in the future.


Assuntos
Pepsina A , Perciformes , Animais , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Peixes/metabolismo , Digestão
7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 255: 106381, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587518

RESUMO

In the present study, an estuarine benthic fish, Mugilogobius chulae (M. chulae), was exposed to hypoxia, atorvastatin (ATV), a highly used and widely detected lipid-lowering drug in aquatic environment, and the combination of hypoxia and ATV for 7 days, respectively, so as to address and compare the effects of the combination of hypoxia and ATV exposure on M. chulae. The results showed that lipid metabolism in M. chulae was greatly affected: lipid synthesis was blocked and catabolism was enhanced, exhibiting that lipids content were heavily depleted. The combined exposure of hypoxia and ATV caused oxidative stress and induced massive inflammatory response in the liver of M. chulae. Signaling pathways involving in energy metabolism and redox responses regulated by key factors such as HIF, PPAR, p53 and sirt1 play important regulatory roles in hypoxia-ATV stress. Critically, we found that the response of M. chulae to ATV was more sensitive under hypoxia than normoxia. ATV exposure to aquatic non-target organisms under hypoxic conditions may make a great impact on the detoxification and energy metabolism, especially lipid metabolism, and aggravate the oxidative pressure of the exposed organisms.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Atorvastatina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Perciformes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Hipóxia
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 127: 495-507, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522080

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) exists in a variety of forms in different aquatic environments, and affects their bioavailability. In this study we provide a systematic review on toxicity of Cu which focuses on identifying evidence in the mechanisms of Cu toxicity, and apply an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) analysis to identify multiple potential mechanisms and their interactions of Cu toxicity to fish. This analysis process included the mechanisms of behavior toxicant, oxidative toxicant, ion regulation disruption toxicity, as well as endocrine disruption toxicity. It was found that at low levels of Cu exposure, swimming, avoid predators, locating prey and other sensory functions will be impaired, and the organism will suffer from metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis following the inhibition of the carbonic anhydrase active. The main pathway of acute toxicity of Cu to fish is the inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme, and lead to reduced intracellular sodium absorption, as well as Cu-induced increased cell permeability, in turn resulting in increased sodium ion loss, leading to cardiovascular collapse and respiratory insufficiency. The endocrine disruption toxicity of Cu to fish caused growth inhibition and reproductive reduction. In addition, there are several key pathways of Cu toxicity that are affected by hardness (e.g., Ca2+) and intracellular DOC concentrations, including inhibiting Cu-induction, improving branchial gas exchange, altering membrane transport functions, decreasing Na+ loss, and increasing Na+ uptake. The results of the AOP analysis will provide a robust framework for future directed research on the mechanisms of Cu toxicity.


Assuntos
Rotas de Resultados Adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Sódio , Peixes/metabolismo , Íons
9.
J Comp Physiol B ; 193(1): 71-80, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526855

RESUMO

Prothrombin is a serine protease precursor of the blood coagulation system. In this study, the primary structure of prothrombin of a cartilaginous fish, bullhead shark (Heterodontus japonicus), was determined using RNA-Seq and the protein was purified from the blood plasma. Bullhead shark prothrombin was found to be comprised of four domains, as in the case of reported mammalian homologues. Two arginine residues that should be cleaved by activated factor X were found in the amino acid sequence of the shark prothrombin, but only one of the two cleavage sites for thrombin or meizothrombin was conserved. The apparent molecular mass of the shark prothrombin on SDS-PAGE was 110 kDa, whereas that of its amino acid sequence was 65 kDa. Potential N-glycosylation sites were found at 79th, 108th, 121st, 179th, 199th, 507th, and 527th asparagine residues in the shark prothrombin, and treatment with N-glycosidase reduced the molecular mass to 65 kDa. This indicates that, in contrast to human prothrombin, which has only 7-kDa N-glycans, the prothrombin of the shark is highly N-glycosylated. This study is the first to report on the purification and characterization of blood coagulation factors in a cartilaginous fish.


Assuntos
Protrombina , Tubarões , Animais , Humanos , Protrombina/metabolismo , Tubarões/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Coagulação Sanguínea , Peixes/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo
10.
Mar Environ Res ; 184: 105850, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566576

RESUMO

Extreme climatic events such as heatwaves are anticipated to intensify in future and impose additional thermal stress to aquatic animals. Knowledge regarding an organism's thermal tolerance or sensitivity is therefore important in determining the effects of fluctuating water temperature on physiological responses. Thus, thermal tolerance tests can serve as a first step in understanding the present and future effects of climate warming. Climatic variability will alter prey-predator attributes differentially and impact their subsequent interactions. The key objective of this study was to compare and decode the stress responses, resistance and vulnerability of two economically important species from Sundarbans estuarine system- Penaeus monodon (prey) and Mystus gulio (predator) subjected to acute thermal challenges such as sudden heatwaves. Both the species were subjected to an increasing thermal ramp of 1°C h-1 from 22°C to 42°C. Organisms were observed continuously throughout the ramping period and changes in the locomotory behaviour were followed until their loss of equilibrium. The digestive tissue samples were dissected out from both M. gulio and P. monodon at every 2°C and also after a recovery period of 48 h. The SOD, CAT, GST, LPO were measured and integrated biomarker response (IBR) was analysed. The results from thermal tolerance maxima estimation, biomarker study, IBR responses indicated more intense stress response in fish M. gulio whereas recovery potential was greater in shrimp P. monodon. Our findings corroborate the 'trophic sensitivity hypothesis' which advocates predators to be less tolerant in aggravated environmental stress than their prey.


Assuntos
Penaeidae , Animais , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Peixes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Comportamento Predatório
11.
Food Chem ; 409: 135282, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577324

RESUMO

Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) during fermentation presents a unique elastic texture. In this investigation, the physicochemical and gel-forming properties of fish proteins were evaluated to explain the formation of elastic characteristics. During fermentation, the combined effects of acidification by Lactobacillus sake SMF-L5, increased sodium chloride, and decreased moisture content in the fish protein generated a suitable microenvironment for gelation. The mass transfer of sodium chloride was accompanied by NMR relaxation of the immobilized water. The ripening fermented fish had a functionally available MHC, a higher fractal dimension, and a stable α-helical structure. Also, it exhibited excellent gel-forming performances, mainly including garlic-cloves shaped protein gel, stronger springiness, and enhanced L* and whiteness. Correlation analysis showed that the gel's physical properties were differently related to the protein's physicochemical characteristics except for total free amino acids. These results could lay a theoretical foundation for the gel formation mechanism of fermented mandarin fish.


Assuntos
Alho , Perciformes , Syzygium , Animais , Alho/metabolismo , Fermentação , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Syzygium/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 132: 108481, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566833

RESUMO

Interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene product 15 (ISG15) is a ubiquitin-like protein critical for the control of microbial infections. Golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus is one of the precious marine economic fish in the southern coast of China, always suffering from viruses, bacteria, and parasite infections. To date, the roles of golden pompano genes involved in viral and bacterial infections, especially IFN-related genes remained largely unknown. To identify the interferon system genes of golden pompano and explore their function, in this study, the ISG15 homolog (ToISG15) was cloned from golden pompano, and its role in response to grouper iridovirus (SGIV), nervous necrosis virus (NNV), and Aeromonas hydrophila infection was investigated. The whole ORF of ToISG15 was composed of 465 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 154 amino acids with different identity with the known ISG15 homologs from other fish species. Two conserved ubiquitin-like (UBL) domains and an Ub-conjugation domain (LRGG) were found in ToISG15 sequence. Expression analysis showed that ToISG15 was located mainly in the cytoplasm of golden pompano cells, and dramatically induced following SGIV, Aeromonas hydrophila, or poly I:C treatment, but little change was observed when NNV infection. Overexpression of ToISG15 in vitro significantly inhibited the replication of SGIV and NNV. Interestingly, ToISG15 possessed the ability to restrain the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila. Furthermore, To-ISG15 overexpression enhanced the expression of IFNc, IFNh, IRF3, IRF7, and viperin genes as well as, to a lesser extent, the IL-6 gene. Taken together, our results demonstrated the antiviral and antibacterial effect of To-ISG15, shedding light on the evolutionary conservation of ISG15 in the immune response to microbial infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Doenças dos Peixes , Iridovirus , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Imunidade Inata/genética , Peixes/genética , Peixes/metabolismo , Interferons , Filogenia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430187

RESUMO

The amphibious teleost Giant mudskipper (Periophthalmodon schlosseri, Pallas 1770) inhabit muddy plains and Asian mangrove forests. It spends more than 90% of its life outside of the water, using its skin, gills, and buccal-pharyngeal cavity mucosa to breathe in oxygen from the surrounding air. All vertebrates have been found to have mast cells (MCs), which are part of the innate immune system. These cells are mostly found in the mucous membranes of the organs that come in contact with the outside environment. According to their morphology, MCs have distinctive cytoplasmic granules that are released during the degranulation process. Additionally, these cells have antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that fight a variety of infections. Piscidins, hepcidins, defensins, cathelicidins, and histonic peptides are examples of fish AMPs. Confocal microscopy was used in this study to assess Piscidin1 expression in Giant Mudskipper branchial MCs. Our results demonstrated the presence of MCs in the gills is highly positive for Piscidin1. Additionally, colocalized MCs labeled with TLR2/5-HT and Piscidin1/5-HT supported our data. The expression of Piscidin1 in giant mudskipper MCs highlights the involvement of this peptide in the orchestration of teleost immunity, advancing the knowledge of the defense system of this fish.


Assuntos
Brânquias , Perciformes , Animais , Brânquias/metabolismo , Mastócitos , Serotonina/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276854, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395118

RESUMO

We imaged the carbohydrate-selective spatial binding of 8 lectins in the ampullary organs (AOs) of electroreceptors on the rostrum of freshwater paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), by fluorescence imaging and morphometry of frozen sections. A focus was candidate sites of secretion of the glycoprotein gel filling the lumen of AOs. The rostrum of Polyodon is an electrosensory appendage anterior of the head, covered with >50,000 AOs, each homologous with the ampulla of Lorenzini electroreceptors of marine rays and sharks. A large electrosensory neuroepithelium (EN) lines the basal pole of each AO's lumen in Polyodon; support cells occupy most (97%) of an EN's apical area, along with electrosensitive receptor cells. (1) Lectins WGA or SBA labeled the AO gel. High concentrations of the N-acetyl-aminocarbohydrate ligands of these lectins were reported in canal gel of ampullae of Lorenzini, supporting homology of Polyodon AOs. In cross sections of EN, WGA or SBA labeled cytoplasmic vesicles and organelles in support cells, especially apically, apparently secretory. Abundant phalloidin+ microvilli on the apical faces of support cells yielded the brightest label by lectins WGA or SBA. In parallel views of the apical EN surface, WGA labeled only support cells. We concluded that EN support cells massively secrete gel from their apical microvilli (and surface?), containing amino carbohydrate ligands of WGA or SBA, into the AO lumen. (2) Lectins RCA120 or ConA also labeled EN support cells, each differently. RCA120-fluorescein brightly labeled extensive Golgi tubules in the apical halves of EN cells. ConA did not label microvilli, but brightly labeled small vesicles throughout support cells, apparently non-secretory. (3) We demonstrated "sockets" surrounding the basolateral exteriors of EN receptor cells, as candidate glycocalyces. (4) We explored whether additional secretions may arise from non-EN epithelial cells of the interior ampulla wall. (5) Model: Gel is secreted mainly by support cells in the large EN covering each AO's basal pole. Secreted gel is pushed toward the pore, and out. We modeled gel velocity as increasing ~11x, going distally in AOs (toward the narrowed neck and pore), due to geometrical taper of the ampulla wall. Gel renewal and accelerated expulsion may defend against invasion of the AO lumen by microbes or small parasites. (6) We surveyed lectin labeling of accessory structures, including papilla cells in AO necks, striated ectoderm epidermis, and sheaths on afferent axons or on terminal glia.


Assuntos
Peixes , Lectinas , Animais , Lectinas/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Secreções Corporais/metabolismo , Microvilosidades/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo
15.
J Exp Biol ; 225(21)2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36354111

RESUMO

With the growing prevalence of hypoxia (O2 levels ≤2 mg l-1) in aquatic and marine ecosystems, there is increasing interest in the adaptive mechanisms fish may employ to better their performance in stressful environments. Here, we investigated the contribution of a proposed strategy for enhancing tissue O2 extraction - plasma-accessible carbonic anhydrase (CA-IV) - under hypoxia in a species of estuarine fish (red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus) that thrives in fluctuating habitats. We predicted that hypoxia-acclimated fish would increase the prevalence of CA-IV in aerobically demanding tissues to confer more efficient tissue O2 extraction. Furthermore, we predicted the phenotypic changes to tissue O2 extraction that occur with hypoxia acclimation may improve respiratory and swim performance under 100% O2 conditions (i.e. normoxia) when compared with performance in fish that have not been acclimated to hypoxia. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in relative CA-IV mRNA expression, protein abundance or enzyme activity between the two treatments, suggesting CA-IV function is maintained under hypoxia. Likewise, respiratory performance of hypoxia-acclimated fish was similar to that of control fish when tested in normoxia. Critical swim speed (Ucrit) was significantly higher in hypoxia-acclimated fish but translated to marginal ecological benefits with an increase of ∼0.3 body lengths per second. Instead, hypoxia-acclimated fish may have relied more heavily on anaerobic metabolism during their swim trials, utilizing burst swimming 1.5 times longer than control fish. While the maintenance of CA-IV may still be an important contributor for hypoxia tolerance, our evidence suggests hypoxia-acclimated red drum are using other mechanisms to cope in an O2-depleted environment.


Assuntos
Anidrases Carbônicas , Ecossistema , Animais , Aclimatação , Hipóxia/veterinária , Peixes/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421695

RESUMO

In derived bony vertebrates, activation of the melanocortin-2 receptor (Mc2r) by its ACTH ligand requires chaperoning by the Mc2r accessory protein (Mrap1). The N-terminal domain of the non-mammalian tetrapod MRAP1 from chicken (c; Gallus gallus) has the putative activation motif, W18D19Y20I21, and the N-terminal domain in the neopterygian ray-finned fish Mrap1 from bowfin (bf; Amia calva) has the putative activation motif, Y18D19Y20I21. The current study used an alanine-substitution paradigm to test the hypothesis that only the Y20 position in the Mrap1 ortholog of these non-mammalian vertebrates is required for activation of the respective Mc2r ortholog. Instead, we found that for cMRAP1, single alanine-substitution resulted in a gradient of inhibition of activation (Y20 >> D19 = W18 > I21). For bfMrap1, single alanine-substitution also resulted in a gradient of inhibition of activation (Y20 >> D19 > I21 > Y18). This study also included an analysis of Mc2r activation in an older lineage of ray-finned fish, the paddlefish (p), Polyodon spathula (subclass Chondronstei). Currently no mrap1 gene has been found in the paddlefish genome. When pmc2r was expressed alone in our CHO cell/cAMP reporter gene assay, no activation was observed following stimulation with ACTH. However, when pmc2r was co-expressed with either cmrap1 or bfmrap1 robust dose response curves were generated. These results indicate that the formation of an Mc2r/Mrap1 heterodimer emerged early in the radiation of the bony vertebrates.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Receptor Tipo 2 de Melanocortina , Cricetinae , Animais , Filogenia , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 2 de Melanocortina/genética , Receptor Tipo 2 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Peixes/genética , Peixes/metabolismo , Cricetulus , Alanina
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430615

RESUMO

Recent studies have clearly shown that vitamin D3 is a crucial regulator of the female reproductive process in humans and animals. Knowledge of the expression of vitamin D3 receptors and related molecules in the female reproductive organs such as ovaries, uterus, oviduct, or placenta under physiological and pathological conditions highlights its contribution to the proper function of the reproductive system in females. Furthermore, vitamin D3 deficiency leads to serious reproductive disturbances and pathologies including ovarian cysts. Although the influence of vitamin D3 on the reproductive processes of humans and rodents has been extensively described, the association between vitamin D3 and female reproductive function in farm animals, birds, and fish has rarely been summarized. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of vitamin D3 in the reproductive system of those animals, with special attention paid to the expression of vitamin D3 receptors and its metabolic molecules. This updated information could be essential for better understanding animal physiology and overcoming the incidence of infertility, which is crucial for optimizing reproductive outcomes in female livestock.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol , Genitália Feminina , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Animais Domésticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Domésticos/metabolismo , Aves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aves/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Genitália Feminina/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália Feminina/metabolismo , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/metabolismo , Reprodução
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361512

RESUMO

NK-lysin (NKL) is a family of antimicrobial proteins with an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, a non-canonical NK-lysin (NKLnc) was identified in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), which shares low sequence identities (15.8-20.6%) with previously reported fish NKLs and was phylogenetically separated from the canonical NKLs in teleost. NKLnc expression was upregulated in flounder tissues during bacterial infection, and interference with NKLnc expression impaired the ability of flounder cells to eliminate invading bacteria. When expressed in Escherichia coli, NKLnc was detrimental to the host cells. P35, a peptide derived from the saposin B domain (SapB) of NKLnc, bound major bacterial surface molecules and killed both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria by inflicting damage to bacterial cell structure and genomic DNA. The bactericidal activity, but not the bacteria-binding capacity, of P35 required the structural integrity of the alpha 2/3 helices in SapB. Furthermore, P35 induced the migration of flounder peripheral blood leukocytes, inhibited bacterial dissemination in fish tissues, and facilitated fish survival after bacterial challenge. Together our study reveals that NKLnc plays an important part in flounder immune defense, and that NKLnc peptide exerts an antimicrobial effect via multiple mechanisms by targeting both bacteria and fish cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Doenças dos Peixes , Linguado , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Linguado/genética , Peixes/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361591

RESUMO

Metal bioaccumulation and metallothionein (MT) expression were investigated in the gills and liver of the red-blooded Antarctic teleost Trematomus hansoni to evaluate the possibility for this species to face, with adequate physiological responses, an increase of copper and cadmium concentrations in its tissues. Specimens of this Antarctic fish were collected from Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea) and used for a metal exposure experiment in controlled laboratory conditions. The two treatments led to a significant accumulation of both metals and increased gene transcription only for the MT-1. The biosynthesis of MTs was verified especially in specimens exposed to Cd, but most of these proteins were soon oxidized, probably because they were involved in cell protection against oxidative stress risk by scavenging reactive oxygen species. The obtained data highlighted the phenotypic plasticity of T. hansoni, a species that evolved in an environment characterized by naturally high concentrations of Cu and Cd, and maybe the possibility for the Antarctic fish to face the challenges of a world that is becoming more toxic every day.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Metalotioneína/genética , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/análise , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/análise , Metais/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Peixes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1036821, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36311806

RESUMO

Taurine has various biological functions in fish, playing an essential role in growth, resistance to oxidative stress, and intestine immunity. Here, we evaluated the effects of exogenous taurine added to low-fishmeal diets on the growth, anti-oxidative stress, intestine immunity, and Streptococcus agalactiae resistance in juvenile golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus). Our study showed that exogenous taurine supplementation of 1.2% (T3 group) greatly enhanced the weight gain rate and specific growth rate (SGR) of juvenile golden pompano, significantly upregulating growth-related factor expression in the brain and liver, as well as the levels of growth-related parameters in the serum. Polynomial regression analysis using SGR estimated the optimal dietary taurine level for golden pompano at 1.18%. Moderate exogenous taurine also increased the muscular thickness and villus length within the intestine, maintained intestinal physical barrier stability, activated the Nrf2/Keap-1/HO-1 signaling pathway, increased intestinal antioxidant enzyme gene expression and antioxidant enzyme activity in the serum, and upregulated immunoglobulin and complement levels in parallel with declining reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the serum. Antioxidant factor expression was also upregulated in the intestine. Furthermore, supplementation suppressed NF-κB signaling and intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression, increased anti-inflammatory cytokine gene expression, and improved intestine immunity. Finally, taurine supplementation improved the survival rate of golden pompano challenged with S. agalactiae. Overall, our findings provide additional information and support for the rational use of taurine in healthy aquatic animal farming.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Perciformes , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Streptococcus agalactiae , Ração Animal/análise , Perciformes/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Taurina/farmacologia , Imunidade Inata , Dieta/veterinária , Peixes/metabolismo , Intestinos , Citocinas/farmacologia
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