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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 5179-5184, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The pesticide dimethoate (O-dimethyl-S- Nmethylcarbamoylmethyl phosphorodithioate) is able to induce severe acute toxicity in living organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet radiation, alone or combined with exposure to dimethoate, on the rat skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 38 Wistar female rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus), were distributed into four groups: A (n=9) control group, B (n=10) exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B), C (n=10) exposed to UV-B followed by application of dimethoate (UV-B+AGRO) and group D (n=9) exposed to dimethoate (AGRO). Histological examination of the tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase 3, Ki-67 and COX-2 expression were performed to all groups. RESULTS: Animals submitted to UV-B exhibited hyperkeratosis with moderate cell atypia. Regarding exposure to UV-B+AGRO, the animals presented hyperkeratosis and atrophy, whereas in animals exposed to AGRO, only atrophy was noticed. The immunohistochemical results on skin revealed that UVB, AGRO and UVB+AGRO decreased cleaved caspase 3 and Ki-67 expression when compared to the control group (p<0.05). COX-2 expression decreased to UVB or AGRO groups compared to controls (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: UV-B or AGRO exposure is able to induce histopathological changes and altered expression of cleaved caspase-3 and Ki-67 in rat skin, thus being categorized as a risk condition for skin carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Dimetoato/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Biomarcadores , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Pele/metabolismo
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 172-180, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404593

RESUMO

Vesicants cause a multitude of cutaneous reactions like erythema, blisters and ulcerations. After exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) and related compounds, patients present dermal symptoms typically known for chemicals categorized as skin sensitizer (e.g. hypersensitivity and flare-up phenomena). However, although some case reports led to the assumption that SM and other alkylating compounds represent sensitizers, a comprehensive investigation of SM-triggered immunological responses has not been conducted so far. Based on a well-structured system of in chemico and in vitro test methods, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) established procedures to categorize agents on their skin sensitizing abilities. In this study, the skin sensitizing potential of SM and three related alkylating agents (AAs) was assessed following the OECD test guidelines. Besides SM, investigated AAs were chlorambucil (CHL), nitrogen mustard (HN3) and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The methods are described in detail in the EURL ECVAM DataBase service on ALternative Methods to animal experimentation (DB-ALM). In accordance to OECD recommendations, skin sensitization is a pathophysiological process starting with a molecular initiating step and ending with the in vivo outcome of an allergic contact dermatitis. This concept is called adverse outcome pathway (AOP). An AOP links an adverse outcome to various key events which can be assayed by established in chemico and in vitro test methods. Positive outcome in two out of three key events indicates that the chemical can be categorized as a skin sensitizer. In this study, key event 1 "haptenation" (covalent modification of epidermal proteins), key event 2 "activation of epidermal keratinocytes" and key event 3 "activation of dendritic cells" were investigated. Covalent modification of epidermal proteins measured by using the DPRA-assay provided distinct positive results for all tested substances. Same outcome was seen in the KeratinoSens assay, investigating the activation of epidermal keratinocytes. The h-CLAT assay performed to determine the activation of dendritic cells provided positive results for SM and CEES but not for CHL and HN3. Altogether, following OECD requirements, our results suggest the classification of all investigated substances as skin sensitizers. Finally, a tentative AOP for SM-induced skin sensitization is suggested.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade , Irritantes/toxicidade , Gás de Mostarda/toxicidade , Testes de Irritação da Pele/normas , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/classificação , Clorambucila/classificação , Clorambucila/toxicidade , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Irritantes/classificação , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/imunologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Células de Langerhans/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Langerhans/imunologia , Células de Langerhans/metabolismo , Mecloretamina/classificação , Mecloretamina/toxicidade , Gás de Mostarda/análogos & derivados , Gás de Mostarda/classificação , Medição de Risco , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo
3.
Chem Biol Interact ; 310: 108752, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330126

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease whose pathogenesis is still not fully understood. Since inflammatory processes correlate with oxidative stress, the redox status may play a key role in AD. In this study, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was mainly used to investigate the redox status in normal and inflammatory skin equivalents mimicking characteristics of AD in vitro using EPR spin probes (TEMPO, PCA) and a spin trap (DMPO). The total antioxidant status in the hydrophilic and lipophilic compartments of skin (microenvironment) showed no differences between the skin equivalents. In the inflammatory skin equivalents, a decreased glutathione concentration in the epidermis and an increased metabolic radical production could be observed compared to normal skin equivalents. The induction of external stress by simulated solar irradiation (UVB-NIR) resulted in the same amount and type of radicals in normal and inflammatory skin equivalents. For the first time, the antioxidant and oxidant status of inflammatory in vitro skin equivalents was analyzed by EPR to elucidate their redox status using different methods which focus on various microenvironments. Our investigations suggested that the redox status in atopic skin could be different, but this should be investigated more comprehensively, because the results can vary depending on the used methods and where the investigations take place.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Pele/patologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Glutationa/análise , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Pele/metabolismo
4.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(9): 2241-2250, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342168

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The tripartite motif (TRIM)16 acts as a tumour suppressor in both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma. TRIM16 is known to be secreted by keratinocytes, but no studies have been reported yet to assess the relationship between TRIM16 keratinocyte expression and melanoma development. METHODS: To study the role of TRIM16 in skin cancer development, we developed a keratinocyte TRIM16-specific knockout mouse model, and used the classical two-stage skin carcinogenesis challenge method, to assess the loss of keratinocyte TRIM16 on both papilloma, SCC and melanoma development in the skin after topical carcinogen treatment. RESULTS: Heterozygous, but not homozygous, TRIM16 knockout mice exhibited an accelerated development of skin papillomas and melanomas, larger melanoma lesions and an increased potential for lymph node metastasis. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that keratinocyte loss of the putative melanoma tumour suppressor protein, TRIM16, enhances melanomagenesis. Our data also suggest that TRIM16 expression in keratinocytes is involved in cross talk between keratinocytes and melanocytes, and has a role in melanoma tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Perda de Heterozigosidade/fisiologia , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Queratinócitos/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
5.
Life Sci ; 231: 116674, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344427

RESUMO

Hypertrophic scar formation is a fibroproliferative disorder caused by abnormal wound healing. At present, there are limited treatment strategies for hypertrophic scars. In this study, we identified an endogenous peptide, LYENRL, through peptidomics screening that is downregulated in scar skin tissues. The peptide exhibited concentration dependent inhibitory effects on the proliferation, migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) production of scar fibroblasts. By eukaryotic transcriptome sequencing analysis, we noted that LYENRL downregulated gene sets in scar fibroblasts were associated with the transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling pathway. Further experiments revealed that LYENRL was able to inhibit the activation of TGF-ß1/Smad signaling and TGF-ß1-induced activation of scar fibroblasts at the source by blocking the binding of AP-1 to the corresponding region of the Tgfb1 promoter, which in turn inhibited gene expression of Tgfb1. Taken together, we concluded that the effects of LYENRL on scar fibroblasts make it a potential peptide drug for hypertrophic scar treatment.


Assuntos
Cicatriz Hipertrófica/metabolismo , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/patologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Humanos , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/fisiologia , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/fisiologia
6.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1075: 91-97, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196427

RESUMO

Antioxidants are important to protect and maintain biological barriers, such as the skin. Antioxidant effects are often assessed using clinical trials, however these tests are costly and time consuming. In this work we introduce a skin membrane-covered oxygen electrode (SCOE) as an in vitro tool for monitoring H2O2 and antioxidant reactions in skin. The SCOE gives amperometric response to H2O2 concentrations down to 0.05 mM. More importantly, the electrode allows measurements of polyphenol penetration and reaction with H2O2 in skin. Measurements with SCOE show that lipophilic polyphenols such as quercetin, piceatannol, resveratrol, and plant extract from Plantago major impose their antioxidant effect in skin within 2-20 min. Rutin is however too hydrophilic to penetrate into stratum corneum and therefore cannot deliver its antioxidant effect during similar time interval. The measurements are interpreted considering polyphenol partition-penetration through stratum corneum and the reaction with the H2O2-catalase system in the skin. The contribution of other enzymes will be addressed in the future.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Inflamação/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Catalase/metabolismo , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hidroquinonas/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Oxigênio/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantago/química , Pele/enzimologia , Suínos
7.
Pharm Res ; 36(8): 124, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227928

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of short durations of externally applied heat with chemical penetration enhancers to improve delivery of isotretinoin to the skin and in particular via the follicular route. METHODS: A range of chemical penetration enhancers were screened for their ability to improve isotretinoin delivery into human skin with heat using infinite dose, Franz cell experiments conducted in a water bath at a higher temperature to simulate heated conditions. Following this a prototype external heating system was developed that provided short durations of heat and its ability to improve delivery of finite doses into the skin and hair follicles was assessed. RESULTS: The magnitude of the effect of heat on drug delivery was influenced by the choice of vehicle with changes in isotretinoin flux across skin ranging from not statistically significant to 25 fold increases with heat in the infinite dose studies. The prototype heating system provided significant increases in the total delivery of isotretinoin into the skin from an optimised vehicle. Drug distribution in the skin revealed significant increases in isotretinoin delivery to the hair follicles, and deeper skin layers, but not to the stratum corneum, providing strong evidence that the enhancement in delivery occurred mainly via the hair follicles. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the use of short durations of heat combined with chemical penetration enhancers offers a valuable strategy for improving the delivery of drugs such as isotretinoin to the skin via the hair follicles. Graphical Abstract Schematic illustration of the sodium thiosulphate heating system on a Franz diffusion cell and the subsequent impact of a short burst of heat on the delivery of isotretinoin into human skin.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Folículo Piloso/química , Isotretinoína/farmacologia , Administração Cutânea , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Folículo Piloso/citologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Isotretinoína/administração & dosagem , Permeabilidade , Pele/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea , Tiossulfatos/química
8.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(6): 227, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222590

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to develop a spilanthol emulsion and investigate the effect of oil and drug physicochemical properties on drug release and skin retention at molecular level. Formulation factors including oil, emulsifier, and humectant were investigated by in vitro skin retention/permeation study and the optimized formulation was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the controlled release effect of oil was characterized using drug emulsion distribution study, drug release study, FT-IR, and molecular modeling. The optimized emulsion (squalane as oil phase) obtained the maximum skin retention (118.71 ± 10.30 µg/g), which significantly restored skin hydroxyproline content (23.99 ± 2.21 µg/g), compared with the positive group (14.75 ± 1.84 µg/g) and the negative group (15.55 ± 2.03 µg/g). It was caused by high drug release of squalene and good drug-skin miscibility. FT-IR and molecular modeling showed that spilanthol (SPI) interacted with squalene through Van der Waals force, which was weaker than a hydrogen bond formed with other oils, thus exhibited good drug release properties. And the released drug was stored in the skin due to good drug-skin miscibility, which was proved by miscibility calculation and molecular modeling. In conclusion, an effective emulsion was developed and the controlled release effect of oil phase was proved through drug-excipient interaction.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Emulsificantes/administração & dosagem , Emulsões/química , Óleos/química , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/administração & dosagem , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
9.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(1-2): 12-19, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228363

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to examine the content of transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) in fibroblasts and blood microvessels of human dermis from the development until deep aging (from 20 weeks of pregnancy until 85 years old), and defining of a role of TGF-ß in age-dependent changes in the number of fibroblasts and blood microvessels in the dermis. TGF-ß, proliferating cells nuclear antigen (PCNA), endothelial cells marker CD 31 were detected with indirect immunohistochemical technique. Results showed that portion of fibroblasts with positive staining for TGF-ß in the dermis is increased from 20 weeks of pregnancy until 85 years old. More expressed growth in percent of TGF-ß positive fibroblasts in the human dermis is observed after birth and after 40 years old. The content of TGF-ß in blood microvessels in the human dermis is decreased sufficiently from 41 years old. Age-related increase in a portion of fibroblasts with positive staining on TGF-ß is associated with an age-related decrease in total number and percent of PCNA positive fibroblasts in human dermis. Age-related decrease in the content of TGF-ß in blood microvessels is accompanied with an age-related decrease in their number in the dermis. Age-related increase in the content of TGF-ß in fibroblasts is involved in an age-dependent decrease in their total number and proliferation in the dermis. Age-related decrease in the content of TGF-ß in blood microvessels in dermis takes part in the age-related diminishing of blood microvessels number in the dermis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Derme , Pele , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Pele/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores
10.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111538, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247385

RESUMO

The effects of topically administered snake (Deinagkistrodon acutus) oil and its main fatty acid components on skin photodamage were explored. Epidermal thickness, mice body weight, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase), inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6), skin histology, collagen content, and metalloproteinase-1 indicators were analyzed. The results show that topical application of both snake oil and its main fatty acids recovered ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced antioxidant enzymes depletion, prevented metalloproteinase-1. Snake oil and its main fatty acids suppressed dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells and reduced inflammatory cytokines levels. Notably, there was no significant difference in the antioxidant activity but a significant difference in the anti-inflammatory activity between fatty acids and snake oil under the same dose. Finally, snake oil and its main fatty acids inhibited UVB-induced histological damage such as epidermal thickening, collagen fiber and elastic fiber destruction. Our study demonstrated for the first time in KM mice that snake oil exhibited prominent photoprotection activity by protecting the activity of antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting inflammatory factors, as well as reducing the generation of MMP-1. What's more, the main fatty acids in snake oil play an important role in preventing photo-damage especially in protecting antioxidant enzyme activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Serpentes/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epiderme/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hidroxiprolina/análise , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 23(6): 387-392, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161820

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) affects nearly 50% of the diabetic population. Advanced glycation end products, measured through skin autofluorescence (SAF), play an important role in the diagnosis and prevention of DPN. To date, however, no relevant study has discussed the relationship between SAF and the Chinese population. Objective: We conducted this study to evaluate the association between DPN and SAF among the Chinese population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited a total of 820 patients with type 2 diabetes. All of the patients underwent SAF measurements and a nerve conduction study (NCS). Post-SAF characterization, the patients were divided into three groups according to the first and third quartiles of their SAF values (AU) (SAF ≤ 2.2; 2.2 < SAF ≤ 2.7; SAF > 2.7). Based on the results of the NCS, patients were divided into two groups: DPN and non-DPN. Results: When compared with the non-DPN group (n = 275) with the DNP group. The latter had higher SAF values (2.72 ± 0.55 AU vs. 2.17 ± 0.71 AU, P < 0.01). There were significant differences in age, the percentage of DPN, and NCS parameters, including motor nerve conduction velocity, sensory nerve conduction velocity, distal latency, and sensory nerve action potential among the three SAF groups (p < 0.05). The SAF value was positively associated with DPN (r = 0.11, p < 0.01). After adjusting for all potential confounders, the SAF values were still associated with an increased risk of DPN (odds ratio 5.15; 95% confidence interval [1.48-4.53]) (p < 0.01). A receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that an SAF value >2.57 ng/mL predicts a threefold increased risk of DPN (p < 0.01). Conclusions: SAF is an independent risk factor for DPN, which might be of potential value for screening DPN in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , China , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Pele/metabolismo
13.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 211: 25-34, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084890

RESUMO

Red Mark Syndrome (RMS) is a skin disease reported from farmed rainbow trout. Since the turn of the millennium it has been spreading through Europe. RMS is probably a bacterial disease caused by a Midichloria-like organism (MLO). It is non-lethal and causes little obvious changes in appetite or behavior but results in red hyperaemic skin lesions, which may lead to economic losses due to downgrading. Here we transfer RMS to naïve specific pathogen free (SPF) fish by cohabitation with RMS-affected seeder fish. During disease development we characterize local cellular immune responses and regulations of immunologically relevant genes in skin of the cohabitants by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. Skin samples from SPF controls and cohabitants (areas with and without lesions) were taken at 18, 61, 82 and 97 days post-cohabitation. Gene expression results showed that lesions had a Th1-type profile, but with concurrent high expression levels of all three classes of immunoglobulins (IgD, IgM and IgT). The marked local infiltration of IgD + cells in the skin lesions as well as a highly up-regulated expression of the genes encoding sIgD and mIgD indicate that this immunoglobulin class plays an important role in skin immunity in general and in RMS pathology in particular. The co-occurrence of an apparent B cell dominated immune reaction with a Th1-type profile suggests that the local production of antibodies is independent of the classical Th2 pathway.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica , Imunoglobulina D/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Pele/metabolismo
14.
Nat Immunol ; 20(6): 756-764, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110315

RESUMO

Emerging data show that tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells play an important protective role at murine and human barrier sites. TRM cells in the epidermis of mouse skin patrol their surroundings and rapidly respond when antigens are encountered. However, whether a similar migratory behavior is performed by human TRM cells is unclear, as technology to longitudinally follow them in situ has been lacking. To address this issue, we developed an ex vivo culture system to label and track T cells in fresh skin samples. We validated this system by comparing in vivo and ex vivo properties of murine TRM cells. Using nanobody labeling, we subsequently demonstrated in human ex vivo skin that CD8+ TRM cells migrated through the papillary dermis and the epidermis, below sessile Langerhans cells. Collectively, this work allows the dynamic study of resident immune cells in human skin and provides evidence of tissue patrol by human CD8+ TRM cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Memória Imunológica , Pele/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Epiderme/imunologia , Epiderme/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052530

RESUMO

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is the second most frequent cancer in humans and it can be locally invasive and metastatic to distant sites. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are endogenous, small, non-coding RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides in length, that are involved in regulating gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. MicroRNAs have been implicated in diverse biological functions and diseases. In cancer, miRNAs can proceed either as oncogenic miRNAs (onco-miRs) or as tumor suppressor miRNAs (oncosuppressor-miRs), depending on the pathway in which they are involved. Dysregulation of miRNA expression has been shown in most of the tumors evaluated. MiRNA dysregulation is known to be involved in the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). In this review, we focus on the recent evidence about the role of miRNAs in the development of CSCC and in the prognosis of this form of skin cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
16.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 5251-5262, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059100

RESUMO

Keloids are benign fibrous overgrowths that occur as a result of abnormal wound healing following cutaneous injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are short non­coding RNAs that serve critical roles in numerous important biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, their role in keloid development remains largely unknown. In the present study, the role of miR­30a­5p, a miRNA regulated by Trichostatin A (TSA), in apoptosis within cultured keloid fibroblasts was investigated. An MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation of cultured keloid fibroblasts treated with TSA. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle phases were analyzed using flow cytometry. In addition, an miRNA microarray was performed to compare expression profiles between cultured keloid fibroblasts treated with or without 1,000 nM TSA. Reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was conducted to estimate miRNA expression levels. The direct target of miR­30a­5p was identified using a dual­luciferase reporter assay. Western blotting was employed to assess protein expression levels in keloid fibroblasts. The results demonstrated that TSA inhibited the proliferation of keloid fibroblasts in a time­ and dose­dependent manner. The miRNA microarray revealed alterations in the expression of numerous miRNA sequences in response to TSA when compared with controls. Notably, the expression of miR­30a­5p was downregulated in keloid tissues. In addition, overexpression of miR­30a­5p induced apoptosis by targeting B­cell lymphoma 2, which was similar to that observed in response to TSA. These results provide important information regarding a novel miR­30a­5p­mediated signaling pathway induced by TSA treatment, and suggest a potential use for TSA and miR­30a­5p as effective therapeutic strategies for keloids.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Antagomirs/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Colágeno/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queloide/metabolismo , Queloide/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
17.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 915-927, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110316

RESUMO

The molecular and cellular processes that lead to renal damage and to the heterogeneity of lupus nephritis (LN) are not well understood. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to renal biopsies from patients with LN and evaluated skin biopsies as a potential source of diagnostic and prognostic markers of renal disease. Type I interferon (IFN)-response signatures in tubular cells and keratinocytes distinguished patients with LN from healthy control subjects. Moreover, a high IFN-response signature and fibrotic signature in tubular cells were each associated with failure to respond to treatment. Analysis of tubular cells from patients with proliferative, membranous and mixed LN indicated pathways relevant to inflammation and fibrosis, which offer insight into their histologic differences. In summary, we applied scRNA-seq to LN to deconstruct its heterogeneity and identify novel targets for personalized approaches to therapy.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/citologia , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Biópsia , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibrose , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
18.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(2): 143-148, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135106

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To study the time-dependent expression and distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) during skin incised wound healing in mice, and discuss its effect in wound healing as well as the feasibility of using it as a reference index for wound age estimation. Methods A total of 45 C57BL/KsJ mice were randomly divided into one control group and eight incised groups. The skin incised wound model was established in the incised groups with samples of skin wounds taken at 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 10 d and 14 d post-injury respectively, while the uninjured skin tissue was extracted in the control group. Expression and distribution of AChE in skin samples were detected by immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Results Immunohistochemistry results indicated that AChE was mainly detected in infiltrating polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) 6 to 12 h post-injury. A large number of AChE-positive mononuclear cells (MNCs) were observed 1 to 3 d post-injury. The AChE-positive cells were mainly fibroblastic cells (FBCs) 5 to 14 d post-injury. The ratio of the AChE-positive cells increased initially 6 h post-injury, and reached the peak at 1 d post-injury. Double immunofluorescent staining showed that the majority of AChE-positive MNCs and FBCs expressed macrophage marker and myofibroblast marker, respectively. Western blotting results showed that the relative expression level of AChE in the incised group was higher than that in the control group averagely, reached the peak at 1 d post-injury, then reached a second peak at 7 d post-injury. Conclusion The expression of AChE is found in PMNs, macrophages and myofibroblast during skin wound healing, which indicates it might be involved in the adjustment of inflammatory response and fibrotic repair after injury. Moreover, combined use of various methods for the detection of the expression of AChE would provide reference for skin wound age estimation.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Pele/lesões , Pele/metabolismo , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pele/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Chemosphere ; 229: 549-558, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100626

RESUMO

Nunavimmiut (Inuit of Nunavik, Northern Quebec, Canada) exhibit a high selenium (Se) status because of their frequent consumption of marine mammal foods. Indirect evidence from our previous studies had suggested that selenoneine - a novel selenocompound - may be accumulating in the blood of Nunavimmiut. We used a liquid-chromatography/inductively coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS/MS) method to measure concentrations of selenoneine and its methylated metabolite Se-methylselenoneine in archived red blood cells (RBC) obtained from 210 Nunavimmiut living in communities along the Hudson Strait, where marine mammal hunting and consumption are most frequent in Nunavik. This method was adapted to quantify selenoneine and its methylated metabolite in beluga mattaaq, an Inuit delicacy consisting of the skin with the underlying layer of fat and the major dietary source of Se for Nunavimmiut. Total selenium concentration was also measured in RBC and beluga mattaaq samples by isotope dilution ICP-MS/MS. The median selenoneine concentration in RBC was 413 µg Se/L (range = 3.20-3230 µg Se/L), representing 54% (median) of total Se content (range = 1.6-91%). Quantification of selenoneine in five beluga mattaaq samples (skin layer) from Nunavik revealed a median concentration of 1.8 µg Se/g wet wt (range = 1.2-7.4 µg Se/g), constituting 54% (median) of the total Se content (range = 44-74%). Se-methylselenoneine was also detected in Inuit RBC but not in beluga mattaaq, suggesting that selenoneine undergoes methylation in humans. Selenoneine may protect Nunavimmiut from methylmecury toxicity by increasing its demethylation in RBC and in turn decreasing its distribution to target organs.


Assuntos
Beluga , Eritrócitos/química , Histidina/análogos & derivados , Inuítes , Compostos Organosselênicos/análise , Pele/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Comportamento Alimentar , Histidina/análise , Histidina/metabolismo , Histidina/farmacocinética , Humanos , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organosselênicos/metabolismo , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacocinética , Quebeque , Selênio/análise , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067781

RESUMO

Despite the constantly updated knowledge regarding the alterations occurring in the cells of patients with psoriasis, the status and the role of the lysosome, a control center of cell metabolism, remain to be elucidated. The architecture of the epidermis is largely regulated by the action of lysosomes, possibly activating signaling pathways in the cellular crosstalk of keratinocytes-epidermal cells-with infiltrating immune cells. Thus, in the present study, lysosome alterations were examined in vitro and in situ using a two-dimensional (2D) keratinocyte model of HaCaT cells with "psoriasis-like" inflammation and skin specimens, respectively. Specific fluorescence and immunohistochemical staining showed an augmented level of acidic organelles in response to keratinocyte activation (mimicking a psoriatic condition while maintaining the membrane integrity of these structures) as compared with the control, similar to that seen in skin samples taken from patients. Interestingly, patients with the most pronounced PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index), BSA (Body Surface Area), and DLQI (Dermatology Life Quality Index) scores suffered a high incidence of positive lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) expression. Moreover, it was found that the gene deregulation pattern was comparable in lesioned (PP) and non-lesioned (PN) patient-derived skin tissue, which may indicate that these alterations occur prior to the onset of the characteristic phenotype of the disease. Changes in the activity of genes encoding the microphthalmia family (MiT family) of transcription factors and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1) were also observed in the in vitro psoriasis model, indicating that the biogenesis pathway of this arm is inhibited. Interestingly, in contrast to the keratinocytes of HaCaT with "psoriasis-like" inflammation, LAMP1 was up-regulated in both PP and PN skin, which can be a potential sign of an alternative mechanism of lysosome formation. Defining the molecular profile of psoriasis in the context of "the awesome lysosome" is not only interesting, but also desired; therefore, it is believed that this paper will serve to encourage other researchers to conduct further studies on this subject.


Assuntos
Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Psoríase/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Queratinócitos/ultraestrutura , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Lisossomos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psoríase/patologia , Pele/ultraestrutura
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