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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 534-551, jul. 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538057

RESUMO

The cultural significance of the flora used by the native Asheninka Sheremashe community in Ucayali, Peru was determined. To do this, a fieldwork of over 4 months was conducted, involving semi-structured interviews with 106 residents through non-probabilistic convenience sampling. The community utilizes 139 plant species in their daily lives, belonging to 120 genera and 52 families, with the most abundant being Fabaceae, Arecaceae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Poaceae, and Rutaceae. Furthermore, 25.9% of the species are of significant importance to theinhabitants according to the Cultural Index (CI), such as Manihot esculenta, Theobroma cacao, Bixa orellana, Musa paradisiaca, Ficus insipida, among others. It can be concluded that the flora plays a prominent role in the life of the community, with the categories reporting the highest number of species being: food (29.35%), medicine (28.36%), culture (9.95%), construction (9.45%), lumber (6.97%), commerce (3.48%), craftsmanship (2.49%), toxic (2.49%), and other uses (7.46%)


Se determinó la importancia cultural de la flora empleada por la comunidad nativa Asheninka Sheremashe, en Ucayali, Perú. Para ello, se realizó un trabajo de campo de más de 4 meses, donde se aplicaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 106 habitantes mediante un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. La comunidad emplea 139 especies vegetales en su día a día, pertenecientes a 120 géneros y 52 familias; siendo las más abundantes las Fabaceae, Arecaceae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Poaceae y Rutaceae. Además, el 25.9% de las especies tiene gran importancia para los pobladores según el Índice Cultural (IC): Manihot esculenta, Theobroma cacao, Bixa orellana, Musa paradisiaca, Ficus insipida, entre otras. Se concluye que la flora tiene un rol preponderante en la vida de la comunidad, siendo las categorías que presentaron mayor reporte de especies: alimentación (29.35%), medicina (28.36%), cultura (9.95%), construcción (9.45%), aserrío (6.97%), comercio (3.48%), artesanía (2.49%), tóxico (2.49%) y otros usos (7.46%)


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Medicina Tradicional , Peru , Inquéritos e Questionários , Flora , Medicina Herbária
2.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 53(1): 47-54, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724170

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prolongation and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to an uncertain and devastating panorama in many populations, and the evidence shows a high prevalence of mental health problems in medical students. The objective was to evaluate the association between mood disorders and sleep quality (SQ) in Peruvian medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 310 medical students from a private university in Peru. The SQ was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while mood disorders were evaluated using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). All information was collected by online surveys and then analysed in the R programming language. RESULTS: The SQ results measured by PSQI were poor in 83.9% of the medical students. In the Poison regression analysis, the results of the bivariate analysis in men show that all mood disorders found the prevalence of poor SQ. However, in the multivariate analysis only stress (PRa=1.30; 95% CI, 1.08-1.57; P<0.01) and anxiety (PRa=1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.56; P <0.01) increased the prevalence of poor SQ. Women had a similar pattern in bivariate analysis, whereas in multivariate analysis, only severe stress (PRa=1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29; P <0.05) increased the prevalence of poor SQ. CONCLUSIONS: This study allows us to observe the consequences that the COVID-19 pandemic is having on medical students in Peru. It also revealed a population group vulnerable to poor quality of sleep and bad mood, which in the future will impact on health. It is suggested to educate medical students about the importance of proper sleep hygiene and the consequences of poor sleep hygiene practices.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19 , Transtornos do Humor , Qualidade do Sono , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Prevalência , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10538, 2024 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719874

RESUMO

We estimated the effect of community-level natural hazard exposure during prior developmental stages on later anxiety and depression symptoms among young adults and potential differences stratified by gender. We analyzed longitudinal data (2002-2020) on 5585 young adults between 19 and 26 years in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. A binary question identified community-level exposure, and psychometrically validated scales measured recent anxiety and depression symptoms. Young adults with three exposure histories ("time point 1," "time point 2," and "both time points") were contrasted with their unexposed peers. We applied a longitudinal targeted minimum loss-based estimator with an ensemble of machine learning algorithms for estimation. Young adults living in exposed communities did not exhibit substantially different anxiety or depression symptoms from their unexposed peers, except for young women in Ethiopia who exhibited less anxiety symptoms (average causal effect [ACE] estimate = - 8.86 [95% CI: - 17.04, - 0.68] anxiety score). In this study, singular and repeated natural hazard exposures generally were not associated with later anxiety and depression symptoms. Further examination is needed to understand how distal natural hazard exposures affect lifelong mental health, which aspects of natural hazards are most salient, how disaster relief may modify symptoms, and gendered, age-specific, and contextual differences.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento
4.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 19(1): 36, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital technologies have positively impacted the availability and usability of clinical algorithms through the advancement in mobile health. Therefore, this study aimed to determine if a web-based algorithm designed to support the decision-making process of cancer care providers (CCPs) differentially impacted their self-reported self-efficacy and practices for providing smoking prevention and cessation services in Peru and Colombia. METHODS: A simple decision-making tree algorithm was built in REDCap using information from an extensive review of the currently available smoking prevention and cessation resources. We employed a pre-post study design with a mixed-methods approach among 53 CCPs in Peru and Colombia for pilot-testing the web-based algorithm during a 3-month period. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the CCPs' self-efficacy and practices before and after using the web-based algorithm. The usability of the web-based algorithm was quantitatively measured with the system usability scale (SUS), as well as qualitatively through the analysis of four focus groups conducted among the participating CCPs. RESULTS: The pre-post assessments indicated that the CCPs significantly improved their self-efficacy and practices toward smoking prevention and cessation services after using the web-based algorithm. The overall average SUS score obtained among study participants was 82.9 (± 9.33) [Peru 81.5; Colombia 84.1]. After completing the qualitative analysis of the focus groups transcripts, four themes emerged: limited resources currently available for smoking prevention and cessation in oncology settings, merits of the web-based algorithm, challenges with the web-based algorithm, and suggestions for improving this web-based decision-making tool. CONCLUSION: The web-based algorithm showed high usability and was well-received by the CCPs in Colombia and Peru, promoting a preliminary improvement in their smoking prevention and cessation self-efficacy and practices.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Autoeficácia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Colômbia , Masculino , Feminino , Peru , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Internet , Pessoal de Saúde , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300280, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess quality of life and explore its associated factors in a group of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing hemodialysis in Peru. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of patients with CKD treated at two medical centers in Tacna, Peru; between July and September 2023. We conducted a survey via telephone interviews with eligible patients using the Short Form 36 (SF 36) to assess their quality of life. RESULTS: Of 257 patients with CKD undergoing hemodialysis, we successfully interviewed 207 (59.9% males, median age: 62 years, median time on hemodialysis: 3.5 years). In the context of the SF-36 assessment, the dimensions with the lowest scores were physical role (mean: 13.9), emotional role (32.2), and physical function (32.4). Regarding the SF-36 summary scores, the average scores were 42.2 in the mental health domain and 32.0 in the physical health domain. In the adjusted model, the physical health domain score was higher in males (ß = 2.7) and those with economic self-sufficiency (ß = 3.0) and lower in older adults (ß = -2.5). The score in the mental health domain was higher in those with a higher level of education (ß = 4.1), in those with economic self-sufficiency (ß = 3.8), and in those receiving care at one of the centers included (ß: 4.2). CONCLUSION: Quality of life was affected, particularly in the realms of physical and emotional well-being. Furthermore, both the physical and mental health domains tend to show lower scores among women, older individuals, those lacking economic self-sufficiency, individuals with lower educational levels, and those with comorbidities.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Diálise Renal/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Idoso , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde Mental
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299465, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781143

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evaluating the professional competencies of Peruvian doctors is crucial for proposing necessary improvements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the specific characteristics and competencies that are assessed in these studies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to characterize published studies focusing on the assessment of professional competencies among physicians in Peru. METHODS: A comprehensive scoping review was conducted, encompassing scientific journal publications that evaluated the professional competencies of physicians in Peru. The search was performed in PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and SciELO, with the review period extending until 2022. The identified competencies were classified using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the Ministry of Health of Peru (MINSA) frameworks. The findings were presented using absolute and relative frequency measures. RESULTS: A total of forty-nine studies focused on the assessment of professional competencies among physicians were identified, indicating an upward trend over the years. The primary focus of these studies was on evaluating competencies related to medical knowledge (79.6% according to ACGME classification) and the treatment of health problems (57.1% according to MINSA classification). However, there was a noticeable lack of emphasis on assessing behavioral competencies such as ethics, professionalism, and communication. Most of the included studies (65.3%) were exclusively conducted in Lima. Among the studies that disclosed their funding sources, 61% were self-funded. CONCLUSION: Most studies primarily concentrated on evaluating knowledge-based competencies, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and treatment. There is a scarcity of studies assessing other important competencies. Additionally, centralization and limited funding appear to be areas that require improvement in the evaluation of professional competencies among Peruvian physicians.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Médicos , Peru , Humanos , Médicos/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Competência Profissional/normas
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(6): 1115-1124, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781680

RESUMO

The World Health Organization's end TB strategy promotes the use of symptom and chest radiograph screening for tuberculosis (TB) disease. However, asymptomatic early states of TB beyond latent TB infection and active disease can go unrecognized using current screening criteria. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study enrolling household contacts initially free of TB disease and followed them for the occurrence of incident TB over 1 year. Among 1,747 screened contacts, 27 (52%) of the 52 persons in whom TB subsequently developed during follow-up had a baseline abnormal radiograph. Of contacts without TB symptoms, persons with an abnormal radiograph were at higher risk for subsequent TB than persons with an unremarkable radiograph (adjusted hazard ratio 15.62 [95% CI 7.74-31.54]). In young adults, we found a strong linear relationship between radiograph severity and time to TB diagnosis. Our findings suggest chest radiograph screening can extend to detecting early TB states, thereby enabling timely intervention.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Programas de Rastreamento , Radiografia Torácica , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Criança , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico por imagem , Lactente , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303668, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768151

RESUMO

Multiple forms of malnutrition coexist in infants and young children (IYC) in Peru. The World Health Organization has proposed double-duty actions (DDAs) to simultaneously address undernutrition and overweight/obesity. We assessed current implementation of- and priority for- government-level actions to tackle multiple forms of malnutrition in IYC in Peru. Mapping of current policy activity was undertaken against 47 indicators of good practice for five DDAs (exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, food marketing, maternal nutrition, preschool nutrition; assessed by 27 indicators) and for the enabling policy environment, i.e., 'infrastructure support' (health in all policies, platforms for interactions, financing, monitoring, governance, leadership; assessed by 20 indicators). Interviews with 16 national experts explored views on the level of and barriers to implementation of DDAs and infrastructure support, as well as their prioritisation based on likely impact and feasibility. The level of implementation of actions was categorised into two groups (agenda setting/formulation vs. implementation/evaluation). Mean scores were generated for prioritisation of DDAs and infrastructure support. Deductive qualitative analysis was undertaken to identify barriers that influence policy implementation. Only 5/27 DDA indicators were reported as fully implemented by all national experts (international code that regulates the marketing of breastmilk substitutes, iron supplementation for IYC, micronutrient powders in IYC, iron/folic acid supplementation in pregnant women, paid maternity leave). Only 1/20 infrastructure support indicator (access to nutrition information) was rated as fully implemented by all experts. Barriers to implementing DDAs and infrastructure support included: legal feasibility or lack of regulations, inadequate monitoring/evaluation to ensure enforcement, commercial influences on policymakers, insufficient resources, shifting public health priorities with the COVID-19 pandemic and political instability. The experts prioritised 12 indicators across all five DDAs and eight infrastructure support indicators. Experts highlighted the need to improve implementation of all DDAs and identified ways to strengthen the enabling policy environment.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Prioridades em Saúde , Masculino
9.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101021, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772638

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) causes significant losses in Andean livestock production and affects Andean food security. However, more studies are needed to understand the epidemiology of the disease. In addition, the potential contribution of Andean cattle to the transmission of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato needs to be known. This study aimed to determine the CE-prevalence and its association with risk factors, such as age and sex of the animals, the parasite load (number of cysts/organ) of condemned organs, and the viability and fertility of Echinococcus cysts from cattle in the Andes. The prevalence was examined in 348 cattle from an authorized slaughterhouse of Huancayo at 3300 m altitude. Cyst burden was determined by extracting all cysts from the total of the CE-infected organs. Cyst fertility and protoscolices viability were analysed from 90 randomly selected CE-infected organs. The CE prevalence was 35.6% (124/348; 95% CI: 30.6%-40.6%). There was no significant effect of age and sex on CE prevalence. CE was significantly more prevalent (p < 0.05) in lungs than livers, 34.8% (121/348; 95% CI: 29.8%-39.8%) vs 8.9% (31/348; 95% CI: 5.9%-11.9%). Most (75%) infected organs had one to five cysts. The mean cyst burden was significantly (p = 0.018) higher in the lungs than livers, 6.4 ± 4.9 vs 3.7 ± 2.9. Cyst fertility was 1.6% (10/608; 95% CI: 0.6%-2.6%). Despite the high CE prevalence, infected organs from Andean cattle play a minor role in CE transmission to dogs in the central Peruvian Andes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Animais , Bovinos , Peru/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Equinococose/transmissão , Masculino , Prevalência , Feminino , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Fígado/parasitologia , Pulmão/parasitologia
10.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 21(3): 14791641241252553, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between GGT/HDL-C ratio and resolution of MetS in adults after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using secondary data from a Peruvian bariatric center. The study population consisted of adults aged 18 and above who underwent laparoscopic SG and were diagnosed with MetS prior to the surgery. The main outcome measured was MetS resolution 6 months post-surgery and the exposure variable was the GGT/HDL-C ratio. RESULTS: We analyzed 137 patients with a mean age of 38.9 ± 10.9 years; 64.2% were females. The median GGT/HDL-C ratio was 1.1 [0.7 - 1.5], and 83.9% of patients experienced resolution of MetS. Furthermore, both the middle tertile of GGT/HDL-C (aRR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.04 - 1.58; p = .019) and the lowest tertile (aRR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.60; p = .038) showed a significant association with the resolution of MetS. CONCLUSION: Eight out of 10 patients undergoing SG experience resolution of MetS within 6 months after surgery. Patients in the middle and lower tertiles of the GGT/HDL-C were more likely to achieve this outcome. Therefore, the GGT/HDL-C ratio should be considered a valuable and efficient biomarker for preoperative assessment of bariatric surgery candidates.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , HDL-Colesterol , Gastrectomia , Síndrome Metabólica , gama-Glutamiltransferase , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biomarcadores/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Peru , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Indução de Remissão , Redução de Peso , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos
11.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 24(1): 166, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755577

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis is challenging even nowadays. This study aims to report the positivity rates of new diagnostic methods such as immunohistochemistry and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction in patients with intestinal tuberculosis, as well as describe the pathological and endoscopic features of intestinal tuberculosis in our population. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study conducted in patients diagnosed with intestinal tuberculosis, between 2010 to 2023 from the Hospital Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrion and a Private Pathology Center, both located in Peru. Clinical data was obtained, histologic features were independently re-evaluated by three pathologists; and immunohistochemistry and real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction evaluation were performed. The 33 patients with intestinal tuberculosis who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry was positive in 90.9% of cases, while real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction was positive in 38.7%. The ileocecal region was the most affected area (33.3%), and the most frequent endoscopic appearance was an ulcer (63.6%). Most of the granulomas were composed solely of epithelioid histiocytes (75.8%). Crypt architectural disarray was the second most frequent histologic finding (78.8%) after granulomas, but most of them were mild. CONCLUSION: Since immunohistochemistry does not require an intact cell wall, it demonstrates higher sensitivity compared to Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Therefore, it could be helpful for the diagnosis of paucibacillary tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Imuno-Histoquímica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Peru , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Granuloma/diagnóstico , Granuloma/microbiologia , Granuloma/patologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Adolescente , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1261133, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751589

RESUMO

Background: The link between physical and mental health and screen time in adolescents has been the subject of scientific scrutiny in recent years. However, there are few studies that have evaluated the association between social network addiction (SNA) and metabolic risk in this population. Objective: This study determined the association between SNA and anxiety symptoms with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Peruvian adolescents aged 12 to 18 years, who completed a Social Network Addiction Questionnaire and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2-item scale (GAD-2), between September and November 2022. A total of 903 participants were included in the study using a non-probability convenience sample. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were also collected. Binary logistic regression was used to explore the association between SNA and anxiety symptoms with MetS in a cross-sectional analysis. Results: Males were more likely to have MetS than females (OR = 1.133, p = 0.028). Participants who were 16 years of age or older and those with excess body weight were 2.166, p = 0.013 and 19.414, p < 0.001 times more likely to have MetS, respectively. Additionally, SNA (OR = 1.517, p = 0.016) and the presence of anxiety symptoms (OR = 2.596, p < 0.001) were associated with MetS. Conclusion: Our findings suggest associations between SNA, anxiety symptoms, and MetS among youth. However, more studies are needed to better understand this association and to deepen the possible clinical and public health implications.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Síndrome Metabólica , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Criança , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco , Rede Social , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303762, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753860

RESUMO

The present study, focused on pilgrimages as part of religious tourism, aimed to achieve the following objectives: Identify the motivations of the demand for religious tourism focused on pilgrimages; analyze the segmentation of the demand; identify the relationship between demand segments with satisfaction and loyalty; and establish the sociodemographic aspects that characterize demand segments. The study was conducted during the Pilgrimage of the Christ of Miracles in Lima, Peru. The sample was taken on-site from 384 tourists. The statistical techniques used were factor analysis and the k-means clustering method. The results reveal five motivational dimensions: Religious Experience, Belief Experience, Escape, Touristic Experience, and Shopping. Three attendee segments were also identified: Believers, related to belief experience; Religious, related to religious experience; and Passive, tourists with low motivations. The Religious segment had the highest satisfaction and loyalty levels among these groups. Sociodemographic differences were also found in the demand segments. The findings will contribute to management guidelines for destination administrators with religious events and provide insights into academic literature.


Assuntos
Motivação , Religião , Turismo , Humanos , Peru , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 160, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) represents a major challenge for public health, with hypertension and diabetes being the main causes of its occurrence. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Peruvian patients with CKD. METHODS: A systematic search for studies about CKD in Peru was carried out in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Virtual Health Library (VHL), and Scielo from 2011 to December 2023. The protocol of this research was registered in the international registry of systematic reviews, the Prospective International Registry of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), with registration number CRD42023425118. Study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed independently by two authors. Study quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Statistical Meta-Analysis Assessment and Review Instrument. A random-effects model with inverse variance weighting was used to estimate the combined prevalence of HTN and DM in Peruvian patients with CKD. To analyze data heterogeneity, the I2 statistical test was used. Statistical analysis was performed with R version 4.2.3. RESULTS: A total of 1425 studies were retrieved, of which 23 were included in the final meta-analysis. A total of 43,321 patients with CKD were evaluated, of whom 52.22% were male and 47.78% were female. The combined prevalence of HTN in Peruvian patients with CKD was 38% (95% CI: 30-46%; 41,131 participants; 21 studies, I2 = 99%, p = 0), while the combined prevalence of DM in Peruvian patients with CKD was 33% (95% CI: 26-40%; 43,321 participants; 23 studies, I2 = 99%, p = 0). CONCLUSION: Approximately one-third of Peruvian patients with CKD have HTN and DM. These findings highlight the importance of implementing prevention and control measures for these chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Peruvian population, such as promoting healthy lifestyles, encouraging early detection and proper management of hypertension and diabetes, and improving access to medical care and health services.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia
15.
Malar J ; 23(1): 163, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax represents the most geographically widespread human malaria parasite affecting civilian and military populations in endemic areas. Targeting the pre-erythrocytic (PE) stage of the parasite life cycle is especially appealing for developing P. vivax vaccines as it would prevent disease and transmission. Here, naturally acquired immunity to a panel of P. vivax PE antigens was explored, which may facilitate vaccine development and lead to a better understanding of naturally acquired PE immunity. METHODS: Twelve P. vivax PE antigens orthologous to a panel of P. falciparum antigens previously identified as highly immunogenic in protected subjects after immunization with radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS) were used for evaluation of humoral and cellular immunity by ELISA and IFN-γ ELISpot. Samples from P. vivax infected individuals (n = 76) from a low endemic malaria region in the Peruvian Amazon Basin were used. RESULTS: In those clinical samples, all PE antigens evaluated showed positive IgG antibody reactivity with a variable prevalence of 58-99% in recently P. vivax diagnosed patients. The magnitude of the IgG antibody response against PE antigens was lower compared with blood stage antigens MSP1 and DBP-II, although antibody levels persisted better for PE antigens (average decrease of 6% for PE antigens and 43% for MSP1, p < 0.05). Higher IgG antibodies was associated with one or more previous malaria episodes only for blood stage antigens (p < 0.001). High IgG responders across PE and blood stage antigens showed significantly lower parasitaemia compared to low IgG responders (median 1,921 vs 4,663 par/µl, p < 0.05). In a subgroup of volunteers (n = 17),positive IFN-γ T cell response by ELISPOT was observed in 35% vs 9-35% against blood stage MSP1 and PE antigens, respectively, but no correlation with IgG responses. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate clear humoral and T cell responses against P. vivax PE antigens in individuals naturally infected with P. vivax. These data identify novel attractive PE antigens suitable for use in the potential development and selection of new malaria vaccine candidates which can be used as a part of malaria prevention strategies in civilian and military populations living in P. vivax endemic areas.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários , Malária Vivax , Plasmodium vivax , Proteínas de Protozoários , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Adulto , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Criança , Idoso , ELISPOT
16.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1344295, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38784579

RESUMO

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a global shortage of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs, required for RT-PCR testing. Canadian manufacturers were contacted to share NP swab innovations. The primary objective was to determine whether novel NP test swabs were comparable to commercially available swabs regarding user characteristics, ability to collect a specimen, and diagnostic performance using RT-PCR testing. Methods: Participants were randomized by swab (test/control) and nostril (left/right). A calculated positive percent agreement ≥90% was considered successful. Mean Ct values of viral genes and housekeeping gene (RNase P) were considered similar if a Ct difference ≤ 2 between control and test group was obtained. There also was a qualitative assessment of swabs usability. Results: 647 participants were enrolled from Huaycan Hospital in Lima, Peru, distributed over 8 NP swabs brands. Seven brands agreed to share their results. There were no statistically significant differences between the test swabs of these 7 brands and control swabs. Conclusion: All the seven brands are comparable to the commercially available flocked swabs used for SARS-CoV-2 regarding test results agreement, ability to collect a specimen, and user characteristics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Nasofaringe , SARS-CoV-2 , Manejo de Espécimes , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Nasofaringe/virologia , Canadá , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Idoso
17.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e55559, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV are disproportionally affected by depression, which worsens antiretroviral therapy adherence, increases viral load, and doubles the risk of mortality. Because most adolescents living with HIV live in low- and middle-income countries, few receive depression treatment due to a lack of mental health services and specialists in low-resource settings. Chatbot technology, used increasingly in health service delivery, is a promising approach for delivering low-intensity depression care to adolescents living with HIV in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to develop and pilot-test for the feasibility and acceptability of a prototype, optimized conversational agent (chatbot) to provide mental health education, self-help skills, and care linkage for adolescents living with HIV. METHODS: Chatbot development comprises 3 phases conducted over 2 years. In the first phase (year 1), formative research will be conducted to understand the views, opinions, and preferences of up to 48 youths aged 10-19 years (6 focus groups of up to 8 adolescents living with HIV per group), their caregivers (5 in-depth interviews), and HIV program personnel (5 in-depth interviews) regarding depression among adolescents living with HIV. We will also investigate the perceived acceptability of a mental health chatbot, including barriers and facilitators to accessing and using a chatbot for depression care by adolescents living with HIV. In the second phase (year 1), we will iteratively program a chatbot using the SmartBot360 software with successive versions (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3), meeting regularly with a Youth Advisory Board comprised of adolescents living with HIV who will guide and inform the chatbot development and content to arrive at a prototype version (version 1.0) for pilot-testing. In the third phase (year 2), we will pilot-test the prototype chatbot among 50 adolescents living with HIV naïve to its development. Participants will interact with the chatbot for up to 2 weeks, and data will be collected on the acceptability of the chatbot-delivered depression education and self-help strategies, depression knowledge changes, and intention to seek care linkage. RESULTS: The study was awarded in April 2022, received institutional review board approval in November 2022, received funding in December 2022, and commenced recruitment in March 2023. By the completion of study phases 1 and 2, we expect our chatbot to incorporate key needs and preferences gathered from focus groups and interviews to develop the chatbot. By the completion of study phase 3, we will have assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the prototype chatbot. Study phase 3 began in April 2024. Final results are expected by January 2025 and published thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: The study will produce a prototype mental health chatbot developed with and for adolescents living with HIV that will be ready for efficacy testing in a subsequent, larger study. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/55559.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Adolescente , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Projetos Piloto , Masculino , Feminino , Peru/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Autocuidado , Saúde Mental , Grupos Focais
18.
PeerJ ; 12: e16727, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563006

RESUMO

Introduction: The pandemic of COVID-19 continues to impact people worldwide, with more than 755 million confirmed cases and more than 6.8 million reported deaths. Although two types of treatment, antiviral and immunomodulatory therapy, have been approved to date, vaccination has been the best method to control the spread of the disease. Objective: To explore factors associated with the intention to be vaccinated with the COVID-19 booster dose in Peru. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study, using virtual and physical surveys of adults with two or more doses of COVID-19 vaccine, where the dependent variable was the intention to be vaccinated (IBV) with the booster dose. We calculated prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals, using generalized linear models of the Poisson family with robust varying, determining associations between sociodemographic, clinical, and booster dose perception variables. Results: Data from 924 adults were analyzed. The IBV of the booster doses was 88.1%. A higher prevalence was associated with being male (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI [1.01-1.10]), having a good perception of efficacy and protective effect (PR = 3.69; 95% CI [2.57-5.30]) and belonging to the health sector (PR = 1.10; 95% CI [1.04-1.16]). There was greater acceptance of the recommendation of physicians and other health professionals (aPR = 1.40; 95% CI [1.27-1.55]). Conclusions: Factors associated with higher IBV with booster dose include male gender, health sciences, physician recommendation, and good perception of efficacy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Intenção , Peru/epidemiologia
19.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 44(2): 67-74, Abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-1

RESUMO

Introducción: La evaluación del crecimiento físico y la aptitud física es considerada una tarea beneficiosa para la salud y del rendimiento deportivo. Objetivo: Comparar el crecimiento físico y la aptitud física de jóvenes nadadores y no-nadadores de una región del Perú. Metodología: Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo (comparativo) en niños y adolescentes de 6 a 13 años. Se conformó dos grupos de estudio. Grupo 1: Practicantes de natación (nadadores) y Grupo 2: No-practicantes de natación (no-nadadores). Se evaluó las medidas antropométricas de peso, estatura, circunferencia de la cintura (CC) y las pruebas físicas de salto horizontal (SH) y agilidad. Se calculó el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) y el estado de madurez. Resultados: No hubo diferencias en el peso y estatura entre ambos grupos en todos los rangos de edad (p>0,05). En la CC, los nadadores de ambos sexos mostraron valores inferiores en relación a los no-nadadores al menos desde los 6-7 años, 8-9 años y 10-11 años (p<0,05). En las pruebas físicas, no hubo diferencias en la agilidad entre ambos grupos (p>0,05), sin embargo, en el SH, los nadadores mostraron mejor despeño que sus similares no-nadadores (P<0,05), en los hombres a los 10-11 años y 12-13 años (p<0,05) y en las mujeres en todos los rangos de edad (p<0,05). Conclusión: Los jóvenes nadadores y no-nadadores presentaron un similar patrón de crecimiento físico en peso y estatura, excepto en la CC, donde los no-nadadores mostraron valores superiores. En las pruebas físicas, ambos grupos evidenciaron similares valores de agilidad en todos los rangos de edad y los nadadores mostraron mejores resultados en el SH que sus similares no nadadores. Estos resultados sugieren la práctica de la natación de tres veces por semana, lo que podría ayudar a mantener un adecuado perfil antropométrico y mejorar la fuerza de los miembros inferiores.(AU)


Introduction: The evaluation of physical growth and fit-ness is considered a beneficial task for health and sports per-formance.Objective: To compare the physical growth and fitness ofyoung swimmers and non-swimmers in a region of Peru Methodology: A descriptive (comparative) study was car-ried out in children and adolescents aged 6 to 13 years. Twostudy groups were formed. Group 1: Swimming practitioners(swimmers) and Group 2: Non-swimming practitioners (non-swimmers). Anthropometric measurements of weight, height,sitting height, waist circumference (WC) and the physicaltests of horizontal jump (HH) and agility were evaluated.Body Mass Index (BMI) and maturity status were calculated.Significant differences were determined by means of the “t”test for independent samples.Results: There were no differences in weight, sittingheight and height between both groups in all age ranges(p>0.05). In CC, swimmers of both sexes showed lower val-ues in relation to non-swimmers at least from 6-7 years, 8-9years and 10-11 years (p<0.05). In the physical tests, therewere no differences in agility between both groups (p>0.05),however, in the SH, swimmers showed better performancethan their similar non-swimmers (P<0.05), in males at 10-11years and 12-13 years (p<0.05) and in females in all ageranges (p<0.05).Conclusion: Young swimmers and non-swimmers pre-sented a similar pattern of physical growth in weight andheight, except in CC, where non-swimmers showed highervalues. In the physical tests, both groups evidenced similaragility values in all age ranges and swimmers showed betterresults in SH than their similar non-swimmers. These resultssuggest that the practice of swimming three times a week hasa positive role on the anthropometric profile, adipose andlower limb strength performance.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Resistência Física , Aptidão Física , Natação , Crescimento , Peso Corporal , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Peru
20.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 44(2): 83-90, Abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-3

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre talla baja y erro-res de refracción ocular en escolares de Muquiyauyo. Metodología: El tamaño de la población estuvo constituidapor 250 escolares y el tamaño muestral (n) para el nivel deconfianza 99.99% fue de 215 escolares, el estudio fue analí-tico observacional transversal, y la técnica utilizada para la re-colección de datos fue de observación y encuesta medianteuna ficha con datos de medición antropométrica y refracciónocular (medida de vista con autokeratorefractometro). Resultados: De los 215 niños evaluados 158 presentanerrores de refracción ocular, a quienes se les realizó la medidade vista con autokeratorefractometro; presentando 17 niñosmiopía, 9 hipermetropía, 21 astigmatismo, 32 miopía y astig-matismo y 79 hipermetropía y astigmatismo. Con respecto al análisis bivariado de talla baja y miopía, astigmatismo, hiperme tropía se encontraron que los niños que tienen tallabaja se asociaron significativamente con el astigmatismo p = <0.0000965, la razón de prevalencia =2.33 IC (1.44,3.78); es decir, que los que presentan talla baja tienen dosveces más el riesgo de presentar astigmatismo. Los niños que presentaron talla baja se asocian significati-vamente con refracción ocular P=<0.01 razón de prevalencia6.81 IC (2.57,18.1). Conclusión: Los escolares de Muquiyauyo con talla bajatienen 6 veces más riesgo de presentar alteraciones en la re-fracción ocular.(AU)


Objective: To determine the association between shortstature and ocular refractive errors in schoolchildren inMuquiyauyo. Methodology: The population size consisted of 250 scho-olchildren and the sample size(n) for the 99.99% confidencelevel was 215 schoolchildren. The study was a cross-sectionalobservational analytical study, and the technique used fordata collection was observation and survey using an anthro-pometric measurement and ocular refraction data sheet (eyemeasurement with autokeratorefractometer). Results: Of the 215 children evaluated, 158 had ocular re-fractive errors, and their eyesight was measured with an au-tokeratorefractometer; 17 children had myopia, 9 had hypero-pia, 21 had astigmatism, 32 had myopia and astigmatism and79 had hyperopia and astigmatism. With respect to the biva-riate analysis of short stature and myopia, astigmatism andhyperopia, it was found that children with short stature weresignificantly associated with astigmatism p = <0.0000965,prevalence ratio =2.33 CI (1.44, 3.78); that is, those withshort stature have twice the risk of presenting astigmatism. Children with short stature are significantly associated withocular refraction P=<0.01 prevalence ratio 6.81 CI (2.57,18.1). Conclusion: Muquiyauyo school children with short statureare 6 times more likely to have ocular refractive disorders.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Refração Ocular , Estatura , Prevalência , Crescimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Peru , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
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