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1.
Surg Oncol Clin N Am ; 32(1): 13-25, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410913

RESUMO

Investigator-initiated trials (IITs) are designed by principal investigators who identify important, unaddressed clinical gaps and opportunities to answer these questions through clinical trials. Surgical oncologists are poised to lead IITs due to their multidisciplinary clinical practice and substantial research background. The process of developing, organizing, and implementing IITs is multifaceted and involves important steps including (but not limited to) navigating regulatory requirements, obtaining funding, and meeting enrollment targets. Here, the authors explore the steps, methodology, and barriers of IIT development by surgical oncologists and highlight the importance of IITs in oncology.


Assuntos
Oncologistas , Oncologia Cirúrgica , Humanos , Pesquisadores , Oncologia
2.
Dis Model Mech ; 16(5)2023 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374035

RESUMO

First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Disease Models & Mechanisms, helping researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Hartmut Cuny is first author on ' Maternal heterozygosity of Slc6a19 causes metabolic perturbation and congenital NAD deficiency disorder in mice', published in DMM. Hartmut is a senior postdoc in the lab of Prof. Sally Dunwoodie at Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Sydney, Australia, investigating the genetic and environmental causes of congenital malformations.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros , Pesquisadores , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Austrália
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2583: 105-121, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418729

RESUMO

Single-cell transcriptomic analysis (scRNA-seq) can enable researchers to explore the gene expression patterns of thousands of individual cells simultaneously. Processing the complex data generated by scRNA-seq requires specialized computational tools. This chapter focuses on the analytical aspect of scRNA-seq workflow, with a focus on resolving biological signals from large-scale scRNA-seq data produced by the Drop-Seq platform.


Assuntos
Microcefalia , Humanos , Análise de Célula Única , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Pesquisadores , Transcriptoma
4.
Nature ; 611(7934): 192-193, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316468
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0256842, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327262

RESUMO

Despite evidence of their importance to marine ecosystems, at least 32% of all chondrichthyan species are estimated or assessed as threatened with extinction. In addition to the logistical difficulties of effectively conserving wide-ranging marine species, shark conservation is believed to have been hindered in the past by public perceptions of sharks as dangerous to humans. Shark Week is a high-profile, international programming event that has potentially enormous influence on public perceptions of sharks, shark research, shark researchers, and shark conservation. However, Shark Week has received regular criticism for poor factual accuracy, fearmongering, bias, and inaccurate representations of science and scientists. This research analyzes the content and titles of Shark Week episodes across its entire 32 years of programming to determine if there are trends in species covered, research techniques featured, expert identity, conservation messaging, type of programming, and portrayal of sharks. We analyzed titles from 272 episodes (100%) of Shark Week programming and the content of all available (201; 73.9%) episodes. Our data demonstrate that the majority of episodes are not focused on shark bites, although such shows are common and many Shark Week programs frame sharks around fear, risk, and adrenaline. While criticisms of disproportionate attention to particular charismatic species (e.g. great whites, bull sharks, and tiger sharks) are accurate and supported by data, 79 shark species have been featured briefly at least once. Shark Week's depictions of research and of experts are biased towards a small set of (typically visual and expensive) research methodologies and (mostly white, mostly male) experts, including presentation of many white male non-scientists as scientific experts. While sharks are more often portrayed negatively than positively, limited conservation messaging does appear in 53% of episodes analyzed. Results suggest that as a whole, while Shark Week is likely contributing to the collective public perception of sharks as bad, even relatively small alterations to programming decisions could substantially improve the presentation of sharks and shark science and conservation issues.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Tubarões , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ecossistema , Alimentos Marinhos , Pesquisadores , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18585, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329084

RESUMO

With the increasing importance of interdisciplinary research, some studies have focused on the role of reference diversity by analysing reference lists of published papers. However, the relationship between the knowledge diversity of collaborating team members and research performance has been overlooked. In this study, we measured knowledge diversity through the disciplinary attributes of collaborating authors and research performance (understood as societal impact) through altmetric data. The major findings are: (1) The relationship between interdisciplinary collaboration diversity and societal impact is not a simple linear one, showing an inverted U-shaped pattern; and (2) As the number of collaborative disciplines increases, the marginal effects diminish or even become outweighed by the costs, showing a predominance of negative influences. Hence, diversity in interdisciplinary collaboration does not always have a positive impact. Research collaborations need to take into account the cost issues associated with the diversity of member disciplines.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Pesquisadores , Humanos
8.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(Suppl 1): 153, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, researchers and evaluators have made efforts to identify and use appropriate and innovative research designs that account for the complexity in studying social accountability. The relationship between the researchers and those implementing the activities and how this impacts the study have received little attention. In this paper, we reflect on how we managed the relationship between researchers and implementers using the United Kingdom Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance on process evaluation of a complex intervention. MAIN BODY: The MRC guidance focuses on three areas of interaction between researchers and stakeholders involved in developing and delivering the intervention: (i) working with program developers and implementers; (ii) communication of emerging findings between researchers/evaluators and implementers; and (iii) overlapping roles of the intervention and research/evaluation. We summarize how the recommendations for each of the three areas were operationalized in the Community and Provider driven Social Accountability Intervention (CaPSAI) Project and provide reflections based on experience. We co-developed various tools, including standard operating procedures, contact lists, and manuals. Activities such as training sessions, regular calls, and meetings were also conducted to enable a good working relationship between the different partners. CONCLUSIONS: Studying social accountability requires the collaboration of multiple partners that need to be planned to ensure a good working relationship while safeguarding both the research and intervention implementation. The MRC guidance is a useful tool for making interaction issues explicit and establishing procedures. Planning procedures for dealing with research and implementers' interactions could be more comprehensive and better adapted to social accountability interventions if both researchers and implementers are involved. There is a need for social accountability research to include clear statements explaining the nature and types of relationships between researchers and implementers involved in the intervention.


Assuntos
Pesquisadores , Responsabilidade Social , Humanos , Comunicação , Reino Unido
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277621, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367875

RESUMO

Academia is becoming more and more competitive, especially for young scientists, so it is important to understand the factors that affect success in academic careers. To survive in academia, it is crucial to obtain research funding. Previous studies have investigated factors that affect the funding success of researchers. In this paper, we focus on research collaboration structure as a factor affecting funding success. More specifically, we investigate the effects of participation in joint research projects, number of joint research projects, and centrality in the collaborative network on the future funding success of junior researchers in Japan. Our results show that participation in joint research projects and the number of such projects significantly affect the future funding success of junior researchers. Furthermore, the median number of years of funding received by researchers involved in joint research projects was found to be about 1.5 times greater than that of researchers not involved in joint research projects, and the average amount of research funding received after 10 years is about 2-4 times more, suggesting that researchers with collaboration ties with other researchers in the early stages of their career tend to be more successful in the future.


Assuntos
Médicos , Pesquisadores , Humanos , Japão , Organizações
14.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 28(6): 59, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396797

RESUMO

Researchers sometimes engage in various forms of dishonesty and unethical behavior, which has led to regulatory efforts to ensure that they work according to acceptable standards. Such regulation is a difficult task, as research is a diverse and dynamic endeavor. Researchers can disagree about what counts as good and acceptable standards, and these standards are constantly developing. This paper presents and discusses recent changes in research integrity and ethics regulation in Norway, Denmark, and Sweden. Recognizing that research norms are developed through practice and are therefore unsuited for comprehensive national regulation, the Scandinavian countries focus on empowering the research community to regulate itself instead, except for the most severe cases of misconduct. This empowerment takes the form of giving research institutions tools and investigatory powers while also holding them responsible for ensuring that both the institution and individual researchers are up to date on relevant norms. In this way, the Scandinavian governments seek to avoid some of the challenges found in more legalistic approaches, which risk lagging behind the continuous development of research norms and can be insensitive to the fact that different disciplines have different norms. While the new approach in Scandinavian has several potential benefits, it also involves potential trade-offs and limitations. The new laws can create confusion about what researchers are allowed to do. Another issue is that it only addresses the fundamental drivers of misconduct to a limited extent.


Assuntos
Má Conduta Científica , Humanos , Pesquisadores , Poder Psicológico , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Noruega
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115470, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article compares research on biological embedding and the embodiment of social experiences, two concepts proposed in the 1990s to introduce a new perspective on the social production of health inequalities. We draw on Ludwig Fleck's concept of 'thought style' (1935/2008) to question the possible emergence of a common research program around the processes by which the social becomes biological. METHODS: We compiled a corpus of 322 articles referring to either biological embedding or to the embodiment of social experiences, identified in the Web of Science core collection and published from 1990 to 2021. We analyzed the articles' use of these concepts using scientometric indicators and qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Initial differences between the research agendas associated with biological embedding and embodiment are strengthened as both concepts circulate around scientific communities studying the social production of health inequalities. Thought styles formed around embedding and embodiment differ significantly in terms of shared references, sets of methods and research questions, and policy recommendations. Research on biological embedding forms a thought style shared by researchers in the biomedical and public health sciences. Conversely, the concept of embodiment of social experiences connects perspectives from biomedical, public health, human and social sciences, and gathers three thought styles, one identical to that of biological embedding and two formed in social epidemiology and in medical anthropology. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging the differences between the concepts and divergences in their evolution provides an opportunity for identification of topics where thought styles are either complementary or in tension.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Ciências Sociais , Humanos , Antropologia Médica , Saúde Pública , Pesquisadores
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(11): e40516, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399373

RESUMO

Electronic health records (EHRs) contain valuable data for reuse in science, quality evaluations, and clinical decision support. Because routinely obtained laboratory data are abundantly present, often numeric, generated by certified laboratories, and stored in a structured way, one may assume that they are immediately fit for (re)use in research. However, behind each test result lies an extensive context of choices and considerations, made by both humans and machines, that introduces hidden patterns in the data. If they are unaware, researchers reusing routine laboratory data may eventually draw incorrect conclusions. In this paper, after discussing health care system characteristics on both the macro and micro level, we introduce the reader to hidden aspects of generating structured routine laboratory data in 4 steps (ordering, preanalysis, analysis, and postanalysis) and explain how each of these steps may interfere with the reuse of routine laboratory data. As researchers reusing these data, we underline the importance of domain knowledge of the health care professional, laboratory specialist, data manager, and patient to turn routine laboratory data into meaningful data sets to help obtain relevant insights that create value for clinical care.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Laboratórios , Humanos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Pesquisadores , Atenção à Saúde
18.
Mol Biol Cell ; 33(14): ae3, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399627

RESUMO

It is my great honor to receive the 2022 Günter Blobel Early Career Award from the American Society for Cell Biology. Reflecting upon my research and career trajectory, I recognize the incredible support of my mentors and the hard work of everyone within my lab. I have always relied on a network of advisors and colleagues who supported me throughout my scientific journey. To better support my own trainees, I endeavor to pass on lessons learned while continuously developing and strengthening my own leadership potential. I am a relentless advocate for the success of my trainees, a legacy I pass on from my own mentors.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Mentores , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Pesquisadores , Liderança , Logro
19.
Lancet Neurol ; 21(12): 1151-1160, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402161

RESUMO

A disconnect has developed over the past two decades between neurological and neuroscientific research, which have seen notable innovation and development, and our increasing understanding of the role of social and commercial determinants of health, including the health of the nervous system. Over the next two decades, grounding neurological research in public health and epidemiological principles can bring about a paradigm shift, away from reductionism, over-medicalisation, and health inequities towards neurological research that reduces inequalities and has true relevance to the populations it aims to serve. People who are involved in neurological and neuroscientific research and practice, as clinicians, researchers, publishers, and funders, can create change by being more aware of the social and commercial determinants of health, reprioritising research funding, and advocating for greater neurological health equity.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Pesquisadores , Humanos
20.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277337, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342950

RESUMO

Recent data highlights the presence of luck in research grant allocations, where most vulnerable are early-career researchers. The national research funding contributes typically the greatest share of total research funding in a given country, fulfilling simultaneously the roles of promoting excellence in science, and most importantly, development of the careers of young generation of scientists. Yet, there is limited supply of studies that have investigated how do early-career researchers stand compared to advanced-career level researchers in case of a national research grant system. We analyzed the Estonian national highly competitive research grant funding across different fields of research for a ten-year-period between 2013-2022, including all the awarded grants for this period (845 grants, 658 individual principal investigators, PI). The analysis was conducted separately for early-career and advanced-career researchers. We aimed to investigate how the age, scientific productivity and the previous grant success of the PI vary across a national research system, by comparing early- and advanced-career researchers. The annual grant success rates varied between 14% and 28%, and within the discipline the success rate fluctuated across years even between 0-67%. The year-to-year fluctuations in grant success were stronger for early-career researchers. The study highlights how the seniority does not automatically deliver better research performance, at some fields, younger PIs outperform older cohorts. Also, as the size of the available annual grants fluctuates remarkably, early-career researchers are most vulnerable as they can apply for the starting grant only within a limited "time window".


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Organização do Financiamento , Pesquisadores , Eficiência
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