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1.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205312

RESUMO

In the current study, in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Scutellaria edelbergii Rech. f. (crude extract and subfractions, i.e., n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), chloroform, n-butanol (n-BuOH) and aqueous) were explored. Initially, extraction and fractionation of the selected medicinal plant were carried out, followed by phytochemical qualitative tests, which were mostly positive for all the extracts. EtOAc fraction possessed a significant amount of phenolic (79.2 ± 0.30 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (84.0 ± 0.39 mg QE/g) content. The EtOAc fraction of S. edelbergii exhibited appreciable antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) strains and significant zones of inhibition were observed against Gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus). However, it was found inactive against Candida Albicans and Fusarium oxysporum fungal strains. The chloroform fraction was the most effective with an IC50 value of 172 and 74 µg/mL against DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) and ABTS assays, in comparison with standard ascorbic acid 59 and 63 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the EtOAc fraction displayed significant in vivo anti-inflammatory activity (54%) using carrageenan-induced assay and significant (55%) in vivo analgesic activity using acetic acid-induced writing assay. In addition, nine known compounds, ursolic acid (UA), ovaul (OV), oleanolic acid (OA), ß-sitosterol (BS), micromeric acid (MA), taraxasterol acetate (TA), 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxy flavone (FL-1), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,3'-dimiethoxyflavone (FL-2) and 7-methoxy catechin (FL-3), were isolated from methanolic extract of S. edelbergii. These constituents have never been obtained from this source. The structures of all the isolated constituents were elucidated by spectroscopic means. In conclusion, the EtOAc fraction and all other fractions of S. edelbergii, in general, displayed a significant role as antibacterial, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents which may be due to the presence of these constituents and other flavonoids.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Scutellaria/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química
2.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205329

RESUMO

The content of plant secondary metabolites is not stable, and factors such as the region/location effect and seasonal variations have an impact on their chemical composition, especially in parasitic plants. Research in this area is an important step in the development of quality parameter standards of medicinal plants and their finished products. The effects of the time and place of harvest and the host tree species on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of mistletoe extracts were investigated. Statistical tools were used to evaluate the results of the spectrophotometric and LC-ESI-MS/MS studies of the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The investigations indicate that the qualitative and quantitative composition, influencing the biological activity of mistletoe extracts, largely depends on the origin of the plant. The mistletoe extracts exhibited a rich phenol profile and high antioxidant activity. The chemometric analysis indicated that mistletoe collected from conifers (Viscum abietis and Viscum austriacum) had the most advantageous chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the chemical profile and biological activity of the plant material were closely related to the climatic conditions and location of the harvested plant. Higher levels of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant activity were found in extracts obtained from plant material collected in cold weather with the presence of snow and less sunshine (autumn-winter period).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Árvores/química , Viscum album/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Erva-de-Passarinho/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199632

RESUMO

The African continent is naturally endowed with various plant species with nutritional and medicinal benefits. About 80% of the people in developing countries rely on folk medicines to treat different diseases because of indigenous knowledge, availability, and cost-effectiveness. Extensive research studies have been conducted on the medicinal uses of African plants, however, the therapeutic potentials of some of these plants has remained unexploited. Over the years, several studies have revealed that some of these African floras are promising candidates for the development of novel drugs. Despite the plethora of studies on medicinal plant research in Africa, there is still little scientific data supporting the folkloric claims of these plants. Besides, safety in the use of folk medicines has been a major public health concern over the year. Therefore, it has become mandatory that relevant authority should take measures in safeguarding the populace on the use of herbal mixtures. Thus, the present review extracted relevant information from different scientific databases and highlighted some problems associated with folk medicines, adverse effects on reproductive systems, issue about safety due to the toxicity of some plants and their toxicity effects with potential therapeutic benefits are discussed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Plantas Medicinais , África , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Fitoterapia
4.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200200

RESUMO

Epilobium angustifolium L. is a popular and well-known medicinal plant. In this study, an attempt to evaluate the possibility of using this plant in preparations for the care and treatment of skin diseases was made. The antioxidant, antiaging and anti-inflammatory properties of ethanolic extracts from Epilobium angustifolium (FEE) were assessed. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of extracts chemically composition was performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total polyphenol content (TPC) of biologically active compounds, such as the total content of polyphenols (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), and assimilation pigments, as well as selected phenolic acids, was assessed. FEE was evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and antiaging properties, achieving 68% inhibition of lipoxygenase activity, 60% of collagenase and 49% of elastase. FEE also showed high antioxidant activity, reaching to 87% of free radical scavenging using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 59% using 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). Additionally, in vitro penetration studies were performed using two vehicles, i.e., a hydrogel and an emulsion containing FEE. These studies showed that the active ingredients contained in FEE penetrate through human skin and accumulate in it. The obtained results indicate that E. angustifolium may be an interesting plant material to be applied as a component of cosmetic and dermatological preparations with antiaging and anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/química , Fármacos Dermatológicos/química , Epilobium/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polifenóis/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203971

RESUMO

Medicinal plants have been traditionally used to treat cancer in Ethiopia. However, very few studies have reported the in vitro anticancer activities of medicinal plants that are collected from different agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. Hence, the main aim of this study was to screen the cytotoxic activities of 80% methanol extracts of 22 plants against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as human breast (MCF-7), lung (A427), bladder (RT-4), and cervical (SiSo) cancer cell lines. Active extracts were further screened against human large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC-103H), pancreatic cancer (DAN-G), ovarian cancer (A2780), and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (KYSE-70) by using the crystal violet cell proliferation assay, while the vitality of the acute myeloid leukemia (HL-60) and histiocytic lymphoma (U-937) cell lines was monitored in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) microtiter assay. Euphorbia schimperiana, Acokanthera schimperi, Kniphofia foliosa, and Kalanchoe petitiana exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against A427, RT-4, MCF-7, and SiSo cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.85 ± 0.44 to 17.8 ± 2.31 µg/mL. Furthermore, these four extracts also showed potent antiproliferative activities against LCLC-103H, DAN-G, A2780, KYSE-70, HL-60, and U-937 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 0.086 to 27.06 ± 10.8 µg/mL. Hence, further studies focusing on bio-assay-guided isolation and structural elucidation of active cytotoxic compounds from these plants are warranted.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Etiópia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Extratos Vegetais/química
6.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207006

RESUMO

The Lamiaceae is undoubtedly an important plant family, having a rich history of use that spans the globe with many species being used in folk medicine and modern industries alike. Their ability to produce aromatic volatile oils has made them valuable sources of materials in the cosmetic, culinary, and pharmaceutical industries. A thorough account of the taxonomic diversity, chemistry and ethnobotany is lacking for southern African Lamiaceae, which feature some of the region's most notable medicinal and edible plant species. We provide a comprehensive insight into the Lamiaceae flora of southern Africa, comprising 297 species in 42 genera, 105 of which are endemic to the subcontinent. We further explore the medicinal and traditional uses, where all genera with documented uses are covered for the region. A broad review of the chemistry of southern African Lamiaceae is presented, noting that only 101 species (34%) have been investigated chemically (either their volatile oils or phytochemical characterization of secondary metabolites), thus presenting many and varied opportunities for further studies. The main aim of our study was therefore to present an up-to-date account of the botany, chemistry and traditional uses of the family in southern Africa, and to identify obvious knowledge gaps.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Etnobotânica/métodos , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Comestíveis/química
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111584, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the most dreaded diseases characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells that occurs due to impairment of cell division and apoptosis process. Cancer is categorized into several types on the basis of affected organs and breast cancer (BC) is the most predominant cause of mortality among women. Although, several synthetic and semi-synthetic therapies have been developed for the treatment of BC but they exhibit numerous serious adverse effects therefore; pharmacological agents with fewer/no side effects need to be explored. Plants and phytoconstituents perhaps fulfill the aforementioned requirement and could serve as a potential and alternative therapy for BC treatment. The ongoing biomedical research, clinical trials and number of patents granted have further boosted the acceptance of the plants and plant-derived constituents in the effective treatment of BC. PURPOSE OF STUDY: Various treatment strategies such as checkpoint inhibitors, targeting micro RNA, apoptotic pathway, BRCA-1 gene, P53 protein, P13K/Akt/mTOR pathway, notch signaling pathway, hedgehog/gli-1 signaling pathway, poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors, mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors etc. are available for BC. In addition to these synthetic and semi-synthetic drug therapies, several natural constituents such as alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyphenols, flavonoids and diterpenoids from medicinal plants, vegetables and fruits are reported to possess promising anti-cancer activity. The purpose of the present review is to highlight the various signaling pathways through which plants/herbs show the anti-cancer potential especially against the BC. STUDY DESIGN: The literature for the present study was collected from various databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and aromatic plant abstracts, Web of Science etc. The different patent databases were also reviewed for the anti-cancer (BC) potential of the particular herbs/plants and their formulations. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: In this review, we have discussed the number of plants along with their patents of different herbal formulations which are being used for the treatment of BC and other types of cancers. We have also delineated the different signaling mechanisms through which they inhibit the growth of BC cells. In nutshell, we can conclude that large numbers of herbs or their extracts are reported for the treatment of BC. But still, there is further need for research in-depth to translate the use of natural products clinically BC treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203955

RESUMO

Cultivation in controlled environmental conditions can provide good quality medicinal herbs with consistent properties. A sensing system that can determine the contents of medicinal substances in plants using spectral characteristics of leaves would be a valuable tool. Viability of such sensing approach for mint had to be confirmed experimentally, as no data correlating contents of medicinal substances with spectral characteristics of leaves are available, to the best of authors' knowledge. In the first stage, presented in this paper, the influence of lighting on mint (Mentha rotundifolia) grown on a small hydroponic plantation was studied. Spectral characteristics of leaves were recorded by a spectrophotometer and colorimetric analysis was used to investigate the relationship between these characteristics and the spectrum of lighting. Dry mass yield was measured to test its dependence on the lighting. Dependence of chromaticity of leaves on the spectrum of light used in the cultivation was confirmed. Averaged spectra of leaves are distinguishable using a spectrophotometer and-in most cases-by a human observer. A partial correlation is observed between dry mass yield and the spectrum of lighting. Obtained results justify further research into the correlation between lighting and the contents of biological substances in medicinal plants using spectral characteristics of leaves.


Assuntos
Mentha , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Hidroponia , Iluminação , Folhas de Planta
9.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202844

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the more general global increase in viral diseases, has led researchers to look to the plant kingdom as a potential source for antiviral compounds. Since ancient times, herbal medicines have been extensively applied in the treatment and prevention of various infectious diseases in different traditional systems. The purpose of this review is to highlight the potential antiviral activity of plant compounds as effective and reliable agents against viral infections, especially by viruses from the coronavirus group. Various antiviral mechanisms shown by crude plant extracts and plant-derived bioactive compounds are discussed. The understanding of the action mechanisms of complex plant extract and isolated plant-derived compounds will help pave the way towards the combat of this life-threatening disease. Further, molecular docking studies, in silico analyses of extracted compounds, and future prospects are included. The in vitro production of antiviral chemical compounds from plants using molecular pharming is also considered. Notably, hairy root cultures represent a promising and sustainable way to obtain a range of biologically active compounds that may be applied in the development of novel antiviral agents.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Agricultura Molecular/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065175

RESUMO

The utilization of therapeutic plants is expanding around the globe, coupled with the tremendous expansion of alternative medicine and growing demand in health treatment. Plants are applied in pharmaceuticals to preserve and expand health-physically, mentally and as well as to treat particular health conditions and afflictions. There are more than 600 families of plants identified so far. Among the plants that are often studied for their health benefit include the genus of Salvia in the mint family, Lamiaceae. This review aims to determine the bioactive components of Salvia and their potential as antidiabetic agents. The search was conducted using three databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus), and all relevant articles that are freely available in the English language were extracted within 10 years (2011-2021). Salvia spp. comprises many biologically active components that can be divided into monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, and phenolic components, but only a few of these have been studied in-depth for their health benefit claims. The most commonly studied bioactive component was salvianolic acids. Interestingly, S. miltiorrhiza is undoubtedly the most widely studied Salvia species in terms of its effectiveness as an antidiabetic agent. In conclusion, we hope that this review stimulates more studies on bioactive components from medicinal plants, not only on their potential as antidiabetic agents but also for other possible health benefits.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Salvia/química , Animais , Plantas Medicinais
11.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066753

RESUMO

Cannabis sativa is one of the oldest medicinal plants in the world. It was introduced into western medicine during the early 19th century. It contains a complex mixture of secondary metabolites, including cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid-type constituents. More than 500 compounds have been reported from C. sativa, of which 125 cannabinoids have been isolated and/or identified as cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are C21 terpeno-phenolic compounds specific to Cannabis. The non-cannabinoid constituents include: non-cannabinoid phenols, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids and others. This review discusses the chemistry of the cannabinoids and major non-cannabinoid constituents (terpenes, non-cannabinoid phenolics, and alkaloids) with special emphasis on their chemical structures, methods of isolation, and identification.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Canabinoides/química , Cannabis/química , Fenóis/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Canabinoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/química
12.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066878

RESUMO

Plant lectins are widely used in medical glycosciences and glycotechnology. Many lectin-based techniques have been applied for the detection of disease-associated glycans and glycoconjugates. In this study, Butea monosperma agglutinin (BMA), a lectin purified from seeds of the medicinal plant Butea monosperma, was used for the detection of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA)-associated glycans. Expression of BMA-binding N-acetyl galactosamine/galactose (GalNAc/Gal)-associated glycan (BMAG) in CCA tissues was determined using BMA lectin histochemistry; the results showed that BMAG was undetectable in normal bile ducts and drastically increased in preneoplastic bile ducts and CCA. The study in hamsters showed that an increase of BMAG was associated with carcinogenesis of CCA. Using an in-house double BMA sandwich enzyme-linked lectin assay, BMAG was highly detected in the sera of CCA patients. The level of serum BMAG in CCA patients (N = 83) was significantly higher than non-CCA controls (N = 287) and it was applicable for diagnosis of CCA with 55.4% sensitivity, 81.9% specificity, and 76.0% accuracy. A high level of serum BMAG (≥82.5 AU/mL) was associated with unfavorable survival of CCA patients; this information suggested the potential of serum BMAG as a poor prognostic indicator of CCA. In summary, BMAG was aberrantly expressed in preneoplastic bile ducts and CCA, it was also highly detected in patient serum which potentially used as a marker for diagnosis and prognostic prediction of CCA.


Assuntos
Aglutininas/metabolismo , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/sangue , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/diagnóstico , Butea/química , Colangiocarcinoma/sangue , Colangiocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Lectinas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Histocitoquímica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantas Medicinais/química , Prognóstico , Sementes/química
13.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066575

RESUMO

Despite progress achieved, there is limited available information about the antibacterial activity of constituents of essential oils (EOs) from different medicinal-aromatic plants (MAPs) against fish pathogens and the complex interactions of blended EOs thereof. The present study aimed to investigate possible synergistic antimicrobial effects of EOs from seven Greek MAPs with strong potential against Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria, a fish pathogen associated with aquaculture disease outbreaks. The main objective was to evaluate whether blending of these EOs can lead to increased antimicrobial activity against the specific microorganism. A total of 127 combinations of EOs were prepared and their effect on A. veronii bv. sobria growth was tested in vitro. We examined both the inhibitory and bactericidal activities of the individual EOs and compared them to those of the blended EOs. The vast majority of the investigated combinations exhibited significant synergistic and additive effects, while antagonistic effects were evident only in a few cases, such as the mixtures containing EOs from rosemary, lemon balm and pennyroyal. The combination of EOs from Greek oregano and wild carrot, as well as the combinations of those two with Spanish oregano or savoury were the most promising ones. Overall, Greek oregano, savoury and Spanish oregano EOs were the most effective ones when applied either in pure form or blended with other EOs.


Assuntos
Aeromonas veronii/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Apiaceae , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Daucus carota , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Melissa , Mentha , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Origanum , Plantas Medicinais/química , Rosmarinus , Satureja
14.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 1150-1165, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121561

RESUMO

The objective of this paper is to confine piperine, a poor oral bioavailable herbal drug into bile salt based nano vesicles for improving its aqueous solubility, hence, its therapeutic activity. Piperine-loaded bilosomes were fabricated adopting thin film hydration technique according to 32.21 full factorial design to investigate the impact of different formulation variables on the characters of bilosomes: entrapment efficiency (EE%), particle size, and % of drug released post 8 h (Q8hr). The selected optimum formula was F2 (enclosing 1% bile salt, brij72 as a surfactant, and ratio of surfactant:cholesterol was 9:1) with desirability value 0.801, exhibiting high EE% (97.2 ± 0.8%) nanosized spherical vesicles (220.2 ± 20.5 nm) and Q8hr (88.2%±5.6). The superiority of the optimized formula (F2) over the drug suspension was revealed via ex vivo permeation study, also pharmacokinetic study denoted to the boosted oral bioavailability of piperine-loaded bilosome compared to piperine suspension. Moreover, antiviral activity and safety margin of F2 was significantly higher than that of the drug suspension. The ability of piperine to interact with the key amino acids in the receptor binding domain 4L3N as indicated by its docking configuration, rationalized its observed activity. Furthermore, F2 significantly reduce oxidant markers, inflammatory cytokines in MERS-CoV-infected mice. Hence, bilosomes can be considered as a carrier of choice for piperine with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Benzodioxóis , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas , Administração Oral , Alcaloides/administração & dosagem , Alcaloides/farmacocinética , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Benzodioxóis/administração & dosagem , Benzodioxóis/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/administração & dosagem , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacocinética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Lipossomos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanoestruturas , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Plantas Medicinais , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/administração & dosagem , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacocinética , Tensoativos/farmacocinética
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112411, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111661

RESUMO

This study focused on the effects of eight medicinal plant extracts on Solanum nigrum L. potential to accumulate Cd and Pb from soil. These medicinal plants were common and relatively cheap. The eight 10% water extracts were made from the peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco (PCR), fruit of Phyllanthus emblica L. (FPE), root of Pueraria Lobata (Willd.) Ohwi (RPL), rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum Red (RPS), root of Astragalus propinquus Schischkin (RAP), bud of Hemerocallis citrina Baroni (BHC), seed of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (SNN) and fruit of Prunus mume (Sieb.) Sieb.etZuce (FPM). The results showed that among all exposures, the treatment with FPE resulted in the significant increase (p < 0.05) of Cd and Pb concentration in shoots and roots of S. nigrum by 32.5% and 65.2% for Cd, and 38.7% and 39.6% for Pb. The biomasses of S. nigrum in all plant extract treatments were not significantly changed (p < 0.05) compared to the control (CK). The Cd and Pb extraction rates of S. nigrum in FPE treatment were increased respectively by 60.5% and 40.5% compared to CK. Though the treatment with EDTA significantly improved (p < 0.05) the concentration of Cd and Pb of S. nigrum, the Cd and Pb masses (ug plant-1) of S. nigrum did not show any significant difference compared to the CK due to the significant decrease in the shoot (20.4%) and root (22.0%) biomasses. The chelative role of FPE might be relation with its higher polyphenolic compounds. However, not sure if the contents of polyphenolic compounds was the only differences between FPE and other additives. Thus, some unknown organic matters might also play active role. This study provided valuable information on improving the phytoremediation potential of hyperaccumulator.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solanum nigrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Quelantes/química , Quelantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Solanum nigrum/metabolismo
16.
Phytomedicine ; 88: 153596, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. is an Indian medicinal plant with innumerable pharmacological properties. Studies have proven that the phytochemicals from neem possess remarkable contraceptive abilities with limited knowledge on its mechanism of action. PURPOSE: The present review aims to summarize the efficiency of A. indica treatment as a contraceptive. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used. Published scientific articles on antifertility, antispermatogenic, antiovulation, hormone altering, contraceptive, and abortifacient activities of A. indica were collected from reputed Journals from 1980 to 2020 using electronic databases. Specific keywords search was completed to collect numerous articles with unique experiment design and significant results. This was followed by the selection of the requisite articles based on the criteria designed by the authors. Data extraction was based on the common research elements included in the articles. RESULTS: A total of 27 studies were considered for reviewing, which included key pharmacological investigations. In the beginning, authors evaluated a number of publications on the contraceptive properties of A. indica, in which it was revealed that most of the publications were made between 2005 and 2009. All the collected articles were categorised and reviewed as antifertility, antispermatogenic, antiovulation, hormone altering, contraceptive, and abortifacient. Authors also assessed studies based on the plant parts used for pharmacological evaluations including leaves, seeds, stem-bark, and flowers. The article was primarily divided into different sections based on the previous works of authors on phytochemistry and pharmacological review articles. CONCLUSION: Although A. indica is not reported with the complete alleviation of reproductive system in both male and female animal models, studies have proven its efficacy as a contraceptive. Extracts and phytochemicals from neem neither reduced the libido nor retarded the growth of secondary sexual characters, thus indicating only a temporary and reversible contraceptive activity. However, there is a dearth for clinical studies to prove the efficacy of A. indica as a herbal contraceptive.


Assuntos
Azadirachta/química , Anticoncepcionais/farmacologia , Abortivos/química , Abortivos/farmacologia , Animais , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/química , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/farmacologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Flores/química , Humanos , Masculino , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Sementes/química , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 261: 120033, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111837

RESUMO

Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, as perennial plants, its quality is closely related to growth period. Different harvest years determine the dry matter accumulation of its medicinal parts and the dynamic accumulation of active ingredients, as well as its economic value and medicinal value. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a systematic evaluation method for the identification and evaluation of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis with different growth years. Deep learning has a powerful ability in recognition. This study extends it to the identification analysis of medicinal plants from the perspective of spectrum. For the first time, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) based on the attenuated total reflection Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) combined with residual neural network (Resnet) was used to identify growth years. 525 samples were collected, 4725 2DCOS images were drawn, and the dry matter accumulation in rhizomes of different growth years and different sampling sites were briefly analyzed. The results show that the eight-year-old P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis in Dali has higher economic value and medicinal value. The synchronous 2DCOS models based on ATR-FTIR can realize the identification of growth years with accuracy of 100%. Synchronous 2DCOS are more suitable for the identification of medicinal plants with complex systems. 2DCOS images with different colors and second derivative processing cannot optimize the modeling results. In summary, the method we established is innovative and feasible. It not only solved the identification of growth years, expanded the application field of deep learning, but could also be extended to further research on other medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Liliaceae , Melanthiaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Rizoma
18.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072147

RESUMO

As part of our studies on antiprotozoal activity of approved herbal medicinal products, we previously found that a commercial tincture from Salvia officinalis L. (common Sage, Lamiaceae) possesses high activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (Tbr), causative agent of East African Human Trypanosomiasis. We have now investigated in detail the antitrypanosomal constituents of this preparation. A variety of fractions were tested for antitrypanosomal activity and analyzed by UHPLC/+ESI QqTOF MS. The resulting data were used to generate a partial least squares (PLS) regression model that highlighted eight particular constituents that were likely to account for the major part of the bioactivity. These compounds were then purified and identified and their activity against the pathogen tested. All identified compounds (one flavonoid and eight diterpenes) displayed significant activity against Tbr, in some cases higher than that of the total tincture. From the overall results, it can be concluded that the antitrypanosomal activity of S. officinalis L. is, for the major part, caused by abietane-type diterpenes of the rosmanol/rosmaquinone group.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Salvia officinalis/metabolismo , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense/efeitos dos fármacos , Abietanos/química , Animais , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diterpenos/química , Flavonoides/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia
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