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1.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 41: 86-99, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670657

RESUMO

Recent discoveries related to the habitability and astrobiological relevance of the outer Solar System have expanded our understanding of where and how life may have originated. As a result, the Icy Worlds of the outer Solar System have become among the highest priority targets for future spacecraft missions dedicated to astrobiology-focused and/or direct life detection objectives. This, in turn, has led to a renewed interest in planetary protection concerns and policies for the exploration of these worlds and has been a topic of discussion within the COSPAR (Committee on Space Research) Panel on Planetary Protection. This paper summarizes the results of those discussions, reviewing the current knowledge and the history of planetary protection considerations for Icy Worlds as well as suggesting ways forward. Based on those discussions, we therefore suggest to (1) Establish a new definition for Icy Worlds for Planetary Protection that captures the outer Solar System moons and dwarf planets like Pluto, but excludes more primitive bodies such as comets, centaurs, and asteroids: Icy Worlds in our Solar System are defined as all bodies with an outermost layer that is believed to be greater than 50 % water ice by volume and have enough mass to assume a nearly round shape. (2) Establish indices for the lower limits of Earth life with regards to water activity (LLAw) and temperature (LLT) and apply them into all areas of the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy. These values are currently set at 0.5 and -28 °C and were originally established for defining Mars Special Regions; (3) Establish LLT as a parameter to assign categorization for Icy Worlds missions. The suggested categorization will have a 1000-year period of biological exploration, to be applied to all Icy Worlds and not just Europa and Enceladus as is currently the case. (4) Have all missions consider the possibility of impact. Transient thermal anomalies caused by impact would be acceptable so long as there is less than 10-4 probability of a single microbe reaching deeper environments where temperature is >LLT in the period of biological exploration. (5) Restructure or remove Category II* from the policy as it becomes largely redundant with this new approach, (6) Establish that any sample return from an Icy World should be Category V restricted Earth return.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Planetas , Sistema Solar , Voo Espacial , Astronave , História do Século XX
2.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 71, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622718

RESUMO

Advancing the concept of global oral health can help tackle the triple planetary crises of climate change, nature and biodiversity loss, and pollution and waste. A model for oral and planetary health places more explicit focus on understanding the state of the Earth's systems, changing environment in relation to planetary health boundaries and their impact on human well-being. This can facilitate a planet-centric critical thinking for equity in global oral health that contributes to UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.


Assuntos
Saúde Única , Planetas , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Saúde Global , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
3.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(4): e234-e241, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580425

RESUMO

Cities are the main hubs of human activity and the engines of economic growth. In pursuit of such growth, cities are transgressing their local environmental boundaries. Ongoing urbanisation increasingly contributes to the human pressure on planetary boundaries and negatively affects planetary health. In a telecoupled world, cities externalise impacts by shifting production and many other functions away from their boundaries. At the same time, urban inhabitants and people who follow urban lifestyles but live outside cities are increasingly disconnected from nature. This Viewpoint highlights the role of degrowth in keeping an urban planet within planetary boundaries and suggests areas for further research and policy. Degrowth calls for meaningfully connecting planetary boundaries with cities and ensuring everyone receives a fair share of their ecological capacity. Degrowth calls for lower use of existing resources, highlights political power asymmetries, and moves beyond pricing interventions. Degrowth addresses three key aspects that connect cities and urban lifestyles to planetary boundaries: reducing production and consumption, connecting people and nature, and including nature (to a more substantial extent) in the design of cities and in what is used and consumed in cities. A radical degrowth transformation of cities is necessary to stay within a safe operating space for humanity.


Assuntos
Planetas , Urbanização , Humanos , Cidades
4.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8 Suppl 1: S2, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addressing complex and interconnected ecological, social, and health issues necessitates upstream, solutions-oriented, and whole-systems thinking. Specifically, exploring what it means to live in reciprocity with the planet and all living systems, now and for generations to come, can have a crucial role in advancing planetary health. METHODS: In this presentation, we show findings from four gatherings that we co-designed and co-hosted to connect communities, lands, waters, climate, and health. We draw lessons from two events in the Cowichan watershed (co-hosted by Cowichan Tribes) and the Stellako and Nechako watersheds (co-hosted by Stellat'en First Nation) that were co-designed with the ECHO Network. These gatherings brought together youth, Indigenous leaders, researchers, and health, community, and environmental decision-makers across British Columbia to learn how to address connected health, environmental, and community concerns. We supplement these findings with insights from two co-hosted conversations, that connected five continents and more than 40 countries, each enabling 24 h of continuous dialogue on the theme of working together for a healthy, just, and sustainable planet. FINDINGS: Gatherings took place between Oct 12, 2022, and Dec 1, 2023. These gatherings each provided lessons about how Indigenous-led, integrative approaches that connect the health of people to lands, waters, and ecosystems can elevate and enhance our work and scholarship to address ecological, social, and health issues. Specifically, initiatives co-designed in this way help overcome challenges that arise when addressing boundary-crossing, intersectional and intersectoral issues at the nexus of climate, public health, and planetary health. Our findings include insights into strengthening research and public health capacity for integrative approaches to complex issues that are relevant to place-based contexts and have implications and applications for planetary health. INTERPRETATION: Our presentation summarises how these gatherings-each of which were fuelled by a sense of love for the planet, each other, and future generations-have progressed intersectoral, intergenerational, boundary-crossing, and transformative approaches to planetary health. These insights help guide future directions for planetary health research, practice, and policy. FUNDING: The Canadian Institute of Health Research Environment (IP4150712), Michael Smith Health Research BC (RA-2022-2872), and Vancouver Foundation (FOI19-1781).


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Planetas , Adolescente , Humanos , Canadá , Saúde Pública , Nível de Saúde
5.
Biogerontology ; 25(2): 313-327, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581556

RESUMO

Improving human healthspan in our rapidly aging population has never been more imperative. Telomeres, protective "caps" at the ends of linear chromosomes, are essential for maintaining genome stability of eukaryotic genomes. Due to their physical location and the "end-replication problem" first envisioned by Dr. Alexey Olovnikov, telomeres shorten with cell division, the implications of which are remarkably profound. Telomeres are hallmarks and molecular drivers of aging, as well as fundamental integrating components of the cumulative effects of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors that erode telomere length over time. Ongoing telomere attrition and the resulting limit to replicative potential imposed by cellular senescence serves a powerful tumor suppressor function, and also underlies aging and a spectrum of age-related degenerative pathologies, including reduced fertility, dementias, cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, very little data exists regarding the extraordinary stressors and exposures associated with long-duration space exploration and eventual habitation of other planets, nor how such missions will influence telomeres, reproduction, health, disease risk, and aging. Here, we briefly review our current understanding, which has advanced significantly in recent years as a result of the NASA Twins Study, the most comprehensive evaluation of human health effects associated with spaceflight ever conducted. Thus, the Twins Study is at the forefront of personalized space medicine approaches for astronauts and sets the stage for subsequent missions. We also extrapolate from current understanding to future missions, highlighting potential biological and biochemical strategies that may enable human survival, and consider the prospect of longevity in the extreme environment of space.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Telômero , Humanos , Envelhecimento/genética , Senescência Celular , Longevidade/genética , Planetas , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto
6.
Astrobiology ; 24(4): 423-441, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563825

RESUMO

The possible existence of a microbial community in the venusian clouds is one of the most intriguing hypotheses in modern astrobiology. Such a community must be characterized by a high survivability potential under severe environmental conditions, the most extreme of which are very low pH levels and water activity. Considering different scenarios for the origin of life and geological history of our planet, a few of these scenarios are discussed in the context of the origin of hypothetical microbial life within the venusian cloud layer. The existence of liquid water on the surface of ancient Venus is one of the key outstanding questions influencing this possibility. We link the inherent attributes of microbial life as we know it that favor the persistence of life in such an environment and review the possible scenarios of life's origin and its evolution under a strong greenhouse effect and loss of water on Venus. We also propose a roadmap and describe a novel methodological approach for astrobiological research in the framework of future missions to Venus with the intent to reveal whether life exists today on the planet.


Assuntos
Vênus , Planetas , Exobiologia , Água/química
7.
Vox Sang ; 119(4): 287-288, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38586928

Assuntos
Planetas , Humanos
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 365, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Introducing students to the "planetary health lenses" perspective is crucial. Comprehensive strategies for teaching this perspective are lacking, especially in the domains of "interconnection within nature (IWN)" and "systems thinking/complexity." There is also a scarcity of studies assessing medical students' opinions on planetary health and evaluating teaching strategies. OBJECTIVE: To understand Brazilian medical students' perceptions and knowledge of planetary health (PH) and evaluate the application of the educational material "Patient and Clinic through the Lens of Planetary Health," which addresses "IWN" and "complexity" through the sociological lens of Actor-Network Theory, in an integrative course at a medical school in Brazil. METHODS: A mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design involving two medical student classes during 2022/2023. Participants completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic data; pre- and post-intervention closed-ended questions about perceptions related to PH, and an open-ended questionnaire on experience and learning. Each student group presented a portfolio under the planetary health lenses regarding a real patient, developing a network diagram that described the social network involving both human and non-human actors with which this person is interconnected. The cohorts participated in "IWN" activities: a contemplative trail or reflection on belonging to the planet. RESULTS: Ninety-six students and 9 professors participated. The majority of students (66.7%) reported significant or extremely significant learning from the sessions. There was an increase in perception of the need for physicians to incorporate PH into their clinical practice (p = 0.002; r = 0.46) and an intensification of the sense of interconnection with the environment (p = 0.003; r = 0.46). There was a gain in knowledge about how many diseases were related to PH (p < 0.02 for all 13 listed diseases). The majority (83%) found the sessions relevant or highly relevant and commented on their impact, both professionally and personally. CONCLUSIONS: Teaching PH in a medical school allowed students to learn from the patient's perspective, considering psychosocial and environmental determinants, about the intrinsic interdependence between population's health and PH. This strategy made a significant contribution by proposing pioneering didactics and offering valuable insights into the challenges and nuances of teaching PH.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Planetas , Educação em Saúde , Atitude , Análise de Sistemas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Currículo
10.
Am J Bioeth ; 24(4): 48-50, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38529988

Assuntos
Planetas , Humanos
11.
Astrobiology ; 24(S1): S76-S106, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498817

RESUMO

Within the first billion years of Earth's history, the planet transformed from a hot, barren, and inhospitable landscape to an environment conducive to the emergence and persistence of life. This chapter will review the state of knowledge concerning early Earth's (Hadean/Eoarchean) geochemical environment, including the origin and composition of the planet's moon, crust, oceans, atmosphere, and organic content. It will also discuss abiotic geochemical cycling of the CHONPS elements and how these species could have been converted to biologically relevant building blocks, polymers, and chemical networks. Proposed environments for abiogenesis events are also described and evaluated. An understanding of the geochemical processes under which life may have emerged can better inform our assessment of the habitability of other worlds, the potential complexity that abiotic chemistry can achieve (which has implications for putative biosignatures), and the possibility for biochemistries that are vastly different from those on Earth.


Assuntos
Planeta Terra , Planetas , Lua , Atmosfera/química , Oceanos e Mares
12.
Astrobiology ; 24(S1): S57-S75, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498821

RESUMO

The materials that form the diverse chemicals and structures on Earth-from mountains to oceans and biological organisms-all originated in a universe dominated by hydrogen and helium. Over billions of years, the composition and structure of the galaxies and stars evolved, and the elements of life, CHONPS, were formed through nucleosynthesis in stellar cores. Climactic events such as supernovae and stellar collisions produced heavier elements and spread them throughout the cosmos, often to be incorporated into new, more metal-rich stars. Stars typically form in molecular clouds containing small amounts of dust through the collapse of a high-density core. The surrounding nebular material is then pulled into a protoplanetary disk, from which planets, moons, asteroids, and comets eventually accrete. During the accretion of planetary systems, turbulent mixing can expose matter to a variety of different thermal and radiative environments. Chemical and physical changes in planetary system materials occur before and throughout the process of accretion, though many factors such as distance from the star, impact history, and level of heating experienced combine to ultimately determine the final geophysical characteristics. In Earth's planetary system, called the Solar System, after the orbits of the planets had settled into their current configuration, large impacts became rare, and the composition of and relative positions of objects became largely fixed. Further evolution of the respective chemical and physical environments of the planets-geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere-then became dependent on their local geochemistry, their atmospheric interactions with solar radiation, and smaller asteroid impacts. On Earth, the presence of land, air, and water, along with an abundance of important geophysical and geochemical phenomena, led to a habitable planet where conditions were right for life to thrive.


Assuntos
Planetas , Sistema Solar , Planeta Terra , Atmosfera/química , Planetas Menores , Evolução Planetária , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno/química
13.
Astrobiology ; 24(S1): S164-S185, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498822

RESUMO

The search for life beyond Earth necessitates a rigorous and comprehensive examination of biosignatures, the types of observable imprints that life produces. These imprints and our ability to detect them with advanced instrumentation hold the key to our understanding of the presence and abundance of life in the universe. Biosignatures are the chemical or physical features associated with past or present life and may include the distribution of elements and molecules, alone or in combination, as well as changes in structural components or physical processes that would be distinct from an abiotic background. The scientific and technical strategies used to search for life on other planets include those that can be conducted in situ to planetary bodies and those that could be observed remotely. This chapter discusses numerous strategies that can be employed to look for biosignatures directly on other planetary bodies using robotic exploration including those that have been deployed to other planetary bodies, are currently being developed for flight, or will become a critical technology on future missions. Search strategies for remote observations using current and planned ground-based and space-based telescopes are also described. Evidence from spectral absorption, emission, or transmission features can be used to search for remote biosignatures and technosignatures. Improving our understanding of biosignatures, their production, transformation, and preservation on Earth can enhance our search efforts to detect life on other planets.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Planetas , Planeta Terra
14.
Astrobiology ; 24(S1): S143-S163, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498826

RESUMO

All known life on Earth inhabits environments that maintain conditions between certain extremes of temperature, chemical composition, energy availability, and so on (Chapter 6). Life may have emerged in similar environments elsewhere in the Solar System and beyond. The ongoing search for life elsewhere mainly focuses on those environments most likely to support life, now or in the past-that is, potentially habitable environments. Discussion of habitability is necessarily based on what we know about life on Earth, as it is our only example. This chapter gives an overview of the known and presumed requirements for life on Earth and discusses how these requirements can be used to assess the potential habitability of planetary bodies across the Solar System and beyond. We first consider the chemical requirements of life and potential feedback effects that the presence of life can have on habitable conditions, and then the planetary, stellar, and temporal requirements for habitability. We then review the state of knowledge on the potential habitability of bodies across the Solar System and exoplanets, with a particular focus on Mars, Venus, Europa, and Enceladus. While reviewing the case for the potential habitability of each body, we summarize the most prominent and impactful studies that have informed the perspective on where habitable environments are likely to be found.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Planeta Terra , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno/química , Planetas , Sistema Solar
15.
Astrobiology ; 24(S1): S202-S215, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498825

RESUMO

Planetary protection is a principle in the design of interplanetary missions that aims to prevent biological cross contamination between the target body and Earth. Planetary protection policies and procedures have worked to mitigate forward contamination (from Earth) and back contamination (to Earth) since the beginning of the space age. Today, planetary protection policy is guided by international agreements, nongovernmental advisory councils, and national space agencies. The landscape of planetary protection science and policy is changing rapidly, as new technologies, crewed missions to Mars and the Moon, and even orbital settlements are being developed. Space exploration, whether specifically targeted toward questions in astrobiology or not, must consider planetary protection concerns to minimize contamination that poses a risk to both astrobiological investigations as well as Earth's biosphere. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to and overview of the history, motivations, and implementation of planetary protection in the United States.


Assuntos
Marte , Voo Espacial , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Planetas , Estados Unidos
18.
Vet Rec ; 194(5): 200, 2024 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427417
19.
Astrobiology ; 24(3): 283-299, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377582

RESUMO

Modeling the detection of life has never been more opportune. With next-generation space telescopes, such as the currently developing Habitable Worlds Observatory (HWO) concept, we will begin to characterize rocky exoplanets potentially similar to Earth. However, few realistic planetary spectra containing surface biosignatures have been paired with direct imaging telescope instrument models. Therefore, we use a HWO instrument noise model to assess the detection of surface biosignatures affiliated with oxygenic, anoxygenic, and nonphotosynthetic extremophiles. We pair the HWO telescope model to a one-dimensional radiative transfer model to estimate the required exposure times necessary for detecting each biosignature on planets with global microbial coverage and varying atmospheric water vapor concentrations. For modeled planets with 0-50% cloud coverage, we determine pigments and the red edge could be detected within 1000 hr (100 hr) at distances within 15 pc (11 pc). However, tighter telescope inner working angles (2.5 λ/D) would allow surface biosignature detection at further distances. Anoxygenic photosynthetic biosignatures could also be more easily detectable than nonphotosynthetic pigments and the photosynthetic red edge when compared against a false positive iron oxide slope. Future life detection missions should evaluate the influence of false positives on the detection of multiple surface biosignatures.


Assuntos
Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Exobiologia/métodos , Planetas , Planeta Terra , Oxigênio
20.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(2): e17195, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38389196

RESUMO

Scientific innovation is overturning conventional paradigms of forest, water, and energy cycle interactions. This has implications for our understanding of the principal causal pathways by which tree, forest, and vegetation cover (TFVC) influence local and global warming/cooling. Many identify surface albedo and carbon sequestration as the principal causal pathways by which TFVC affects global warming/cooling. Moving toward the outer latitudes, in particular, where snow cover is more important, surface albedo effects are perceived to overpower carbon sequestration. By raising surface albedo, deforestation is thus predicted to lead to surface cooling, while increasing forest cover is assumed to result in warming. Observational data, however, generally support the opposite conclusion, suggesting surface albedo is poorly understood. Most accept that surface temperatures are influenced by the interplay of surface albedo, incoming shortwave (SW) radiation, and the partitioning of the remaining, post-albedo, SW radiation into latent and sensible heat. However, the extent to which the avoidance of sensible heat formation is first and foremost mediated by the presence (absence) of water and TFVC is not well understood. TFVC both mediates the availability of water on the land surface and drives the potential for latent heat production (evapotranspiration, ET). While latent heat is more directly linked to local than global cooling/warming, it is driven by photosynthesis and carbon sequestration and powers additional cloud formation and top-of-cloud reflectivity, both of which drive global cooling. TFVC loss reduces water storage, precipitation recycling, and downwind rainfall potential, thus driving the reduction of both ET (latent heat) and cloud formation. By reducing latent heat, cloud formation, and precipitation, deforestation thus powers warming (sensible heat formation), which further diminishes TFVC growth (carbon sequestration). Large-scale tree and forest restoration could, therefore, contribute significantly to both global and surface temperature cooling through the principal causal pathways of carbon sequestration and cloud formation.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Mudança Climática , Florestas , Planetas , Temperatura , Água , Temperatura Baixa , Árvores
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