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1.
CMAJ ; 196(12): E394-E409, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies of disparities in birth and postnatal outcomes by parental birthplace combine all immigrants into a single group. We sought to evaluate heterogeneity among immigrants in Canada by comparing birth and postnatal outcomes across different immigration categories. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective study using Statistics Canada data on live births and stillbirths (1993-2017) and infant deaths (1993-2018), linked to parental immigration data (1960-2017). We classified birthing parents as born in Canada, economic-class immigrants, family-class immigrants, or refugees, and evaluated differences in preterm births, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births, stillbirths, and infant deaths among singleton births by group. RESULTS: Among 7 980 650 births, 1 715 050 (21.5%) were to immigrants, including 632 760 (36.9%) in the economic class, 853 540 (49.8%) in the family class, and 228 740 (13.4%) refugees. Compared with infants of Canadian-born birthing parents, infants of each of the 3 immigrant groups had higher risk of preterm birth, SGA birth, and stillbirth, but lower risk of LGA birth and neonatal death. Compared with infants of economic-class immigrants, infants of refugees had higher risk of early preterm birth (0.9% v. 0.8%, adjusted risk ratio [RR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.15) and LGA birth (9.2% v. 7.5%, adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.10-1.15), but lower risk of SGA birth (10.2% v. 11.0%, adjusted RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.90-0.94), while infants of family-class immigrants had higher risk of SGA birth (12.2% v. 11.0%, adjusted RR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02). Risk of stillbirth, neonatal death, and overall infant death did not differ significantly among immigrant groups. INTERPRETATION: Heterogeneity exists in outcomes of infants born to immigrants to Canada across immigration categories. These results highlight the importance of disaggregating immigrant populations in studies of health disparities.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Morte Perinatal , Nascimento Prematuro , Lactente , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Pais , Mortalidade Infantil , Morte do Lactente , Peso ao Nascer
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7722, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565630

RESUMO

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder affecting low birthweight, preterm neonates. In the preterm eye, the retina is not fully developed and neovascularization may occur at the margin between the developed vascular retina and undeveloped avascular retina. Without timely treatment by laser or intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, this can lead to tractional retinal detachment and blindness. Visualization of the retina in regular examinations by indirect ophthalmoscopy is hence the current standard of care, but the exams are stressful and interpretation of images is subjective. The upregulation of VEGF in ROP would suggest an increase in ocular blood flow. In this report, we evaluate the potential of ultrafast plane-wave Doppler ultrasound (PWU) to detect increased flow velocities in the orbital vessels supplying the eye in a gentle exam with objective findings. We imaged both eyes of 50 low-birthweight preterm neonates using 18 MHz PWU. Flow velocity in the central retinal artery (CRA) and vein (CRV), and the short posterior ciliary arteries were determined and values at each ROP Stage compared. We found significantly increased velocities in the CRA and CRV in Stage 3 ROP eyes, where intervention would be considered. We compared multivariate models for identifying Stage 3 eyes comprised solely of clinical factors, solely of Doppler parameters, and clinical plus Doppler parameters. The respective models provided areas under their respective ROC curves of 0.760, 0.812, and 0.904. PWU Doppler represents a gentle, objective means for identifying neonates at risk for ROP that could complement ophthalmoscopy.


Assuntos
Retinopatia da Prematuridade , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Peso ao Nascer , Hemodinâmica , Retina , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 228, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placenta accreta spectrum disorders (PASDs) increase the mortality rate for mothers and newborns over a decade. Thus, the purpose of the study is to evaluate the neonatal outcomes in emergency cesarean section (CS) and planned surgery as well as in Cesarean hysterectomy and the modified one-step conservative uterine surgery (MOSCUS). The secondary aim is to reveal the factors relating to poor neonatal outcomes. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective study conducted between 2019 and 2020 at Tu Du Hospital, in the southern region of Vietnam. A total of 497 pregnant women involved in PASDs beyond 28 weeks of gestation were enrolled. The clinical outcomes concerning gestational age, birth weight, APGAR score, neonatal intervention, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and NICU length of stay (LOS) were compared between emergency and planned surgery, between the Cesarean hysterectomy and the MOSCUS. The univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the adverse neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: Among 468 intraoperatively diagnosed PASD cases who underwent CS under general anesthesia, neonatal outcomes in the emergency CS (n = 65) were significantly poorer than in planned delivery (n = 403). Emergency CS increased the odds ratio (OR) for earlier gestational age, lower birthweight, lower APGAR score at 5 min, higher rate of neonatal intervention, NICU admission, and longer NICU LOS ≥ 7 days with OR, 95% confidence interval (CI) were 10.743 (5.675-20.338), 3.823 (2.197-6.651), 5.215 (2.277-11.942), 2.256 (1.318-3.861), 2.177 (1.262-3.756), 3.613 (2.052-6.363), and 2.298 (1.140-4.630), respectively, p < 0.05. Conversely, there was no statistically significant difference between the neonatal outcomes in Cesarean hysterectomy (n = 79) and the MOSCUS method (n = 217). Using the multivariable logistic regression, factors independently associated with the 5-min-APGAR score of less than 7 points were time duration from the skin incision to fetal delivery (min) and gestational age (week). One minute-decreased time duration from skin incision to fetal delivery contributed to reduce the risk of adverse neonatal outcome by 2.2% with adjusted OR, 95% CI: 0.978 (0.962-0.993), p = 0.006. Meanwhile, one week-decreased gestational age increased approximately two fold odds of the adverse neonatal outcome with adjusted OR, 95% CI: 1.983 (1.600-2.456), p < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Among pregnancies with PASDs, the neonatal outcomes are worse in the emergency group compared to planned group of cesarean section. Additionally, the neonatal comorbidities in the conservative surgery using the MOSCUS method are similar to Cesarean hysterectomy. Time duration from the skin incision to fetal delivery and gestational age may be considered in PASD surgery. Further data is required to strengthen these findings.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Placenta Acreta , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Placenta Acreta/cirurgia , Placenta Acreta/etiologia , Peso ao Nascer
4.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 40(4): e3803, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581399

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to examine the longitudinal associations of birth weight with plasma metabolites in adulthood, and further quantify the proportions of the links between birth weight and incident adult type 2 diabetes (T2D) that were mediated by plasma metabolites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 62,033 participants with complete nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and birth weight data from the UK Biobank were included in this study. Linear regression was used to assess the associations between birth weight and metabolites. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for T2D associated with metabolites. We further performed mediation analyses to estimate the extent to which metabolites might mediate the association between birth weight and T2D risk. RESULTS: Low birth weight was associated with the adverse metabolic responses across multiple metabolic pathways, including lipoprotein subclasses, amino acids, fatty acids (FA), and inflammation. Metabolites associated with higher birth weight tended to be associated with a lower risk of T2D (Pearson correlation coefficient: -0.85). A total of 62 metabolites showed statistically significant mediation effects in the protective association of higher birth weight and T2D risk, including large-sized very low-density lipoprotein particles and triglyceride concentrations as well as saturated, and monounsaturated FA and glycoprotein acetyls. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a range of metabolites that reflect the adult metabolic response to birth weight, some of which might lie on the pathway between birth weight and adult T2D risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Biomarcadores , Metaboloma , Metabolômica
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 238, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causal relationship between maternal smoking in pregnancy and reduced offspring birth weight is well established and is likely due to impaired placental function. However, observational studies have given conflicting results on the association between smoking and placental weight. We aimed to estimate the causal effect of newly pregnant mothers quitting smoking on their placental weight at the time of delivery. METHODS: We used one-sample Mendelian randomization, drawing data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 690 to 804) and the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (N = 4267 to 4606). The sample size depends on the smoking definition used for different analyses. The analysis was performed in pre-pregnancy smokers only, due to the specific role of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1051730 (CHRNA5 - CHRNA3 - CHRNB4) in affecting smoking cessation but not initiation. RESULTS: Fixed effect meta-analysis showed a 182 g [95%CI: 29,335] higher placental weight for pre-pregnancy smoking mothers who continued smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, compared with those who stopped smoking. Using the number of cigarettes smoked per day in the first trimester as the exposure, the causal effect on placental weight was 11 g [95%CI: 1,21] per cigarette per day. Similarly, smoking at the end of pregnancy was causally associated with higher placental weight. Using the residuals of birth weight regressed on placental weight as the outcome, we showed evidence of lower offspring birth weight relative to the placental weight, both for continuing smoking at the start of pregnancy as well as continuing smoking throughout pregnancy (change in z-score birth weight adjusted for z-score placental weight: -0.8 [95%CI: -1.6,-0.1]). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that continued smoking during pregnancy causes higher placental weights.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Placenta , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Longitudinais , Fumar/efeitos adversos
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 245, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To investigate the impact of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We selected 512 pregnant women, collected the data including maternal demographics, main adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal HBV infected markers HBeAg and HBV-DNA loads status, then have a comparative analysis. RESULTS: There were 319 solitary ICP patients without HBV infection (Group I) and 193 ICP patients with HBV infection. Of the latter, there were 118 cases with abnormal liver function(Group II) and 80 cases with normal liver function(Group III). All HBV-infected pregnant women with ICP were divided into hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg)-positive group (102 cases) and HBeAg-negative group (91 cases), according to the level of the serum HBeAg status; and into high viral load group (92 cases), moderate viral load group (46 cases) and low viral load group (55 cases) according to the maternal HBV-DNA level. Group II had a higher level of serum total bile acids, transaminase, bilirubin as well as a higher percentage of premature delivery, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) compared with the other two groups(P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in the above indicators between the Group I and Group III. Among the HBV-infected patients with ICP, HBeAg-positive group had a higher level of serum transaminase, bilirubin and bile acid as well as earlier gestational weeks of delivery, lower birth weight of new-borns and a higher rate of NICU admission than HBeAg-negative group (P < 0.05). Those with a high viral load (HBV-DNA > 106 IU/ml) had a higher level of transaminase, bilirubin, and bile acid as well as shorter gestational weeks of delivery, lower birth weight of new-borns and a higher rate of NICU admission compared with those with a low or moderate viral load (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: HBV-infected pregnant women with ICP combined with abnormal liver function have more severe liver damage, a higher percentage of preterm birth and NICU admission. HBeAg-positive status and a high HBV-DNA load will increase the severity of conditions in HBV-infected pregnant women with ICP. HBV-infected patients with ICP who have abnormal liver function, HBeAg-positive or a high viral load should be treated more actively.


Assuntos
Colestase Intra-Hepática , Hepatite B , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Vírus da Hepatite B , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Peso ao Nascer , DNA Viral , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Transaminases , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Bilirrubina
7.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 97, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested an association between birth weight and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the causality between them has not been established. We aimed to obtain the causal relationship between birth weight with T2DM and quantify the mediating effects of potential modifiable risk factors. METHODS: Two-step, two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) techniques were applied using SNPs as genetic instruments for exposure and mediators. Summary data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for birth weight, T2DM, and a series of fatty acids traits and their ratios were leveraged. The inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was the main analysis approach. In addition, the heterogeneity test, horizontal pleiotropy test, Mendelian randomization pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) test, and leave-one-out analysis were carried out to assess the robustness. RESULTS: The IVW method showed that lower birth weight raised the risk of T2DM (ß: -1.113, 95% CI: -1.573 ∼ -0.652). Two-step MR identified 4 of 17 candidate mediators partially mediating the effect of lower birth weight on T2DM, including ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids (proportion mediated: 7.9%), ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to total fatty acids (7.2%), ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to total fatty acids (8.1%) and ratio of linoleic acid to total fatty acids ratio (6.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings supported a potentially causal effect of birth weight against T2DM with considerable mediation by modifiable risk factors. Interventions that target these factors have the potential to reduce the burden of T2DM attributable to low birth weight.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados
8.
J Ovarian Res ; 17(1): 74, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively evaluate the effect of low birth weight on premature ovarian insufficiency. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Wanfang and CNKI up to August 2023. All cohort and case-control studies that included birth weight as an exposure and premature ovarian insufficiency as an outcome were included in the analysis. Data were combined using inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis with fixed and random effects models and between-study heterogeneity evaluated. We evaluated risk of bias using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale and using Egger's method to test publication bias. All statistical analyses were performed with the use of R software. RESULTS: Five articles were included in the review. A total of 2,248,594 women were included, including 21,813 (1%) cases of premature ovarian insufficiency, 150,743 cases of low birth weight, and 220,703 cases of macrosomia. We found strong evidence that changed the results of the previous review that low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of premature ovarian insufficiency (OR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.09-1.22) in adulthood compared with normal birth weight. No effect of macrosomia on premature ovarian insufficiency was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis showed strong evidence of an association between low birth weight and premature ovarian insufficiency. We should reduce the occurrence of low birth weight by various methods to avoid the occurrence of premature ovarian insufficiency.


Assuntos
Menopausa Precoce , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Peso ao Nascer , Macrossomia Fetal , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1184966, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567304

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the effect of an extended culture period on birth weight among singletons born after vitrified-warmed embryo transfer. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed among 12400 women who gave birth to 1015, 1027, 687, and 9671 singletons after single blastocyst transfer, single cleavage-stage embryo transfer, double blastocyst transfer, and double cleavage-stage embryo transfer, respectively. Results: The unadjusted birth weight of singletons born after vitrified blastocyst transfer were heavier than those born after cleavage-stage transfer (ß=30.28, SE=13.17, P=0.022), as were the adjusted birth weights (ß=0.09, SE=0.03, P=0.007). In addition, there was a 37% increased odd of having an infant with high birth weight after vitrified blastocyst transfer compared with vitrified cleavage stage transfer (OR=1.37, 95% CI:1.07-1.77). Conclusion: The unadjusted and adjusted birth weight and odds of having an infant with high birth weight significantly increased after blastocyst transfer compared with cleavage-stage embryo transfer in vitrified-warmed cycles.


Assuntos
Transferência Embrionária , Vitrificação , Humanos , Feminino , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transferência de Embrião Único
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2320299121, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557172

RESUMO

Racism is associated with negative intergenerational (infant) outcomes. That is, racism, both perceived and structural, is linked to critical, immediate, and long-term health factors such as low birth weight and infant mortality. Antiracism-resistance to racism such as support for the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement-has been linked to positive emotional, subjective, and mental health outcomes among adults and adolescents. To theoretically build on and integrate such past findings, the present research asked whether such advantageous health correlations might extend intergenerationally to infant outcomes? It examined a theoretical/correlational process model in which mental and physical health indicators might be indirectly related to associations between antiracism and infant health outcomes. Analyses assessed county-level data that measured BLM support (indexed as volume of BLM marches) and infant outcomes from 2014 to 2020. As predicted, in the tested model, BLM support was negatively correlated with 1) low birth weight (Ncounties = 1,445) and 2) mortalities (Ncounties = 409) among African American infants. Given salient, intergroup, policy debates tied to antiracism, the present research also examined associations among White Americans. In the tested model, BLM marches were not meaningfully related to rates of low birth weight among White American infants (Ncounties = 2,930). However, BLM support was negatively related to mortalities among White American infants (Ncounties = 862). Analyses controlled for structural indicators of income inequality, implicit/explicit bias, voting behavior, prior low birth weight/infant mortality rates, and demographic characteristics. Theory/applied implications of antiracism being linked to nonnegative and positive infant health associations tied to both marginalized and dominant social groups are discussed.


Assuntos
Antirracismo , Racismo , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Mortalidade Infantil , Negro ou Afro-Americano , População Negra , Peso ao Nascer
11.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 26(3): 262-268, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the factors influencing the occurrence of small for gestational age (SGA) at different degrees and provide a basis for early identification of severe SGA cases. METHODS: Neonatal and maternal prenatal information were retrospectively collected from January 2018 to December 2022 at Peking University People's Hospital. The neonates were divided into three groups: severe SGA group (birth weight below the 3rd percentile for gestational age and sex), mild SGA group (birth weight ≥3rd percentile and <10th percentile), and non-SGA group (birth weight ≥10th percentile). An ordered multinomial logistic regression model was used to analyze the factors influencing the occurrence of SGA at different degrees. RESULTS: A total of 14 821 neonates were included, including 258 cases (1.74%) in the severe SGA group, 902 cases (6.09%) in the mild SGA group, and 13 661 cases (92.17%) in the non-SGA group. The proportions of preterm births and stillbirths were higher in the severe SGA group compared to the mild SGA and non-SGA groups (P<0.0125). The proportion of neonatal asphyxia was higher in both the severe SGA and mild SGA groups compared to the non-SGA group (P<0.0125). Ordered multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that maternal pre-pregnancy underweight (OR=1.838), maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR=3.024), in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (OR=2.649), preeclampsia (OR=1.743), connective tissue disease during pregnancy (OR=1.795), nuchal cord (OR=1.213), oligohydramnios (OR=1.848), and intrauterine growth restriction (OR=27.691) were all associated with a higher risk of severe SGA (P<0.05). Maternal parity as a multipara (OR=0.457) was associated with a lower likelihood of severe SGA (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal pre-pregnancy underweight, maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, preeclampsia, connective tissue disease during pregnancy, oligohydramnios, nuchal cord, and intrauterine growth restriction are closely related to the occurrence of more severe SGA. Maternal parity as a multipara acts as a protective factor against the occurrence of severe SGA.


Assuntos
Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo , Cordão Nucal , Oligo-Hidrâmnio , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Magreza , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Obesidade
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD004667, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Midwives are primary providers of care for childbearing women globally and there is a need to establish whether there are differences in effectiveness between midwife continuity of care models and other models of care. This is an update of a review published in 2016. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of midwife continuity of care models with other models of care for childbearing women and their infants. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (17 August 2022), as well as the reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: All published and unpublished trials in which pregnant women are randomly allocated to midwife continuity of care models or other models of care during pregnancy and birth. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion criteria, scientific integrity, and risk of bias, and carried out data extraction and entry. Primary outcomes were spontaneous vaginal birth, caesarean section, regional anaesthesia, intact perineum, fetal loss after 24 weeks gestation, preterm birth, and neonatal death. We used GRADE to rate the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 studies involving 18,533 randomised women. We assessed all studies as being at low risk of scientific integrity/trustworthiness concerns. Studies were conducted in Australia, Canada, China, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. The majority of the included studies did not include women at high risk of complications. There are three ongoing studies targeting disadvantaged women. Primary outcomes Based on control group risks observed in the studies, midwife continuity of care models, as compared to other models of care, likely increase spontaneous vaginal birth from 66% to 70% (risk ratio (RR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 to 1.07; 15 studies, 17,864 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), likelyreduce caesarean sections from 16% to 15% (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.99; 16 studies, 18,037 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and likely result in little to no difference in intact perineum (29% in other care models and 31% in midwife continuity of care models, average RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.12; 12 studies, 14,268 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There may belittle or no difference in preterm birth (< 37 weeks) (6% under both care models, average RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.16; 10 studies, 13,850 participants; low-certainty evidence). We arevery uncertain about the effect of midwife continuity of care models on regional analgesia (average RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.92; 15 studies, 17,754 participants, very low-certainty evidence), fetal loss at or after 24 weeks gestation (average RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.73 to 2.13; 12 studies, 16,122 participants; very low-certainty evidence), and neonatal death (average RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.71; 10 studies, 14,718 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Secondary outcomes When compared to other models of care, midwife continuity of care models likely reduce instrumental vaginal birth (forceps/vacuum) from 14% to 13% (average RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.96; 14 studies, 17,769 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and may reduceepisiotomy 23% to 19% (average RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.91; 15 studies, 17,839 participants; low-certainty evidence). When compared to other models of care, midwife continuity of care models likelyresult in little to no difference inpostpartum haemorrhage (average RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.03; 11 studies, 14,407 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and admission to special care nursery/neonatal intensive care unit (average RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.03; 13 studies, 16,260 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There may be little or no difference in induction of labour (average RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.00; 14 studies, 17,666 participants; low-certainty evidence), breastfeeding initiation (average RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.12; 8 studies, 8575 participants; low-certainty evidence), and birth weight less than 2500 g (average RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.08; 9 studies, 12,420 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are very uncertain about the effect of midwife continuity of care models compared to other models of care onthird or fourth-degree tear (average RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.49; 7 studies, 9437 participants; very low-certainty evidence), maternal readmission within 28 days (average RR 1.52, 95% CI 0.78 to 2.96; 1 study, 1195 participants; very low-certainty evidence), attendance at birth by a known midwife (average RR 9.13, 95% CI 5.87 to 14.21; 11 studies, 9273 participants; very low-certainty evidence), Apgar score less than or equal to seven at five minutes (average RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.24; 13 studies, 12,806 participants; very low-certainty evidence) andfetal loss before 24 weeks gestation (average RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.01; 12 studies, 15,913 participants; very low-certainty evidence). No maternal deaths were reported across three studies. Although the observed risk of adverse events was similar between midwifery continuity of care models and other models, our confidence in the findings was limited. Our confidence in the findings was lowered by possible risks of bias, inconsistency, and imprecision of some estimates. There were no available data for the outcomes: maternal health status, neonatal readmission within 28 days, infant health status, and birth weight of 4000 g or more. Maternal experiences and cost implications are described narratively. Women receiving care from midwife continuity of care models, as opposed to other care models, generally reported more positive experiences during pregnancy, labour, and postpartum. Cost savings were noted in the antenatal and intrapartum periods in midwife continuity of care models. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Women receiving midwife continuity of care models were less likely to experience a caesarean section and instrumental birth, and may be less likely to experience episiotomy. They were more likely to experience spontaneous vaginal birth and report a positive experience. The certainty of some findings varies due to possible risks of bias, inconsistencies, and imprecision of some estimates. Future research should focus on the impact on women with social risk factors, and those at higher risk of complications, and implementation and scaling up of midwife continuity of care models, with emphasis on low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Morte Perinatal , Nascimento Prematuro , Lactente , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Cesárea , Peso ao Nascer , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e079635, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Little study has reported the association of maternal weight gain in early pregnancy with fetal congenital heart disease (CHD). We aimed to explore the potential relationship based on a China birth cohort while adjusting by multiple factors. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: China birth cohort study conducted from 2017 to 2021. PARTICIPANTS: The study finally included 114 672 singleton pregnancies in the 6-14 weeks of gestation, without missing data or outliers, loss to follow-up or abnormal conditions other than CHD. The proportion of CHD was 0.65% (749 cases). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Association between maternal pre-pregnancy weight gain and CHD in the offspring were analysed by multivariate logistic regression, with the unadjusted, minimally adjusted and maximally adjusted methods, respectively. RESULTS: The first-trimester weight gain showed similar discrimination of fetal CHD to that period of maternal body mass index (BMI) change (DeLong tests: p=0.091). Compared with weight gain in the lowest quartile (the weight gain less than 0.0 kg), the highest quartile (over 2.0 kg) was associated with a higher risk of fetal CHD in unadjusted (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.72), minimally adjusted (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.29, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.62) and maximally adjusted (aOR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.63) models. The association remains robust in pregnant women with morning sickness, normal pre-pregnancy BMI, moderate physical activity, college/university level, natural conception or with folic acid (FA) and/or multivitamin supplementation. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Although the association of maternal pre-pregnancy weight gain on fetal CHD is weak, the excessive weight gain may be a potential predictor of CHD in the offspring, especially in those with morning sickness and other conditions that are routine in the cohort, such as normal pre-pregnancy BMI, moderate physical activity, college/university level, natural conception or with FA and/or multivitamin supplementation.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Êmese Gravídica , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Aumento de Peso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer
14.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 230, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effect of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) on the clinical outcomes and maternal and infant safety of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) procedures in young women aged ≤ 35 years. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed to analyze the clinical data of 4,203 infertile women aged ≤ 35 years who underwent fresh embryo transfer (ET) in IVF/ICSI cycles. The data were collected from their initial visits to Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital between January 2015 and January 2022. Based on their ovarian reserve, the participants were categorized into two groups: DOR group (n = 1,027) and non-DOR group (n = 3,176). A propensity score matching (PSM) method was employed to ensure a relatively balanced distribution of covariates. The primary outcome assessed in this study was the live birth rate, while the secondary observation indicators included rates of high-quality embryo development, blastocyst formation, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage, along with perinatal complications, neonatal birth weight, and the incidence of low birth weight (LBW). RESULTS: The DOR group showed notably lowered rates of blastocyst formation (59.8% vs. 64.1%), embryo implantation (29.8% vs.33.3%), clinical pregnancy (47.9% vs. 53.6%), and live birth (40.6% vs. 45.7%) compared to the non-DOR group (all P < 0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the high-quality embryo rate, miscarriage rate, perinatal complications, neonatal birth weight, or LBW incidence in infants between both groups (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: DOR has been found to reduce both clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in young females undergoing fresh ET in IVF/ICSI cycles. However, this reduction does not increase the risk of perinatal complications or LBW of infants through live birth cycles.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Infertilidade Feminina , Doenças Ovarianas , Reserva Ovariana , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Peso ao Nascer , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Sêmen , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Fertilização In Vitro , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Taxa de Gravidez , Coeficiente de Natalidade
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310051, abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1533067

RESUMO

Introducción. El tamaño al nacer se encuentra sujeto a influencias genéticas y ambientales; la altura geográfica es muy influyente. El peso al nacer (PN) es el indicador más utilizado para evaluarlo; existen diferentes estándares y referencias. Debido a la variabilidad de la distribución del PN en relación con la altura en la provincia de Jujuy (Argentina), este trabajo analiza la distribución percentilar del PN para tierras altas (TA) y tierras bajas (TB) jujeñas según edad gestacional (EG) y sexo, y su comparación con una referencia nacional y el estándar internacional INTERGROWTH-21st (IG-21). Población y métodos. Se analizaron los registros de 78 524 nacidos vivos en Jujuy en el período 20092014. Utilizando el método LMS, se estimaron los percentiles 3, 10, 50, 90 y 97 de PN/EG por sexo, para TA (≥2000 msnm), TB (<2000 msnm) y el total provincial, y se compararon gráficamente con la referencia poblacional argentina de Urquía y el estándar IG-21. La significación estadística se determinó mediante la prueba de Wilcoxon. Resultados. El PN en Jujuy presentó distribución heterogénea, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p <0,05) entre TB y TA. Al comparar con la referencia nacional y el estándar IG-21, se observaron diferencias por altitud, principalmente en los percentiles 90 y 97 para ambas regiones, y en los percentiles 3 y 10 en TA comparados con el estándar. Conclusiones. Se observó variabilidad de la distribución del PN asociada a la altura geográfica, por lo que, para evaluar el crecimiento intrauterino, resulta fundamental incluir la EG y el contexto donde transcurre la gestación.


Introduction. Size at birth is subject to genetic and environmental influences; altitude is highly influential. Birth weight (BW) is the most widely used indicator to assess size at birth; different standards and references are available. Due to the variability in BW distribution in relation to altitude in the province of Jujuy (Argentina), the purpose of this study is to analyze the percentile distribution of BW in the highlands (HL) and the lowlands (LL) of Jujuy based on gestational age (GA) and sex and compare it with a national reference and the INTERGROWTH-21 st (IG-21) international standard. Population and methods. The records of 78 524 live births in Jujuy in the 2009­2014 period were analyzed. Using the LMS method, the 3 rd, 10 th, 50 th, 90 th, and 97 th percentiles of BW/GA by sex were estimated for the HL (≥ 2000 MASL), the LL (< 2000 MASL), and the total for Jujuy, and compared with the Argentine population reference by Urquía and the IG-21 standard using growth charts. The statistical significance was established using the Wilcoxon test. Results. BW in Jujuy showed a heterogeneous distribution, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between the LL and the HL. When compared with the national reference and the IG-21 standard, differences in terms of altitude were observed, mainly in the 90 th and 97 th percentiles for both regions and the 3 rd and 10 th percentiles in the HL compared with the international standard. Conclusions. BW distribution varied in association with altitude; therefore, to assess intrauterine growth, it is critical to include GA and the environment in which the pregnancy takes place.


Assuntos
Humanos , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Altitude , Gráficos de Crescimento , Valores de Referência , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(3): e243362, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517437

RESUMO

Importance: Antibiotic treatment saves lives in newborns with early-onset sepsis (EOS), but unwarranted antibiotic use is associated with resistant bacteria and adverse outcomes later in life. Surveillance is needed to optimize treatment strategies. Objective: To describe antibiotic use in association with the incidence and mortality from EOS among late-preterm and full-term newborns. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Sweden Neonatal Antibiotic Use study was a nationwide observational study that included all late-preterm and full-term neonates born from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2020, in neonatal units of all levels. All hospital live births from 34 weeks' gestation during the study period were included in the study. Data were collected from the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register and the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Data were analyzed from August 2022 to May 2023. Exposure: Admission for neonatal intensive care during the first week of life. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were the usage of intravenous antibiotics during the first week of life, the duration of antibiotic therapy, the rate of culture-proven EOS, and mortality associated with EOS. Results: A total of 1 025 515 newborns were included in the study; 19 286 neonates (1.88%; 7686 girls [39.9%]; median [IQR] gestational age, 40 [38-41] weeks; median [IQR] birth weight, 3610 [3140-4030] g) received antibiotics during the first week of life, of whom 647 (3.4%) had EOS. The median (IQR) duration of antibiotic treatment in newborns without EOS was 5 (3-7) days, and there were 113 antibiotic-days per 1000 live births. During the study period there was no significant change in the exposure to neonatal antibiotics or antibiotic-days per 1000 live births. The incidence of EOS was 0.63 per 1000 live births, with a significant decrease from 0.74 in 2012 to 0.34 in 2020. Mortality associated with EOS was 1.39% (9 of 647 newborns) and did not change significantly over time. For each newborn with EOS, antibiotic treatment was initiated in 29 newborns and 173 antibiotic-days were dispensed. Conclusions and Relevance: This large nationwide study found that a relatively low exposure to antibiotics is not associated with an increased risk of EOS or associated mortality. Still, future efforts to reduce unwarranted neonatal antibiotic use are needed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Sepse , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional , Incidência , Sepse/etiologia , Masculino
17.
Early Hum Dev ; 191: 105990, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity influences birth weight and newborn adiposity. Fetal fractional limb volume has recently been introduced as a useful parameter for the proxy of fetal adiposity. However, the association between maternal adiposity and the growth of fetal fractional limb volume has not been examined. AIMS: To investigate the association of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI with the growth of fetal fractional limb volume. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Women with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies enrolled between July 2017 and June 2020. OUTCOME MEASURES: Fetal fractional limb volume was assessed between 20 and 40 weeks' gestation, measured as cylindrical limb volume based on 50 % of the total diaphysis length. The measured fractional limb volume at each gestational week were converted to z-scores based on a previous report. The association between pre-pregnancy BMI and fetal fractional limb volume was examined. Maternal age, parity, gestational weight gain and fetal sex were considered as potential confounding variables. RESULTS: Ultrasound scans of 455 fractional arm volume and thigh volume were obtained. Fractional limb volume increased linearly until the second trimester of gestation, then increased exponentially in the third trimester. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly correlated with z-scores of fractional arm volume and thigh volume across gestation. The post-hoc analysis showed the association between pre-pregnancy BMI and fractional arm volume was significant especially between 34 and 40 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity influences the growth pattern of fetal fractional limb volume. Fractional arm volume may potentially provide a useful surrogate marker of fetal nutritional status in late gestation.


Assuntos
Obesidade Materna , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Peso ao Nascer , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Idade Gestacional , Obesidade/epidemiologia
18.
Early Hum Dev ; 191: 105975, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492414

RESUMO

AIM: To identify relationships between early medical factors and preterm infant feeding behaviors at term-equivalent age. METHODS: Forty-three very preterm infants born ≤32 weeks gestation had standardized feeding assessments using the Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment at term-equivalent age (36-42 weeks postmenstrual age). Medical factors were collected and analyses were run to determine if associations between different medical factors and feeding performance exist. RESULTS: Lower Neonatal Eating Outcome Assessment scores at term-equivalent age were associated with lower estimated gestational age (p < .01), lower birthweight (p < .01), older postmenstrual age at discharge (p < .01), longer length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (p < .01), chronic lung disease (p = .03), as well as more days on total parenteral nutrition (p = .03), endotracheal intubation (p < .01), and noninvasive mechanical ventilation (p < .01). CONCLUSION: More feeding problems are observed in infants born earlier, with longer hospital stays, and with complex medical courses. Knowledge of the association between these medical factors and feeding difficulties allows for identification of infants who may benefit from early, targeted interventions to optimize the feeding process.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Idade Gestacional , Peso ao Nascer , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal
19.
Theriogenology ; 220: 12-25, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457855

RESUMO

Although the association of maternal milk production with developmental programming of offspring has been investigated, there is limited information available on the relationship of maternal milk components with productive and reproductive performance of the offspring. Therefore, the present study was conducted to analyze the association of maternal milk fat and protein percentage and milk fat to protein ratio with birth weight, survival, productive and reproductive performance and AMH concentration in the offspring. In study I, data of birth weight, milk yield and reproductive variables of offspring born to lactating dams (n = 14,582) and data associated with average maternal milk fat percentage (MFP), protein percentage (MPP) and fat to protein ratio (MFPR) during 305-day lactation were retrieved. Afterwards, offspring were classified in various categories of MFP, MPP and MFPR. In study II, blood samples (n = 339) were collected from offspring in various categories of MFP, MPP and MFPR for measurement of serum AMH. Maternal milk fat percentage was positively associated with birth weight and average percentage of milk fat (APMF) and protein (APMP) and milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) during the first lactation, but negatively associated with culling rate during nulliparity in the offspring (P < 0.05). Maternal milk protein percentage was positively associated with birth weight, APMF, APMP, FPR and culling rate, but negatively associated with milk yield and fertility in the offspring (P < 0.05). Maternal FPR was positively associated with APMF and FPR, but negatively associated with culling rate, APMP and fertility in the offspring (P < 0.05). However, concentration of AMH in the offspring was not associated with MFP, MPP and MFPR (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the present study revealed that maternal milk fat and protein percentage and their ratio were associated with birth weight, survival, production and reproduction of the offspring. Yet it was a preliminary research and further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these associations.


Assuntos
Lactação , Proteínas do Leite , Reprodução , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Peso ao Nascer , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Hormônio Antimülleriano/química , Hormônio Antimülleriano/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433693

RESUMO

Objective:To study the relationship between children's birth weight and obstructive sleep apnea(OSA). Methods:The sleep data and birth information of children who underwent polysomnography in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery of Henan Children's Hospital from October 2020 to July 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. The data of OSA detection rate, OSA severity, sleep structure and respiratory parameters in different birth weight groups were analyzed. Results:A total of 2 778 children met the inclusion criteria, including 1 833 males and 945 females. According to birth weight, the selected children were divided into three groups: 122 small for gestational age(SGA) group, 2 313 appropriate for gestational age(AGA), and 343 large for gestational age(LGA) group. There was no significant difference in age between different groups(P=0.061). In each group, boys are significantly more numerous than girls(P=0.001). The difference in current body mass index(BMI) between groups was statistically significant: the current BMI was higher in the LGA group(17.51±4.01, P<0.001). The severity of OSA was different in different birth weight groups(P=0.037). There was a strong positive correlation between the severity of OSA and birth weight(r=0.992). Children in the SGA group had shorter rapid eye movement(REM) sleep period(19.00[15.18, 23.33], P=0.012), higher obstructive apnea-hypopnea index(OAHI) values(1.75[0.60, 5.13], P=0.019), and had lower central apnea hypopnea index(CAHI) values(0.10[0.00, 0.50], P=0.020). There were no significant differences in sleep structure and respiratory parameters between the LGA group and the AGA group. Multiple regression analysis of the factors affecting the OAHI index showed that the OAHI index of boys was higher than that of girls(95%CI 1.311-2.096, P<0.001), and age was negatively correlated with the OAHI index(r=-0.105, 95%CI 0.856-0.946, P<0.001), current BMI and OAHI index were positively correlated(r=0.037, 95%CI 1.010-1.065, P=0.007). LGA was positively correlated with OAHI index(r=0.346, 95%CI 1.039-1.921, P=0.027), and the correlation between LGA and OAHI(r=0.346) was higher than that between SGA and OAHI(r=0.340). Conclusion:There was no significant difference in the incidence of OSA in children with different birth weight groups, but the OSA severity of LGA group was higher. Gender, age, BMI index and large for gestational age were the influencing factors for the occurrence of OSA in children, which should be paid more attention to in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sono , Índice de Massa Corporal
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