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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210219, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253954

RESUMO

Aim: This study evaluated the chemical composition of Lippia thymoides (Lt) essential oil and its antimicrobial activity against fungal strains of Candida albicans (Ca) and Gram-negative bacteria Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). Methods: Lt essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation apparatus with a modified Clevenger extension. The chemical analysis was analyzed by gas phase chromatography and mass spectrometry on Shimadzu QP 2010 plus. Sample sensitivity evaluation was performed by ABHb-inoculum and culture plates were developed with triphenyltetrazolium chloride, also Fn and Pi samples analysis were in anaerobic environment and Ca sample analysis was performed in aerobic environment. The minimum inhibitory concentration (CIM) was determinated by microdilution in eppendorfs tubes. Results: The chemical analysis showed that Thymol (59,91%) is the main compound found in Lt essential oil, also other antifungal and antimicrobial agents were present γ-terpinene (8.16%), p-cymene (7.29%) and ß-caryophyllene (4.49%), Thymol is a central ingredient of many medicinal plants and has a potent fungicidal, bactericidal and antioxidant activity, it has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory activity against Periodontal Disease (PD) cause can reduces prostanoids, interleukins, leukotrienes levels in periodontium. CIM result Pi was 6.5 µg/mL, Fn was 1.5 µg/mL and Ca was 0.19 µg/mL. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of L. thymoides, through the compound Thymol, has been shown promising potential against gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria and fungi whose therapeutic arsenal is still very restricted


Assuntos
Periodontite , Óleos Voláteis , Extratos Vegetais , Lippia , Microbiota , Antifúngicos
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205812

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Materials and Methods: Electronic search using PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, and Cochrane library was carried out for randomized controlled trials, cohort, case-control, longitudinal and epidemiological studies on humans published from January 2009 until September 2020. The participants had to be male and female adults who were diagnosed with OSAS either by overnight polysomnography (carried out at a sleep laboratory or at home) or by a home sleep testing monitor (Apnea Risk Evaluation System). Methodological quality assessment was carried out using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) for case-control studies while an adapted form of NOS was used for cross-sectional studies. Results: Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria of our review, 5 were case-control studies, and 5 cross-sectional. Sample size ranged from 50 to 29,284 subjects, for a total of 43,122 subjects, 56% of them were male, their age ranged from 18 to 85 years old. The heterogeneity among the studies regarding the classification of periodontal disease, and the different methods for OSAS severity assessment, complicated the comparison among the studies. Conclusions: There is low evidence of a possible association between OSAS and periodontitis. The pathophysiological mechanism, cause-effect, or dose-response relationship are still unclear. Further studies are needed and should use a precise classification of OSAS subjects, while the new classification of periodontitis from the World Workshop of Chicago 2017 should be used for the periodontal assessment.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais , Periodontite , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Polissonografia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 663756, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222038

RESUMO

Objective: Microorganisms play a key role in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Research studies have focused on seeking specific microorganisms for diagnosing and monitoring the outcome of periodontitis treatment. Large samples may help to discover novel potential biomarkers and capture the common characteristics among different periodontitis patients. This study examines how to screen and merge high-quality periodontitis-related sequence datasets from several similar projects to analyze and mine the potential information comprehensively. Methods: In all, 943 subgingival samples from nine publications were included based on predetermined screening criteria. A uniform pipeline (QIIME2) was applied to clean the raw sequence datasets and merge them together. Microbial structure, biomarkers, and correlation network were explored between periodontitis and healthy individuals. The microbiota patterns at different periodontal pocket depths were described. Additionally, potential microbial functions and metabolic pathways were predicted using PICRUSt to assess the differences between health and periodontitis. Results: The subgingival microbial communities and functions in subjects with periodontitis were significantly different from those in healthy subjects. Treponema, TG5, Desulfobulbus, Catonella, Bacteroides, Aggregatibacter, Peptostreptococcus, and Eikenella were periodontitis biomarkers, while Veillonella, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Rothia, Paludibacter, Capnocytophaga, and Kingella were signature of healthy periodontium. With the variation of pocket depth from shallow to deep pocket, the proportion of Spirochaetes, Bacteroidetes, TM7, and Fusobacteria increased, whereas that of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria decreased. Synergistic relationships were observed among different pathobionts and negative relationships were noted between periodontal pathobionts and healthy microbiota. Conclusion: This study shows significant differences in the oral microbial community and potential metabolic pathways between the periodontitis and healthy groups. Our integrated analysis provides potential biomarkers and directions for in-depth research. Moreover, a new method for integrating similar sequence data is shown here that can be applied to other microbial-related areas.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Periodontite , Bactérias/genética , Humanos , Bolsa Periodontal , Periodonto
4.
Georgian Med News ; (314): 56-63, 2021 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248028

RESUMO

Oral manifestations of HIV infection are diverse and not still not completely studied. HIV-associated diseases can occur as the first symptoms of infection, these are characterized by high frequency, clinical polymorphism and pronounced course. Periodontal aspects are also neglected in the literature. No papers on the condition of different areas of the oral mucosa, tongue and periodontium where they were studied simultaneously and according to various criteria have been found in the available literature. The objective of the research is to evaluate the condition of periodontium and the oral mucosa in different parts of the oral cavity in HIV-positive patients. Total number of the HIV-positive patients observed was 90, among them 81 males and 9 females between the age range of 24-62. An average age of the patients was 45.2±8.34, with male patients prevailing (p<0.001). HIV infection was diagnosed by Western-blot reaction. Clinical examination as well as probing and determination of the pocket depth by means of the periodontal probe was carried out to assess the health status of the oral cavity. Periodontal indices were also determined. It has been found that immunocompromised condition due to HIV infection contributes to the oral mucosa lesions. Namely, coated tongue was observed in 100% of cases, the oral mucosa relief impairment was seen in 75.6% of cases, lip cracks of different location and bright red color of the mucous membrane were observed in 73.3% and 82.2%, respectively (р<0.001). Examination of the tongue revealed the symptoms which were not found in the control group, such as tongue coating - in 100% (90 patients observed), epithelial desquamation foci - in 54.4% (49) (p<0.001). Inflammatory diseases of periodontium, particularly catarrhal and hypertrophic gingivitis and periodontitis of moderate severity were also revealed.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Infecções por HIV , Periodontite , Feminino , Gengivite/complicações , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Periodonto
5.
Georgian Med News ; (314): 77-82, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248031

RESUMO

The method of dental implantation in patients with generalized periodontitis is one of the priority areas requiring in-depth study. The aim of the study was to increase the efficiency of dental implantation in prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with generalized periodontitis. A study of 240 patients with chronic generalized periodontitis and partial edentulous upper and lower jaw was carried out, who subsequently underwent complex periodontal treatment and dental implantation. The patients were divided into groups depending on the severity of generalized periodontitis (I, II, III) and the method of treatment. Evaluation of the results of the effectiveness of the proposed method of surgical treatment of patients with generalized periodontitis of the first stage of development with one-stage and staged dental implantation and targeted osteotropic therapy showed that after 12 months all implants (100%) were preserved. In patients with grade II generalized periodontitis, who underwent periodontal treatment and dental implantation in stages, the safety of implants was 92.1%, and in patients who underwent one-stage dental implantation with surgical treatment of periodontal disease, the safety of implants was 89,4%. In patients with stage III generalized periodontitis who underwent staged periodontal treatment and dental implantation, the safety of implants was 80,2%, and in patients who underwent one-stage dental implantation and periodontal treatment - 51,7%.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Implantes Dentários , Boca Edêntula , Periodontite , Implantação Dentária , Humanos , Índice Periodontal , Periodontite/cirurgia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208697

RESUMO

Traditional antimicrobial therapies for periodontitis (PD) have long focused on non-selective and direct approaches. Professional cleaning of the subgingival biofilm by instrumentation of dental root surfaces, known as scaling and root planning (SRP), is the mainstay of periodontal therapy and is indisputably effective. Non-physical approaches used as adjuncts to SRP, such as chemical and biological agents, will be the focus of this review. In this regard, traditional agents such as oral antiseptics and antibiotics, delivered either locally or systemically, were briefly reviewed as a backdrop. While generally effective in winning the "battle" against PD in the short term, by reducing its signs and symptoms, patients receiving such therapies are more susceptible to recurrence of PD. Moreover, the long-term consequences of such therapies are still in question. In particular, concern about chronic use of systemic antibiotics and their influence on the oral and gut microbiota is warranted, considering antibiotic resistance plasmids, and potential transfer between oral and non-oral microbes. In the interest of winning the "battle and the war", new more selective and targeted antimicrobials and biologics for PD are being studied. These are principally indirect, blocking pathways involved in bacterial colonization, nutrient acquisition, inflammation or cellular invasion without directly killing the pathogens. This review will focus on current and prospective antimicrobial therapies for PD, emphasizing therapies that act indirectly on the microbiota, with clearly defined cellular and molecular targets.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Humanos , Periodontite/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Indian J Dent Res ; 32(1): 44-50, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269236

RESUMO

Objectives: (1) To assess the risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) using a pre-designed questionnaire; (2) To assess the periodontal parameters like pocket probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) in the study subjects and (3) To determine the association between the shared risk factors of OSA and periodontitis. Background of the Study: Periodontitis is a microbially associated, host-mediated inflammatory disease that results in the loss of periodontal attachment. It has multifactorial etiology and has been linked to an array of systemic diseases. Though both periodontitis and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) share some common risk factors, the insight into the hypothetical speculative link remains vague. This study intended to probe into the association between periodontitis and OSA. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 subjects. The subjects were explained the nature of the study and written informed consent was obtained for participation in the study. The patients were administered a STOP-BANG questionnaire following which the periodontal parameters were recorded. The data obtained was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: A statistically significant increase in PPD and CAL scores were seen with the increase in OSA scores. A significant moderate positive correlation was found between OSA scores and PPD [r = 0.58, P < 0.001] and CAL [r = 0.55, P = 0.001]. Males were at increased risk for OSA and periodontitis. Age, hypertension and BMI which are the risk factors for periodontitis were also significantly higher in subjects at high risk for OSA. Conclusion: This study found a moderate positive association between periodontitis and OSA.


Assuntos
Periodontite , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 290, 2021 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) such as CYLD, A20 and OTULIN are expressed in multiple tissues and thought to be linked with inflammatory diseases, their expression in periodontal tissues remains to be determined. This research was designed to assess the expression of CYLD, A20 and OTULIN in human gingiva, and to evaluate the regulation of these DUBs in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) upon different stimuli. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry assay was conducted to determine the expression of CYLD, A20 and OTULIN in human gingiva. Immunofluorescence assay was employed to observe the protein expression of CYLD, A20 and OTULIN in HGFs. RT-PCR and western blots were carried out to assess gene and protein expression changes of these DUBs in HGFs upon LPS or TNF-α. RESULTS: CYLD, A20 and OTULIN were found to be expressed in human gingiva and HGFs. The expression of CYLD, A20 and OTULIN was lower in the inflamed gingival tissue samples compared with the healthy gingival tissue samples. Further, the expression of CYLD, A20 and OTULIN in HGFs exhibited distinct regulation by different stimuli. TNF-α treatment markedly increased NF-κB activation in HGFs CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that CYLD, A20 and OTULIN might play a role in the progression of periodontitis.


Assuntos
Gengiva , Periodontite , Células Cultivadas , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes , Fibroblastos , Humanos , NF-kappa B
9.
J Med Life ; 14(2): 287-294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104255

RESUMO

A hopeless tooth from a periodontal point of view, with severe bone resorption, mobility and abnormal tooth migration, is often extracted. In advanced cases, function and esthetics are impaired, and an interdisciplinary treatment is requested. Retaining or not these teeth is based on clinician judgment. A growing body of evidence claims that prognosis has great potential to be improved in a motivated patient with good oral hygiene and regular maintenance. This case report aims to present a periodontal regenerative technique combining enamel matrix protein derivatives and a particulated xenograft to treat intraosseous defects caused by periodontitis. The patient healed uneventfully, and no complications were recorded after the surgical procedure. To correct abnormal tooth migration and improve function and esthetics, orthodontic treatment was instituted. Tooth prognosis improved from hopeless to questionable. This approach extended the life span of a compromised tooth, improving periodontal support and decreasing tooth mobility. This could be an alternative to extraction and implant.


Assuntos
Dente/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/diagnóstico por imagem , Periodontite/patologia , Prognóstico , Suturas , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente/cirurgia , Extração Dentária
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26369, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diseases of the oral cavity (OC) with an infectious trigger such as caries and periodontal disease are extremely common in the general population and can also have effects at the cardiovascular level. The oral salivary flow, with its buffering capacity, is able to regulate the pH of the OC and, therefore, significantly contribute to the ecological balance of the microenvironment in which the oral microbiome (OM) develops. On the other side, when the quality/quantity of salivary flow is altered it is supposed the disruption of this balance with the potential increase in oral pathogens and triggered diseases. Among the endogenous substances able to exert a significant effect on the salivary flow and its characteristics, carnosine (Car), a dipeptide originally isolated in skeletal muscle, represents, thanks to the known buffering properties, a promising principle. METHODS: We aimed this protocol to evaluate the quantitative/qualitative characteristics of the salivary flow in healthy volunteer subjects (n = 20) and in subjects suffering from common OC pathologies (n = 40), before and after 7 days of supplementation with SaliflussTM (Metis Healthcare srl, Milan, Italy), a Class I medical device on the market as 400 mg mucoadhesive oral tablets that has Car as the main ingredient. DISCUSSION: Combining the characteristics of saliva with the OM and comparing them with OC pathologies, we expect to clarify their reciprocal relationship and, using quantitative proteomics techniques, to help clarify the mechanism of action of Car.


Assuntos
Carnosina/administração & dosagem , Cárie Dentária/dietoterapia , Gengivite/dietoterapia , Periodontite/dietoterapia , Saliva/química , Administração Bucal , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gengivite/microbiologia , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Microbiota/fisiologia , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/prevenção & controle , Saliva/metabolismo , Comprimidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 23(3): 298-308, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076941

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of early bone loss (EBL), on long-term bone stability and future peri-implantitis development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients referred for implant placement between 2005 and 2009 were consecutively treated and followed for 10 years. After 10 years, patients were invited for a scientific diagnostic visit to evaluate implant survival and bone loss. Bone level changes were compared with baseline. Non-parametric testing was performed in cross-tabs (Pearson Chi-square and Fishers's exact test). Kaplan-Meier-estimated survival curves were plotted for different thresholds for EBL at different timepoints. Generalized linear mixed models with binomial distribution and logit link for peri-implantitis were fitted. An adjusted logistic mixed model was made to evaluate peri-implantitis, in relation with smoking status, history of periodontitis, and EBL > 0.5 mm. RESULTS: Four hundred and seven patients (mean age of 64.86 years [range 28-92, SD 10.11]), with 1482 implants, responded to the 10-year recall invitation. After an average follow-up time of 10.66 years (range 10-14, SD 0.87), implant survival was 94.74%. Mean crestal bone loss after 10 years was 0.81 mm (SD 1.58, range 0.00-17.00). One hundred and seventy five implants in 76 patients had peri-implantitis (11.8% on implant level, 18.7% on patient level). EBL of 0.5, 1, and 2 mm were significant predictors for peri-implantitis and implant loss after 10 years. Implants with EBL ≥0.5 mm during the first year of function showed a 5.43 times higher odds for future peri-implantitis development. Probability in developing peri-implantitis was 52.06% when smoking, Periodontal history and EBL of >0.5 mm was combined. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that EBL is a predictor for long-term peri-implant pathology, with a significant higher risk for peri-implantitis when early bone loss exceeds the thresholds of 0.5 and 1 mm, especially when additional risk factors such as smoking or susceptibility for periodontal disease prior to implant treatment are present. Clinical trial registration number B670201524796.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Implantes Dentários , Peri-Implantite , Periodontite , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Perda do Osso Alveolar/etiologia , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peri-Implantite/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Evid Based Dent ; 22(2): 66-68, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281705

RESUMO

Data sources The national electronic health records of the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) in the State of Qatar.Data extraction and synthesis This case-control study included 568 patients from the HMC electronic database for data eliciting from 27 February 2020 to 31 July 2020. Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complications were considered as cases. Controls were defined as COVID-19 patients without major complications (discharged). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the association between the exposures (periodontitis, demographics and medical conditions) and outcomes (COVID-19 complications). The association was adjusted for possible confounding factors. Additionally, sensitivity analyses were performed to account for stronger risk factors of the determined complications. The results were reported using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Laboratory data (blood parameters concerning the course of COVID-19) were also compared between the case and control groups.Results The patients were divided into 40 cases and 528 controls. Among the patients with periodontitis, 12.8% (33/258) went through COVID-19 complications, whereas 2.2% (7/310) of those without periodontitis experienced complications. The adjusted OR of patients with periodontitis was 3.67 (95% CI 1.46-9.27) for all COVID-19 complications, 8.81 (95% CI 1.00-77.7) for death, 3.54 (95% CI 1.39-9.05) for intensive care unit admission and 4.57 (95% CI 1.19-17.4) for the need of assisted ventilation. After conducting subgroup analyses for age, diabetes and smoking, periodontitis was still significantly associated with all the outcomes. Laboratory biomarkers (haemoglobin A1c, white blood cells and C-reactive protein) had higher levels in COVID-19 patients with periodontitis than those without periodontal disease.Conclusions This study concluded that periodontitis was significantly associated with higher risks of COVID-19 complications and higher blood marker levels. These results, however, are not of high quality and further research in this regard is required.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Periodontite , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Periodontite/complicações , Catar , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 16(7): 1189-1199, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Periodontitis is the sixth most prevalent disease worldwide and periodontal bone loss (PBL) detection is crucial for its early recognition and establishment of the correct diagnosis and prognosis. Current radiographic assessment by clinicians exhibits substantial interobserver variation. Computer-assisted radiographic assessment can calculate bone loss objectively and aid in early bone loss detection. Understanding the rate of disease progression can guide the choice of treatment and lead to early initiation of periodontal therapy. METHODOLOGY: We propose an end-to-end system that includes a deep neural network with hourglass architecture to predict dental landmarks in single, double and triple rooted teeth using periapical radiographs. We then estimate the PBL and disease severity stage using the predicted landmarks. We also introduce a novel adaptation of MixUp data augmentation that improves the landmark localisation. RESULTS: We evaluate the proposed system using cross-validation on 340 radiographs from 63 patient cases containing 463, 115 and 56 single, double and triple rooted teeth. The landmark localisation achieved Percentage Correct Keypoints (PCK) of 88.9%, 73.9% and 74.4%, respectively, and a combined PCK of 83.3% across all root morphologies, outperforming the next best architecture by 1.7%. When compared to clinicians' visual evaluations of full radiographs, the average PBL error was 10.69%, with a severity stage accuracy of 58%. This simulates current interobserver variation, implying that diverse data could improve accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The system showed a promising capability to localise landmarks and estimate periodontal bone loss on periapical radiographs. An agreement was found with other literature that non-CEJ (Cemento-Enamel Junction) landmarks are the hardest to localise. Honing the system's clinical pipeline will allow for its use in intervention applications.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/diagnóstico , Redes Neurais de Computação , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Radiografia/métodos , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador
14.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066568

RESUMO

Periodontal diseases are worldwide health problems that negatively affect the lifestyle of many people. The long-term effect of the classical treatments, including the mechanical removal of bacterial plaque, is not effective enough, causing the scientific world to find other alternatives. Polymer-drug systems, which have different forms of presentation, chosen depending on the nature of the disease, the mode of administration, the type of polymer used, etc., have become very promising. Hydrogels, for example (in the form of films, micro-/nanoparticles, implants, inserts, etc.), contain the drug included, encapsulated, or adsorbed on the surface. Biologically active compounds can also be associated directly with the polymer chains by covalent or ionic binding (polymer-drug conjugates). Not just any polymer can be used as a support for drug combination due to the constraints imposed by the fact that the system works inside the body. Biopolymers, especially polysaccharides and their derivatives and to a lesser extent proteins, are preferred for this purpose. This paper aims to review in detail the biopolymer-drug systems that have emerged in the last decade as alternatives to the classical treatment of periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Polissacarídeos/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Biopolímeros/química , Celulose/química , Quitosana/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Cães , Portadores de Fármacos , Géis , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanopartículas/química , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 667862, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285290

RESUMO

With the pandemic of COVID-19, maintenance of oral health has increasingly become the main challenge of global health. Various common oral diseases, such as periodontitis and oral cancer, are closely associated with immune disorders in the oral mucosa. Regulatory T cells (Treg) are essential for maintaining self-tolerance and immunosuppression. During the process of periodontitis and apical periodontitis, two typical chronic immune-inflammatory diseases, Treg contributes to maintain host immune homeostasis and minimize tissue damage. In contrast, in the development of oral precancerous lesions and oral cancer, Treg is expected to be depleted or down-regulated to enhance the anti-tumor immune response. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the distribution, function, and regulatory mechanisms of Treg cells may provide a prospect for the immunotherapy of oral diseases. In this review, we summarize the distribution and multiple roles of Treg in different oral diseases and discuss the possible mechanisms involved in Treg cell regulation, hope to provide a reference for future Treg-targeted immunotherapy in the treatment of oral diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Bucais/imunologia , Periodontite/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Tolerância a Antígenos Próprios
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071720

RESUMO

The oral cavity is a portal into the digestive system, which exhibits unique sensory properties. Like facial skin, the oral mucosa needs to be exquisitely sensitive and selective, in order to detect harmful toxins versus edible food. Chemosensation and somatosensation by multiple receptors, including transient receptor potential channels, are well-developed to meet these needs. In contrast to facial skin, however, the oral mucosa rarely exhibits itch responses. Like the gut, the oral cavity performs mechanical and chemical digestion. Therefore, the oral mucosa needs to be insensitive, to some degree, in order to endure noxious irritation. Persistent pain from the oral mucosa is often due to ulcers, involving both tissue injury and infection. Trigeminal nerve injury and trigeminal neuralgia produce intractable pain in the orofacial skin and the oral mucosa, through mechanisms distinct from those seen in the spinal area, which is particularly difficult to predict or treat. The diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic chronic pain, such as atypical odontalgia (idiopathic painful trigeminal neuropathy or post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy) and burning mouth syndrome, remain especially challenging. The central integration of gustatory inputs might modulate chronic oral and facial pain. A lack of pain in chronic inflammation inside the oral cavity, such as chronic periodontitis, involves the specialized functioning of oral bacteria. A more detailed understanding of the unique neurobiology of pain from the orofacial skin and the oral mucosa should help us develop novel methods for better treating persistent orofacial pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Mucosa Bucal , Boca , Animais , Face/fisiologia , Dor Facial , Humanos , Camundongos , Boca/patologia , Boca/fisiologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Mucosa Bucal/fisiologia , Neuralgia , Periodontite , Pele , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Traumatismos do Nervo Trigêmeo , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo
17.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(6): 507-509, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098664

RESUMO

The common chronic disorders in the world, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancers, etc., are all the multi-factorial diseases. They are caused by the interactions of various risk factors among which inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of all these chronic disorders. Any factor which contributes or enhances systemic inflammatory burdens may serve as the risk factors of these diseases. During periodontitis, the bacteremia and subsequent systemic dispersal of periodontal pathogens and bacterial components may elicit production of pro-inflammatory immune mediators, and the pro-inflammatory immune mediators produced locally at the periodontal lesion may also enter the systemic circulation. Behaving as a potential source for increased chronic systemic inflammatory challenge, periodontitis contributes as the risk factor of these systemic inflammation associated chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Periodontite , Humanos , Inflamação , Fatores de Risco
18.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(6): 510-516, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098665

RESUMO

Gingival enlargement or hypertrophy is one of the common clinical symptoms in patients with periodontitis. Plaque stimulation, hormones and drug use could be the promoting factors for the occurrence of gingival enlargements. This paper reviews the literature on the pathogenesis, treatment methods and the effect of plaque and inflammation control in the treatment of various types of gingival hypertrophy. The therapeutic effect of controlling plaque and inflammation on various types of gingival hypertrophy is also discussed and the treatment scheme of gingival hypertrophy is proposed, which may provide reference for clinical work.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Hipertrofia Gengival , Gengivite , Periodontite , Humanos , Inflamação , Periodontite/terapia
19.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(6): 517-524, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098666

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the correlation between the diabetes mellitus control and periodontitis. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey using stratified system sampling model design. The target population was the patients with diabetes investigated from May to July 2018 in Huangpu District of Shanghai. In the present study, severe periodontitis was defined as at least at two sites in different quadrants with probing depth (PD)≥6 mm and clinical attachment loss (CAL)≥ 5 mm. Edentulous induced by periodontitis were also classified as severe periodontitis and the others were classified as non-severe periodontitis subjects. Diabetes control levels were divided into the following three groups: poorly controlled group [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)>7.5% and fasting blood glucose (FPG)>7.0 mmol/L], well controlled group (6.5%≤HbA1c≤7.5% or 6.1 mmol/L≤FPG≤7.0 mmol/L) and ideally controlled group (HbA1c<6.5% and FPG<6.1 mmol/L). SPSS 25.0 was used for statistical analysis. Chi square test was used for demographic data and frequency distribution, α=0.05, two-sided test. Ordinal regression model was used for PD and diabetes control status to balance confounding factors (including age, gender, education and smoking status). After matching the propensity scores between severe periodontitis group and non-severe periodontitis group, logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the level of diabetes control and periodontitis. Results: A total of 5 220 adults over the age of 18 with a medical history of diabetes participated in the survey, of which 3 064 subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) who were given both oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this study. Statistics showed that the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis was 10.57% (324/3 064). In the severe periodontitis group, 79.01% (256/324) of the subjects were over 65 years old, 55.56% (180/324) were male, 58.33% (189/324) had lower education level than high school level, and 21.91% (71/324) were smokers, which were significantly higher than those in the non-severe periodontitis group (P<0.01). In different T2DM status groups, the percentage of severe periodontitis increased with the aggravation of T2DM status. In severe periodontitis group, the proportion of patients with poor glycemic control was higher. T2DM patients with poor glycemic control accounted for 68.52% (222/324) in severe periodontitis group, which was significantly higher than the proportion of non-severe periodontitis group of 60.99% (1 671/2 740) (P<0.05). The regression coefficient of PD was 0.191, and PD had a significant negative effect on the level of blood glucose (P<0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between diabetes glycemic control and severe periodontitis (OR=2.800, P<0.05). Conclusions: In Huangpu District of Shanghai, among T2DM patients, the age of severe periodontitis group was higher than that of non-severe periodontitis group, most of them were male, with lower education level and higher proportion of smoking. The severity of diabetes was related to periodontitis and the proportion of severe periodontitis was higher in patients with poor glycemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Periodontite , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia , China , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/complicações
20.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(6): 525-531, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098667

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the ratio of ingerleukin(IL)-10 secreting regulatory B cells (B10 cells) and the levels of IL-10 in peripheral blood of periodontitis patients with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to explore the function of B10 cells in the pathogenesis of the interaction between COPD and periodontitis. Methods: Forty-five periodontitis patients and healthy people were recruited and divided into three groups: COPD group, COPD+periodontitis group and health controls with 15 people in each group. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine the B10 population. Another group of 93 periodontitis patients and healthy people were also collected and divided into the same 3 groups with 31 people in each group. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine the cytokine IL-10. Results: After stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+phorbol-12-myristate13-acetate+ionomycin+brefeldin A (PIB) for 5 h, the ratio of B10 in COPD+periodontitis group [(0.44±0.11)%] was significantly lower than that in the control group [(0.63±0.14)%] and periodontitis group [(0.62±0.13)%] (P<0.01), respectively. The ratio of B10 cells showed no significant difference between periodontitis group and healthy control group (P>0.05). After stimulation with LPS+PIB for 48 h, the ratio of B10 cells in COPD+periodontitis group [(7.59±1.33)%] was significantly lower than that in the periodontitis group [(10.14±2.02)%] and the healthy controls [(11.80±1.71)%] (P<0.01), respectively. The ratio of B10 cells in periodontitis group was significantly lower than that in the healthy controls (P<0.05). The levels of IL-10 in periodontitis group [(2.55±0.61) ng/L] and COPD+periodontitis group [(1.95±0.45) ng/L] were significantly lower than that in the control group [(3.96±1.15) ng/L] (P<0.01) respectively. Moreover, the level of IL-10 in COPD+periodontitis group was significantly lower than that in the periodontitis group (P<0.01). Conclusions: The dysfunction of immune system caused by the decreased proportion of B10 cells might be involved in the pathological process of COPD promoted by periodontitis.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais , Periodontite , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Citocinas , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos
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