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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338908

RESUMO

Neurons build vast gap junction-coupled networks (GJ-nets) that are permeable to ions or small molecules, enabling lateral signaling. Herein, we investigate (1) the effect of blinding diseases on GJ-nets in mouse retinas and (2) the impact of electrical stimulation on GJ permeability. GJ permeability was traced in the acute retinal explants of blind retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) mice using the GJ tracer neurobiotin. The tracer was introduced via the edge cut method into the GJ-net, and its spread was visualized in histological preparations (fluorescent tagged) using microscopy. Sustained stimulation was applied to modulate GJ permeability using a single large electrode. Our findings are: (1) The blind rd1 retinas displayed extensive intercellular coupling via open GJs. Three GJ-nets were identified: horizontal, amacrine, and ganglion cell networks. (2) Sustained stimulation significantly diminished the tracer spread through the GJs in all the cell layers, as occurs with pharmaceutical inhibition with carbenoxolone. We concluded that the GJ-nets of rd1 retinas remain coupled and functional after blinding disease and that their permeability is regulatable by sustained stimulation. These findings are essential for understanding molecular signaling in diseases over coupled networks and therapeutic approaches using electrical implants, such as eliciting visual sensations or suppressing cortical seizures.


Assuntos
Degeneração Retiniana , Animais , Camundongos , Degeneração Retiniana/terapia , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Retina/patologia , Junções Comunicantes , Estimulação Elétrica , Permeabilidade
2.
Chemosphere ; 346: 140555, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303382

RESUMO

Membrane fouling, a major problem in membrane-based processes, decreases the water permeability of a membrane. Membrane fouling can be mitigated either by the application of an additional process for membrane cleaning and pretreatment or by fabricating and modifying membranes to achieve low surface interaction forces. This study aimed to improve the fouling resistance of a commercially available membrane by modifying it with a UV-cured photopolymer, MINs, to achieve low surface energy. The morphological variations (thickness and pore size distribution) of the coating layer were most affected by the viscosity of the UV-cured photopolymer. The thickness of the coating layer was inversely proportional to the dilution factor of the MINs. The pore size distribution could be adjusted by surface modification, and the smallest pore size range (0.077-0.078 µm) was observed for the MC5 membrane. In addition, the pore size distribution, surface roughness, and zeta potential of the membrane decreased after the surface modification. Thus, the developed surface modification strategy has potential for improving the fouling resistance of commercially available microfiltration membranes.


Assuntos
Filtração , Purificação da Água , Membranas Artificiais , Permeabilidade , Água
3.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297753, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335229

RESUMO

CO2 blasting has been identified as a potent method for enhancing the permeability of coal seams and improving gas drainage efficiency. This study is focused on elucidating the deformation and fracture mechanisms of coal and rock during CO2 blasting and on identifying the precursor characteristics of these processes. To this end, a CO2 blasting-induced coal rock fracture pressure model and a gas pressure distribution model were developed. The research utilized a self-developed CO2 blasting test platform along with a non-contact full-strain field measurement analysis system. Briquette samples were subjected to CO2 blasting tests under controlled experimental conditions, which included an axial pressure of 1.0 MPa and variable gas pressures of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 MPa. This methodology enabled the capture of the principal strain field on the surface of the samples. The Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) was employed to extract and analyze the grayscale and texture features of the strain cloud maps, facilitating a quantitative assessment of their evolution. The aim was to pinpoint the precursor characteristics associated with coal rock cracking and crack propagation. The results revealed that: (1) During the cracking and subsequent propagation of samples, the strain field's grayscale histogram underwent a transformation from a "broad and low" to a "narrow and high" configuration, with a consistent increase in peak frequency. Specifically, at 3 ms, a primary crack was observed in the sample, evidenced by a grayscale peak frequency of 0.0846. By 9 ms, as the crack propagated, the grayscale peak frequency escalated to 0.1626. (2) The texture feature parameters experienced their initial abrupt change at 3ms. Correlation with the gas pressure distribution model indicated that this was the crack initiation moment in the sample. (3) A secondary abrupt shift in the texture feature parameters occurred at 9ms, in conjunction with experimental phenomena, was identified as the crack propagation phase. Monitoring the grayscale and texture features of the principal strain field on the coal rock surface proved effective in recognizing the precursor characteristics of crack initiation and propagation. This research has the potential to reduce blasting costs in coal mines, optimize blasting effects, and provided theoretical guidance for enhancing gas extraction efficiency from deep and low permeability coal seams.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Minas de Carvão , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Minas de Carvão/métodos , Permeabilidade
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396944

RESUMO

Aquaporins (AQPs) constitute a wide family of water channels implicated in all kind of physiological processes. Zinc is the second most abundant trace element in the human body and a few studies have highlighted regulation of AQP0 and AQP4 by zinc. In the present work, we addressed the putative regulation of AQPs by zinc cations in silico through molecular dynamics simulations of human AQP0, AQP2, AQP4, and AQP5. Our results align with other scales of study and several in vitro techniques, hence strengthening the reliability of this regulation by zinc. We also described two distinct putative molecular mechanisms associated with the increase or decrease in AQPs' water permeability after zinc binding. In association with other studies, our work will help deciphering the interaction networks existing between zinc and channel proteins.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Humanos , Aquaporina 2/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Água/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Cátions/metabolismo
5.
Neurotox Res ; 42(1): 12, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329647

RESUMO

The permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This plays a key role in the instigation and maintenance of chronic inflammation during AD. Experiments using AD models showed that the increased permeability of the BBB was mainly caused by the decreased expression of tight junction-related proteins occludin and claudin-5. In this study, we found that ZNF787 and HDAC1 were upregulated in ß-amyloid (Aß)1-42-incubated endothelial cells, resulting in increased BBB permeability. Conversely, the silencing of ZNF787 and HDAC1 by RNAi led to reduced BBB permeability. The silencing of ZNF787 and HDAC1 enhanced the expression of occludin and claudin-5. Mechanistically, ZNF787 binds to promoter regions for occludin and claudin-5 and functions as a transcriptional regulator. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ZNF787 interacts with HDAC1, and this resulted in the downregulation of the expression of genes encoding tight junction-related proteins to increase in BBB permeability. Taken together, our study identifies critical roles for the interaction between ZNF787 and HDAC1 in regulating BBB permeability and the pathogenesis of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Histona Desacetilase 1 , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Claudina-5/genética , Células Endoteliais , Histona Desacetilase 1/genética , Ocludina/genética , Permeabilidade
6.
Redox Biol ; 70: 103063, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316067

RESUMO

Vascular diseases, a leading cause of death in human, are strongly associated with pathological damage to blood vessels. The selenoprotein (Sel) have been reported to play important roles in vascular disease. However, the role of SelO in vascular disease has not been conclusively investigated. The present experiment was to investigate the regulatory mechanism of the effect of SelO on the permeability of vascular endothelial. The H.E staining, FITC-Dextran staining, Dil-AC-LDL staining and FITC-WGA staining showed that vascular structure was damaged, and intercellular junctions were disrupted with selenium (Se)-deficient. Immunohistochemistry, qPCR and Western blot revealed decreased expression of the adhesion plaque proteins vinculin, talin and paxillin, decreased expression of the vascular connectivity effector molecules connexin, claudin-1 and E-cadherin and increased expression of JAM-A and N-cadherin, as well as decreased expression of the ZO-1 signaling pathways ZO-1, Rock, rhoGEF, cingulin and MLC-2. In a screening of 24 Sel present in mice, SelO showed the most pronounced changes in vascular tissues, and a possible association between SelO and vascular intercellular junction effectors was determined using IBM SPSS Statistics 25. Silencing of SelO, vascular endothelial intercellular junction adverse effects present. The regulatory relationship between SelO and vascular endothelial intercellular junctions was determined. The results showed that Se deficiency lead to increased vascular endothelial permeability and vascular tissue damage by decreasing SelO expression, suggesting a possible role for SelO in regulating vascular endothelial permeability.


Assuntos
Selênio , Doenças Vasculares , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Permeabilidade , Selenoproteínas/genética , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2990, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316862

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases gastrointestinal morbidity and associated mortality. Clinical and preclinical studies implicate gut dysbiosis as a consequence of TBI and an amplifier of brain damage. However, little is known about the association of gut dysbiosis with structural and functional changes of the gastrointestinal tract after an isolated TBI. To assess gastrointestinal dysfunction, mice received a controlled cortical impact or sham brain injury and intestinal permeability was assessed at 4 h, 8 h, 1 d, and 3 d after injury by oral administration of 4 kDa FITC Dextran prior to euthanasia. Quantification of serum fluorescence revealed an acute, short-lived increase in permeability 4 h after TBI. Despite transient intestinal dysfunction, no overt morphological changes were evident in the ileum or colon across timepoints from 4 h to 4 wks post-injury. To elucidate the timeline of microbiome changes after TBI, 16 s gene sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from fecal samples collected prior to and over the first month after TBI. Differential abundance analysis revealed that the phylum Verrucomicrobiota was increased at 1, 2, and 3 d after TBI. The Verrucomicrobiota species was identified by qPCR as Akkermansia muciniphila, an obligate anaerobe that resides in the intestinal mucus bilayer and produces short chain fatty acids (e.g. butyrate) utilized by intestinal epithelial cells. We postulated that TBI promotes intestinal changes favorable for the bloom of A. muciniphila. Consistent with this premise, the relative area of mucus-producing goblet cells in the medial colon was significantly increased at 1 d after injury, while colon hypoxia was significantly increased at 3 d. Our findings reveal acute gastrointestinal functional changes coupled with an increase of beneficial bacteria suggesting a potential compensatory response to systemic stress after TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas , Gastroenteropatias , Camundongos , Animais , Disbiose/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Verrucomicrobia , Íleo , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Permeabilidade , Akkermansia
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(7): 4582-4591, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330910

RESUMO

The effort to modulate challenging protein targets has stimulated interest in ligands that are larger and more complex than typical small-molecule drugs. While combinatorial techniques such as mRNA display routinely produce high-affinity macrocyclic peptides against classically undruggable targets, poor membrane permeability has limited their use toward primarily extracellular targets. Understanding the passive membrane permeability of macrocyclic peptides would, in principle, improve our ability to design libraries whose leads can be more readily optimized against intracellular targets. Here, we investigate the permeabilities of over 200 macrocyclic 10-mers using the thioether cyclization motif commonly found in mRNA display macrocycle libraries. We identified the optimal lipophilicity range for achieving permeability in thioether-cyclized 10-mer cyclic peptide-peptoid hybrid scaffolds and showed that permeability could be maintained upon extensive permutation in the backbone. In one case, changing a single amino acid from d-Pro to d-NMe-Ala, representing the loss of a single methylene group in the side chain, resulted in a highly permeable scaffold in which the low-dielectric conformation shifted from the canonical cross-beta geometry of the parent compounds into a novel saddle-shaped fold in which all four backbone NH groups were sequestered from the solvent. This work provides an example by which pre-existing physicochemical knowledge of a scaffold can benefit the design of macrocyclic peptide mRNA display libraries, pointing toward an approach for biasing libraries toward permeability by design. Moreover, the compounds described herein are a further demonstration that geometrically diverse, highly permeable scaffolds exist well beyond conventional drug-like chemical space.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Cíclicos , Peptídeos , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Permeabilidade , RNA Mensageiro , Sulfetos
9.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 100: 129649, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341162

RESUMO

Peptides are mid-size molecules (700-2000 g/mol) and have attracted particular interest as therapeutic modalities as they are superior in controlling protein-protein interactions, a process that is a typical drug target category, compared with small molecules (<500 g/mol). In 2020, we identified KS-58 (1333 g/mol) as a K-Ras(G12D)-inhibitory bicyclic peptide and suggested its cell membrane permeability. However, the membrane permeability mechanism had not been elucidated. In this study, we aim to clarify the mechanism by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Initially, we simulated the molecular conformations of KS-58 in water (a polar solvent) and in chloroform (a non-polar solvent). The identified stable conformations were significantly different in each solvent. KS-58 behaves as a chameleon-like molecule as it alters its polar surface area (PSA) depending on the solvent environment. It was also discovered that orientation of Asp's side chain is a critical energy barrier for KS-58 altering its conformation from hydrophilic to lipophilic. Taking these properties into consideration, we simulated its lipid bilayer membrane permeability. KS-58 shifted toward the inside of the lipid bilayer membrane with altering its conformations to lipophilic. When the simulation condition was set in deionized form of that carboxy group of Asp, KS-58 traveled deeper inside the cell membrane. PSA and the depth of the membrane penetration correlated. In vitro data suggested that cell membrane permeability of KS-58 is improved in weakly acidic conditions leading to partial deionization of the carboxy group. Our data provide an example of the molecular properties of mid-size peptides with membrane accessibility and propose an effective metadynamics approach to elucidate such molecular mechanisms by MD simulations.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Peptídeos/química , Solventes/química , Permeabilidade
10.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 224, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383523

RESUMO

The cutaneous absorption parameters of xenobiotics are crucial for the development of drugs and cosmetics, as well as for assessing environmental and occupational chemical risks. Despite the great variability in the design of experimental conditions due to uncertain international guidelines, datasets like HuskinDB have been created to report skin absorption endpoints. This review updates available skin permeability data by rigorously compiling research published between 2012 and 2021. Inclusion and exclusion criteria have been selected to build the most harmonized and reusable dataset possible. The Generative Topographic Mapping method was applied to the present dataset and compared to HuskinDB to monitor the progress in skin permeability research and locate chemotypes of particular concern. The open-source dataset (SkinPiX) includes steady-state flux, maximum flux, lag time and permeability coefficient results for the substances tested, as well as relevant information on experimental parameters that can impact the data. It can be used to extract subsets of data for comparisons and to build predictive models.


Assuntos
Absorção Cutânea , Pele , Pele/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Xenobióticos/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(1)2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38203814

RESUMO

Cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19) chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are a highly effective immunotherapy for relapsed and refractory B-cell malignancies, but their utility can be limited by the development of immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS). The recent discovery of CD19 expression on the pericytes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) suggests an important off-target mechanism for ICANS development. In addition, the release of systemic cytokines stimulated by the engagement of CD19 with the CAR T cells can cause endothelial activation and decreased expression of tight junction molecules, further damaging the integrity of the BBB. Once within the brain microenvironment, cytokines trigger a cytokine-specific cascade of neuroinflammatory responses, which manifest clinically as a spectrum of neurological changes. Brain imaging is frequently negative or nonspecific, and treatment involves close neurologic monitoring, supportive care, interleukin antagonists, and steroids. The goal of this review is to inform readers about the normal development and microstructure of the BBB, its unique susceptibility to CD19 CAR T cells, the role of individual cytokines on specific elements of the brain's microstructural environment, and the clinical and imaging manifestations of ICANS. Our review will link cellular pathophysiology with the clinical and radiological manifestations of a complex clinical entity.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Humanos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Antígenos CD19 , Citocinas , Permeabilidade , Linfócitos T
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2773: 125-135, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236542

RESUMO

Intravital microscopy allows a direct visualization of cells' behavior in their environment in a living organism with all its complexity. With appropriated models, longitudinal studies of structural and functional changes can be followed in the same animal on long period. In the field of cancer, the dorsal window chamber model is the model of choice for tumor events such as cells migration, vessels growth, and their permeability or interactions between cells and vessels. Coupled with wide-field, confocal, or multiphoton fluorescence microscopes, high spatial and temporal resolutions of the cellular events can be analyzed in vivo.


Assuntos
Microscopia Intravital , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica , Animais , Movimento Celular , Permeabilidade
13.
Molecules ; 29(2)2024 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257200

RESUMO

Penetration through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is desirable in the case of potential pharmaceuticals acting on the central nervous system (CNS), but is undesirable in the case of drug candidates acting on the peripheral nervous system because it may cause CNS side effects. Therefore, modeling of the permeability across the blood-brain barrier (i.e., the logarithm of the brain to blood concentration ratio, log BB) of potential pharmaceuticals should be performed as early as possible in the preclinical phase of drug development. Biomimetic chromatography with immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) and the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methodology were successful in modeling the blood-brain barrier permeability of 126 drug candidates, whose experimentally-derived lipophilicity indices and computationally-derived molecular descriptors (such as molecular weight (MW), number of rotatable bonds (NRB), number of hydrogen bond donors (HBD), number of hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA), topological polar surface area (TPSA), and polarizability (α)) varied by class. The QSARs model established by multiple linear regression showed a positive effect of the lipophilicity (log kw, IAM) and molecular weight of the compound, and a negative effect of the number of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, on the log BB values. The model has been cross-validated, and all statistics indicate that it is very good and has high predictive ability. The simplicity of the developed model, and its usefulness in screening studies of novel drug candidates that are able to cross the BBB by passive diffusion, are emphasized.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Biomimética , Cromatografia , Membranas Artificiais , Permeabilidade , Preparações Farmacêuticas
14.
J Phys Chem B ; 128(3): 795-811, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227958

RESUMO

According to the pH-partition hypothesis, the aqueous solution adjacent to a membrane is a mixture of the ionization states of the permeating molecule at fixed Henderson-Hasselbalch concentrations, such that each state passes through the membrane in parallel with its own specific permeability. An alternative view, based on the assumption that the rate of switching ionization states is instantaneous, represents the permeation of ionizable molecules via an effective Boltzmann-weighted average potential (BWAP). Such an assumption is used in constant-pH molecular dynamics simulations. The inhomogeneous solubility-diffusion framework can be used to compute the pH-dependent membrane permeability for each of these two limiting treatments. With biased WTM-eABF molecular dynamics simulations, we computed the potential of mean force and diffusivity of each ionization state of two weakly basic small molecules: nicotine, an addictive drug, and varenicline, a therapeutic for treating nicotine addiction. At pH = 7, the BWAP effective permeability is greater than that determined by pH-partitioning by a factor of 2.5 for nicotine and 5 for varenicline. To assess the importance of ionization kinetics, we present a Smoluchowski master equation that includes explicitly the protonation and deprotonation processes coupled with the diffusive motion across the membrane. At pH = 7, the increase in permeability due to the explicit ionization kinetics is negligible for both nicotine and varenicline. This finding is reaffirmed by combined Brownian dynamics and Markov state model simulations for estimating the permeability of nicotine while allowing changes in its ionization state. We conclude that for these molecules the pH-partition hypothesis correctly captures the physics of the permeation process. The small free energy barriers for the permeation of nicotine and varenicline in their deprotonated neutral forms play a crucial role in establishing the validity of the pH-partitioning mechanism. Essentially, BWAP fails because ionization kinetics are too slow on the time scale of membrane crossing to affect the permeation of small ionizable molecules such as nicotine and varenicline. For the singly protonated state of nicotine, the computational results agree well with experimental measurements (P1 = 1.29 × 10-7 cm/s), but the agreement for neutral (P0 = 6.12 cm/s) and doubly protonated nicotine (P2 = 3.70 × 10-13 cm/s) is slightly worse, likely due to factors associated with the aqueous boundary layer (neutral form) or leaks through paracellular pathways (doubly protonated form).


Assuntos
Nicotina , Física , Nicotina/química , Vareniclina , Membranas , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Permeabilidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1722, 2024 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242930

RESUMO

Intrinsic permeability describes the ability of a porous medium to be penetrated by a fluid. Considering porous scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) applications, this macroscopic variable can strongly influence the transport of oxygen and nutrients, the cell seeding process, and the transmission of fluid forces to the cells, playing a crucial role in determining scaffold efficacy. Thus, accurately measuring the permeability of porous scaffolds could represent an essential step in their optimization process. In literature, several methods have been proposed to characterize scaffold permeability. Most of the currently adopted approaches to assess permeability limit their applicability to specific scaffold structures, hampering protocols standardization, and ultimately leading to incomparable results among different laboratories. The content of novelty of this study is in the proposal of an adaptable test bench and in defining a specific testing protocol, compliant with the ASTM International F2952-22 guidelines, for reliable and repeatable measurements of the intrinsic permeability of TE porous scaffolds. The developed permeability test bench (PTB) exploits the pump-based method, and it is composed of a modular permeability chamber integrated within a closed-loop hydraulic circuit, which includes a peristaltic pump and pressure sensors, recirculating demineralized water. A specific testing protocol was defined for characterizing the pressure drop associated with the scaffold under test, while minimizing the effects of uncertainty sources. To assess the operational capabilities and performance of the proposed test bench, permeability measurements were conducted on PLA scaffolds with regular (PS) and random (RS) micro-architecture and on commercial bovine bone matrix-derived scaffolds (CS) for bone TE. To validate the proposed approach, the scaffolds were as well characterized using an alternative test bench (ATB) based on acoustic measurements, implementing a blind randomized testing procedure. The consistency of the permeability values measured using both the test benches demonstrated the reliability of the proposed approach. A further validation of the PTB's measurement reliability was provided by the agreement between the measured permeability values of the PS scaffolds and the theory-based predicted permeability value. Once validated the proposed PTB, the performed measurements allowed the investigation of the scaffolds' transport properties. Samples with the same structure (guaranteed by the fused-deposition modeling technique) were characterized by similar permeability values, and CS and RS scaffolds showed permeability values in agreement with the values reported in the literature for bovine trabecular bone. In conclusion, the developed PTB and the proposed testing protocol allow the characterization of the intrinsic permeability of porous scaffolds of different types and dimensions under controlled flow regimes, representing a powerful tool in view of providing a reliable and repeatable framework for characterizing and optimizing scaffolds for TE applications.


Assuntos
Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte , Animais , Bovinos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tecidos Suporte/química , Permeabilidade
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 62, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167266

RESUMO

Pathogen genetic diversity varies in response to environmental changes. However, it remains unclear whether plant barriers to invasion could be considered a genetic bottleneck for phytopathogen populations. Here, we implement a barcoding approach to generate a pool of 90 isogenic and individually barcoded Ralstonia solanacearum strains. We used 90 of these strains to inoculate tomato plants with different degrees of physical permeability to invasion (intact roots, wounded roots and xylem inoculation) and quantify the phytopathogen population dynamics during invasion. Our results reveal that the permeability of plant roots impacts the degree of population bottleneck, genetic diversity, and composition of Ralstonia populations. We also find that selection is the main driver structuring pathogen populations when barriers to infection are less permeable, i.e., intact roots, the removal of root physical and immune barriers results in the predominance of stochasticity in population assembly. Taken together, our study suggests that plant root permeability constitutes a bottleneck for phytopathogen invasion and genetic diversity.


Assuntos
Ralstonia solanacearum , Virulência , Ralstonia solanacearum/genética , Permeabilidade , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas
17.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 194: 106699, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232636

RESUMO

When studying the transport of molecules across biological membranes, intrinsic membrane permeability (P0) is more informative than apparent permeability (Papp), because it eliminates external (setup-specific) factors, provides consistency across experiments and mechanistic insight. It is thus an important building block for modeling the total permeability in any given scenario. However, extracting P0 is often difficult, if not impossible, when the membrane is not the dominant transport resistance. In this work, we set out to analyze Papp values measured with Caco-2/MDCK cell monolayers of 69 literature references. We checked the Papp values for a total of 318 different compounds for the extractability of P0, considering possible limitations by aqueous boundary layers, paracellular transport, recovery issues, active transport, a possible proton flux limitation, and sink conditions. Overall, we were able to extract 77 reliable P0 values, which corresponds to about one quarter of the total compounds analyzed, while about half were limited by the diffusion through the aqueous layers. Compared to an existing data set of P0 values published by Avdeef, our approach resulted in a much higher exclusion of compounds. This is a consequence of stricter compound- and reference-specific exclusion criteria, but also because we considered possible concentration-shift effects due to different pH values in the aqueous layers, an effect only recently described in literature. We thus provide a consistent and reliable set of P0, e.g. as a basis for future modeling.


Assuntos
Células CACO-2 , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Difusão , Permeabilidade , Transporte Biológico
18.
J Med Chem ; 67(3): 1888-1899, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38270541

RESUMO

Cyclic peptides are gaining attention for their strong binding affinity, low toxicity, and ability to target "undruggable" proteins; however, their therapeutic potential against intracellular targets is constrained by their limited membrane permeability, and researchers need much time and money to test this property in the laboratory. Herein, we propose an innovative multimodal model called Multi_CycGT, which combines a graph convolutional network (GCN) and a transformer to extract one- and two-dimensional features for predicting cyclic peptide permeability. The extensive benchmarking experiments show that our Multi_CycGT model can attain state-of-the-art performance, with an average accuracy of 0.8206 and an area under the curve of 0.8650, and demonstrates satisfactory generalization ability on several external data sets. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first deep learning-based attempt to predict the membrane permeability of cyclic peptides, which is beneficial in accelerating the design of cyclic peptide active drugs in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology applications.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Química Farmacêutica , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Permeabilidade
19.
Molecules ; 29(2)2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257234

RESUMO

Tetramethoxyflavones (TMFs) found in the Citrus genus have garnered considerable interest from food scientists and the health food industry because of their promising biological properties. Nonetheless, there are currently limited data available regarding the effectiveness and bioavailability of "hydroxylated TMFs", which are flavones known for their potential in disease prevention through dietary means. This study aims to provide insights into the chemical and biological properties of hydroxylated TMF and evaluates its effects on intestinal cell permeability and cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and microsomes analyze the TMFs and hydroxylated TMFs, elucidating cell penetration and metabolic inhibition potential. 3H7-TMF shows the fastest (1-h) transport efficiency in intestinal cells. The Caco-2 cell model exhibits significant transport and absorption efficiency. Dissolved hydroxyl-TMF with hydrophilicity possibly permeates the gut. 3H7-TMF has higher transport efficiency (46%) 3H6-TMF (39%). IC50 values of TMFs (78-TMF, 57-TMF, 3H7-TMF, 3H6-TMF) against CYP enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4) range from 0.15 to 108 µM, indicating potent inhibition. Hydroxyl groups enhance TMF hydrophilicity and membrane permeability. TMFs display varied inhibitory effects due to hydroxyl and methoxy hindrance. This study underscores the strong CYP inhibitory capabilities in these TMFs, implying potential food-drug interactions if used in medicines or supplements. These findings can also help with food nutrition improvement and pharma food developments through innovative approaches for Citrus waste valorization.


Assuntos
Citrus , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Humanos , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Microssomos
20.
Lab Chip ; 24(3): 572-583, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175144

RESUMO

Epithelial cells serve as a barrier by tightly adhering to each other and contribute to the homeostasis of living organisms by controlling substance permeation. Therefore, evaluation of the barrier function is important in pharmaceutical development processes. However, the widely used Transwell-based assays require the development of the defect-free epithelial cell monolayer above several tens of mm2, often resulting in low reproducibility and requiring a long incubation time. In addition, the culture surface of cells is far from the bottom of the well plate, making it difficult to observe the cell morphology using an optical microscope. Herein, we propose simple polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices for evaluating the barrier function of an epithelial monolayer using a microchamber array. After the formation of the epithelial monolayer over microchambers, the permeation of the marker molecules introduced above resulted in increased fluorescence intensity in microchambers, which was monitored using confocal laser scanning microscopy. We show that using this technique, alteration of the paracellular permeability induced by sodium caprate (C10) and cytochalasin-D, permeation enhancing factors, can be elucidated. Furthermore, by tilting the microchamber device 90 degrees, the vertical cell section and microchambers were imaged in the same focal plane, allowing for live visualization of the passage of fluorescent substances across the cell monolayer. This technique is expected to be useful for investigating the relationship between paracellular permeability and cell morphology, which is unattainable through conventional methods.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Permeabilidade
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