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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1285-1293, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioprocessing of plant feedstuff can be a novel approach for reducing the overwhelming dependence on fish meal in aquaculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed solid-state fermented protein concentrates in order to replace fish meal in the diet. RESULTS: In the first trial, a group of 15 shrimp (average 3.88 g) were randomly distributed into aquaria in triplicate according to the experimental diets. Ten isonitrogenous (400 g kg-1 CP) and isolipidic (90 g kg-1 CL) diets were formulated to contain high-protein fish meal (HFM) and low-protein fish meal (LFM), and four types of bioprocessed protein concentrates (BPCs) as a replacement of fish meal (BPC-A, -B, -C and -D) each at 30% and 50% FM replacement levels. BPC-A was a solid-state fermented mixture of soybean and corn gluten meals; BPC-B was pre-treated acid-hydrolyzed BPC-A; BPC-C and BPC-D were BPC-A + 2% shrimp soluble extract (SSE) and BPC-B + 2% SSE, respectively. After 8 weeks, shrimp fed the HFM, BPC-B, BPC-C and BPC-D diets showed significantly higher growth performance at 30% FM replacement than those of shrimp fed the BPC diets at 50% FM replacement. Interestingly, shrimp fed the BPC-D diet could replace up to 50% FM replacement. In the second trial, the results show that apparent digestibility coefficients of feeds and apparent digestibility coefficients of ingredients for crude protein were significantly higher in fish fed the BPC-B, BPC-C and BPC-D diets. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated successful partial replacement of high-protein fish meal using high-quality fermented protein concentrates from plant sources. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Animais , Aquicultura , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Proteínas de Peixes/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Soja/química
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1131: 281-320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646515

RESUMO

In mammalian cardiomyocytes, Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) is amplified by release of Ca2+ via type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR): a process termed Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release (CICR). In mammalian skeletal muscles, VGCCs play a distinct role as voltage-sensors, physically interacting with RyR1 channels to initiate Ca2+ release in a mechanism termed depolarisation-induced Ca2+-release (DICR). In the current study, we surveyed the genomes of animals and their close relatives, to explore the evolutionary history of genes encoding three proteins pivotal for ECC: L-type VGCCs; RyRs; and a protein family that anchors intracellular organelles to plasma membranes, namely junctophilins (JPHs). In agreement with earlier studies, we find that non-vertebrate eukaryotes either lack VGCCs, RyRs and JPHs; or contain a single homologue of each protein. Furthermore, the molecular features of these proteins thought to be essential for DICR are only detectable within vertebrates and not in any other taxonomic group. Consistent with earlier physiological and ultrastructural observations, this suggests that CICR is the most basal form of ECC and that DICR is a vertebrate innovation. This development was accompanied by the appearance of multiple homologues of RyRs, VGCCs and junctophilins in vertebrates, thought to have arisen by 'whole genome replication' mechanisms. Subsequent gene duplications and losses have resulted in distinct assemblies of ECC components in different vertebrate clades, with striking examples being the apparent absence of RyR2 from amphibians, and additional duplication events for all three ECC proteins in teleost fish. This is consistent with teleosts possessing the most derived mode of DICR, with their Cav1.1 VGCCs completely lacking in Ca2+ channel activity.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L , Evolução Molecular , Acoplamento Excitação-Contração , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina , Animais , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Acoplamento Excitação-Contração/genética , Peixes/genética , Peixes/metabolismo , Genoma/genética , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/fisiologia
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134780, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733557

RESUMO

We studied the adverse effects of four benzodiazepines frequently measured in European surface waters. We evaluated bioaccumulation potential of oxazepam, bromazepam, temazepam, and clobazam in freshwater fish species - perch (Perca fluviatilis) and we conducted a series of behavioral trials to assess their potential to alter boldness, activity, and social behavior. All selected endpoints were studied individually for each target benzodiazepine and as a mixture of all tested compounds to assess possible combinatory effects. We used a three-dimensional automated tracking system to quantify the fish behavior. The four compounds bioconcentrated differently in fish muscle (temazepam > clobazam > oxazepam > bromazepam) at high exposure (9.1, 6.9, 5.7, 8.1 µg L-1, respectively) and low exposure (0.5, 0.5, 0.3, 0.4 µg L-1, respectively) concentrations. A significant amount of oxazepam was also measured in fish exposed to temazepam, most likely because of the metabolic transformation of temazepam within the fish. Bromazepam, temazepam, and clobazam significantly affected fish behavior at high concentration, while no statistically significant changes were registered for oxazepam. The studied benzodiazepines affected behavior in combination, because the mixture treatment significantly changed several important behavioral traits even at low concentration, while no single compound exposure had such an effect at that dose. Based on our results, we conclude that effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic environments could be underestimated if risk assessments only rely on the evaluation of single compounds. More studies focused on the combinatory effects of environmentally relevant mixtures of pharmaceuticals are necessary to fill the gaps in this knowledge.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzodiazepinas/toxicidade , Oxazepam/metabolismo , Oxazepam/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124878, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563719

RESUMO

Dihydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (diOH-PBDEs) can be natural products of marine organisms or the metabolites of PBDEs. The optimal determination method and concentration of diOH-PBDEs in seafood are unknown due to a lack of commercially available standards. In the present study, diOH-PBDEs were synthesized, and an efficient measurement method for OH-PBDEs and diOH-PBDEs in sea fish muscle samples, including extraction, clean-up and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis, was established. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by partitioning with a KOH solution and florisil cartridge clean-up proved to be a reliable and robust method for detecting all OH-PBDEs/diOH-PBDEs. GC-MS/MS with an electron ionization (EI) source analysis was a sensitive analytical instrument for OH-PBDEs/diOH-PBDEs. The recovery using this method ranged from 19% to 101%, 28%-88% and 42%-90% for 10 ng, 20 ng and 40 ng spiking levels, respectively. The equipment detection limits (EDLs) were in the range of 0.31-2.78 pg/µL, and the limits of detection (LOD) for the method were in the range of 5.07-38.74 pg/g wet weight. Concentrations of diOH-PBDEs in the marine fish muscle samples were in the range of 32.43-1528.63 pg/g wet weight. Similar compositions of OH-PBDEs/diOH-PBDEs were found within the same family of marine fish.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Limite de Detecção
5.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124592, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442778

RESUMO

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a brominated flame retardant used in synthetic polymers and electronics, is present in the aquatic environment and recent evidence suggests it can be potentially biomagnified in the marine ecosystem. However, the toxicity of TBBPA in the marine biota has not been investigated in detail. In this study we aimed to understand the role of carboxylesterases (CEs) in xenobiotic metabolism under the exposure of marine organisms to a chemical of environmental concern, TBBPA. Specifically, we tested for in vitro inhibition of CE activity in a range of marine organisms covering different ecological niches, from species from low (mussels and copepods), medium (sardines and anchovies) and high trophic levels (tuna). The results revealed that the highest inhibition of CE activity to 100 µM TBBPA was recorded in mussels (66.5% inhibition) and tunids (36.3-76.4%), whereas copepods and small pelagic fish showed comparatively lower effects (respectively, 30% and 36.5-55.6%). Our results suggest that CE-mediated detoxification and physiological processes could be compromised in TBBPA-exposed organisms and could ultimately affect humans as many of them are market species.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes/metabolismo , Halogenação , Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos
6.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124538, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454745

RESUMO

Although banned, dyes, such as Victoria pure blue BO (VPBO), are illicitly used in aquaculture to treat or prevent infections due to their therapeutic activities. The present study examined the formation of phase I and phase II metabolites derived from VPBO using trout liver microsomes and S9 proteins. The well-known malachite green (MG) dye was also studied as a positive control and to compare its metabolism with that of VPBO. First, we optimised the incubation conditions for the detection of VPBO and MG metabolites by studying the formation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) substrates. Using the determined conditions (2 h at 20 °C), we incubated VPBO with trout microsomal and S9 fractions induced with ß-naphtoflavone, and analysed the supernatant in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap-HRMS system. The in vitro assays led to the detection of 16 VPBO metabolites from Phase I reactions, arising in particular from reactions with CYP1A. No metabolites were detected from Phase II reactions. The main metabolite detected, deethyl-VPBO, was CID-fragmented to determine its chemical structure, and thus recommend a potential biomarker for the control of VPBO in farmed fish foodstuffs.


Assuntos
Corantes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Aquicultura , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525459

RESUMO

As the first marine teleost demonstrated to biosynthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) from C18 precursors such as linoleic acid (LOA, 18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), the rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus) contains the complete enzymatic system for LC-PUFA biosynthesis, including Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid desaturase (Fad), Δ4 Fad, and elongase 5 (Elovl5). Previously, our group demonstrated that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (Hnf4α) is a transcription factor (TF) for rabbitfish Δ4 fad and elovl5, and interacts with the core promoter of Δ6/Δ5 fad. To fully clarify the role of Hnf4α in the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis, the present study aimed to explore the regulatory role of Hnf4α on Δ6/Δ5 fad gene expression. First, Hnf4α overexpression and agonist assays identified the Hnf4α response region in the Δ6/Δ5 fad core promoter as -456 bp to +51 bp. Bioinformatic analysis predicted four potential Hnf4α binding elements in the core promoter, which were confirmed by site-directed mutation and functional assays in a dual luciferase assay system. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of hnf4α, Δ6/Δ5 fad, and Δ4 fad were significantly increased in the S. canaliculatus hepatocyte line (SCHL) cells after treatment with Hnf4α agonists (Alverine and Benfluorex) or its mRNA overexpression. By contrast, the expression levels of these three genes were markedly decreased after hnf4a small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. The results indicated that Hnf4α has a regulatory effect on rabbitfish Δ6/Δ5 fad gene transcription, identifying Hnf4α as a TF of Δ6/Δ5 fad in vertebrates for the first time.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/biossíntese , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/biossíntese , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/genética
8.
Food Chem ; 305: 125508, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622806

RESUMO

Fish is one of the most common elicitors of food-allergic reactions worldwide. These reactions are triggered by the calcium-binding muscle protein ß-parvalbumin, which was shown to have reduced immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding capacity upon calcium depletion. This work aimed to reduce gilthead seabream allergenicity using diets supplemented with a calcium chelator. Three experimental feeds were tested, differing in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) supplementation, and its effects on muscle and parvalbumin's IgE-reactivity were analyzed. Chromatographic determination of EDTA showed no accumulation in the muscle and sensory results demonstrated that the lowest concentration did not affect fish quality as edible fish. Proteomics revealed one protein related to muscle contraction with significantly different relative abundance. Immunoblot assays performed with fish-allergic patients sera indicated a 50% reduction in IgE-reactivity upon EDTA presence. These preliminary results provide the basis for the further development of a non-GMO approach to modulate fish allergenicity and improve safety of aquaculture fish.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Aquicultura , Ácido Edético/análise , Peixes/imunologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Músculos/química , Proteômica , Animais , Peixes/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Parvalbuminas/imunologia , Alimentos Marinhos
9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(12): 1236-1241, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795579

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the content of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish from Dongting Lake. Methods: Ten sample collection points were set in lakeside city Yueyang and Yuanjiang. In July (wet season) and November (dry season) of 2012, 13 common fish species were captured by convenience sampling in Dongting Lake. Two to three fish with similar weight were selected in each season for the same species of fish. After sample preparation and pretreatment, the contents of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), indicator polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyls ether (PBDEs) in the samples were determined by high resolution gas chromatographer-high resolution mass spectrometry. Toxicity Equivalents (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were calculated according to the revised toxicity equivalent factor (TEF) of WHO in 2005. The contents of POPs were expressed by median and quavtile. The differences of POPs in fish in different periods were compared by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: The content of PCDD/Fs of fish in Dongting Lake in wet season was 12.397 (8.865, 24.964) pg/g, higher than that in the dry season 0.771 (0.490, 1.442) pg/g (P<0.001), and the toxicity equivalent quantity (TEQ) were 0.150 (0.066,0.528) and 0.143 (0.066, 0.235) pg-TEQ/g without statistically significant difference (P>0.05). For the fish in wet and dry season from Dongting Lake,Σdl-PCBs of fish were 66.475 (28.065, 77.794) and 24.205 (18.237, 90.777) pg/g, respectively, and the TEQ were 0.061 (0.046, 0.268) and 0.075 (0.054, 0.182) pg-TEQ/g; Σ indicative PCBs were 237.764 (153.896, 335.483) and 119.711 (52.171, 408.696) pg/g, respectively; Σ PBDEs were 106.513 (64.834, 164.860) and 86.837 (61.872, 177.108) pg/g, respectively. The highest content of PCDD/Fs was found in grass carp (198.360 pg/g) in wet season. The higher content of PCBs was found in long-necked fish (2 332.509 pg/g) and PBDEs was found in pelteobagrus fulvidraco (343.857 pg/g), respectively. Conclusion: A lower burden was found in fishes from Dongting Lake, and the content of POPs varied in different seasons and fishes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Peixes/metabolismo , Lagos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Benzofuranos , China , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Lagos/química , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/efeitos adversos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(51): 14019-14026, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725274

RESUMO

Flufiprole is an insecticide used in the rice field and may pose a potential threat to aquatic organisms including loach. To investigate the transformation products of flufiprole in loach, the accumulation, elimination, and tissue distribution in vivo as well as the metabolism in vitro at the enantiomeric level were studied. Flufiprole enantiomers rapidly accumulated and were metabolized to flufiprole sulfone, fipronil, and flufiprole amide in the tissues. Enantiomeric fractions showed the preferential accumulation and degradation of S-flufiprole. The residue of the chiral metabolite flufiprole amide was also enantioselective. The individual enantiomer treatment indicated that S-flufiprole was preferentially metabolized to flufiprole sulfone and R-flufiprole to fipronil. The metabolites were more persistent than flufiprole with longer half-lives. The metabolism in liver microsomes also reached consistent conclusions. The dietary risk assessment indicated that flufiprole would not cause unacceptable threats to human health. However, the metabolites of flufiprole should be considered in the risk evaluation.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes/metabolismo , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/metabolismo , Animais , Resíduos de Drogas/química , Resíduos de Drogas/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microssomos Hepáticos/química , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 436-447, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590808

RESUMO

Despite the beneficial aspect of aquatic food's consumption, bioaccumulation of toxic metals in fish can enhance the health risk for the consumers. Heavy metals were measured from editable tissues of some commercial fish species like Latis calcarifer, Silonia silondia, Clupisoma garua, Planiliza subviridis, Otolithoides pama, Tenulosa ilisa, Rhinomugil corsula, and Aila coila in the Meghna river estuary in Noakhali district. Heavy metals such as As, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Cr were detected by ICP-MS, which were significantly different (p ≤ 0.01), and the hierarchy of all mean concentrations were: Cu (5.14 mg/kg) > Pb (3.79 mg/kg) > As (1.08 mg/kg) > Cr (0.78 mg/kg) > Cd (0.12 mg/kg). The mean concentration of Cu (6.62 mg/kg) imparted to the maximum level in L. calcarifer, which slightly exceeded the Bangladesh food safety guideline. The mean BAFs of the contaminants were found as: Pb (1042.29) > Cr (1036.47) > As (934.84) > Cd (832.77) > Cu (772). Further, L. calcarifer, S. silondia, C. garua, and P. subviridis showed the bioaccumulative status. To assess the health risk effects, estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and carcinogenic risk (CR) were conducted. THQs for both adult and children consumers were <1, indicating that, consumers would not experience the non-carcinogenic health effects. Although children were more susceptible than adults, CR for all the consumers was found in the acceptable range (10-6 to 10-4).


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bangladesh , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Estuários , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 448-454, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590809

RESUMO

Naturally occurring radioactive material was characterized in selected seafood samples from three areas in the Gulf of Mexico. Relatively desirable and abundant fish such as Red Snapper, Red Drum, Northern Whiting, and Spotted Trout as well as oysters were collected and analyzed using gamma spectroscopy to determine the concentration of 228Ra, 226Ra, and 40 K. Average total activity concentration from these radionuclides were 0.9 ±â€¯0.6, 1.6 ±â€¯1.2, and 132 ±â€¯57 Bq kg-1 respectively, in the edible portion of wet weight samples. The results were consistent with previous studies for other bodies of water. A small but statistically significant increase in 226Ra was found in comparison to similar research performed 20 years prior. These measurements provide a reasonable baseline for the examined species from the Gulf of Mexico.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Ostreidae/metabolismo , Radioisótopos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Golfo do México , México , Ostreidae/química , Radioisótopos/metabolismo
13.
Nature ; 574(7776): 95-98, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554969

RESUMO

Micronutrient deficiencies account for an estimated one million premature deaths annually, and for some nations can reduce gross domestic product1,2 by up to 11%, highlighting the need for food policies that focus on improving nutrition rather than simply increasing the volume of food produced3. People gain nutrients from a varied diet, although fish-which are a rich source of bioavailable micronutrients that are essential to human health4-are often overlooked. A lack of understanding of the nutrient composition of most fish5 and how nutrient yields vary among fisheries has hindered the policy shifts that are needed to effectively harness the potential of fisheries for food and nutrition security6. Here, using the concentration of 7 nutrients in more than 350 species of marine fish, we estimate how environmental and ecological traits predict nutrient content of marine finfish species. We use this predictive model to quantify the global spatial patterns of the concentrations of nutrients in marine fisheries and compare nutrient yields to the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in human populations. We find that species from tropical thermal regimes contain higher concentrations of calcium, iron and zinc; smaller species contain higher concentrations of calcium, iron and omega-3 fatty acids; and species from cold thermal regimes or those with a pelagic feeding pathway contain higher concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. There is no relationship between nutrient concentrations and total fishery yield, highlighting that the nutrient quality of a fishery is determined by the species composition. For a number of countries in which nutrient intakes are inadequate, nutrients available in marine finfish catches exceed the dietary requirements for populations that live within 100 km of the coast, and a fraction of current landings could be particularly impactful for children under 5 years of age. Our analyses suggest that fish-based food strategies have the potential to substantially contribute to global food and nutrition security.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Peixes/metabolismo , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Internacionalidade , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cálcio/análise , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/economia , Pesqueiros/economia , Peixes/classificação , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Selênio/análise , Vitamina A/análise , Zinco/análise
14.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 112975, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541831

RESUMO

We analysed the total mercury (Hg) accumulation in bodies and gut contents of 13 species of marine wild fish, 7 species of wild freshwater fish and 4 species of farmed fish. In addition, metal concentrations were recorded in water, sediment, fish prey and fodder materials, to track the dynamics of bio-accumulation. Cultured freshwater fish were collected at four Austrian farms and compared with samples obtained from markets. Wild marine fish were collected at Santa Croce bank, in Italy (Mediterranean Sea). Metal accumulation varied with sampling site, species, and age (or weight) of fish. Wild marine fish exhibited higher levels than wild freshwater fish, which in turn had higher Hg levels than cultured freshwater fish. Mercury increased according to trophic levels of consumers. Total Hg contents in muscle of cultured and wild freshwater fish sampled in 2006-2008 did not exceed legal nutritional limits. Similarly, in market samples of trout and carp collected in 2019, we found low or undetectable concentrations of total Hg in muscle tissue. In contrast, some marine fish (both market samples and some species from coastal waters) exceeded the legal limits. Environmental contamination, food webs and biological factors are the main causes of Hg accumulation in fish. Our results reflect the actual differences between specific European sites and should not be generalized. However, they support the generally increasing demand for monitoring mercury pollution in view of its impact on human health and its value as an indicator of ecosystem contamination.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Tanques/química , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Áustria , Bioacumulação , Ecossistema , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cadeia Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Humanos , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Músculos/química
15.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113135, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550651

RESUMO

The Fort McMurray region in northeastern Alberta (Canada) is rich in natural sources of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) from exposed bitumen beds; anthropogenic sources are being released with increased oil sands industry expansion. Here we report on investigations of PACs (47 compounds) in three species of forage fish collected during the 2012-2013 Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Program (JOSMP) fish health investigations and compare results with PAC data for sediment and water collected under JOSMP and earlier programs. PAC concentrations in sediments varied three orders in magnitude and were highest at downstream tributary mouths, which flowed through the exposed McMurray Formation, and along reaches of the Athabasca River where the formation was exposed. PAC concentrations in water were less variable but with higher concentrations near exposed bitumen beds. Forage fish exhibited the weakest spatial gradients in ΣPACs concentration, which averaged 102 ±â€¯32 ng/g in trout-perch from the Athabasca River, 125 ±â€¯22 ng/g in lake chub from the Ells River, and 278 ±â€¯267 ng/g in slimy sculpin from the Steepbank, Firebag, and Dunkirk Rivers. Low-molecular weight compounds, particularly naphthalenes and fluorenes, dominated fish PACs. Phenanthrenes occurred in greater percent composition in fish caught in areas where PAC concentrations in sediments were higher due to the proximity of bitumen sources than in other areas. Dibenzothiophene, a major component of bitumen PAC, was a minor component of fish ΣPACs. Forage fish PAC concentrations were below fish consumption guidelines established by the European Commission (2011) and for the reopening of the commercial fisheries closed by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. PAC concentrations in forage fish were similar to concentrations observed in many other studies (fish market surveys, estuaries, and marine waters) and lower than in fish sampled from highly impacted areas (near refineries, harbors, and other industrialized areas).


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Alberta , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Hidrocarbonetos , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Compostos Policíclicos , Rios , Areia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(11): 1864-1874, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524218

RESUMO

The present work examined the trophic transfer of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a typical urban river (Orge River, near Paris, France), and aimed to investigate the potential contribution of precursors to the biomagnification of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Sixteen PFAAs, twelve of their precursors (pre-PFAAstargeted) and two fluorinated alternatives to long-chain PFASs were analyzed in water, sediments and biota (including biofilm, invertebrates and fish). Twenty two compounds were detected in biological samples (2.0-147 ng g-1 wet weight), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and C12-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) being predominant while ∑pre-PFAAstargeted contributed to 1-18% of ∑PFASs. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were >1 (i.e. denoting biomagnification) for C9-C14 PFCAs, C7-C10 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and several pre-PFAAs (e.g. 8 : 2 and 10 : 2 fluorotelomer sulfonates). The significant decrease in ∑pre-PFCAs/∑PFCAs concentration ratio with trophic level suggested a likely contribution of selected precursors to the biomagnification of PFCAs through biotransformation, while this was less obvious for PFOS. The total oxidizable precursor assay, applied for the first time to sediment and biota, revealed the presence of substantial proportions of extractable unknown pre-PFAAs in all samples (i.e. 15-80% of ∑PFASs upon oxidation). This proportion significantly decreased from sediments to invertebrates and fish, thereby pointing to the biotransformation of unattributed pre-PFAAs in the trophic web, which likely contributes to the biomagnification of some PFAAs (i.e. C9-C12 PFCAs and C7-C10 PFSAs).


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Biofilmes , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , França , Invertebrados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
17.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 104: 109925, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500066

RESUMO

Collagen is the most abundant protein in animals, and its polymer, collagen fibrils, regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Low antigenicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability make collagen fibrils suitable functional scaffolds for tissue engineering. In a previous study, we found that the type I atelocollagen purified from the swim bladder of Bester sturgeon (swim bladder collagen, SBC) showed high fibril-forming ability, producing thicker fibrils faster than porcine collagen. In this study, we report a novel method to coat cell culture wells with highly aligned collagen fibrils using the SBC. Two types of fibrils with different thicknesses were prepared by changing the crosslinking treatment timing. The oriented, thick collagen fibrils induced pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1, pre-adipocytic 3T3-L1, pre-myocytic C2C12, and fibroblastic L929 cells to align in the same direction, whereas the oriented, fine fibrils made a cell network with their long pseudopods. Cellular proliferation was inhibited on both fibrils. Furthermore, both fibrils induced the early differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells without differentiation stimuli. In contrast, the morphology of pre-chondrocytic ATDC5 cells on both fine and thick fibrils extended very short pseudopods and continued to maintain a spherical shape without stretching, suggesting a distinct effect by the fibrils. The newly developed fibril coatings are in the form of a thin film, thereby providing good visibility of the cell structure, including cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions, using a phase contrast microscope. The fibril coatings have high potential as a useful tool for tissue engineering research.


Assuntos
Sacos Aéreos/química , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/farmacologia , Peixes/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(5): 657-662, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492971

RESUMO

This study evaluated the dependence of mercury (Hg) elimination by fish on species specific fish metabolic rate in order to generate improved algorithms of Hg elimination rate coefficients. Mercury elimination rate coefficient observations were collected by literature review and fish routine metabolic rate (RMR) estimates calculated using the Wisconsin Fish Bioenergetics Model. Three models were compared that considered body weight, temperature, thermal category, Hg depuration period and RMR as predictors of Hg elimination. The best performing model incorporated body size, temperature and fish thermal category, explaining 79% of the variation of the calibration data and between 20% and 69% of the variation of validation data sets. The results support the conclusion that species-specific differences in metabolic rate influence mercury elimination by fish but also highlight major data gaps in the mercury toxicokinetic literature necessary to develop robust models Hg elimination by fish.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Mercúrio/análise , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Alimentos Marinhos , Especificidade da Espécie , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Wisconsin
19.
EMBO J ; 38(18): e101220, 2019 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403225

RESUMO

Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc finger proteins (KZFPs) are encoded in the hundreds by the genomes of higher vertebrates, and many act with the heterochromatin-inducing KAP1 as repressors of transposable elements (TEs) during early embryogenesis. Yet, their widespread expression in adult tissues and enrichment at other genetic loci indicate additional roles. Here, we characterized the protein interactome of 101 of the ~350 human KZFPs. Consistent with their targeting of TEs, most KZFPs conserved up to placental mammals essentially recruit KAP1 and associated effectors. In contrast, a subset of more ancient KZFPs rather interacts with factors related to functions such as genome architecture or RNA processing. Nevertheless, KZFPs from coelacanth, our most distant KZFP-encoding relative, bind the cognate KAP1. These results support a hypothetical model whereby KZFPs first emerged as TE-controlling repressors, were continuously renewed by turnover of their hosts' TE loads, and occasionally produced derivatives that escaped this evolutionary flushing by development and exaptation of novel functions.


Assuntos
Placenta/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Proteína 28 com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo , Animais , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Gravidez , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Dedos de Zinco
20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(26): 6913-6929, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418049

RESUMO

A method was developed for the analysis of 22 antiparasitic residues belonging to the benzoylurea, organophosphate, pyrimidinamine, pyrethrin and pyrethroid classes in salmon by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile-water as the extraction solvent with use of a vibrational shaking apparatus with a ceramic homogenizer. After extraction, the acetonitrile extracts were cleaned up by incubation at low temperature (-20 °C, 1 h) to remove fat, followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction using Z-Sep+ and primary-secondary amine as sorbents. Validation was performed following the 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11813/2017 guidelines. The trueness of the method ranged from 87% to 121% and precision ranged from 4.1% to 23.7%, with the exception of cyphenothrin, dicyclanil and azamethiphos. The method developed is particularly advantageous because the use of a vibrational shaker allows unattended extraction of samples and eliminates a laborious tissue disruption step, which increases sample throughput in the laboratory. The sample preparation and chromatographic separations can be performed in 5 and 4 h, respectively, for 36 samples. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Salmão/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
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