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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130532, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274702

RESUMO

One major pepsinogen, PG-I, and two minor pepsinogens, PG-II and PG-III were purified from lizardfish stomach by ammonium sulfate precipitation and two chromatographic columns. The three purified PGs migrated as single bands in native-PAGE gels with molecular weights (MW) ranging from 36 to 38 kDa. Each PG was converted to pepsin (P) at pH 2.0, and the MW were determined as 32 kDa (for P-I), 31 kDa (for P-II) and 30 kDa (for P-III). The optimum pH and temperature of pepsins were 2.0-3.5, and 40-50 °C. All 3 pepsins were strongly inhibited by pepstatin A. Divalent cations slightly stimulated the pepsin activities, but ATP had no effect on the pepsins. Purified pepsins were effective in the hydrolysis of various proteins. Km and kcat of the three pepsins for hemoglobin hydrolysis were 107.64-276.61 µM and 18.30-32.68 s-1, respectively. The new pepsins have potential for use in protein food procession and modification.


Assuntos
Pepsina A , Pepsinogênios , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peixes/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Pepsinogênios/metabolismo , Estômago
2.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 215: 106024, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774724

RESUMO

Aldosterone, the main physiological mineralocorticoid in humans and other terrestrial vertebrates, first appears in lungfish, which are lobe-finned fish that are forerunners of terrestrial vertebrates. Aldosterone activation of the MR regulates internal homeostasis of water, sodium and potassium, which was critical in the conquest of land by vertebrates. We studied transcriptional activation of the slender African lungfish MR by aldosterone, other corticosteroids and progesterone and find that aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol and progesterone have half-maximal responses (EC50 s) below 1 nM and are potential physiological mineralocorticoids. In contrast, EC50 s for corticosterone and cortisol were 23 nM and 66 nM, respectively. Unexpectedly, truncated lungfish MR, consisting of the DNA-binding, hinge and steroid-binding domains, had a stronger response to corticosteroids and progesterone than full-length lungfish MR, indicating that the N-terminal domain represses steroid activation of lungfish MR, unlike human MR in which the N-terminal domain contains an activation function. BLAST searches of GenBank did not retrieve a GR ortholog, leading us to test dexamethasone and triamcinolone for activation of lungfish MR. At 10 nM, both synthetic glucocorticoids are about 4-fold stronger than 10 nM aldosterone in activating full-length lungfish MR, leading us to propose that lungfish MR also functions as a GR.


Assuntos
Aldosterona/farmacologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/genética , Animais , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Cortodoxona/farmacologia , Desoxicorticosterona/farmacologia , Eplerenona/farmacologia , Proteínas de Peixes/agonistas , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Cinética , Progesterona/farmacologia , Domínios Proteicos , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/agonistas , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/agonistas , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Espironolactona/farmacologia , Triancinolona/farmacologia
3.
Food Chem ; 369: 130874, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455321

RESUMO

As one of food sources, fish provides sufficient nutrition to human. Diverse nutrients in fish make fish an important nutrient source available easily across the globe. Fish is proven to possess several health benefits, such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, wound healing, neuroprotection, cardioprotection, and hepatoprotection properties. Fish proteins, such as immunoglobins, act as defense agents against viral and bacterial infections and prevent protein-calorie malnutrition. Besides, fish oil constituents, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), regulate various signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor kappa B pathway, Toll-like receptor pathway, transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) pathway, and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor (PPAR) pathways. In this review, the literature about health benefits of fish consumption are accumulated from PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and the mechanistic action of health benefits are summarized. Fish consumption at least twice per week as part of a healthy diet is beneficial for a healthy heart. More advances in this field could pose fish as a major nutrients source of foods.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Óleos de Peixe , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Peixes/metabolismo , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0245822, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613983

RESUMO

Mitochondrial changes such as tight coupling of the mitochondria have facilitated sustained oxygen and respiratory activity in haemoglobin-less icefish of the Channichthyidae family. We aimed to characterise features in the sequence and structure of the proteins directly involved in proton transport, which have potential physiological implications. ATP synthase subunit a (ATP6) and subunit 8 (ATP8) are proteins that function as part of the F0 component (proton pump) of the F0F1complex. Both proteins are encoded by the mitochondrial genome and involved in oxidative phosphorylation. To explore mitochondrial sequence variation for ATP6 and ATP8 we analysed sequences from C. gunnari and C. rastrospinosus and compared them with their closely related red-blooded species and eight other vertebrate species. Our comparison of the amino acid sequence of these proteins reveals important differences that could underlie aspects of the unique physiology of the icefish. In this study we find that changes in the sequence of subunit a of the icefish C. gunnari at position 35 where there is a hydrophobic alanine which is not seen in the other notothenioids we analysed. An amino acid change of this type is significant since it may have a structural impact. The biology of the haemoglobin-less icefish is necessarily unique and any insights about these animals will help to generate a better overall understanding of important physiological pathways.


Assuntos
Peixes/genética , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peixes/metabolismo , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Hemoglobinas/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/metabolismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17991, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504212

RESUMO

To determine the baseline threat of microplastics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an important seafood fish from Vueti Navakavu locally managed marine area, a multibiomarker risk assessment was conducted on the thumbprint emperor fish Lethrinus harak. Condition factor, a measure of relative general health condition of fish, was significantly lower in samples from the wet season compared to the dry season but no significant differences were observed for hepatosomatic index, a measure of relative stored energy/nutrition, between seasonal groups. PAHs levels of four metabolites in emperor fish from Fiji waters are reported here for the first time; seasonal groups showed no significant differences, but all samples presented levels of biliary PAHs. Each specimen also contained at least one microplastic in its gastrointestinal system; fibres were the predominant form-type and ingestion levels showed that more than 80% of fragment sizes were below 1.0 mm. Biochemical responses were observed for ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and glutathione S-transferase biotransformation activity, oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity; lipid peroxidation) and genotoxicity (micronuclei assay). Though there were no statistically significant differences found, there were biological significances that were important to note; relatively low levels of pollutant exposure and low levels of biochemical responses showed enzymes response in thumbprint emperor were as expected to their roles in the body. In this multibiomarker approach, the observation of pollutants presence and histopathological injuries are considered biologically relevant from a toxicological perspective and serve as a baseline for future pollution studies in seafood fishes in Fiji, with site differences and the inclusion of fish species comparison. We recommend adopting a suite of biomarkers in future regional biomonitoring studies to develop holistic baseline information for other marine settings in Fiji and other Pacific Island countries.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fiji , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Poluição Química da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502366

RESUMO

The impact of anthropogenic contaminants on the immune system of fishes is an issue of growing concern. An important xenobiotic receptor that mediates effects of chemicals, such as halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Fish toxicological research has focused on the role of this receptor in xenobiotic biotransformation as well as in causing developmental, cardiac, and reproductive toxicity. However, biomedical research has unraveled an important physiological role of the AhR in the immune system, what suggests that this receptor could be involved in immunotoxic effects of environmental contaminants. The aims of the present review are to critically discuss the available knowledge on (i) the expression and possible function of the AhR in the immune systems of teleost fishes; and (ii) the impact of AhR-activating xenobiotics on the immune systems of fish at the levels of immune gene expression, immune cell proliferation and immune cell function, immune pathology, and resistance to infectious disease. The existing information indicates that the AhR is expressed in the fish immune system, but currently, we have little understanding of its physiological role. Exposure to AhR-activating contaminants results in the modulation of numerous immune structural and functional parameters of fish. Despite the diversity of fish species studied and the experimental conditions investigated, the published findings rather uniformly point to immunosuppressive actions of xenobiotic AhR ligands in fish. These effects are often associated with increased disease susceptibility. The fact that fish populations from HAH- and PAH-contaminated environments suffer immune disturbances and elevated disease susceptibility highlights that the immunotoxic effects of AhR-activating xenobiotics bear environmental relevance.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/fisiologia , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/toxicidade , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Xenobióticos/metabolismo
7.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 592-605, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387415

RESUMO

The large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), which is an economically important mariculture fish in China, is often exposed to environmental hypoxia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis is essential for the maintenance of normal physiological conditions in an organism. Direct evidence that environmental hypoxia leads to ROS overproduction is scarce in marine fish. Furthermore, the sources of ROS overproduction in marine fish under hypoxic stress are poorly known. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia on redox homeostasis in L. crocea and the impact of impaired redox homeostasis on fish. We first confirmed that hypoxia drove ROS production mainly via the mitochondrial electron transport chain and NADPH oxidase complex pathways in L. crocea and its cell line (large yellow croaker fry (LYCF) cells). We subsequently detected a marked increase in the antioxidant systems of the fish. However, imbalance between the pro-oxidation and antioxidation systems ultimately led to excessive ROS and oxidative stress. Cell viability showed a remarkable decrease while oxidative indicators, such as malondialdehyde, protein carbonylation, and 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine, showed a significant increase after hypoxia, accompanied by tissue damage. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced ROS levels, alleviated oxidative damage, and improved cell viability in vitro. Appropriate uptake of ROS scavengers (e.g., NAC and elamipretide Szeto-Schiller-31) and inhibitors (e.g., apocynin, diphenylene iodonium, and 5-hydroxydecanoate) may be effective at overcoming hypoxic toxicity. Our findings highlight previously unstudied strategies of hypoxic toxicity resistance in marine fish.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Oxigênio/química , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Meio Ambiente , Homeostase , NADP
8.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 87: 103725, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416396

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of Cr6+ on bioaccumulation, digestion, immunity, oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation-related genes in Channa asiatica. The fish was exposed to waterborne Cr6+ concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L) for 28 and 56 days. Our results demonstrated that the accumulation of Cr6+ in tissues increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and the content in tissue was liver > gill > gut > muscle. Meanwhile, Cr6+ exposure led to a remarkable suppression of digestion, immunity and antioxidant capacity in C. asiatica. Inversely, MDA and PC content were positively correlated with Cr6+ exposure concentration. Furthermore, the expression of genes went up with the increase of waterborne Cr6+ concentration. Among them, HSP90, NF-κB and TNF-α have a sharp increase. These results elucidate that waterborne Cr6+ exposure may induce bioaccumulation, inhibit digestion and immunity, promote oxidative stress and up-regulate the expression of apoptosis and inflammation-related genes in C. asiatica.


Assuntos
Cromo/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bioacumulação , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Muramidase/sangue , Músculos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/enzimologia
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1331: 289-307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453307

RESUMO

Neurotrophins are evolutionary well-conserved molecules, and fish constitute valuable vertebrate models to explore their pleiotropic role in the brain. In addition to an introduction on the evolutionary importance of using fish in biomedicine and their neuroanatomy in comparison with mammals, here we review the available literature on the molecular evolution of neurotrophins and their receptors in teleost fish as well as their role in the fish brain, from the early stages of development until adulthood and aging. Among neurotrophins, BDNF is the most well studied in the brain of teleost fish, and we report data on the functional involvement of the BDNF/TrkB system in the development of the visual system and in the mechanisms of adult brain regeneration. With the exception of neuroanatomical expression, much less is known about the role of the other members of neurotrophin family in fish brain. We hope that this chapter opens new avenues leading to a better understanding of the complex and multifaceted roles of neurotrophins in the brain of fish and other vertebrates.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Peixes/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Vertebrados/metabolismo
10.
Mol Immunol ; 137: 212-220, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280771

RESUMO

As a proinflammatory cytokine of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, IL-18 plays important roles in host protection against bacterial, viral, and fungal infection. We cloned the open reading frame of snakehead (Channa argus) IL-18 (shIL-18) and found that it contained 609 base pairs and encoded 202 amino acid residues. The shIL-18 included a conserved IL-1-like family signature and two potential IL-1ß-converting enzyme cutting sites; one was conserved in all analyzed IL-18s, but the other was unique to shIL-18. Unlike other IL-18s, shIL-18 also contained a predicted signal peptide. In this study, shIL-18 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, and its expression was induced by Aeromonas schubertii and Nocardia seriolae in the head kidney and spleen in vivo and by lipoteichoic acid, lipopolysaccharides, and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid in head kidney leukocytes in vitro. Moreover, recombinant shIL-18 upregulated the expression of interferon-γ, IL-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor-α1 and -α2 and promoted the proliferation of leukocytes. Taken together, these results showed that IL-18 played crucial roles in host defense against bacterial infection in fish, as it does in mammals.


Assuntos
Aeromonas/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Nocardiose/metabolismo , Nocardia/patogenicidade , Animais , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/microbiologia , Rim Cefálico/metabolismo , Rim Cefálico/microbiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/microbiologia , Ácidos Teicoicos/metabolismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13878, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230512

RESUMO

Changes to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) biomineralization in aquatic organisms is among the many predicted effects of climate change. Because otolith (hearing/orientation structures in fish) CaCO3 precipitation and polymorph composition are controlled by genetic and environmental factors, climate change may be predicted to affect the phenotypic plasticity of otoliths. We examined precipitation of otolith polymorphs (aragonite, vaterite, calcite) during early life history in two species of sturgeon, Lake Sturgeon, (Acipenser fulvescens) and White Sturgeon (A. transmontanus), using quantitative X-ray microdiffraction. Both species showed similar fluctuations in otolith polymorphs with a significant shift in the proportions of vaterite and aragonite in sagittal otoliths coinciding with the transition to fully exogenous feeding. We also examined the effect of the environment on otolith morphology and polymorph composition during early life history in Lake Sturgeon larvae reared in varying temperature (16/22 °C) and pCO2 (1000/2500 µatm) environments for 5 months. Fish raised in elevated temperature had significantly increased otolith size and precipitation of large single calcite crystals. Interestingly, pCO2 had no statistically significant effect on size or polymorph composition of otoliths despite blood pH exhibiting a mild alkalosis, which is contrary to what has been observed in several studies on marine fishes. These results suggest climate change may influence otolith polymorph composition during early life history in Lake Sturgeon.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/metabolismo , Membrana dos Otólitos/química , Temperatura , Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia
12.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(16): 6033-6049, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274976

RESUMO

Melanocytes are pigmented cells residing mostly in the skin and hair follicles of vertebrates, where they contribute to colouration and protection against UV-B radiation. However, the spectrum of their functions reaches far beyond that. For instance, these pigment-producing cells are found inside the inner ear, where they contribute to the hearing function, and in the heart, where they are involved in the electrical conductivity and support the stiffness of cardiac valves. The embryonic origin of such extracutaneous melanocytes is not clear. We took advantage of lineage-tracing experiments combined with 3D visualizations and gene knockout strategies to address this long-standing question. We revealed that Schwann cell precursors are recruited from the local innervation during embryonic development and give rise to extracutaneous melanocytes in the heart, brain meninges, inner ear, and other locations. In embryos with a knockout of the EdnrB receptor, a condition imitating Waardenburg syndrome, we observed only nerve-associated melanoblasts, which failed to detach from the nerves and to enter the inner ear. Finally, we looked into the evolutionary aspects of extracutaneous melanocytes and found that pigment cells are associated mainly with nerves and blood vessels in amphibians and fish. This new knowledge of the nerve-dependent origin of extracutaneous pigment cells might be directly relevant to the formation of extracutaneous melanoma in humans.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Orelha Interna/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Meninges/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Células de Schwann/fisiologia , Anfíbios/metabolismo , Anfíbios/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula/fisiologia , Orelha Interna/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Feminino , Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/fisiologia , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/fisiologia , Meninges/metabolismo , Camundongos , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Gravidez , Receptor de Endotelina B/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224854

RESUMO

Nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 1 (Nr0b1) belongs to the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily. It plays critical roles in sex determination, sex differentiation, and gonadal development in mammals. In this study, the duplicated genes nr0b1a and nr0b1b were identified in spotted scat (Scatophagus argus). Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that, unlike nr0b1a, nr0b1b was retained in several species of teleosts after an nr0b1 gene duplication event but was secondarily lost in other fish species, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. In a sequence analysis, only 1.5 LXXLL-related repeat motifs were identified in spotted scat Nr0b1a, Nr0b1b, and non-mammalian Nr0b1a/Nr0b1, different from the 3.5 repeat motifs in mammalian Nr0b1. By qPCR, nr0b1a and nr0b1b were highly expressed in testes from stages IV to V and in ovaries from stages II to IV, respectively. Male-to-female sex reversal was induced in XY spotted scat by the administration of exogenous E2. A qPCR analysis showed that nr0b1b mRNA expression was higher in sex-reversed XY fish than in control XY fish, with no difference in nr0b1a. A luciferase assay showed that spotted scat Nr0b1a and Nr0b1b did not individually activate cyp19a1a gene transcription. As in mammals, spotted scat Nr0b1a suppressed Nr5a1-mediated cyp19a1a expression, despite containing only 1.5 LXXLL-related repeat motifs in its N-terminal region, while Nr0b1b stimulated Nr5a1-mediated cyp19a1a transcription. These results demonstrated that nr0b1a and nr0b1b in spotted scat have distinct expression patterns and regulatory effects and further indicate that nr0b1b might be involved in ovarian development by regulating Nr5a1-mediated cyp19a1a expression.


Assuntos
Receptor Nuclear Órfão DAX-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ovário/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Receptor Nuclear Órfão DAX-1/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/genética , Masculino , Ovário/citologia , Homologia de Sequência , Fatores Sexuais , Testículo/citologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209701

RESUMO

The present study aims to reveal the mechanism by which miR-430s regulate steroidogenesis in larval rice field eel Monopterus albus. To this end, M. albus embryos were respectively microinjected with miRNA-overexpressing mimics (agomir430a, agomir430b, and agomir430c) or miRNA-knockdown inhibitors (antagomir430a, antagomir430b, and antagomir430c). Transcriptome profiling of the larvae indicated that a total of more than 149 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified among the eight treatments. Specifically, DEGs related to steroidogenesis, the GnRH signaling pathway, the erbB signaling pathway, the Wnt signaling pathway, and other pathways were characterized in the transcriptome. We found that steroidogenesis-related genes (hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 3 (17ß-hsdb3), hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 7 (17ß-hsdb7), hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 12 (17ß-hsdb12), and cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily a (cyp19a1b)) were significantly downregulated in miR-430 knockdown groups. The differential expressions of miR-430 in three gonads indicated different roles of three miR-430 (a, b, and c) isoforms in regulating steroidogenesis and sex differentiation. Mutation of the miR-430 sites reversed the downregulation of cytochrome P450 family 17 (cyp17), cyp19a1b, and forkhead box L2 (foxl2) reporter activities by miR-430, indicating that miR-430 directly interacted with cyp17, cyp19a1b, and foxl2 genes to inhibit their expressions. Combining these findings, we concluded that miR-430 regulated the steroidogenesis and the biosynthesis of steroid hormones by targeting cyp19a1b in larval M. albus. Our results provide a novel insight into steroidogenesis at the early stage of fish at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Peixes/genética , Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Esteroides/biossíntese , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Família Multigênica , Transcriptoma
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 170: 112682, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218033

RESUMO

In the present study, the bioaccumulation of chromium, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, selenium, arsenic, strontium, cadmium, tin, antimony and lead in tissues of thirty marine fish species collected from New Ferry Whorf, Sassoon dock and Versova fishing harbour in Mumbai, India, were analysed. The bioaccumulation patterns of these twelve elements were determined to assess pollution biomarkers based on cellular and oxidative stresses. Catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-s-transferase, glycolytic enzymes viz. lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, protein metabolism enzymes viz. aspartate transferase and alanine transferase, and lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in muscle and gill tissues. The activities of the neurotransmitter enzyme acetylcholine esterase in muscle and brain tissues was inhibited due to pollution. This study suggested that biochemical attributes such as oxidative stress enzymes, cellular biomarkers, neurotransmitter enzymes and metal and metalloid contamination could be successfully employed, even at low concentrations, as reliable biomarkers for biomonitoring of contaminated marine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Metais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antioxidantes , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Peixes/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1199-1209, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173184

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the effects of dietary digested soybean protein (DSP) and taurine on bile acid (BA) level, lipase activity, lipid apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC), and growth performance of pompano (Trachinotus blochii). Five diets were formulated with fish meal (FM), defatted soybean meal (SBM), and the DSP as main dietary protein sources. The diets were denoted as follows: FMD (FM-based diet), SBMD (SBM-based diet), SBM+TD (SBM-based diet plus taurine), DSPD (DSP-based diet), and DSP+TD (DSP-based diet plus taurine). Fingerling pompano with an initial body weight (BW) of 21.4 g were stocked in 500-L tanks, with triplicate tanks per dietary treatment. For 8 weeks, the fish were hand-fed the experimental diets to apparent satiation twice daily. The results showed that the DSPD and DSP+TD groups had significantly higher final BW, weight gain, and specific growth rate, but lower feed conversion ratio, than the SBMD and SBM+TD groups, respectively (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in growth and feed performances between fish fed DSP+TD and FMD. The gallbladder and anterior intestinal BA levels, anterior intestinal lipase activity, and lipid and protein ADCs were markedly increased in fish fed DSPD and DSP+TD compared to those fed SBMD (P < 0.05), and no significant differences were detected between the DSP+TD and FMD groups. The findings of the present study suggested that dietary DSP inclusion with taurine supplementation might effectively improve lipid digestion and this contributed to growth enhancement in pompano fed a soybean protein-based diet.


Assuntos
Peixes , Proteínas de Soja/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Dieta , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/metabolismo , Vesícula Biliar/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186154

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that acts as a key regulator and is widely involved in various innate and acquired immune signaling pathways. In this study, we first cloned the complete open reading frame (ORF) of the MEKK3 gene (named CcMEKK3) in a hybrid snakehead (Channa maculate ♀ × Channa argus ♂). The full-length ORF of CcMEKK3 is 1851 bp, and encodes a putative protein of 616 amino acids containing a serine/threonine kinase catalytic (S-TKc) domain and a Phox and Bem1p (PB1) domain. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that CcMEKK3 is highly conserved relative to the MEKK3 proteins of other teleost species. CcMEKK3 was constitutively expressed in all the healthy hybrid snakehead tissues tested, with greatest expression in the immune tissues, such as the head kidney and spleen. The expression of CcMEKK3 was usually upregulated in the head kidney, spleen, and liver at different time points after infection with Nocardia seriolae or Aeromonas schubertii. Similarly, the dynamic expression levels of CcMEKK3 in head kidney leukocytes after stimulation revealed that CcMEKK3 was induced by LTA, LPS, and poly(I:C). In the subcellular localization analysis, CcMEKK3 was evenly distributed in the cytoplasm of HEK293T cells, and its overexpression significantly promoted the activities of NF-κB and AP-1. These results suggest that CcMEKK3 is involved in the immune defense against these two pathogens, and plays a crucial role in activating the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 3/metabolismo , Nocardiose/imunologia , Aeromonas/imunologia , Aeromonas/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 3/imunologia , Nocardia/imunologia , Nocardia/metabolismo , Nocardiose/metabolismo , Nocardiose/microbiologia
18.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 2898-2909, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146412

RESUMO

The antioxidant peptides extracted from plants or animals have shown great potential in preventing food quality deterioration caused by oxidization. Here, peptide fractions obtained from hairtail surimi hydrolysates (HSH) were investigated for structure and color-protective effect. The results showed the <3 kDa fraction obtained from HSH by ultrafiltration could be separated into five major fractions (A-E) by gel chromatography, among which fraction A possessed the highest antioxidant activities. This fraction A could be further separated into two fractions (A1 and A2 ) by the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and fraction A2 with lower α-helix content exhibited the higher antioxidant activities. The amino acids sequence of fraction A2 was identified as DLYANTVLSGGTTMYPGIADR (2214.0627 Da). The synthetic peptide with this sequence was also found to exhibit obvious antioxidant activity. Moreover, both HSH, fractions A1 and A2 , and synthetic peptide demonstrated color-protective effects during the beef preservation. Taken together, the results obtained showed that the natural antioxidant peptides could be isolated from HSH, which can be used in meat preservation for inhibiting color deterioration. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study demonstrated the potential of hairtail surimi hydrolysates (HSH) as a source of antioxidant peptides. Furthermore, these antioxidant peptides purified from HSH exhibited the potential for prevention of beef color deterioration of beef, providing a potential application for meat preservation. Particularly, using the antioxidant peptides sourced from fish surimi for meat preservation may not only ease the safety concerns about artificial preservatives but also create a unique selling proposition, especially in far eastern Asian countries, since consumers in these countries believe "umami" is the combination of "fish" and "meat."


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Bovinos , Oxirredução , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1651: 462286, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090056

RESUMO

The widespread use of quinolones has become an increasing global public health threat. In this study, IRMOF-3 coated SiO2/Fe3O4 were prepared via a facile room-temperature method. The prepared IRMOF-3 coated SiO2/Fe3O4 was used as a sorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction, and then combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of 10 quinolines. The extraction conditions of magnetic solid phase extraction were studied in detail, and the optimal conditions were established. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of quantification of 10 quinolones were in the range of 0.005-0.01 µg L-1, the relative standard deviations were 6.58-10.6% (n=7), the enrichment factors were 21.0-23.8 for water samples. The limits of quantification of 10 quinolones were in the range of 0.10-0.20 µg kg-1, the relative standard deviations were 5.95-14.5% (n=7), the enrichment factors were 1.08-1.24 for fish samples. The proposed method was applied for the determination of 10 quinolones in river water, aquacultural water and a fish sample, and enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were found in the fish sample.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Quinolonas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Concentração Osmolar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dióxido de Silício/química
20.
Food Chem ; 360: 130072, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082376

RESUMO

Seventy-five contaminants including chlorinated/brominated/parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl/Br/PAHs) were investigated in 29 edible aquatic species from the Indian Ocean near Sri Lanka and 10 species from the Pacific Ocean near Japan. Concentrations of total ClPAHs and BrPAHs in the samples were 2.6-57 and 0.30-9.5 ng/g-dry weight from the Indian Ocean, and 0.35-18 and 0.03-3.3 ng/g-dry weight from the Pacific Ocean, respectively. Comparing the profiles of Cl/BrPAHs among the samples, congeners of chlorinated and brominated pyrene were predominant components and enhanced the potential for biomagnification in the sample from the off-shore pelagic environment in the Indian Ocean. The incremental lifetime cancer risks estimated by intake of the targets in consuming aquatic organisms showed that approximately one-third of studied organisms exceeded the acceptable risk level for Sri Lankans.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Japão , Medição de Risco , Sri Lanka
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