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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 86, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early selection in tree breeding could be achieved by addressing the longevity of tree improvement activities. Genetic parameter changes and age-age correlations are essential for determining the optimal timing of early selection. Practical tracking of genetic parameters of Pinus koraiensis, a major timber species with economic and ecological value, has become feasible as its progeny testing has entered the mid-term age in Korea. However, research on the age-age correlation of P. koraiensis as progeny trials approach rotation age is limited. This study aimed to investigate genetic parameter trends and age-age correlations in P. koraiensis progeny. P. koraiensis progeny were assessed at two sites using a linear mixed-effects model with two-dimensional spatial autoregressive structure. Height, diameter, and volume growth were measured in 11 assessments over 40 years. RESULTS: Genetic parameters, such as height and diameter, showed different patterns of change. The heritability ranged for the three growth traits in 0.083-0.710, 0.288-0.781, and 0.299-0.755 across the sites and age. Height heritability and its coefficient of variance decreased, whereas the diameter and volume estimates remained relatively constant. Correlations with Age 40 for phenotypic, genetic, and rank of breeding values ranged between 0.16 and 0.92, 0.594 and 0.988, and 0.412 and 0.965, respectively. These correlations generally increased as the age approached Age 40, with particularly high levels observed at Age 26 and Age 30. CONCLUSION: The observed genetic trends in P. koraiensis progeny testing offer valuable insights for early and precise selection. Notably, selecting superior genotypes at Ages 26-30 is supported by discernible genetic gains and robust correlations. Future research should integrate unbalanced data for selecting mother trees or families and conduct a comprehensive economic analysis of early selection to validate its practical benefits.


Assuntos
Florestas , Pinus , Humanos , Adulto , Pinus/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Árvores , Fenótipo
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3546, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347026

RESUMO

In today's age of ecological transition, the use of materials such as renewable wood in construction is particularly relevant, but also a challenge in the healthcare sector where the hygiene dimension also comes into play. In this study we have investigated the survival of multi-resistant bacteria commonly responsible for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) (ESBL-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae and glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecalis) on two different types of wood (Douglas fir : Pseudotsuga menziesii and Maritime Pine : Pinus pinaster) compared to other materials (smooth: stainless steel and rough: pumice stone) and the effect of a disinfection protocol on the bacterial survival on Pseudotsuga menziesii. Approximately 108 bacteria were inoculated on each material and bacterial survival was observed over several days (D0, D1, D2, D3, D6, D7 and D15). Each analysis was performed in triplicate for each time and material. The results show an important reduction of the bacterial inoculum for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalis on Douglas fir, in contrast with the results obtained on maritime pine, stainless steel and pumice stone. No bacterial survival was detected on Douglas fir after application of a hospital disinfection protocol. These different results show that wood may have a place in the future of healthcare construction. Further studies would be interesting to better understand the different properties of wood.


Assuntos
Pinus , Pseudotsuga , Silicatos , Aço Inoxidável , Bactérias
3.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 166, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The carbon metabolism pathway is of paramount importance for the growth and development of plants, exerting a pivotal regulatory role in stress responses. The exacerbation of drought impacts on the plant carbon cycle due to global warming necessitates comprehensive investigation into the response mechanisms of Masson Pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.), an exemplary pioneer drought-tolerant tree, thereby establishing a foundation for predicting future forest ecosystem responses to climate change. RESULTS: The seedlings of Masson Pine were utilized as experimental materials in this study, and the transcriptome, metabolome, and photosynthesis were assessed under varying temperatures and drought intensities. The findings demonstrated that the impact of high temperature and drought on the photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of Masson Pine seedlings was more pronounced compared to individual stressors. The analysis of transcriptome data revealed that the carbon metabolic pathways of Masson Pine seedlings were significantly influenced by high temperature and drought co-stress, with a particular impact on genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism. The metabolome analysis revealed that only trehalose and Galactose 1-phosphate were specifically associated with the starch and sucrose metabolic pathways. Furthermore, the trehalose metabolic heat map was constructed by integrating metabolome and transcriptome data, revealing a significant increase in trehalose levels across all three comparison groups. Additionally, the PmTPS1, PmTPS5, and PmTPPD genes were identified as key regulatory genes governing trehalose accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: The combined effects of high temperature and drought on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, transcriptome, and metabolome were more pronounced than those induced by either high temperature or drought alone. Starch and sucrose metabolism emerged as the pivotal carbon metabolic pathways in response to high temperature and drought stress in Masson pine. Trehalose along with PmTPS1, PmTPS5, and PmTPPD genes played crucial roles as metabolites and key regulators within the starch and sucrose metabolism.


Assuntos
Pinus , Pinus/genética , Pinus/metabolismo , Temperatura , Ecossistema , Secas , Carbono/metabolismo , Trealose/metabolismo , Plântula , Sacarose/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
4.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 199, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351308

RESUMO

The Japanese sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a pest in pine forests and acts as a vector for the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which causes the pine wilt disease. We assembled a high-quality genome of M. alternatus at the chromosomal level using Illumina, Nanopore, and Hi-C sequencing technologies. The assembled genome is 767.12 Mb, with a scaffold N50 of 82.0 Mb. All contigs were assembled into ten pseudo-chromosomes. The genome contains 63.95% repeat sequences. We identify 16, 284 protein-coding genes in the genome, of which 11,244 were functionally annotated. The high-quality genome of M. alternatus provides an invaluable resource for the biological, ecological, and genetic study of this beetle and opens new avenues for understanding the transmission of pine wood nematode by insect vectors.


Assuntos
Besouros , Pinus , Animais , Besouros/genética , Japão , Insetos Vetores , Florestas
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 98, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331735

RESUMO

Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a devastating forest disease caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a migratory endoparasite that infects several coniferous species. During the last 20 years, advances have been made for understanding the molecular bases of PWN-host trees interactions. Major advances emerged from transcriptomic and genomic studies, which revealed some unique features related to PWN pathogenicity and constituted fundamental data that allowed the development of postgenomic studies. Here we review the proteomic approaches that were applied to study PWD and integrated the current knowledge on the molecular basis of the PWN pathogenicity. Proteomics has been useful for understanding cellular activities and protein functions involved in PWN-host trees interactions, shedding light into the mechanisms associated with PWN pathogenicity and being promising tools to better clarify host trees PWN resistance/susceptibility.


Assuntos
Pinus , Tylenchida , Animais , Proteômica , Virulência , Pinus/genética , Pinus/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338907

RESUMO

WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factors (TFs) play a crucial role in regulating plant development and responding to various abiotic stresses. However, the members and functions of WOX proteins in Pinus massoniana remain unclear. In this study, a total of 11 WOX genes were identified, and bioinformatics methods were used for preliminary identification and analysis. The phylogenetic tree revealed that most PmWOXs were distributed in ancient and WUS clades, with only one member found in the intermediate clade. We selected four highly conserved WOX genes within plants for further expression analysis. These genes exhibited expressions across almost all tissues, while PmWOX2, PmWOX3, and PmWOX4 showed high expression levels in the callus, suggesting their potential involvement in specific functions during callus development. Expression patterns under different abiotic stresses indicated that PmWOXs could participate in resisting multiple stresses in P. massoniana. The identification and preliminary analysis of PmWOXs lay the foundation for further research on analyzing the resistance molecular mechanism of P. massoniana to abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Pinus , Fatores de Transcrição , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Pinus/genética , Pinus/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
7.
Fungal Biol ; 128(1): 1578-1589, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341263

RESUMO

Interspecific hybridization plays a key role in the evolution of novel fungal pathogens, and when it occurs between native and invasive species, can lead to potentially serious consequences. In this study, we examined the temporal and spatial distribution of a recently detected hybrid (Cronartium x flexili) of two tree pathogens, invasive to North America Cronartium ribicola and native Cronartium comandrae. In total, 726 and 1452 aecia from 178 Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia and 357 Pinus flexilis trees were collected from 26 sites in four national forests in 2019-2021. Using morphological and molecular analyses, 71 aecia collected from 25 P. flexilis trees had intermediate morphology and contained heterozygous SNPs in two genomic regions. Population analyses revealed the presence of multiple hybrid genotypes randomly distributed among sites and years. No aecia from P. contorta ssp. latifolia were identified as hybrids suggesting unidirectional gene flow from native C. comandrae to invasive C. ribicola. Aeciospores from 2 hybrid aecia produced urediniospores on Ribes nigrum. Overall, these results suggest that, even though low in frequency, C. x flexili is persistent in the region and has pathogenic potential. Hybrid expansion into the large range of susceptible pines could have cascading impacts on forest health.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Ecossistema , Pinus , Árvores , Pinus/microbiologia , Florestas
8.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(2): e17149, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342970

RESUMO

Piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands are a dominant community type across the Intermountain West, comprising over a million acres and experiencing critical effects from increasing wildfire. Large PJ mortality and regeneration failure after catastrophic wildfire have elevated concerns about the long-term viability of PJ woodlands. Thinning is increasingly used to safeguard forests from fire and in an attempt to increase climate resilience. We have only a limited understanding of how fire and thinning will affect the structure and function of PJ ecosystems. Here, we examined vegetation structure, microclimate conditions, and PJ regeneration dynamics following ~20 years post-fire and thinning treatments. We found that burned areas had undergone a state shift that did not show signs of returning to their previous state. This shift was characterized by (1) distinct plant community composition dominated by grasses; (2) a lack of PJ recruitment; (3) a decrease in the sizes of interspaces in between plants; (4) lower abundance of late successional biological soil crusts; (5) lower mean and minimum daily soil moisture values; (6) lower minimum daily vapor pressure deficit; and (7) higher photosynthetically active radiation. Thinning created distinct plant communities and served as an intermediate between intact and burned communities. More intensive thinning decreased PJ recruitment and late successional biocrust cover. Our results indicate that fire has the potential to create drier and more stressful microsite conditions, and that, in the absence of active management following fire, there may be shifts to persistent ecological states dominated by grasses. Additionally, more intensive thinning had a larger impact on community structure and recruitment than less intensive thinning, suggesting that careful consideration of goals could help avoid unintended consequences. While our results indicate the vulnerability of PJ ecosystems to fire, they also highlight management actions that could be adapted to create conditions that promote PJ re-establishment.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Juniperus , Pinus , Ecossistema , Florestas , Solo
9.
Molecules ; 29(1)2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38202827

RESUMO

Auricularia auricula polysaccharides used in Pinus koraiensis polyphenol encapsulation and delivery under weightlessness are rarely reported. In this study, an anionic polysaccharide fragment named AAP Iα with a molecular weight of 133.304 kDa was isolated and purified to construct a polyphenol encapsulation system. Nanoparticles named NPs-PP loaded with a rough surface for Pinus koraiensis polyphenol (PP) delivery were fabricated by AAP Iα and ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL). SEM and the DLS tracking method were used to observe continuous changes in AAP Iα, ε-PL and PP on the nanoparticles' rough surface assembly, as well as the dispersion and stability. Hydrophilic, monodisperse and highly negative charged nanoparticles can be formed at AAP Iα 0.8 mg/mL, ε-PL 20 µg/mL and PP 80 µg/mL. FT-IR was used to determine their electrostatic interactions. Release kinetic studies showed that nanoparticles had an ideal gastrointestinal delivery effect. NPs-PP loaded were assembled through electrostatic interactions between polyelectrolytes after hydrogen bonding formation in PP-AAP Iα and PP-ε-PL, respectively. Colon adhesion properties and PP delivery in vivo of nanoparticles showed that NPs-PP loaded had high adhesion efficiency to the colonic mucosa under simulated microgravity and could enhance PP bioavailability. These results suggest that AAP Iα can be used in PP encapsulation and delivery under microgravity in astronaut food additives.


Assuntos
Auricularia , Nanopartículas , Pinus , Ausência de Peso , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Lisina
10.
PeerJ ; 12: e16686, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38188153

RESUMO

Background: The Cangshan National Nature Reserve of Dali City was adopted as the research object to clarify the vertical distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and vegetation types at different elevations in western Yunnan. Methods: The contents of SOC, light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the 0-30 cm soil layer at different elevations (2,400, 2,600, 2,800, 3,000, 3,200, 3,400, and 3,600 m) were determined, and the above-ground vegetation types at different elevations were investigated. Results: Results showed that the SOC content was the highest in 0-20 cm surface soil and gradually decreased with the deepening of the soil layer. It increased then decreased with the increase in elevation, and it peaked at 3,000 m. The LFOC content was between 1.28 and 7.3515 g kg-1. It exhibited a decreasing trend and little change in profile distribution. The HFOC content ranged between 12.9727 and 23.3708 g kg-1; it increased then decreased with the increase in profile depth. The WSOC content was between 235.5783 and 392.3925 mg kg-1, and the response sensitivity to elevation change was weak. With the increase in elevation, WSOC/SOC and LFOC/SOC showed a similar trend, whereas HFOC presented an opposite trend. This observation indicates that the active organic carbon content at 3,600 m was lower than that at 2,400 m, and the middle elevation was conducive to the storage of active organic carbon. Meanwhile, the physical and chemical properties of soil affected the distribution of organic carbon to a certain extent. The vegetation type survey showed that the above-ground dominant species within 2,400-2,800 m were Pinus yunnanensis and Pinus armandii. Many evergreen and mixed coniferous broadleaf forests were distributed from 3,000 m to 3,200 m. Species of Abies delavayi were mainly distributed from 3,400 m to 3,600 m. This research serves as a reference for the study of forest soil carbon stability in high-elevation areas and plays an important role in formulating reasonable land use management policies, protecting forest soil, reducing organic carbon loss, and investigating the carbon sequestration stability of forest ecosystems.


Assuntos
Carbono , Pinus , Ecossistema , Solo , China , Carvão Vegetal , Água
11.
Microbiol Res ; 280: 127588, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163390

RESUMO

Fungi play a crucial role in decomposing litter and facilitating the energy flow between aboveground plants and underground soil in forest ecosystems. However, our understanding how the fungal community involved in litter decomposition responds during forest succession, particularly in disease-driven succession, is still limited. This study investigated the activity of degrading enzyme, fungal community, and predicted function in litter after one year of decomposition in different types of forests during a forest succession gradient from coniferous to deciduous forest, induced by pine wilt disease. The results showed that the weight loss of needles/leaves and twigs did not change along the succession process, but twigs degraded faster than needles/leaves in both pure pine forest and mixed forest. In pure pine forest, peak activities of enzymes involved in carbon degradation (ß-cellobiosidase, ß-glucosidase, ß-D-glucuronidase, ß-xylosidase), nitrogen degradation (N-acetyl-glucosamidase), and organic phosphorus degradation (phosphatase) were observed in needles, which subsequently declined. The fungal diversity and evenness (Shannon's diversity and Shannon's evenness) dropped in twig from coniferous forest to mixed forest during the succession. The dominant phyla in needle/leaf and twig litters were Ascomycota (46.9%) and Basidiomycota (38.9%), with Lambertella pruni and Chalara hughesii identified as the most abundant indicator species. Gymnopus and Desmazierella showed positively correlations with most measured enzyme activities. Functionally, saprotrophs constituted the main trophic mode (47.65%), followed by Pathotroph-Saprotroph-Symbiotroph (30.95%) and Saprotroph-Symbiotroph (10.57%). The fungal community and predicted functional structures in both litter types shifted among different forest types along the succession. These findings indicate that the fungal community in litter decomposition responds differently to disease-induced succession, leading to significant shifts in both the fungal community structure and function.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Micobioma , Pinus , Ecossistema , Fungos/metabolismo , Florestas , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(2): 140, 2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206437

RESUMO

College and university campuses with a notable arboreal component provide unique opportunities for carrying out ecological research. The University of West Florida Campus Ecosystem Study (UWF CES) was established in 2019 as interconnected research to take advantage of the extensive arborescent nature of the UWF campus, particularly concerning longleaf pine (Pinus palustris). One of these investigations established permanent plots in forested sites of two contrasting types, one dominated by longleaf pine ("pine site") and the other dominated by hardwoods ('hardwood site'). This study used these plots to examine the influence of forest vegetation on light availability and soil processes. Light was measured as photosynthetically active radiation (and expressed as photon flux density-PFD) with a handheld meter in each plot. Soil was sampled to 5 cm in each plot; texture was measured with the hydrometer method. Identical sampling methods were carried out in a persistent canopy opening to assess light and soil conditions under maximum solar radiation. Mean PFD was ~4× higher in pine stands than in hardwood stands; PFD was 12.8 and 3.5% of full light in the pine and hardwood stands, respectively. All soils were dominated by coarse-textured sands, but silt was significantly higher in pine stand soil and higher still in the canopy opening. Among forest stand plots, sand was negatively related to PFD, whereas clay was positively related to PFD. Across the three sites, silt was positively related to PFD. These relationships are consistent with the importance of solar radiation as one of many drivers of soil weathering.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pinus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florida , Florestas , Areia , Solo
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(5): 2473-2481, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38284538

RESUMO

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (B. xylophilus) and Meloidogyne are parasitic nematodes that have caused severe ecological and economic damage in pinewood and crops, respectively. Jietacins (jietacin A and B) were found to have excellent biological activity against B. xylophilus. Based on our tremendous demand for chemicals against B. xylophilus, a novel scaffold based on the azo and azoxy groups was designed, and a series of compounds were synthesized. In the bioassay, Ia, IIa, IIc, IId, and IVa exhibited higher activity against B. xylophilus in vitro than avermectin (LC50 = 2.43 µg·mL-1) with LC50 values of 1.37, 1.12, 0.889, 1.56, and 1.10 µg·mL-1, respectively. Meanwhile, Ib, Ic, IIc, and IVa showed good inhibition effects against Meloidogyne in vivo at the concentrations of 80 and 40 µg·mL-1 with inhibition rates of 89.0% and 81.6%, 95.6% and 75.7%, 96.3% and 41.2%, and 86.8% and 78.7%, respectively. In fungicidal activity in vitro, IIb and IVa exhibited excellent effect against Botryosphaeria dothidea with the inhibition of 82.59% and 85.32% at the concentration of 10 µg·mL-1, while the inhibition of Ia was 83.16% against Rhizoctonia solani at the concentration of 12.5 µg·mL-1. Referring to the biological activity against B. xylophilus, a 3D-QASR model was built in which the electron-donating group and small group at the 4-phenylhydrazine were favorable for the activity. In general, the novel azoxy compounds, especially IIc possess great potential for application in the prevention of B. xylophilus.


Assuntos
Pinus , Tylenchida , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Antinematódeos/química , Pinus/parasitologia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 916: 170259, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38253096

RESUMO

Microbial interactions determine ecosystem carbon (C) and nutrient cycling, yet it remains unclear how interguild fungal interactions modulate microbial residue contribution to soil C pools (SOC) during forest succession. Here, we present a region-wide investigation of the relative dominance of saprophytic versus symbiotic fungi in litter and soil compartments, exploring their linkages to soil microbial residue pools and potential drivers along a chronosequence of secondary Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) forests on the Loess Plateau. Despite minor changes in C and nitrogen (N) stocks in the litter or soil layers across successional stages, we found significantly lower soil phosphorus (P) stocks, higher ratios of soil C: N, soil N: P and soil C: P but lower ratios of litter C: N and litter C: P in old (>75 years) than young stands (<30 years). Pine stand development altered the saprotroph: symbiotroph ratios of fungal communities to favor the soil symbiotrophs versus the litter saprotrophs. The dominance of saprotrophs in litter is positively related to microbial necromass contribution to SOC, which is negatively related to the dominance of symbiotrophs in soils. Antagonistic interguild fungal competition in litter and soil layers, in conjunction with increased fungal but decreased bacterial necromass contribution to SOC, jointly contribute to unchanged total necromass contribution to SOC with stand development. The saprotroph: symbiotroph ratios in litter and soil layers are mainly driven by soil P stocks and stand parameters (e.g., stand age and slope), respectively, while substrate stoichiometries primarily regulate microbial necromass accumulation and fungal: bacterial necromass ratios. These results provide novel insights into how microbial interactions at local spatial scales modulate temporal changes in SOC pools, with management implications for mitigating regional land degradation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pinus , Solo/química , Florestas , Fósforo , Carbono/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias
15.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 12, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) underwent significant population declines across much of northwest Europe during the mid-to-late Holocene and was thought to have become extirpated in Ireland from about 400 AD. However, most extant populations are plantations reintroduced from Scotland. Others are naturalised therefrom and one in Western Ireland is a putative relict. In this paper, Scots pine in Ireland are genetically described for the first time. RESULTS: Using two mitochondrial (mtDNA) loci, eight chloroplast (cpSSR) and 18 nuclear (nSSR) loci, the genetic composition and diversity of 19 Irish Scots pine populations is described and compared to other European populations. All trees sampled in Ireland were fixed for mitotype a, which is the most common across northwest Europe. By contrast, cpSSR (HCP = 0.967) and nSSR (He = 0.540) variation was high, and comparable with estimates for other regions across the species range. Differentiation at both sets of loci were similarly low (cpSSR FST = 0.019; nSSR FST = 0.018), but populations from continental Europe were significantly differentiated from all Irish populations based on nSSR variation. CONCLUSIONS: All Irish Scots pine are likely part of a common Irish-Scottish gene pool which diverged from continental Scots pine following post-glacial recolonisation. A high genetic diversity and an absence of evidence of inbreeding suggests the regional decline of Scots pine did not critically reduce allelic variation. The post-glacial relationship between Irish and Scottish pine is discussed, and a suggestion from recent palaeoecological work that reintroduced Scots pine be managed as a native species is now further supported by genetic data.


Assuntos
Pinus sylvestris , Pinus , Irlanda , Europa (Continente) , Alelos
16.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 36, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265481

RESUMO

Clarifying the response of soil microbial communities to vegetation restoration is essential to comprehend biogeochemical processes and ensure the long-term viability of forest development. To assess the variations in soil microbial communities throughout the growth of Pinus armandii plantations in the karst region, we utilized the "space instead of time" approach and selected four P. armandii stands with ages ranging from 10 to 47 years, along with a grassland control. The microbial community structure was determined by conducting Illumina sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene and the ITS gene, respectively. The results demonstrated that afforestation with P. armandii significantly influenced soil microbial communities, as indicated by notable differences in bacterial and fungal composition and diversity between the plantations and the control. However, soil microbe diversity did not display significant variation across stand ages. Moreover, the bacterial community exhibited higher responsiveness to age gradients compared to the fungal community. Soil physicochemical factors play a critical role in elucidating microbial diversity and community composition variations during restoration processes. TN, AN, TP, AP, SOC, AK, and pH were the most significant influencing factors for the composition of bacterial community, while TC, SOC, pH, and TCa were the most significant influencing factors for the composition of fungal community. Our findings indicate substantial changes in soil bacterial and fungal communities across successive stages of development. Additionally, the changes in dominant bacteria and fungi characteristics across the age gradient were primarily attributed to variations in the prevailing soil conditions and chemical factors.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Pinus , China , Solo
17.
Ecotoxicology ; 33(1): 66-84, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183574

RESUMO

Species-specific anatomical and morphological characteristics of Pinus sylvestris and Larix sibirica needles were studied at different levels of tree stand pollution by aluminum smelter emissions. The anatomical characteristics of the needle were studied using light microscopy. The level of tree stand pollution was determined using the cluster analysis outcomes of the pollutant elements content (fluorine, sulfur, and heavy metals) in the needles. Four levels of tree stand pollution were separated: low, moderate, high, and critical, as well as background tree stand in unpolluted areas. It was found that the state of tree phytomass deteriorated with increasing levels of pollution (from low to critical): pine crown defoliation increased to 85%, and larch defoliation increased to 65%. The life span of pine needles was reduced to 2-3 years, with a background value of 6-7 years. The change of morphological parameters was more pronounced in P. sylvestris: the weight and length of the 2-year-old shoot decreased by 2.7-3.1 times compared to the background values; the weight of needles on the shoot and the number of needle pairs on the shoot-by 1.9-2.1 times. The length of the needle and shoot and the number of L. sibirica brachyblasts decreased by 1.8-1.9 times. The anatomical parameters of the needle also changed to a greater extent in P. sylvestris. Up to the high level of tree pollution, we observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of the needle, central cylinder, vascular bundle, area and thickness of mesophyll, number and diameter of resin ducts by 18-66% compared to background values. At the critical pollution level, when the content of pollutant elements in pine needles reached maximum values, the anatomical parameters of the remaining few green needles were close to background values. In our opinion, this may be due to the activation of mechanisms aimed at maintaining the viability of trees. A reduction in thickness and area of assimilation tissue in the L. sibirica needle was detected only at the critical pollution level. An upward trend in these parameters was found at low, medium, and high pollution levels of tree stand, which may indicate an adaptive nature. The results suggested that at a similar pollution level of trees, the greatest amount of negative anatomical and morphological changes were recorded in pine needles, which indicates a greater sensitivity of this species to technogenic emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Larix , Pinus sylvestris , Pinus , Alumínio , Pinus/fisiologia , Árvores
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 914: 169906, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185163

RESUMO

The continuous spread of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle, commonly known as the organism that causes pine wilt disease (PWD), has become a notable threat to forest security in East Asia and southern Europe, and an assessment of the carbon loss caused by PWD damage is important to achieving carbon neutrality. This study used satellite remote sensing and 15-year ground monitoring data to measure the impact of PWD on the carbon storage of Pinus massoniana Lamb. (P. massoniana), the conifer with the largest planted area in southern China. This study showed that the occurrence of PWD had an impact on the increase in carbon storage of P. massoniana. The infected and dead P. massoniana trees accounted for only 1.46 % of the total number of trees but caused a carbon storage loss of 1.99 t/ha, which accounted for 6.23 % of the total carbon sink in healthy P. massoniana forests over the last 15 years. The most pronounced decline in carbon storage occurred in the first five years of PWD invasion. After 10 years of clearcutting and replanting of Schima superba Gardn. et Champ., the increase in carbon storage of the reformed forest far exceeded that of the healthy forest during the same period, which was 2.04 times (10 years) and 1.56 times (15 years) that of the healthy P. massoniana forest. In addition, our study found that during the 15-year period (from the forest age of 22 to the forest age of 37), the average carbon storage of P. massoniana forest was 31.9 t/ha. This study helps to evaluate the impact of PWD on the carbon sink of pine forests and provides methodological references for analyzing the impact of biological disturbances on the carbon cycle.


Assuntos
Pinus , Carbono , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Florestas , Árvores
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 914: 169904, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185157

RESUMO

Understory vegetation has an important impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation. However, little is known about how understory vegetation alters soil microbial community composition and how microbial diversity contributes to SOC chemical composition and persistence during subtropical forest restoration. In this study, removal treatments of an understory fern (Dicranopteris dichotoma) were carried out within pine (Pinus massoniana) plantations restored in different years in subtropical China. Soil microbial community composition and microbial diversity were measured using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) biomarkers and high-throughput sequencing, respectively. The chemical composition of SOC was also measured via solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR). Our results showed that fern removal decreased alkyl C by 4.2 % but increased O-alkyl C by 15.6 % on average, leading to a decline of alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio, suggesting altered chemical composition of SOC and lowered SOC recalcitrance without fern. Fern removal significantly lowered the fungi-to-bacteria ratio, and it also reduced fungal and bacterial diversity. Partial correlation analysis revealed that soil nitrogen availability was a key factor influencing microbial diversity. Bacterial diversity showed a close relationship with the Alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio following fern removal. Furthermore, the microbial community structure and bacterial diversity were responsible for 18 % and 55 % of the explained variance in the chemical composition of SOC, respectively. Taken together, these analyses jointly suggest that bacterial diversity exerts a greater role than microbial community structure in supporting SOC persistence during understory fern removal. Our study emphasizes the significance of understory ferns in supporting microbial abundance and diversity as a means of altering SOC persistence during subtropical forest restoration.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias , Pinus , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , Florestas , China , Bactérias , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 102: 106742, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171196

RESUMO

Extracting polyphenolic bioactive compounds from Pinus elliottii needles, a forestry residue, promises economic and environmental benefits, however, relevant experimental data are lacking. Herein, a comprehensive investigation of the polyphenolic composition of pine needles (PNs) was carried out. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) was applied to extract the polyphenolic compounds of pine needles. The optimal conditions of extracts were determined by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The maximum total phenolic content (TPC) of 40.37 mg GAE/g PNs was achieved with solid-liquid ratio of 1:20, 60 % ethanol, and 350 W for 25 min at 45 °C. Polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity in scavenging free radicals and reducing power (DPPH, IC50 41.05 µg/mL; FRAP 1.09 mM Fe2+/g PNs; ABTS, IC50 214.07 µg/mL). Furthermore, the second-order kinetic model was also constructed to describe the mechanism of the UAE process, with the extraction activation energy estimated at 12.26 kJ/mol. In addition, 37 compounds in PNs were first identified by UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS/MS, including flavonoids and phenolic acids. The results suggest that Ultrasound-Assisted is an effective method for the extraction of natural polyphenolic compounds from pine needles and this study could serve as a foundation for utilizing phenolics derived from PNs in the food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Pinus , Polifenóis , Polifenóis/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
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