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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250256, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355912

RESUMO

Abstract Ferns are often used by indigenous people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study was designed to collect the ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge of these locals about this group of vascular plants. Forty taxa belong to nineteen genera and ten families are used in the treatment of different diseases. The Pteridaceae was the most representative family with twelve taxa (30%), followed by Athyriaceae and Dryopteridaceae with six taxa each (30%), and Thelypteridaceae with five taxa (12.5%). Regarding the genera, Adiantum, Asplenium and Dryopteris ranked first with four taxa each (30%), followed by Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris and Equisetum with three taxa each (30%), followed by Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum and Pseudophegopteris with two taxa each (20%). These taxa were commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders i.e. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia; intestinal ulcer, stomach, urinary ailments and skin disorders by the methods of decoction and infusion. Traditional knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants is a valuable and essential source for the discovery of allopathic, herbal and homeopathic medicines.


Resumo As samambaias são frequentemente usadas pelos indígenas em Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Este estudo foi desenhado para coletar o conhecimento etnomedicinal e tradicional desses moradores sobre este grupo de plantas vasculares. Quarenta táxons pertencem a dezenove gêneros, e dez famílias são utilizadas no tratamento de diferentes doenças. Pteridaceae foi a família mais representativa com doze táxons (30%), seguida por Athyriaceae e Dryopteridaceae com seis táxons cada (30%), e Thelypteridaceae com cinco táxons (12,5%). Em relação aos gêneros, Adiantum, Asplenium e Dryopteris ficaram em primeiro lugar com quatro táxons cada (30%), seguidos por Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris e Equisetum com três táxons cada (30%), e Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum e Pseudophegopteris com dois táxons cada (20%). Estes táxons foram comumente usados ​​no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios, isto é, asma, bronquite, enfisema, pneumonia; úlcera intestinal, estômago, doenças urinárias e doenças da pele pelos métodos de decocção e infusão. O conhecimento tradicional sobre plantas etnomedicinais é uma fonte valiosa e essencial para a descoberta de medicamentos alopáticos, fitoterápicos e homeopáticos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Gleiquênias , Traqueófitas , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246803, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339417

RESUMO

Abstract Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Resumo A medicina tradicional é mais barata e facilmente disponível à população local para cuidar das doenças mais frequentes nas áreas do norte do Paquistão. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo inventariar medicamentos de plantas locais, documentar seus usos e avaliar seu valor de mercado em 2015-2018 durante as temporadas de primavera, verão e inverno. Foram feitas 15 viagens, 5 em cada temporada. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 165 moradores na faixa etária de 20 a 80 anos, com dados analisados ​​por meio de frequência relativa de citação (RFC), valor de uso (UV), nível de fidelidade (FL), fator de consenso de informantes (CIF), e o índice de Jaccard (JI) para encontrar as espécies utilizadas mais frequentes e conhecidas na área. Um total de 86 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de plantas vasculares, 33 gêneros foram documentados como medicamente importantes. A família Asteraceae foi observada como a família dominante entre todas as famílias com 10 espécies, a folha foi a parte mais utilizada e a decocção 36% foi o tipo de preparação mais preferido. A erva foi a forma de vida predominante (67%). O UV máximo (0,92) foi demonstrado pelas espécies de J. adhatoda L., enquanto A. sativum L. mostra RFC máximo (0,58), o maior valor de ICF representado por diarreia e dermatite 0,92, e alto valor de FL é registrado 100%. De acordo com nossas coleções, as espécies selvagens foram 45%, as espécies invasoras 38% e as cultivadas 17% registradas, as espécies dicotiledôneas foram registradas mais 81%. Sete espécies medicinais estão sendo economicamente importantes e exportadas para o mercado local e internacional do mundo, enquanto as espécies de P. integrima L. foram as espécies mais exportadas de acordo com os comerciantes locais. A área investigada é rural e a população local depende das plantas da área para suas necessidades de saúde e outros usos como vegetal, lenha, forragem etc. O resultado atual de RFC, UV, ICF, FL e JI mostra que a flora medicinal precisa ser investigada farmacológica e fitoquimicamente para comprovar sua eficácia. A documentação do conhecimento medicinal é importante para preservar esse precioso conhecimento antigo antes que se perca para sempre, devido às mudanças tecnológicas e ambientais do mundo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Plantas Medicinais , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Folhas de Planta , Etnobotânica , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249209, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339360

RESUMO

Abstract Alo vera is a centenary remedy use for minor wounds and burns, but its mechanism of wound healing has not been know since. This article will evaluate and gather evidence of the effectiveness and safety of the use of aloe vera in the treatment of burns. A systematic review was carried out on the databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, in the last 7 years, with the descriptors: "Aloe", "Burns" and "treatment". 16 articles were found. After using the exclusion criteria; research in non-humans and literature review; 5 articles were selected. The article Teplick et al. (2018) performed an in vitro clinical experiment in A. Vera solution, and demonstrated that there was proliferation and cell migration of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in addition to being protective in the death of keratonocytes. That is, it accelerates the healing of wounds. Muangman et al. (2016), evaluated 50 patients with 20% of the total body surface area burned with second-degree burns, between 18-60 years old, with half of the group receiving gauze dressings with soft paraffin containing 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate and the other half receiving polyester dressings containing extracts of medicinal plants mainly Aloe Vera. It had positive results, a higher healing speed and shorter hospital stay compared to the control group. Hwang et al. (2015) investigated the antioxidant effects of different extracts from 2,4,6,8,12 months of Aloe Vera. And the 6-month concentrated extract of 0.25 mg / mL had a higher content of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent / g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent / g extract) and the greater ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM equivalent ferrous sulfate / mg extract), that is, greater potential for free radical scavenging and also a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), suggesting evidence of a bioactive potential of A. vera . However, in the article Kolacz et al. (2014) suggested as an alternative treatment the use of Aloe Vera dressing in combination with honey, lanolin, olive oil, wheat germ oil, marshmallow root, wormwood, comfrey root, white oak bark, lobelia inflata, glycerin vegetable oil, beeswax and myrrh, without obtaining significant and conclusive results that would allow the conventional treatment of burns to be subsidized. Finally, in the article by Zurita and Gallegos (2017), it carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study with 321 people, both sexes between 17-76 years of age, of an inductive nature, exploring the experience of this population and their behavioral attitudes regarding the treatment of dermatoses. Aloe vera had 13.8% cited by individuals in the treatment of acne and 33.6% in the treatment of burns. Even with evidence that suggests the efficacy in the treatment of burns with the use of Aloe Vera extract, further clinical trials with larger sample space on the use of Aloe vera dressings in medium burns are suggested for further conclusions.


Resumo Alo vera é um remédio centenário usado para pequenas feridas e queimaduras, mas seu mecanismo de cicatrização de feridas não foi conhecido desde então. Este artigo avaliará e reunirá evidências da eficácia e segurança do uso de aloe vera no tratamento de queimaduras. Realizada revisão Sistemática nas bases de dados: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, nos últimos 7 anos, com os descritores: "Aloe", "Burns" and "treatment". Foram encontrados 16 trabalhos. Após utilizarmos os critérios de exclusão; pesquisa em nao humanos e revisão da literatura ; foram selecionados 5 artigos. O artigo Teplick et al. (2018) realizou um experimento clinico in vitro em solução de A. Vera, e demonstrou que houve proliferação e migração celular de fibroblastos e queratinócitos de pele humana, além de ser protetor na morte de queratonócitos. Ou seja, acelera a cicatrização das feridas. Já Muangman et al. (2016), avaliou 50 pacientes com 20% do total da área superficial corporal queimada com queimaduras de segundo grau, entre 18-60 anos, tendo metade do grupo como controle recebendo curativos de gaze com parafina mole contendo 0,5% acetado de clorexidina e a outra metade recebendo curativos com poliéster contendo extratos de plantas medicinais principalmente Aloe Vera. Teve resultados positivos, uma maior velocidade de cicatrização e menor tempo de internação comparado ao grupo controle. Já Hwang et al. (2015) investigou os efeitos antioxidante de diferentes extratos de 2,4,6,8,12 meses da Aloe Vera. E o extrato com 6 meses concentrado de 0,25 mg/mL teve maior teor de flavanóides (9,750 mg equivalente catequina / g extrato) e polifenóis (23,375 mg equivalente ácido gálico / g extrato) e o maior poder antioxidante redutor férrico (0,047 mM de sulfato ferroso equivalente / extrato mg), ou seja, maior potencial de eliminação de radicais livres e também efeito proteror contra o estresse oxidativo induzido por hidroperóxido de terc-butila (t-BHP), sugerindo indícios de um potencial bioativo da A. vera. Porém, no artigo Kolacz et al. (2014) sugeriu como tratamento alternativo o uso do curativo com Aloe Vera em conjunto de mel, lanolina, azeite de oliva, óleo de gérmen de trigo, raiz de marshmallow, absinto, raiz de confrei, casca de carvalho branco, lobelia inflata, glicerina vegetal, cera de abelha e mirra, não obtendo resultados significativos e conclusivos que permitam subsidiar o tratamento convencional das queimaduras. Por fim, no artigo de Zurita and Gallegos (2017), realizou um estudo descritivo transversal com 321 pessoas, ambos os sexos entre 17-76 anos, de natureza indutiva, explorando a vivência dessa população e suas atitudes comportamentais quanto ao tratamento de dermatoses. Aloe vera teve 13,8% citada pelos indivíduos no tratamento de acne e 33,6% no tratamento de queimaduras. Mesmo tendo evidências que sugerem a eficácia no tratamento de queimaduras com o uso do extrato da Aloe Vera, sugere-se mais ensaios clínicos com espaço amostral maior sobre o uso de curativos de Aloe vera em médio queimados para maiores conclusões.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Aloe , Cicatrização , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estudos Transversais
4.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 205, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent decades, it has been possible to observe an increase in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) usage globally for both disease prevention and health promotion purposes. we aim to estimate the prevalence of CAM use and analyze associated factors in Brazil. METHODS: Observational study with data from the 2019 National Health Survey that evaluated a sample of Brazilian adults. The outcome was CAM use, such as acupuncture, homeopathy, medicinal plants and herbal medicines, meditation, and yoga in the last 12 months. A logistic regression model with a 99% confidence interval was used to assess factors associated with CAM use. RESULTS: The prevalence of CAM use in 2019 was 5.2% (CI99% = 4.8-5.6%), the most used modalities: medicinal plants and herbal medicines, with a prevalence of 3.0% (CI99% = 2.7-3.33) followed by: acupuncture 1.4% (CI99% = 1.3-1.6) homeopathy 0.9% (CI99% = 0.7-1.0), meditation 0.7% (CI99% = 0.6-0.8) and yoga 0.4% (CI99% = 0.4-0.5). We observed important geographical differences in CAM use in Brazil, with a higher prevalence in the North Region, 3.7% (CI99% = 2.81-4.75), where herbal medicines were more frequent the in the other regions. After estimating an adjusted model, women, older people, and people with a higher level of education and per capita income were the ones who used all types of CAM the most. The practice of yoga stands out among women 3.6% (CI99% = 2.49-5.28) and among individuals with higher per capita income 7.5% (CI99% = 2.97-18.93); meditation among individuals with higher educational level 13.4% (CI99% = 6.41-28.33) and acupuncture for those who declared regular or poor health 1.9% (CI99% = 1.51-2.39). CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that the Ministry of Health expand CAM access to Unified Health System users and promote health professionals' conscious and guided use for the Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares , Plantas Medicinais , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Prevalência
5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271813, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913971

RESUMO

Codonopsis pilosula subsp. tangshen is one of the most important medicinal herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine. Correct identification of materials from C. pilosula subsp. tangshen is critical to ensure the efficacy and safety of the associated medicines. Traditional DNA molecular markers could distinguish Codonopsis species well, so we need to develop super or specific molecular markers. In this study, we reported the plastome of Codonopsis pilosula subsp. tangshen (Oliv.) D.Y. Hong conducted phylogenomic and comparative analyses in the Codonopsis genus for the first time. The entire length of the Codonopsis pilosula subsp. tangshen plastome was 170,672 bp. There were 108 genes in the plastome, including 76 protein-coding genes, 28 transfer RNA (tRNA), and four ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Comparative analysis indicated that Codonopsis pilosula subsp. tangshen had an unusual large inversion in the large single-copy (LSC) region compared with the other three Codonopsis species. And there were two dispersed repeat sequences at both ends of the inverted regions, which might mediate the generation of this inversion. We found five hypervariable regions among the four Codonopsis species. PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing experiments demonstrated that two hypervariable regions could distinguish three medicinal Codonopsis species. Results obtained from this study will support taxonomic classification, discrimination, and molecular evolutionary studies of Codonopsis species.


Assuntos
Codonopsis , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Codonopsis/genética , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2527: 11-27, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951180

RESUMO

Somatic or in vitro embryogenesis is a unique embryo producing process from vegetative cells observed in plants since 1958. Even over 60 years of research, the transition of somatic cells into embryonic fate is still not elucidated fully. Various networks and signaling elements have been noted to play important role in this "vegetative to reproductive" transition process. The networks include genotypes, explant types, the sugar/carbohydrate sources, cultural/environmental conditions like light quality and intensity, dissolved oxygen (DO) level, cell density, plant growth regulator (PGR) (auxin and cytokinin) signaling, PGR-gene interplay, stresses are important and cause new cellular reprogramming during embryonic acquisition. A wide array of genes, specific to zygotic embryogenesis, also express during somatic embryogenesis. A few embryogenesis-specific genes such as SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS LIKE RECEPTOR KINASE, LEAFY COTYLEDON, AGAMOUS-LIKE 15, and BABY BOOM are crucial and have been discussed. The chapter focuses the importance of these gene products, e.g., proteins, enzymes, and transcription factors in regulating embryogenesis. Many of these encoded proteins act as potential somatic embryogenesis markers. Besides, important elements such as genotype, herbaceous/woody plants' response in culture in inducing embryos have been discussed. All these elements are connected and form network in complex fashion thus difficult to unfold fully; some of the current progress and developments have been presented in this chapter.


Assuntos
Catharanthus , Plantas Medicinais , Catharanthus/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas , Plantas Medicinais/genética
7.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956796

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic dysfunction of neurons in the brain leading to dementia. It is characterized by gradual mental failure, abnormal cognitive functioning, personality changes, diminished verbal fluency, and speech impairment. It is caused by neuronal injury in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal area of the brain. The number of individuals with AD is growing at a quick rate. The pathology behind AD is the progress of intraneuronal fibrillary tangles, accumulation of amyloid plaque, loss of cholinergic neurons, and decrease in choline acetyltransferase. Unfortunately, AD cannot be cured, but its progression can be delayed. Various FDA-approved inhibitors of cholinesterase enzyme such as rivastigmine, galantamine, donepezil, and NDMA receptor inhibitors (memantine), are available to manage the symptoms of AD. An exhaustive literature survey was carried out using SciFinder's reports from Alzheimer's Association, PubMed, and Clinical Trials.org. The literature was explored thoroughly to obtain information on the various available strategies to prevent AD. In the context of the present scenario, several strategies are being tried including the clinical trials for the treatment of AD. We have discussed pathophysiology, various targets, FDA-approved drugs, and various drugs in clinical trials against AD. The goal of this study is to shed light on current developments and treatment options, utilizing phytopharmaceuticals, nanomedicines, nutraceuticals, and gene therapy.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Plantas Medicinais , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Indanos/farmacologia , Nanotecnologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Rivastigmina
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13534, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941189

RESUMO

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is a self-pollinated leguminous crop belonging to the Fabaceae family. It is a multipurpose crop used as herb, spice, vegetable and forage. It is a traditional medicinal plant in India attributed with several nutritional and medicinal properties including antidiabetic and anticancer. We have performed a combined transcriptome assembly from RNA sequencing data derived from leaf, stem and root tissues. Around 209,831 transcripts were deciphered from the assembly of 92% completeness and an N50 of 1382 bases. Whilst secondary metabolites of medicinal value, such as trigonelline, diosgenin, 4-hydroxyisoleucine and quercetin, are distributed in several tissues, we report transcripts that bear sequence signatures of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of such metabolites and are highly expressed in leaves, stem and roots. One of the antidiabetic alkaloid, trigonelline and its biosynthesising enzyme, is highly abundant in leaves. These findings are of value to nutritional and the pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Diosgenina , Plantas Medicinais , Trigonella , Diosgenina/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Trigonella/genética , Trigonella/metabolismo
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 9777817, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909474

RESUMO

The research status and development trend of nanotoxicology of Liliaceae medicinal plants were analyzed. In the research, the toxicology of Liliaceae medicinal plants was investigated by the preparation method of silver nanoparticles. By means of spectral curve experiment, the present situation of nanotoxicology of Liliaceae medicinal plants was analyzed, and then its subsequent development trend was analyzed. In this process, Liliaceae medicinal plants could be used effectively, which could create great economic benefits. In the application of the above scheme, the toxicological degradation of Liliaceae medicinal plants could be controlled at about 96%. The high-dose silver nanoparticles could reach 100 µM, and the silver nitrate could reach 10 or 30 µM.


Assuntos
Liliaceae , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Plantas Medicinais , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade
10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 6873874, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910833

RESUMO

A high incidence of dementia (60-80%) and a high rate of memory loss are two of the most common symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affects the elderly. Researchers have recommended that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Indian medicines can be used to prevent and cure AD. Several studies have linked neuroinflammation linked to amyloid-ß (Aß) deposition in the brain to the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. As a result, more research is needed to determine the role of inflammation in neurodegeneration. Increased microglial activation, cytokine production, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) all play a role in the inflammatory process of AD. This review focuses on the role of neuroinflammation in neuroprotection and the molecular processes used by diverse natural substances, phytochemicals, and herbal formulations in distinct signaling pathways. Currently, researchers are focusing on pharmacologically active natural compounds with the anti-neuroinflammatory potential, making them a possible contender for treating AD. Furthermore, the researchers investigated the limits of past studies on TCM, Indian Ayurveda, and AD. Numerous studies have been carried out to examine the effects of medicinal whole-plant extracts on AD. Clinical investigations have shown that lignans, flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, triterpenoids, sterols, and alkaloids have anti-inflammatory, antiamyloidogenic, anticholinesterase, and antioxidant properties. This review summarizes information about numerous medicinal plants and isolated compounds used in the treatment of AD and a list of further references.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Produtos Biológicos , Plantas Medicinais , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(32): e29220, 2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960062

RESUMO

Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine has been empirically used for nocturnal enuresis (NE). This study aims to investigate the efficacy of one of the most popular formulas, shokenchuto (SKT). We retrospectively analyzed 110 patients with NE who were referred to our department. Following the diagnosis of NE, treatment was started with either alarm or/and desmopressin (DDAVP) therapy. Patient refractory to DDAVP monotherapy or to combination therapy consisting of DDAVP and bedwetting alarm were selected. SKT (Tsumura Co., Tokyo, Japan) extract at a dose of 2.5 g was administered orally to all intractable cases twice daily before meals. The treatment outcomes and safety were assessed. In total, 24 cases were patient refractory to DDAVP monotherapy or to combination therapy consisting of DDAVP and bedwetting alarm. SKT was highly effective in 8, effective in 7, and ineffective in 9. A significant difference was observed between ages 10 and over (P = 0.031). SKT was significantly effective as a treatment for NE in patients aged ≥10 years and could be a good alternative if alarm or DDAVP therapies are ineffective. We proposed evaluating SKT prospectively for NE.


Assuntos
Enurese Noturna , Plantas Medicinais , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/uso terapêutico , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Japão , Enurese Noturna/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 218, 2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the usage of herbal medicines (HMs) is increasingly growing in treating and preventing various ailments. Although, HMs play a vital role in healthcare, concerns have been raised over their safety. Since pharmacy professionals are at the right position to provide patients with evidence-based information on herbals, they should be knowledgeable enough on the subject matter. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and prevalence of HMs use and its associated factors among pharmacy professionals. METHOD: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacy professionals working in drug retail outlets in Asmara (the capital city of Eritrea). A census design was employed and data were collected through face-to-face interview. Data were entered and analyzed using Census and Survey Processing System (version-7.2) and IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 26), respectively. Descriptive and analytical statistics including Mann-Whitney U test/Kruskal-Wallis test and logistic regression were employed. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. RESULTS: A total of 50 pharmacy professionals (90.9% response rate) were enrolled in the study. Majority of them (62%) were males and two-thirds had a bachelor's degree. The overall median (Interquartile range, IQR) knowledge score was found to be 24 (12.16) out of 100 with a minimum score of 8 and maximum score of 53. Generally, the median (IQR) attitude score was 70.4 (4.2) out of 100. Majority (78%) of them had used HM for self-treatment. Only religion was found to be a significant determinant of knowledge on indication of HMs (p = 0.015), while attitude score was independent of the potential determining factors. Moreover, prevalence of use was significantly associated with pharmacy ownership (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) =14.44, 95%Confidence Interval (CI): 1.67, 124.52) as well as with the percentage attitude score (AOR = 0.632, 95%CI: 0.41, 0.96) at multivariable level. CONCLUSION: Generally, the overall knowledge score of pharmacy professionals was low. However, they possessed positive attitude towards herbal medicines. Besides, there was prevalent usage of herbal medicine for self-treatment. This outcome triggers the need for educational courses and workshops centered on herbal medicine.


Assuntos
Farmácia , Plantas Medicinais , Estudos Transversais , Eritreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
14.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 54, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aboriginal peoples have occupied the island continent of Australia for millennia. Over 500 different clan groups or nations with distinctive cultures, beliefs, and languages have learnt to live sustainably and harmoniously with nature. They have developed an intimate and profound relationship with the environment, and their use of native plants in food and medicine is largely determined by the environment they lived in. Over 1511 plant species have been recorded as having been used medicinally in Australia. Most of these medicinal plants were recorded from the Aboriginal communities in Northern Territory, New South Wales, South Australia, and Western Australia. Not much has yet been reported on Aboriginal medicinal plants of Queensland. Therefore, the main aim of this review is to collect the literature on the medicinal plants used by Aboriginal peoples of Queensland and critically assess their ethnopharmacological uses. METHODS: The information used in this review was collected from archival material and uploaded into the Tropical Indigenous Ethnobotany Centre (TIEC) database. Archival material included botanist's journals/books and old hard copy books. Scientific names of the medicinal plant species were matched against the 'World Flora Online Plant List', and 'Australian Plant Census' for currently accepted species names to avoid repetition. An oral traditional medical knowledge obtained through interviewing traditional knowledge holders (entered in the TIEC database) has not been captured in this review to protect their knowledge. RESULTS: This review identified 135 species of Queensland Aboriginal medicinal plants, which belong to 103 genera from 53 families, with Myrtaceae being the highest represented plant family. While trees represented the biggest habit, leaves were the most commonly used plant parts. Of 62 different diseases treated by the medicinal plants, highest number of plants are used for treating skin sores and infections. Few plants identified through this review can be found in other tropical countries but many of these medicinal plants are native to Australia. Many of these medicinal plants are also used as bush food by Aboriginal peoples. CONCLUSION: Through extensive literature review, we found that 135 medicinal plants native to Queensland are used for treating 62 different diseases, especially skin infections. Since these medicinal plants are also used as bush food and are rarely studied using the Western scientific protocols, there is a huge potential for bioprospecting and bush food industry.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Austrália , Etnobotânica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Queensland
15.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956938

RESUMO

In African countries, cancer not only is a growing problem, but also a challenge because available funding and resources are limited. Therefore, African medicinal plants play a significant role in folk medicine and some of them are traditionally used for the treatment of cancer. The high mortality rate and adverse effects associated with cancer treatments have encouraged the search for novel plant-based drugs, thus, some African plants have been studied in recent years as a source of molecules with proven cytotoxicity. This review aims to discuss the cytotoxic activity, in vitro, of African plant crude extracts against cancer cell lines. For the period covered by this review (2017-2021) twenty-three articles were found and analyzed, which included a total of 105 plants, where the main cell lines used were those of breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MBA-231) and colorectal cancer (HCT-116 and Caco-2), which are among the most prevalent cancers in Africa. In these studies, the plant crude extracts were obtained using different solvents, such as ethanol, methanol, or water, with variable results and IC50 values ranging from <20 µg/mL to >200 µg/mL. Water is the preferred solvent for most healers in African countries, however, in some studies, the aqueous extracts were the least potent. Apoptosis and the induction of cell cycle arrest may explain the cytotoxic activity seen in many of the plant extracts studied. Considering that the criteria of cytotoxicity activity for the crude extracts, as established by the American National Cancer Institute (NCI), is an IC50 < 30 µg/mL, we conclude that many extracts from the African flora could be a promising source of cytotoxic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Plantas Medicinais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Água
16.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956961

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is one of the most common types of bone cancers among paediatric patients. Despite the advances made in surgery, chemo-, and radiotherapy, the mortality rate of metastatic osteosarcoma remains unchangeably high. The standard drug combination used to treat this bone cancer has remained the same for the last 20 years, and it produces many dangerous side effects. Through history, from ancient to modern times, nature has been a remarkable source of chemical diversity, used to alleviate human disease. The application of modern scientific technology to the study of natural products has identified many specific molecules with anti-cancer properties. This review describes the latest discovered anti-cancer compounds extracted from traditional medicinal plants, with a focus on osteosarcoma research, and on their cellular and molecular mechanisms of action. The presented compounds have proven to kill osteosarcoma cells by interfering with different pathways: apoptosis induction, stimulation of autophagy, generation of reactive oxygen species, etc. This wide variety of cellular targets confer natural products the potential to be used as chemotherapeutic drugs, and also the ability to act as sensitizers in drug combination treatments. The major hindrance for these molecules is low bioavailability. A problem that may be solved by chemical modification or nano-encapsulation.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Neoplasias Ósseas , Osteossarcoma , Plantas Medicinais , Apoptose , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Humanos , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/farmacologia
17.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956991

RESUMO

Numerous plants, plant extracts, and plant-derived compounds are being explored for their beneficial effects against overweight and liver diseases. Obesity is associated with the increased prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), becoming the most common liver disease in Western countries. Obesity and NAFLD are closely associated with many other metabolic alternations such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Many herbs of the Lamiaceae family are widely employed as food and spices in the Mediterranean area, but also in folk medicine, and their use for the management of metabolic disorders is well documented. Hereby, we summarized the scientific results of the medicinal and nutraceutical potential of plants from the Lamiaceae family for prevention and mitigation of overweight and fatty liver. The evidence indicates that Lamiaceae plants may be a cost-effective source of nutraceuticals and/or phytochemicals to be used in the management of metabolic-related conditions such as obesity and NAFLD. PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and SciFinder were accessed to collect data on traditional medicinal plants, compounds derived from plants, their reported anti-obesity mechanisms, and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Plantas Medicinais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso , Plantas Medicinais/química
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11120, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778482

RESUMO

The latest coronavirus pandemic (SARS-CoV-2) poses an exceptional threat to human health and society worldwide. The coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein, which is required for viral-host cell penetration, might be considered a promising and suitable target for treatment. In this study, we utilized the nonalkaloid fraction of the medicinal plant Rhazya stricta to computationally investigate its antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were the main tools used to examine the binding interactions of the compounds isolated by HPLC analysis. Ceftazidime was utilized as a reference control, which showed high potency against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) in an in vitro study. The five compounds (CID:1, CID:2, CID:3, CID:4, and CID:5) exhibited remarkable binding affinities (CID:1, - 8.9; CID:2, - 8.7; and CID:3, 4, and 5, - 8.5 kcal/mol) compared to the control compound (- 6.2 kcal/mol). MD simulations over a period of 200 ns further corroborated that certain interactions occurred with the five compounds and the nonalkaloidal compounds retained their positions within the RBD active site. CID:2, CID:4, and CID:5 demonstrated high stability and less variance, while CID:1 and CID:3 were less stable than ceftazidime. The average number of hydrogen bonds formed per timeframe by CID:1, CID:2, CID:3, and CID:5 (0.914, 0.451, 1.566, and 1.755, respectively) were greater than that formed by ceftazidime (0.317). The total binding free energy calculations revealed that the five compounds interacted more strongly within RBD residues (CID:1 = - 68.8, CID:2 = - 71.6, CID:3 = - 74.9, CID:4 = - 75.4, CID:5 = - 60.9 kJ/mol) than ceftazidime (- 34.5 kJ/mol). The drug-like properties of the selected compounds were relatively similar to those of ceftazidime, and the toxicity predictions categorized these compounds into less toxic classes. Structural similarity and functional group analyses suggested that the presence of more H-acceptor atoms, electronegative atoms, acidic oxygen groups, and nitrogen atoms in amide or aromatic groups were common among the compounds with the lowest binding affinities. In conclusion, this in silico work predicts for the first time the potential of using five R. stricta nonalkaloid compounds as a treatment strategy to control SARS-CoV-2 viral entry.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , COVID-19 , Plantas Medicinais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Ceftazidima , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897276

RESUMO

Despite some preliminary studies of the available herbal medicine preparations and their curative effects on COVID-19, experts still fear that unproper use of such homemade medicines could do more harm than good to people relying on unproven alternatives of questionable efficacy. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of herbal medicines used for respiratory system disorders in the Pasvalys district during the COVID-19 pandemic in Lithuania. An archival source was also studied, looking for possible recipes for the treatment and prevention of respiratory diseases in Lithuanian traditional medicine, emphasizing the safety guidelines. The survey was conducted using the deep interview method. The respondents mentioned 60 species of medicinal plants from 29 different families used for the treatment and prevention of respiratory system disorders (for cough mostly, 51.70% of all indications). Twenty eight out of 60 plant species were not included in the European Medicines Agency monographs and only 50% of all included species were used as indicated by the European Medicines Agency for respiratory system disorders. The trends in the ethnopharmacological choices of modern consumers and the analysis of archival sources can be a great source of ideas for new herbal-based pharmaceutical preparations for COVID-19 symptoms in Lithuania considering the safety recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Plantas Medicinais , Doenças Respiratórias , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Sistema Respiratório , Doenças Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271669, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the leading causes of morbidity in the world. It is a significant health concern in most developing countries, including Ghana. Even though there are several orthodox medications used for decades in treating malaria effectively, a substantial number of individuals in developing countries are resorting to the use of herbs in the treatment of malaria. The study aim at exploring the practices of herbal management of malaria among trading mothers in Shai Osudoku District, Accra. METHODS: A qualitative approach with an exploratory, descriptive design was adopted in analyzing the research problem. Purposive sampling technique was used to select twenty (20) participants to partake in a face-face interview, guided by a semi-structured interview guide. The data were transcribed verbatim and analysed by adopting content analysis. RESULTS: Two significant themes and seven subthemes were generated following the analysis of this study. The main themes were; preferences for herbal malaria treatment and the practices and effectiveness of herbal medicine used for malaria treatment. It was worth noting that the women's cultural beliefs did not influence their preference for herbal malaria treatment. The main challenge associated with the herbal malaria treatment was inappropriate dosage specification. CONCLUSION: This study discovered that several factors influenced participants' preferences for malaria treatment. Participants further listed some traditional ways of treating malaria which implies that there is herbal malaria practice. However, literature in this area is inadequate, and most herbs lack specifications for use. It is therefore recommended that future research focus on scientific herbal malaria treatment. Also, regulating bodies should ensure that quality herbal drugs are sold for consumption.


Assuntos
Malária , Plantas Medicinais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/etiologia , Mães
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