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1.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127961, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829223

RESUMO

Standardized experimental approaches for the quantification of the bioaccumulation potential of nanomaterials in general and in (benthic) invertebrates in particular are currently lacking. We examined the suitability of the benthic freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca for the examination of the bioaccumulation potential of nanomaterials. A flow-through test system that allows the generation of bioconcentration and biomagnification factors was applied. The feasibility of the system was confirmed in a 2-lab comparison study. By carrying out bioconcentration and biomagnification studies with gold, titanium dioxide and silver nanoparticles as well as dissolved silver (AgNO3) we were able to assess the bioaccumulation potential of different types of nanomaterials and their exposure pathways. For this, the animals were examined for their total metal body burden using inductively coupled mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and for the presence of nanoparticulate burdens using single-particle ICP-MS. The role of released ions was highlighted as being very important for the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of metals from nanoparticles for both examined uptake paths examined (bioconcentration and biomagnification). In 2018 a tiered testing strategy for engineered nanomaterials was proposed by Handy et al. that may allow a waiver of bioaccumulation fish studies using inter alia invertebrates. Data gained in studies carried out with invertebrates like the developed Hyalella azteca test may be included in this proposed tiered testing strategy.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Peixes/metabolismo , Água Doce/química , Invertebrados/metabolismo , Prata/metabolismo , Titânio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127962, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841876

RESUMO

Microplastic (MP) pollution has become an emerging global concern in marine environments, but research on the uptake of MPs by commercial marine fish is relatively sparse. In this study, 29 commercial fish species (n = 584) with different feeding habits and trophic levels were collected from 8 sites along the Bohai Sea for MP uptake analysis. Approximately 85.4% of the total fish among all species ingested MPs, and there was an average abundance of 2.14 items/individual or 0.043 items/g of wet weight. Compared with other studies, MP pollution in fishes from the Bohai Sea was relatively moderate. The MPs were predominantly fibrous in shape and were cellophane, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP) in polymer composition. The highest abundance and polymer composition of MPs was observed in benthivores, suggesting that they might ingest these MPs from their food. The small fish Konosirus punctatus, which had a high level of MPs, may increase the risk of human exposure to the MPs when it is dried and consumed. Moreover, the spatial variation of MPs was determined in terms of abundance, shape composition, and major polymer types, but there was no marked relationship between MP abundance and the trophic levels of fish. Overall, this study provides a basis for the ecological risk assessment of MPs in fish and for a health risk assessment for human beings.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Plásticos/análise
3.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128059, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182110

RESUMO

Bioaccumulation of mercury in freshwater fish is a complex process driven by environmental and biological factors. In this study, we assessed mercury in fish from four tributaries to the Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada, which are characterized by high surface water mercury concentrations. We used carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes to examine relationships between fish total mercury (THg) concentrations, food web dynamics and patterns in unfiltered THg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations. We found that THg concentrations exceeded the tissue residue quality guideline for the protection of wildlife consumers in 99.7% of fish sampled. However, while the surface water THg concentration was highest in Michichi Creek and the MeHg concentration was consistent across streams, patterns of fish THg concentrations varied depending on species. Furthermore, body size and trophic level were only correlated with THg concentrations in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and Prussian carp (Carrasius gibelio). The results of this study suggest that mercury poses a risk to the health of piscivorous wildlife in the Red Deer River watershed. Despite high THg concentrations in these streams, mercury bioaccumulation is not driven by environmental inorganic mercury concentrations. Additionally, commonly cited factors associated with mercury concentrations in fish, such as body size and trophic level, may not strongly influence bioaccumulation in these stream ecosystems.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agricultura , Alberta , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
4.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128249, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182142

RESUMO

Saltwater fish is rich in health-promoting polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Excessive fish intake may also cause health hazards due to methylmercury (MeHg). A novel dose estimation method was proposed in this study to improve the quality of food matching by considering the usage ratio of cooking and processing methods in sampling design. In total, 39 table-ready samples were specified according to 2-3 common cooking methods, and MeHg and total mercury (THg) were analyzed. The results showed that mercury was detected in 20 samples (LOD = 0.01 µg/g). High MeHg samples included fried-Spanish mackerel (1.23 µg/g), non-cooked shredded swordfish (0.325 µg/g), pan-fried Spanish mackerel (0.248 µg/g), and non-cooked shredded salmon (0.208 µg/g). Consumption data (n = 166,911) were obtained from 24-h recalls in the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan (NAHSIT). The average whole-group estimated daily intake (EDI_WG) was 0.018 (7.9% tolerable daily intake, TDI) for women of child-bearing age and 0.031 µg/day per kg body weight (13.6% TDI) for children. However, 95th percentile values (P95) of 90.4% TDI and 185% TDI were estimated for the two consumer-only populations, which have raised public health concerns. The ratio of % TDI to % daily reference intake (% DRI) was used as a risk-benefit (R/B) indicator. The top 4 R/B foods were: tuna sashimi (0.089 and 0.14), non-cooked shredded swordfish (0.033 and 0.052), fried-Spanish mackerel (0.027 and 0.043) and deep-fried fish balls (0.022 and 0.035) in the two perspective populations.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Culinária , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Taiwan
5.
Gene ; 766: 145144, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916248

RESUMO

The elongases of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovls) are involved in the rate-limiting of the carbon chain elongation reaction in fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis in vertebrates. One member of the Elovls family, Elovl4, has been regarded as a critical enzyme involved in the biosynthesis pathway of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). To explore the role of Elovl4 in PUFA synthesis in Trachinotus ovatus, the cDNA of the Elovl4b gene is cloned from T. ovatus (ToElovl4b). The ORF of ToElovl4b was 918 bp and encoded 305 amino acid (aa) protein sequences. Sequence alignment showed that the deduced amino acids contained significant structural features of the Elovl4 family, such as a histidine box motif (HXXHH), multiple transmembrane domains and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed that ToElovl4b was highly conserved with that of Rachycentron canadum Elovl4b. Moreover, heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that ToElovl4b could efficiently elongate 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6 and 20:5n-3 FAs up to 20:2n-6, 20:3n-6 and 22:5n-3, respectively. Furthermore, the tissue expression profile indicated that mRNA expression of ToElovl4b was higher in the gonads and brain than in other tissues. Additionally, nutritional regulation suggested the highest mRNA levels of ToElovl4b in liver and brain were under feeding with 1:1 FO-SO (fish oil, FO; soybean oil, SO) and 1:1 FO-CO (corn oil, CO)), respectively. These new insights were useful for understanding the molecular basis and regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in fish.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/genética , Peixes/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/genética , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1633: 461612, 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130421

RESUMO

A sensitive multiresidue method was developed to quantify 35 pharmaceuticals and 28 metabolites/transformation products (TPs) in fish liver, fish fillet and fish plasma via LC-MS/MS. The method was designed to cover a broad range of substance polarities. This objective was realized by using non-discriminating sample clean-ups including separation technique based on size exclusion, namely restricted access media (RAM) chromatography. This universal clean-up allows for an easy integration of further organic micropollutants into the analytical method. Limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.05 to 5.5 ng/mL in fish plasma, from 0.1 to 19 ng/g d.w. (dry weight) in fish fillet and from 0.46 to 48 ng/g d.w. in fish liver. The method was applied for the analysis of fillets and livers of breams from the rivers Rhine and Saar, the Teltow Canal as well as carps kept in fish monitoring ponds fed by effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. This allowed for the first detection of 17 analytes including 10 metabolites/TPs such as gabapentin lactam and norlidocaine in fish tissues. These results highlight the importance of including metabolites and transformation products of pharmaceuticals in fish monitoring campaigns and further investigating their potential effects.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Rios/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Peixes/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Extração em Fase Sólida , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171852

RESUMO

Growing interest in hypertension-one of the main factors characterizing the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS)-and anti-hypertensive drugs raised from the emergence of a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the COVID19 pandemic. The virus SARS-CoV-2 employs the Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a component of the RAAS (Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System) system, as a receptor for entry into the cells. Several classes of synthetic drugs are available for hypertension, rarely associated with severe or mild adverse effects. New natural compounds, such as peptides, might be useful to treat some hypertensive patients. The main feature of ACE inhibitory peptides is the location of the hydrophobic residue, usually Proline, at the C-terminus. Some already known bioactive peptides derived from marine resources have potential ACE inhibitory activity and can be considered therapeutic agents to treat hypertension. Peptides isolated from marine vertebrates, invertebrates, seaweeds, or sea microorganisms displayed important biological activities to treat hypertensive patients. Here, we reviewed the anti-hypertensive activities of bioactive molecules isolated/extracted from marine organisms and discussed the associated molecular mechanisms involved. We also examined ACE2 modulation in sight of SARS2-Cov infection prevention.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , /química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Peixes/metabolismo , Halobacteriales/química , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oncorhynchus keta/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Pepinos-do-Mar/química , Undaria/química
8.
PLoS Genet ; 16(10): e1009173, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108368

RESUMO

In the frigid, oxygen-rich Southern Ocean (SO), Antarctic icefishes (Channichthyidae; Notothenioidei) evolved the ability to survive without producing erythrocytes and hemoglobin, the oxygen-transport system of virtually all vertebrates. Here, we integrate paleoclimate records with an extensive phylogenomic dataset of notothenioid fishes to understand the evolution of trait loss associated with climate change. In contrast to buoyancy adaptations in this clade, we find relaxed selection on the genetic regions controlling erythropoiesis evolved only after sustained cooling in the SO. This pattern is seen not only within icefishes but also occurred independently in other high-latitude notothenioids. We show that one species of the red-blooded dragonfish clade evolved a spherocytic anemia that phenocopies human patients with this disease via orthologous mutations. The genomic imprint of SO climate change is biased toward erythrocyte-associated conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) rather than to coding regions, which are largely preserved through pleiotropy. The drift in CNEs is specifically enriched near genes that are preferentially expressed late in erythropoiesis. Furthermore, we find that the hematopoietic marrow of icefish species retained proerythroblasts, which indicates that early erythroid development remains intact. Our results provide a framework for understanding the interactions between development and the genome in shaping the response of species to climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Peixes/genética , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Peixes/metabolismo , Genoma/genética , Oceanos e Mares , Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(4): 406-420, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123745

RESUMO

Methylmercury (MeHg) is the most toxic form of mercury and can accumulate in the cells of marine organisms, such as fish, causing adverse effects on various physiological functions. This study examined MeHg accumulation and its toxicological role in antioxidant defenses in tissues, including the liver, gills, and muscle of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) juveniles. After 30 d of MeHg exposure (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 20.0 µg L-1), the accumulation of MeHg in the three tissues correlated positively with the concentration of MeHg and exhibited tissue specificity in the order of liver > gills > muscle. Among the antioxidant markers, the activities of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and GST (glutathione S-transferase) as well as the content of glutathione (GSH) in the liver and gills were induced at 0.1-10.0 µg L-1 but repressed at 20.0 µg L-1. The activities of SOD and GST and the content of GSH in the muscle significantly increased with increasing MeHg concentration. Catalase (CAT) activity in the liver was induced at 0.1-1.0 µg L-1 but inhibited at 10.0-20.0 µg L-1, whereas exposure to MeHg did not remarkably affect CAT activity in the gills and muscle. The levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) increased dose dependently, showing tissue specificity with the highest level in the liver, then the gills, followed by muscles. Overall, higher sensitivity to oxidative stress induced by MeHg was detected in the liver than the gills and muscle. These findings improve our understanding of the tissue-specific accumulation of heavy metals and their roles in antioxidant responses in marine fish subjected to MeHg exposure.


Assuntos
Linguado/fisiologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Linguado/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
10.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 354-370, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025049

RESUMO

Heavy metals threaten communities near biodiversity hotspots, as their protein sources come from the environment. This study assessed Hg, Cd, and Se concentrations in fish, as well as the magnitude of exposure and hematological conditions of adult citizens from Puerto Nariño (Colombian Amazon). Among fish samples, greater Hg concentrations were found in higher trophic level species, including Rhaphiodon vulpinus (880 ± 130 ng/g) and Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (920 ± 87 ng/g). These species presented the highest hazard quotients and lowest Se:Hg molar ratios among those studied, showing their consumption represents a health risk to consumers. Moreover, some samples of Mylossoma duriventre and Prochilodus magdalenae had Cd levels greater than the regulated limit (100 ng/g). The average total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in human hair and blood were 5.31 µg/g and 13.7 µg/L, respectively. All hair samples exceeded the 1.0 µg/g threshold set by the USEPA, whereas 93% of the volunteers had T-Hg blood levels greater than 5 µg/L, suggesting elevated exposure. The mean Cd level was 3.1 µg/L, with 21% of samples surpassing 5 µg/L, value at which mitigating actions should be taken. Eighty-four percent of participants presented Se deficiencies (<100 µg/L). There was a significant association between fish consumption and T-Hg in hair (ρ = 0.323; p = 0.032) and blood (ρ = 0.381; p = 0.011). In this last matrix, Se correlated with Cd content, whereas lymphocytes were inversely linked to Hg concentrations. The results of this study show that there is  extensive exposure to Hg in fish, the consumption of which may promote detrimental impacts on hematology parameters within the community.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cádmio/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Cabelo/química , Mercúrio/análise , Selênio/análise , Adulto , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Colômbia , Exposição Dietética/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108815, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966918

RESUMO

Histamine or scombrotoxin fish poisoning is caused by ingestion of bacterially produced histamine in fish. Histamine-producing bacteria generally contain the histidine decarboxylase gene (hdc). However, some strains of Photobacterium phosphoreum are known to produce significant levels of histamine, although the hdc gene in these strains has not been recognized. The objective of this study was to investigate a previously unidentified mechanism of histamine production by P. phosphoreum. We identified a protein with histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity comparable to activity of the pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) dependent HDC from P. kishitanii and M. morganii. The newly identified protein (HDC2) in P. phosphoreum and P. kishitanii strains, was approximately 2× longer than the HDC protein from other Gram-negative bacteria and had 12% similarity to previously identified HDCs. In addition, the hdc2 gene cluster in P. phosphoreum was identical to the hdc gene cluster in P. kishitanii. HDC2 had optimal activity at 20-35 °C, at pH 4, and was not affected by 0-8% NaCl concentrations. Compared to the hdc gene from P. kishitanii, expression of the hdc2 gene was constitutive and not affected by pH or excess histidine. This newly identified protein explains possible mechanisms of histamine production in P. phosphoreum. Characterization of this protein will help in designing control measures to prevent or reduce histamine production in fish.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Histidina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Photobacterium/enzimologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Histamina/biossíntese , Histidina Descarboxilase/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Família Multigênica , Photobacterium/genética , Photobacterium/metabolismo , Fosfato de Piridoxal/metabolismo , Temperatura
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111183, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890922

RESUMO

Seaweed is an inherently important entity in marine ecosystems. It is not only consumed by aquatic animals but also improves environmental quality in the mariculture. Seaweed is also part of the diet of human beings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antagonism of selenium (Se)-enriched Gracilaria lemaneiformis against heavy metals, specifically, the potential of dietary Se-enriched Gracilaria to protect against heavy metal toxicity in rabbitfish (Siganus oramin). Growth rate, heavy metal (Se, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA), metallothionein (MT), and the activity of the antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were all assessed. The results showed that the total organic and inorganic Se concentration for the 250 mg L-1 Se-enriched Gracilaria was significantly higher than those of the 50 and 10 mg L-1 treatments after 3 days of enrichment. The mean total Se concentrations in Gracilaria were 42.5 µg g-1 in the 250 mg L-1 treatment, 13.5 µg g-1 in the 50 mg L-1 treatment and 2.5 µg g-1 in the 10 mg L-1 treatment, respectively. Organic Se accounts for 80-82% of total Se in Se-enriched Gracilaria. The Se concentration of rabbitfish fed Se-enriched Gracilaria was significantly higher than control. Furthermore, Se increased Cu and Zn absorption, and enhanced MT generation, and improved GPX, CAT, and SOD antioxidant activity, and decreased MDA concentrations and lipid peroxidation levels, all antagonistic to Cd, Pb and Cr. The effects of Se-enriched Gracilaria on waterborne Cd, Pb and Cr-induced toxicity occurred via both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative mechanisms in rabbitfish. Selenium had synergistic effects on Zn and Cu in rabbitfish. For the 50 mg L-1 Se-enriched Gracilaria treatment, the Se, Cu, Zn, and antagonistic Cd, Pb, Cr, and the antioxidant enzymes CAT, SOD, GPX activities, and MT concentrations in rabbitfish were higher than that with the 250 mg L-1 and 10 mg L-1 Se-enriched Gracilaria treatments. The 50 mg L-1 Se treatment of Gracilaria was deemed to be the optimum concentration to promote growth of rabbitfish. Therefore, the obtained results suggest Se-enriched Gracilaria can antagonize heavy metal toxicity, and is an advisable Se supplement to improve the edible safety of cultured animals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Gracilaria/química , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Alga Marinha/química , Selênio/análise , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cadeia Alimentar , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Selênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127742, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745738

RESUMO

The study examines the levels of total mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) in the muscle tissue of 12 commercially important fish species (n = 717) from 48 locations in the eastern Adriatic Sea, as a function of fish species, size and habitat. Risks and benefits of fish consumption regarding Hg and Se in children (7 years) and women of reproductive age (30 years) were also evaluated. All samples but one were compliant with the European regulatory limit for Hg in fish muscle. Concentrations (µg g-1 ww) of Hg (range: 0.014-1.37) and Se (range: 0.184-1.12) and Se:Hg molar ratios in fish were associated with habitat type. Demersal species had the highest Hg and the lowest Se concentrations, while pelagic species had the lowest Hg concentrations, highest Se concentrations and Se:Hg molar ratios. All species had Se:Hg molar ratios above 1 (range: 1.4-66.9) and a selenium health benefit value (HBVSe) above zero (range: 3.3-9.3), indicating Se excess after Hg sequestration. The intake of two meals per week of small pelagic-neritic and bento-pelagic fish is estimated to be a valuable source of essential Se, and does not pose a risk from toxic Hg exposure in children and women during the vulnerable reproductive period. Due to the low Hg and favorable Se:Hg molar ratio and HBVSe index, small pelagic species offer a good risk to benefit ratio of fish consumption and could be considered an optimal choice in these sensitive subpopulations.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Medição de Risco , Selênio/análise , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127714, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738711

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a harmful metal element for aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to determine waterborne Pb exposure on oxidative stress, serum biochemistry and heat shock proteins (HSPs) genes expression in Channa argus. Fish were randomly divided into four groups and the Pb concentrations were 0, 50, 200, and 800 µg/L, respectively. The results showed that the accumulation of Pb was detected in the gill, intestine, liver and muscle following exposure to Pb. Pb accumulation content in tissues was gill > intestinal > liver > muscle. With the increased of Pb exposure concentrations, the levels of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lysozyme (LZM) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) significantly decreased. Serum biochemistry, oxidative stress parameters and HSPs gene expression were all enhanced with the increase following Pb expose concentration. Our results suggest that waterborne Pb exposure can induce Pb accumulation, oxidative stress and immune response in C. argus.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Catalase/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
15.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 298-309, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860087

RESUMO

Aquatic environments are constantly exposed to a cocktail of contaminants mainly due to human activities. As polluted ecosystems may simultaneously present other multiple natural stressors, the objective of the present study was to evaluate joint effect of stressors (natural and anthropogenic) on life history traits of the Neotropical cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia silvestrii. For this purpose, the effects of water conditioned with predator kairomones (fish) and environmental concentrations (sublethal) of two pesticides widely used in sugarcane monoculture in Brazil, the insecticide Regent® 800 WG (active ingredient-a.i. fipronil) and the herbicide DMA® 806 BR (a.i. 2,4-D) were evaluated using chronic toxicity testing, isolated and in mixture, for this cladoceran species. The environmental risks of pesticides for tropical freshwater biota were also estimated from the risk quotient MEC/PNEC. Among the characteristics of the life history of C. silvestrii evaluated after 8 days of exposure, compared with the mean value of control, the age of primiparous females was not affected by any evaluated treatment. However, species average survival decreased in the treatment of kairomones mixed with fipronil (FK) and in the treatment with a mixture of fipronil, 2,4-D, and kairomones (MFKD). The body length of maternal females was shorter than in the control after exposure in treatments with only kairomones (K) and FK. Fecundity of this cladoceran was reduced when exposed to FK and MFKD treatments, and the intrinsic rate of population increase significantly decreased for organisms exposed to treatment with fipronil (F) and to mixtures of fipronil and 2,4-D (MFD), MFDK, and FK. The results indicated that the combination of anthropogenic and natural stressors causes changes in C. silvestrii life history traits, which can contribute to the decline in populations, and our preliminary risk assessment results are a matter of concern regarding biota conservation.


Assuntos
Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/toxicidade , Cladóceros/efeitos dos fármacos , Traços de História de Vida , Feromônios/toxicidade , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixes/metabolismo , Água Doce/química , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461311, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797814

RESUMO

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is a powerful tool for complex separations. The selectivity and sensitivity benefits from thermally modulated GC×GC were applied to the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Thermodynamic indices of 50 PCDD/Fs, including the 17 toxic 2378-substituted congeners, were collected and used to model one-dimensional and two-dimensional separations with the Rtx-Dioxin2 and Rxi-17SilMS capillary GC columns. Thermodynamic modeling was used to determine the optimal conditions to take advantage of the selectivity differences between the Rxi-17SilMS and Rtx-Dioxin2 to separate all PCDD/Fs congeners from the 2378-substituted compounds by GC×GC. The modeled elution order patterns closely matched the experimental elution order in 40 of the 45 tetrachlorinated through hexchlorinated compounds analyzed. The heptachlorinated and octachlorinated congeners were not included in the elution order modeling as they are readily resolved from other dioxin congeners. The Rxi-17SilMS crossed with the Rtx-Dioxin2 was able to separate all 2378-substituted compounds in a single separation in a fish matrix. Thirty-three additional PCDD/F congeners were added to the fish matrix that coelute with the 2378-substituted congeners. The Rxi-17SilMS crossed with the Rtx-Dioxin2 was able to fully resolve 11 of the 2378-substituted congeners with the other six congeners exhibiting coelutions with only one other congener.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Músculos/química , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Termodinâmica
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461356, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797836

RESUMO

The presence of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in everyday commodities such as furniture, household appliances and baby toys have rendered these contaminants ubiquitous in environmental fates such as air, water, soils and biota. Their presence in food-related species suggests that an additional route of exposure to these esters for the general population is fish intake through diet. Their incipient toxicity and carcinogenetic behaviour make it essential to develop methods for determining OPEs in fish samples. In this paper we have developed a new method for determining 9 OPEs based on the QuEChERS extraction method followed by a simple clean-up using a novel device for selective lipid removal (LipiFiltr) and GC-MS/MS to extract these compounds from fish samples regardless of lipid content. QuEChERS salt packet optimisation and clean-up strategies such as liquid-liquid extraction, dispersive-solid phase extraction and LipiFiltr were tested. Our results showed that EN 15662 method salts and Lipifiltr were the best combination to produce efficient analyte apparent recovery (67-116%) and negligible matrix effects (<10%). Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 ng g-1 (dry weight) for TiBP and TBP to 2.00 ng g-1 (dry weight) for TCEP. Fish samples from four fish species were determined with a median concentration of ΣOPEs 5.31 ng g-1 on a wet weight basis, with TBP, TiBP and TCPP as the main contenders. Estimates of exposure and risk associated with consuming these compounds via dietary intake showed low levels of concern for the population of Tarragona.


Assuntos
Ésteres/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Organofosfatos/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Food Chem ; 333: 127516, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683261

RESUMO

Benzotriazoles (BTRs) and benzothiazoles (BTs) are two groups of emerging concern and high production volume contaminants. Via the biomagnification of the food web, they could jeopardize human health. In this work, rapid determining the presence of five BTRs and two BTs in marketed fish was performed by a novel double-vortex-ultrasonic assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (DVUA-MSPD) and UHPLC-electrospray ionization (+)-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection. Unlike traditional MSPD, we simplified the method without the use of mortar/pestle and SPE-column procedures. The DVUA-MSPD factors were screened by a multilevel categorical design, and then optimized by Box-Behnken Design plus with response surface methodology. The limits of quantification were 0.15-2 ng g-1 (dry weight). The satisfactory average recovery ranged from 70% to 93% with RSDs less than 9%. The developed method was successfully applied for the rapid determination of selected BTRs and BTs in fish samples at trace-level.


Assuntos
Benzotiazóis/química , Peixes/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Animais , Benzotiazóis/análise , Benzotiazóis/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Ultrassom
19.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127692, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721689

RESUMO

Marine organisms are exposed to great changes caused by man due to discharges into the oceans, so the study of marine pollution is of great value for each ecosystem. For this study, 963 specimens of pelagic fish have been collected, of which 345 are Scomber colias, 294 are Trachurus picturatus and 324 are Sardina pilchardus, it was wanted to study the development and ontogeny in the three species observing if there were variations in their metallic content. The study covered a total of 2 years, from June 2016 to May 2018.16 samples of each species were studied each month, during the 2 years of sampling, from the samplings carried out by the Canary Islands Oceanographic Center of the Spanish Institute Oceanography (COC-IEO) in the markets of the Island of Tenerife. The concentration of 11 anthropic metals was determined in each sample using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique. Statistical studies were carried out with factors such as the oceanographic season, and the level of maturity of the gonads. S. colias was the species that presented the highest concentration in a greater number of metals. S. pilchardus presents higher concentration in Cu, Li and Zn, in the warm season. These are metals of a very anthropic character on coasts; This species tends to get closer to the coasts compared to the other two and is the cause of its higher concentration in these metals due to the influence of pollution linked to the coast. The immature specimens of the three species had a higher concentration in more metals than the mature specimens.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , África Ocidental , Animais , Ecossistema , Gônadas , Humanos , Metais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Oceanos e Mares , Perciformes , Estações do Ano , Espanha , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127656, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679373

RESUMO

The widespread presence of microplastics in global aquatic ecosystems has aroused growing concerns regarding their potential impact on aquatic biota. Data show an extensive plastic pollution in coastal areas of Guangdong, China, however, to date there has been no quantitative study on the ingestion of microplastics by commercial fishes from the estuarine areas. In this study, we analyzed the abundance, characteristics, species-specific and spatial distribution of microplastics in six species of commercial fish from estuarine areas of Guangdong. Sixty-four fish samples from nineteen sampling sites were investigated. The average abundance of microplastics in the gastrointestinal tracts of the commercial fishes was 5.4 items/individual, indicating potential food safety. The majority of microplastics were fibers, white in color and less than 1 mm in size. Species-specific and spatial distribution of the microplastics were observed in terms of abundance, shape, color and size. Sillago japonica had the highest (6.9 items/individual), while Alepes djedaba had the lowest (3 items/individual) abundance of microplastics in the gastrointestinal tract. We recommend demersal Mugil cephalus and pelagic Konosirus punctatus to be considered as two species suitable for monitoring microplastics ingestion in the seafloor and water column communities.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Biota , China , Ecossistema , Poluição Ambiental , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Microplásticos/análise , Plásticos , Smegmamorpha , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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