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1.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(1): 6930, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130708

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Access to healthcare services should be equitable no matter where you live. However, the podiatry needs of rural populations are poorly addressed, partly because of workforce maldistribution. Encouraging emerging podiatrists to work in rural areas is a key solution. The aims were to explore (1) recently graduated podiatrists' perceptions regarding working rurally and (2) broader industry views of the factors likely to be successful for rural recruitment and retention. METHODS: Recruitment for interviews pertaining to podiatrist recruitment and retention was conducted during 2017. Recruitment was through social media, podiatry professional association newsletters, public health podiatry emails. Graduate perceptions were explored via two focus groups of Australian podiatrists enrolled in the Podiatrists in Australia: Investigating Graduate Employment longitudinal survey. Industry views were explored through semistructured interviews with podiatry profession stakeholders. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyse data about the perceptions of recently graduated podiatrists and stakeholders and the themes were triangulated between the two groups. RESULTS: Overall, 11 recent graduate podiatrists and 15 stakeholders participated. The overarching themes among the two groups were the importance of 'growing me' and 'growing the profession'. Three superordinate themes were generated through analysis of both datasets, including (i) building a career, (ii) why I stay, and (iii) it cannot be done alone. CONCLUSION: This study identified that recently graduated podiatrists are likely to be attracted to rural work and retained in rural areas if they foresee opportunities for career progression in stable jobs, have a background of training and living in rural areas, like the lifestyle, and are able to access appropriate professional and personal supports. Building employment that spans public and private sector opportunities might be attractive to new graduate podiatrists seeking a breadth of career options. It is also important to recognise rural generalist podiatrists for any extended scope of services they provide along with raising public awareness of the role of rural podiatrist as a core part of multidisciplinary rural healthcare teams. Future training and workforce planning in podiatry must promote podiatrists taking up rural training and work so that maldistribution is reduced.


Assuntos
Podiatria , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Austrália , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural
2.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 201, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Qualitative patient interviews and patient-reported outcome instruments are important tools to understand the patient experience of disease. The aim of this study was to use patient interviews to identify concepts relevant and important to patients living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 2-3b, develop a comprehensive conceptual model of the patient experience and debrief the Kidney Disease Quality of Life 36-item instrument (KDQOL-36) for patients with CKD stages 2-3b. METHODS: Concept elicitation interviews were conducted with patients with CKD stages 2-3b to identify signs/symptoms and impacts most relevant and important to patients (i.e., 'salient' concepts) and develop a conceptual model for the disease. Based on the salient concepts identified in the interviews, new items were proposed to supplement the KDQOL-36. Cognitive debriefing was performed to evaluate the KDQOL-36 and the additional items. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients were interviewed in this study (22 for concept elicitation and 15 for cognitive debriefing). The interviews identified 56 concepts (33 signs/symptoms and 23 impacts), 17 of which had not been identified in a previous literature review. Four signs/symptoms ('fatigue/lack of energy/tiredness', 'sleep problems', 'increased urination [including nocturia]' and 'swelling in legs/ankles/feet') and two impacts ('anxiety/worry' and 'general negative emotional/mental impact') were identified as salient. Of the salient signs/symptoms, three were not covered by the KDQOL-36 (sleep problems, increased urination and swelling in legs/ankles/feet) and were represented during cognitive debriefing interviews through four additional items (trouble falling asleep, trouble staying asleep, increased urination [including nocturia] and swelling in legs/ankles/feet) generated in the style of the KDQOL-36. All patients found the KDQOL-36 plus the four additional items relevant, and the majority found them clear. CONCLUSIONS: By identifying previously unknown concepts and augmenting the understanding of which are most important to patients, a comprehensive conceptual model was developed for patients who have CKD stages 2-3b. This study also demonstrates the suitability of the KDQOL-36 for patients who have CKD stages 2-3b and provides suggestions for how the instrument could be further developed to more comprehensively capture patient experience.


Assuntos
Noctúria , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Fadiga , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
3.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 17(1): 136, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standards generally reported in the literature about informing children and respecting their consent or refusal before elective heart surgery may differ from actual practice. This research aims to summarize the main themes in the literature about paediatric anaesthesia and compare these with research findings on how health professionals counsel young children before elective heart surgery, respect their consent or refusal, and maintain patient-centred care. METHODS: This qualitative research involved: literature reviews about children's consent to surgery and major interventions; observations of wards, clinics and medical meetings in two paediatric cardiology departments, October 2019 to February 2020; audio-recorded semi-structured interviews with 45 hospital staff, including 5 anaesthetists, and related experts, November 2019 to April 2021; interviews with 16 families, with children aged 6- to 15-years and their parents shortly after elective heart surgery, and some months later (reported in other papers); thematic data analysis; and research reports on how different professions contribute to children's informed decisions for heart surgery. RESULTS: The medical, ethics and English legal literature tend to assume legal minors cannot refuse major recommended treatment, and cannot consent until they are 12 years or older. Little is said about informing pre-competent children. If children resist, some anaesthetists rely on sedation and distraction, and avoid much informed discussion, aiming to reduce peri-operative anxiety. However, interviewees reported informing young children, and respecting their consent or refusal before elective surgery. They may delay elective surgery and provide further information and support, aiming to reduce fear and promote trust. Six years of age was commonly cited as the threshold for respecting consent to heart transplantation. CONCLUSION: Differing views about younger children's competence, anxiety and best interests support different reactions to children's consent and refusal before elective heart surgery. This paper reports the zero-restraint policy followed for over a decade in at least one leading surgery centre. The related law and literature need to be updated, to take more account of evidence of actual practice.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Humanos , Pais , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 719, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite high morbidity and mortality, patients with injection drug use associated infective endocarditis (IDU-IE) lack standardized care, and experience prolonged hospitalization and variable substance use disorder (SUD) management. Our study's objective was to elicit perspectives of health care workers (HCWs) who deliver care to this population by understanding their perceived patient, provider, and system-level resources and barriers. METHODS: This qualitative study included interviews of HCWs providing care to patients with IDU-IE from January 2017 to December 2019 at a single Midwest academic center. Based on electronic medical record queries to determine high and low rates of referral to SUD treatment, HCWs were selected using stratified random sampling followed by convenience sampling of non-physician HCWs and a patient. Study participants were recruited via email and verbal consent was obtained. The final sample included 11 hospitalists, 3 specialists (including 2 cardiovascular surgery providers), 3 case managers, 2 social workers, 1 nurse, and 1 patient. Qualitative semi-structured interviews explored challenges and resources related to caring for this population. Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) Minor Lite was used for thematic data using an inductive approach. RESULTS: Three major thematic categories emerged relative to patient-level barriers (e.g., pain control, difficult patient interactions, social determinants of health), provider-level barriers (e.g., inequity, expectations for recovery, varying levels of hope, communication style, prescribing medication for SUD), and system-level barriers (e.g., repeat surgery, placement, resources for SUD and mental health). The need to address underlying SUD was a prominent theme. CONCLUSION: Practical steps we can take to improve treatment for this population include training and coaching HCWs on a more person-centered approach to communication and transparent decision-making around pain management, surgery decisions, and expectations for SUD treatment.


Assuntos
Endocardite , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Endocardite/cirurgia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1083, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This review is focused on workers with developmental dyslexia (DD). In this review DD is considered an expression of neurodiversity, a consequence of a natural variant of the brain. Evidence was synthesized to explore which factors workers with DD consider relevant for their participation in work and whether these factors reflect shifts in the concepts of health and sustainable employability. The factors were classified according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), adapted for occupational health. METHODS: A systematic review of qualitative studies was performed. Two search strings were used to determine the population and the context of work. The factors were classified using a recently proposed rearrangement of the ICF scheme that places participation in a central position and incorporates preliminary lists of work-related environmental factors and personal factors. RESULTS: Fifty-one factors were found that appeared in 35% or more of the included studies and that were relevant to work participation according to the workers themselves. These factors were dispersed over all ICF categories. In the category Functions and Structures (11 factors), most of the factors had negative connotations. In the category Activities (9 factors), all the factors cause difficulties, except speaking (which is ambiguous). In the category Participation (4 factors), the formal relationships are important for the degree of participation. Overall, more than half of the factors are environmental (18) or personal (9) and they both hinder and facilitate work participation. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this review give an indication for the importance of the biopsychosocial model as a relevant approach for people with a disability in the world of work. This review also adds data for the usefulness of the proposals for the reconsideration of the ICF scheme. The data has not (yet) returned any visible trends revealing that the concept of neurodiversity is common in organizations.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Dislexia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Adulto , Avaliação da Deficiência , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 77, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated 296 million individuals live with chronic hepatitis B worldwide, most have not been diagnosed and remain at risk of liver disease and cancer. People with hepatitis B often face discrimination that denies them employment or education opportunities, results in unfair treatment at work or in school, limits their ability to emigrate to certain countries, and in some cases prohibits them from serving in the military. Discrimination specific to hepatitis B has not been widely documented within the literature. This study aims to investigate and describe hepatitis B related discrimination, document discrimination occurring around the globe, and provide initial recommendations for addressing discrimination using key informant interviews. METHODS: Purposive and snowball sampling were used to identify potential key informants for qualitative interview. Key informants identified as community health leaders, public health scientists, doctors, and researchers, many of whom were also living with hepatitis B. Using a semi-structured guide, participants were asked to describe their experience and any challenges for people living with hepatitis B including marginalization and its' consequences. A codebook was used to guide the organization of data for analysis, and all transcripts N = 17 were double coded. RESULTS: The overarching themes identified from interviews demonstrate explicit experiences with discrimination of those directly affected, the psychological responses, and the negative health outcomes associated with the unvirtuous cycle of discrimination. All key informants reported on the substantial quality of life implications and often poorer health outcomes resulting from hepatitis B discrimination. Participants also identified the significant impact of hepatitis B discrimination occurring within a range of education-based services across several countries as well as military exclusion or removal if individuals are found to have hepatitis B. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that hepatitis B discrimination has a significant impact. Discrimination can occur at various points in life from education, to seeking employment, to marriage, to restrictions on entry, travel and stay in other countries. This study demonstrates the impact of discrimination and the need for future research that can lead to policy change and protections for people living with and impacted by hepatitis B.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Emprego/psicologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 712, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary healthcare with the right structure is the base for any highly efficient healthcare system to achieve better health outcomes at the lowest cost. Challenges of this system, including structural weaknesses, are one of the factors of inefficiency. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify challenges of the organizational structure of county health network in Iran. METHODS: An exploratory qualitative face-to-face semi-structured interviews were carried out with 21 key informants including experts and managers in Ahvaz-Iran. Purposive sampling method with maximum diversity were used. Interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Interview transcripts were analyzed based on a thematic analysis approach via NVivo-11. RESULTS: In analysis of the interviews, after removing the duplicate codes and merging similar items, finally 6 main challenges and 56 sub-themes were obtained. The themes of structural challenges included formalization, complexity, centralization, culture, environment, and resources. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present situation, the challenges in the current organizational structure and a change in the goals and strategies of the healthcare system in Iran, the appropriate structure needs to be designed and implemented at different levels in accordance with the goals and strategies. The separation and independence of health centers management and hospitals (treatment) in the county can provide a basis for understanding the challenges to the provision of health services.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
J Med Life ; 15(4): 539-546, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646188

RESUMO

One of the goals of reproductive health enhancement is to ensure the desired experience of safe childbirth by reducing possible complications, fears, and worries about delivery by ongoing midwife backup care. This study explains women's experiences with a backup midwife during labor and childbirth. This was a qualitative study involving 19 women who had natural childbirth in Hamadan, 2020. Purposeful sampling and data collection were performed using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed by conventional content analysis using MAXQDA software version 10. Data analysis showed three themes and six main categories. The themes included security, high-quality care, and respectful care, consisting of two main categories of perceived empowerment and support, physiological approach and reassuring care, and respect for the mother's privacy and optimal accountability. The presence of a backup midwife during labor caused a sense of security, control, and perceived empowerment, thus a positive childbirth experience. Therefore, it is necessary to train and employ midwifery in the healthcare system. It is recommended to train and employ midwifery graduates for this purpose and include it as one of the basic principles in the current planning to promote natural childbirth.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Parto , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
9.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2065431, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646295

RESUMO

Background: The complex system of stressors related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the global population, provoking a broad range of psychological reactions. Although numerous studies have investigated the mental health impact of COVID-19, qualitative research and cross-country comparisons are still rare. Objective: This qualitative study aimed to explore self-perceived challenges and opportunities related to COVID-19 across six European countries. The overall objective was to provide a differentiated picture of individual subjective experiences in the early stages of the pandemic. Method: The present study included 7309 participants from Austria, Croatia, Georgia, Greece, Poland, and Portugal. We performed qualitative content analysis according to Mayring analyse open-ended questions regarding stressful events, positive and negative aspects of the pandemic, and recommendations to cope with the pandemic situation. MAXQDA software was used for data management and analysis. Results: Participants' accounts were moderately consistent across the countries. The most prominent themes regarding stressful and negative pandemic aspects included: Restrictions and changes in daily life, Emotional distress, and Work and finances. Answers about positive pandemic consequences were mainly centred around the themes Reflection and growth, Opportunity for meaningful/enjoyable activities, and Benefits on interpersonal level. Key themes identified from participants' recommendations to cope with the pandemic included Beneficial behavioural adjustment, Beneficial cognitive-emotional strategies, and Social support. Conclusions: Participants experienced various challenges, but also shared several positive pandemic consequences and recommendations to cope with the pandemic. These first-hand data could inform mental health practices to promote well-being during COVID-19 and similar global challenges in the participating countries and possibly beyond. HIGHLIGHTS: We examined COVID-19-related experiences in 7309 adults from six European countries.Besides challenges, participants identified many positive pandemic consequences.Participants' recommendations to cope with COVID-19 included behavioural and cognitive-emotional strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 491, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, two million babies are stillborn and 1.8 million babies die before completing seven days of life. Approximately 4% of pregnant women in Uganda experience perinatal death. The response following a perinatal death tends to be socio-culturally constructed. Investigating the unique personal experiences of parents from a low-income setting with unique cultural beliefs and practices is crucial for the design and implementation of appropriate interventions. OBJECTIVE: To describe the lived experiences of parents following perinatal death in Lira district, Northern Uganda. METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out drawing on the tenets of descriptive phenomenology. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews in Lira district, Northern Uganda between August 2019 and September 2020 with 18 women and 14 men who had experienced a stillbirth or an early neonatal death within the preceding 2 years. Participants were selected from different families and interviewed. A local IRB approved the study. All in-depth interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated, and data were analysed using a content thematic approach. Key findings were discussed based on Worden's Four Tasks of Mourning theory. RESULTS: The themes that emerged from the analyses included reaction to the perinatal loss and suggestions for support. The participants' immediate reactions were pain, confusion, and feelings of guilt which were aggravated by the unsupportive behaviour of health care providers. Men cumulatively lost financial resources in addition to facing multiple stressful roles. Delayed reactions such as pain and worries were triggered by the sight of similar-age-babies, subsequent pregnancy losses, and marital challenges. Participants recommended emotional support and management of postnatal complications for parents faced with perinatal loss. CONCLUSION: Losing a baby during the perinatal period in a resource-constrained setting negatively affected both gender. In addition, men suffered the loss of financial resources and the burden of multiple stressful roles. Acknowledging the pain and offering support to the grieving parents reinforce their coping with a perinatal loss. In addition to family and community members, health care providers need to provide emotional support and postnatal care to parents who experience perinatal death.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Dor , Pais/psicologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Natimorto/psicologia , Uganda
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1192, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Harmful alcohol use by 5-8-year-old children has been identified in Mbale District, Uganda. To further examine this finding, the present study explores the experiences and perceptions of community members regarding how childhood substance use (before age 10) is managed in this area. METHODS: We conducted eight focus group discussions with 48 parents of children aged < 10 years and 26 key informant interviews with teachers, health workers, child protection workers, police, local stakeholders, brewers, and others. Thematic content analysis was performed. RESULTS: Three main themes were identified: 'We don't talk about it': Despite concern, childhood substance use was not addressed in the community. Participants attributed this to three main factors related to a lack of leadership in addressing it, changing acceptability for peer parental interference, and uncertainty about repercussions related to children's rights. 'There is nowhere to take the child': Schools, police, and remand homes were intuitively considered appropriate arenas for managing childhood substance use but were considered inaccessible, unresponsive, and inadequate due to insufficient resources, competence, and training. Since substance use was not considered a medical problem, help from the health sector was only sought for adverse consequences, such as injury. This left the participants with the experience that there was in effect nowhere to take the child. 'The government has not done so much': The participants called for government action and clear laws that would regulate the availability of alcohol and other substances to children, but they had limited trust in the capacity and commitment of the government to act. CONCLUSIONS: The participants were concerned about childhood alcohol and substance use, but the complexity and magnitude of the problem left them feeling incapacitated in responding. Relevant factors were identified on the community, institutional, and the government level, such as a lack of leadership in addressing it, a loss of mandate to interfere in child-rearing, inadequate services, weak legal structures, and missing government action. A strengthening of collective agency and public policy is necessary to prevent and address childhood alcohol and substance use.


Assuntos
Pais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Uganda/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 460, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35706013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical medical education is essential in physician training. This study developed recommendations for medical residency course design on the basis of the perspectives of learners in China and how they interact with their environment. The central research topic was the professional development and learning process of residents, including the obstacles that hinder and factors that promote their learning, their views on existing teaching methods, interaction between teachers and medical teams, and suggestions for designing future residency training programs. METHODS: This study had a qualitative research design. Interviews were conducted between July and October 2019 with 17 specialist residents and 12 assistant general practitioner residents from the department of education of the hospital. The participants were recruited from Qingyuan People's Hospital in Guangdong Province, China. The interview outlines focused on the following four themes: clinical learning experiences and reflections on learning, experience of interaction with patients, experience of working with other medical personnel, and future learning directions. RESULTS: To overcome challenges in clinical learning, the residents mainly learned from their teachers and focused specifically on their own experiences. Regarding teaching methods and designs in clinical medicine, the residents preferred large-group, small-group, and bedside teaching and reported that bedside teaching enables the resolution of clinical problems, initiates self-learning, and improves diagnostic thinking. They disliked teachers with low teaching motivation or who were reluctant to interact with them and favored teachers who had strong teaching skills and respect for their students. CONCLUSIONS: The residents suggested that clinical and active learning must be the main learning method for developing general medical competencies. Residency training must be conducted in an environment that facilitates residents' learning and meaningful learning activities. The interdependent symbiotic relationships in the education ecosystem can serve as a reference for designing residency courses.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Médicos , Ecossistema , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensino
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 782, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35706015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integrating healthcare services across and between the different health system levels can be achieved in a few ways; however, examining the social side of integration is essential and challenging. This paper explores the concept of integration perceived by general practitioners (GPs) and primary care network (PCN) representatives from the regional health systems (RHS) in a GP-RHS PCN and their perceived partnership success. METHODS: In this study, we explored three GP-RHS PCNs in Singapore. We used a qualitative research design and, overall, performed 17 semi-structured in-depth interviews with GPs (n = 11) and PCN representatives (n = 6) from the RHS. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. We conducted thematic analysis to inductively identify themes from the data. Singer's conceptual model of integration types was used as guiding principles to derive relevant and salient themes for integration. RESULTS: GPs and the RHS perceived the concept of integration through a series of interrelated strategies. Within the normative dimension, a sense of urgency motivated GPs to integrate improvements into their general practice. Participants perceived teamwork and relational climate as appropriate enablers for achieving interpersonal integration in a primary care partnership. While developing a trusted relationship was a perceived success of this partnership across the network, developing camaraderie and gaining knowledge in chronic disease management through the components of functional integration was a perceived success at an individual general practice level. The data also revealed some operational challenges within the structural dimension and some inabilities of the PCN to achieve complete process integration. CONCLUSIONS: Our study points to multi-faceted integration, comprising various forms that need to be manifested at all levels of care to achieve coordinated, seamless, and comprehensive care for patients suffering from chronic conditions. The present iteration of the PCN has been shown to offer integration at a level that warrants praise but still requires structural and process integration improvement.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Carbonitrila de Pregnenolona , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Singapura
15.
BMJ ; 377: e067745, 2022 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe an approach for reporting master protocol research programs (MPRPs) that is consistent with existing good reporting practices and that uses structured information to convey the overall master protocol and design of each substudy. DESIGN: Qualitative analysis. DATA SOURCES: ClinicalTrials.gov trial registry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Established goals and related practices of the trial reporting system were outlined, examples and key characteristics of MPRPs were reviewed, and specific challenges in registering and reporting summary results to databases designed for traditional clinical trial designs that rely on a model of one study per protocol were identified. RESULTS: A reporting approach is proposed that accommodates the complex study design of MPRPs and their results. This approach involves the use of separate registration records for each substudy within one MPRP protocol (with potential exceptions noted). CONCLUSIONS: How the proposed approach allows for clear, descriptive, structured information about each substudy's prespecified design and supports timely reporting of results after completion of each substudy is described and illustrated. Although the focus is on reporting to ClinicalTrials.gov, the approach supports broader application across trial registries and results databases. This paper is intended to stimulate further discussion of this approach among stakeholders, build awareness about the need to improve reporting of MPRPs, and encourage harmonization across trial registries globally.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sistema de Registros
16.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 338, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In The Netherlands, prematurely born infants and their parents are offered regular developmental check-ups in a hospital setting. In line with providing healthcare at distance, the use of video footage showing the infant's behavior and movements, taken by parents at home and assessed by professionals online, might be a fruitful future practice. The focus of this study was to gain insight into parental experiences with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale home-video method and their appraisal of its applicability for use in an outpatient neonatal follow-up clinic. METHOD: A qualitative descriptive study among parents of healthy extremely or very premature infants (GA 26.2-31.5 weeks) participating in a longitudinal study of motor development between 3-18 months corrected age. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. Data was analyzed independently. Inductive content analysis was performed following the process of the AIMS home-video method. RESULTS: Parents appraised the AIMS home-video method as manageable and fun to do. Instructions, instruction film, and checklists were clear. Transferring the video footage from their phone to their computer and uploading it to the web portal was sometimes time-consuming. Parents gained a better awareness of their infant's motor development and found the provided feedback a confirmation of what they already thought about their infant's development and was reassuring that their child was doing well. First-time parents seemed more uncertain and had a greater need for information about (motor) development, but on the other hand, also had confidence in their child. All parents thought that home-videos can be an addition to follow-up visits, but cannot replace (all) visits. It may be an opportunity to reduce the frequency of hospital visits, while still having their infant monitored. CONCLUSION: Parents appraised the AIMS home-video method positively and are of the opinion that home-videos can be of added value in monitoring infants at risk in neonatal follow-up additional to hospital visits. In future research a user-friendly application and/or platform to exchange video footage safely between parents and professionals should be developed with all possible stakeholders involved and implementation should be explored.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro , Pais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 40, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35693754

RESUMO

Introduction: In sub-Saharan Africa, extensive migratory activities and interactions exist especially amongst unmanned cross-border communities between countries sharing common borders which complicate emergency public health interventions. Understanding the nature of these activities and interactions will help strengthen public health interventions and control of pandemics such as the Ebola outbreak and COVID-19. Objective: The study aimed to understand the nature of contiguous border communities' interactions and to seek community solutions for building efficient and resilient health systems to combat a possible Ebola outbreak in Ghana and Burkina Faso and the control of future pandemics. Methods: A qualitative cross sectional study design using focused group discussions and key informant interviews involving six focused groups and forty-six key informants were conducted amongst six Kasem-speaking contiguous border communities, three-each in Ghana and Burkina Faso. Findings: Findings of interactions consisted of social interactions such as marriage ceremonies; traditional and religious practices; informal trade; and health seeking behavior in the study communities. Collaborative disease surveillance systems; constructive dialogue involving community traditional leaders; incorporation of health education into social, traditional and religious activities; retraining of health personnel; effective communication including networking; and inter-governmental collaborations were identified as solutions to the effective control of the Ebola outbreak and for future public health interventions in general. Conclusion: Understanding community interactions and seeking community solutions were identified to be crucial in building efficient health systems that are resilient and responsive to the Ebola outbreak and for future pandemics in contiguous border communities in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Pandemias , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Gana/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 142(9)2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of doctors is changing, and mental health care is increasingly dominated by professional groups other than doctors. In this qualitative study, we investigated how psychiatrists perceive their role and position in mental health care. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Seven psychiatrists were given in-depth interviews based on an interview guide. The transcribed material was analysed using systematic text condensation. RESULTS: The interview material was grouped into four cross-cutting topic categories: Several informants perceived themselves as professional guarantors who step in when other interventions have failed. Many felt like guest workers in the therapeutic pathways of other professional groups, without an adequate framework for following up the patients properly. Some described the health authorities' prioritisation of mental health as a patient pathway bureaucracy, where more stringent demands for control and documentation of treatment and decisions to use coercive measures divert time and resources away from patient treatment. Several psychiatrists felt that unified management led to diffusion of responsibility, with an unclear distribution of professional responsibility between the interdisciplinary head of unit and the specialist. INTERPRETATION: The psychiatrists in the study appeared to have clear professional authority in the clinic, but their role seems to be under pressure. Interdisciplinary, unified line management, equal responsibility for treatment accorded to specialists in psychology, and the absence of psychiatrists in the management appear to have undermined the psychiatric perspective in mental health care.


Assuntos
Médicos , Psiquiatria , Documentação , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Médicos/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
Cancer ; 128 Suppl 13: 2659-2663, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699617

RESUMO

Persons who identify as community health workers (CHWs) may hold other titles and/or certifications, including the title of patient navigator (PN). PN roles first emerged from Dr. Harold Freeman's initiative at Harlem Hospital as a strategy to reduce disparities in access to health care, whereas CHW roles extend beyond health systems and are predominantly found in community-based organizations and nonprofits. Although CHWs' origins in the United States predate those of PNs, the growth of CHWs' professional identity and national representation trails that of PNs despite evidence of CHWs' effectiveness since the 1960s. Barriers to progress have included a pattern of short-term and inequitable funding for CHW positions, a lack of employer support for participation in association business, and broad diversity in CHW roles and work settings. The National Association of Community Health Workers (NACHW) was launched in 2019 and built on earlier organizing efforts by multisector, multicultural CHWs and allies in the CHW section of the American Public Health Association and on efforts to create the American Association of Community Health Workers (2006-2009). Trends in health care financing, increasing calls for racial equity, and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have amplified the unique abilities and trust that CHWs apply to underresourced, marginalized, and multiethnic populations to address both the social determinants of health and health system access, cost, and quality. As a result, the NACHW has been at the forefront of efforts to improve federal funding for COVID responses, to sustain funding for CHWs and their organizations beyond the pandemic, and to drive equity in the rebuilding of public health infrastructure and the transformation of payment models and health systems. Lessons learned from this process that have implications for the oncology patient navigation field include the persistent need to reinforce the value of self-determination for the profession in matters of policy; the importance of actively cultivating unity among diverse cultural and practice groups within the profession; the essential roles of active volunteer leadership, early staffing, and substantial financial support over an extended startup period; the ongoing need for leadership development within a workforce with limited exposure to a professional association culture; the vital importance of ongoing efforts to collaborate with and build capacity among state-level CHW networks; and the value of opportunistic national collaborations in a rapidly evolving policy environment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Navegação de Pacientes , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
20.
Ann Ig ; 34(4): 326-343, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700028

RESUMO

Background: Low health literacy is associated with high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study was carried out to identify challenges of health literacy and strategies for its promotion in patients with acute coronary syndrome, using the patients҆ and nurses' experiences. Methodology: Data gathering was done through applying semi-structured interviews with participation of 29 patients and nurses. The informants were selected using purposive sampling method with the maximum variation. Data analysis was done through conventional content analysis and using MAXQDA software. Results: Obstacles and challenges of health literacy in participants were categorized in four themes inclu-ding irresponsibility, social apathy, perceptual and cognitive problems, and inappropriate distribution of the resources. In addition, possible strategies to promote health literacy were presented in the form of 68 strategies. Conclusions: Given that successful management of many acute or chronic diseases is influenced by patients' perceptions of health information, providing strategies to people who have difficulty in understanding this information can have a positive effect on health outcomes. Increasing health literacy abilities of patients should be a priority of health system.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Letramento em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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