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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3608-3616, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893550

RESUMO

Fatigue is a widespread and complex physiological phenomenon. Chronic fatigue can lead to cardiovascular dysfunction, mental disorders and other serious pathological reactions. Therefore, how to relieve fatigue accurately and effectively is an important proposition to implement the concept of "Healthy China" in the new era. As an important part of Chinese medicine health industry, Chinese medicine health food has been developing rapidly in recent years. At present, there are 1 157 kinds of anti-fatigue health food on the market in China, most of which are single Chinese medicine and its compound. However, their functions are generally labeled as "anti-fatigue", and their function positioning is too extensive and unclear. With the deepened understanding of fatigue classification and its physiological and pathological basis, it is urgent to be combined with the progress of modern chemical and pharmacological stu-dies to differentiate and precisely position the anti-fatigue health effects of traditional Chinese medicine. For this purpose, the classifications of fatigue were summarized in this paper, and the mechanism of fatigue was explained from the aspects of energy metabolism, accumulation of metabolites, oxidative stress, inflammation, hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis and so on. We selected 10 traditional Chinese medicines which are most frequently used in health food, analyzed their anti-fatigue effect mechanisms, and summarized the best types of anti-fatigue food, so as to promote the scientific development of anti-fatigue health food industry, expand the market application scope of anti-fatigue health food, better respond to the construction of a healthy China and serve for people's health.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , China , Alimentos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3981-3987, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893598

RESUMO

Mongolian medicine is an indispensable part in developing traditional Mongolian medicine. This study is aimed to provide a basis for the formulation of clinical and Mongolian medicinal materials standards by clarifying the original plant and species collation of Mongolia medicine of "saradma". Mongolian herbal medicine, as an important part of Mongolian medicine, is needed to study the authentic Mongolian medicine, in order to exert the best therapeutic effect in the application. The Mongolian medicine of "saradma" is a kind of medicinal material for diuresis, reinforcing kidney, and eliminating edema, for which comes from the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds and other parts of medicinal plant. The ancient books of Mongolian medicine are the most important reference the research of Mongolian medicine varieties. This review adopts the method of inductive comparison of ancient books in order to summarize the conclusion of Mongolian medicine of "saradma". According to the investigations, Mongolian medicine of "saradma" type is mainly Leguminosae plant, Oxytropis latibracteata, Hedysarum multijugum, Thermopsis barbata, Astragalus membranaceus, Vicia amoena, O. caerulea, Astragalus bhotanensis, Hedysarum sikkimense. Compared with modern works, it is found that the drug has a wide range of resources distribution and application. It can be used for the treatment of cold edema, hot edema, nephrogenic edema, edema, swelling and likes caused by different diseases. Based on the research of Mongolian medicine of "saradma" varieties, it was found that the most commonly used varieties in Inner Mongolia were cayan saradma, xara saradam and sira saradma all of which are all top-grade drugs that reduce swelling.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , Livros , China , Medicina Tradicional da Mongólia , Fitoterapia
4.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 40: 101214, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891290

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a life-threatening disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is accounted as global public health concern. Treatment of COVID-19 is primarily supportive and the role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. However, there are no specific anti-COVID-19 drugs and vaccine until now. This review focuses on traditional medicine such as medicinal plant extracts as promising approaches against COVID-19. Chinese, Indian and Iranian traditional medicine, suggests some herbs for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of the diseases including COVID-19. Although, inhibition of viral replication is considered as general mechanism of herbal extracts, however some studies demonstrated that traditional herbal extracts can interact with key viral proteins which are associated with virus virulence. Chinese, Indian and Iranian traditional medicine, suggests some herbs for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of the diseases including COVID-19. However the beneficial effects of these traditional medicines and their clinical trials remained to be known. Herein, we reviewed the latest updates on traditional medicines proposed for treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Índia , Irã (Geográfico) , Pandemias
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810139

RESUMO

The recent focus is on the analysis of biological activities of extracts from thirteen folk medicinal plants from arid and semi-arid zones of Balochistan, Pakistan. Only a small proportion of them have been scientifically analyzed. Therefore the present investigation explores the biochemical and bioactive potential of different plant parts. Superoxide dismutase was detected maximum in Fagonia indica, (184.7±5.17 units/g), ascorbate peroxidase in Tribulus pentandrus (947.5±12.5 units/g), catalase and peroxidase were higher in Peganum harmala (555.0±5.0 and 2597.8±0.4 units/g, respectively). Maximum esterase and α-amylase activity was found in Zygophyllum fabago (14.3±0.44 and 140±18.8 mg/g, respectively). Flavonoid content was high in T. pentandrus (666.1±49 µg/ml). The highest total phenolic content and tannin was revealed in F. olivieri (72125±425 and 37050±1900 µM/g, respectively). The highest value of ascorbic acid was depicted in F. bruguieri (F.b.N) (448±1.5 µg/g). Total soluble proteins and reducing sugars were detected higher in P. harmala (372.3±54 and 5.9±0.1 mg/g, respectively). The maximum total antioxidant capacity was depicted in Tetraena simplex (16.9±0.01 µM/g). The highest value of lycopene and total carotenoids exhibited in T. terrestris (7.44±0.2 and 35.5±0.0 mg/g, respectively). Chlorophyll contents were found maximum in T. pentandrus var. pterophorus (549.1±9.9, 154.3±10, and 703.4±20.2 ug/g, respectively). All taxa exhibited anti-inflammatory activity and anti-diabetic potential. Z. eurypterum seeds exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory potential (96%), along with other taxa indicated (96-76%) activity when compared with the standard drug diclofenac sodium (79%). Seeds of T. pentandrus (85%) exhibited the highest anti-diabetic activity. The other taxa also exhibited inhibitory activity of α-amylase ranging from (85-69%) compared with Metformin (67%) standard drug. Phytochemical screening revealed that selected taxa proved to be the potential source of natural antioxidants and could further be explored for in-vivo studies and utilized in pharmaceutical industries as potent therapeutic agents validating their ethno-pharmacological uses.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Paquistão , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Plantas Medicinais/química
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 247: 116740, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829859

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a lung disease with highly heterogeneous and mortality rate, but its therapeutic options are now still limited. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been characterized by WHO as a pandemic, and the global number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has been more than 8.0 million. It is strongly supported for that PF should be one of the major complications in COVID-19 patients by the evidences of epidemiology, viral immunology and current clinical researches. The anti-PF properties of naturally occurring polysaccharides have attracted increasing attention in last two decades, but is still lack of a comprehensively understanding. In present review, the resources, structural features, anti-PF activities, and underlying mechanisms of these polysaccharides are summarized and analyzed, which was expected to provide a scientific evidence supporting the application of polysaccharides for preventing or treating PF in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/fisiologia , Fungos/química , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Heterogênea D0/fisiologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , RNA Longo não Codificante/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos , Alga Marinha/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad2/fisiologia , Proteína Smad3/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores
7.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 466, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811894

RESUMO

Chinese herbal formulas including the lung-cleaning and toxicity-excluding (LCTE) soup have played an important role in treating the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic (caused by SARS-CoV-2) in China. Applying LCTE outside of China may prove challenging due to the unfamiliar rationale behind its application in terms of Traditional Chinese Medicine. To overcome this barrier, a biochemical understanding of the clinical effects of LCTE is needed. Here, we explore the chemical compounds present in the reported LCTE ingredients and the proteins targeted by these compounds via a network pharmacology analysis. Our results indicate that LCTE contains compounds with the potential to directly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and inflammation, and that the compound targets proteins highly related to COVID-19's main symptoms. We predict the general effect of LCTE is to affect the pathways involved in viral and other microbial infections, inflammation/cytokine response, and lung diseases. Our work provides a biochemical basis for using LCTE to treat COVID-19 and its main symptoms.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Sulfato de Cálcio , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores
8.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854262

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, producing the disease COVID-19 is a pathogenic virus that targets mostly the human respiratory system and also other organs. SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans, however there have been previous outbreaks of different versions of the beta coronavirus including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV1) from 2002 to 2003 and the most recent Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) which was first identified in 2012. All of the above have been recognised as major pathogens that are a great threat to public health and global economies. Currently, no specific treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection has been identified; however, certain drugs have shown apparent efficacy in viral inhibition of the disease. Natural substances such as herbs and mushrooms have previously demonstrated both great antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, the possibilities of natural substances as effective treatments against COVID-19 may seem promising. One of the potential candidates against the SARS-CoV-2 virus may be Inonotus obliquus (IO), also known as chaga mushroom. IO commonly grows in Asia, Europe and North America and is widely used as a raw material in various medical conditions. In this review, we have evaluated the most effective herbs and mushrooms, in terms of the antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects which have been assessed in laboratory conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fungos/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Agaricales/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Basidiomycota/química , Betacoronavirus , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Chlorella/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
9.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(9): 862-874, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818465

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare, unpredictable, and potentially serious adverse reaction. It is induced by many drugs, herbs, and dietary supplements and represents a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Older people (aged 65 years and older) are often polymedicated, and their declining physiological function affects drug pharmacokinetics. There is no consistent evidence that age is a general risk factor for DILI; however, age might be a risk factor with specific medications, with antimicrobials and cardiovascular drugs being the most likely medications to cause DILI in older people. Ageing influences DILI phenotypes, making cholestatic damage and chronic DILI more likely. In older people with DILI, comorbidities act as confounding causes and account for higher mortality unrelated to the liver. There are no specific therapies for DILI and supportive measures are still the mainstay of management. This Review highlights current advances and gaps in DILI epidemiology, mechanisms, and diagnosis that are pertinent to older individuals.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Colestase/induzido quimicamente , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/terapia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos , Farmacocinética , Fenótipo , Polimedicação , Fatores de Risco
10.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842606

RESUMO

Presently, there are no approved drugs or vaccines to treat COVID-19, which has spread to over 200 countries and at the time of writing was responsible for over 650,000 deaths worldwide. Recent studies have shown that two human proteases, TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L, play a key role in host cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, inhibitors of these proteases were shown to block SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we perform virtual screening of 14,011 phytochemicals produced by Indian medicinal plants to identify natural product inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. AutoDock Vina was used to perform molecular docking of phytochemicals against TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. Potential phytochemical inhibitors were filtered by comparing their docked binding energies with those of known inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. Further, the ligand binding site residues and non-covalent interactions between protein and ligand were used as an additional filter to identify phytochemical inhibitors that either bind to or form interactions with residues important for the specificity of the target proteases. This led to the identification of 96 inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and 9 inhibitors of cathepsin L among phytochemicals of Indian medicinal plants. Further, we have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to analyze the stability of the protein-ligand complexes for the three top inhibitors of TMPRSS2 namely, qingdainone, edgeworoside C and adlumidine, and of cathepsin L namely, ararobinol, (+)-oxoturkiyenine and 3α,17α-cinchophylline. Interestingly, several herbal sources of identified phytochemical inhibitors have antiviral or anti-inflammatory use in traditional medicine. Further in vitro and in vivo testing is needed before clinical trials of the promising phytochemical inhibitors identified here.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Catepsina L/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Receptores Virais/química , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Sítios de Ligação , Catepsina L/antagonistas & inibidores , Catepsina L/genética , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Índia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Monossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Monossacarídeos/farmacologia , Pandemias , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/isolamento & purificação , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Receptores Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Inflammopharmacology ; 28(5): 1153-1161, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803479

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global health threat. Unfortunately, there are very limited approved drugs available with established efficacy against the SARs-CoV-2 virus and its inflammatory complications. Vaccine development is actively being researched, but it may take over a year to become available to general public. Certain medications, for example, dexamethasone, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiviral (remdesivir), and IL-6 receptor blocking monoclonal antibodies (tocilizumab), are used in various combinations as off-label medications to treat COVID-19. Essential oils (EOs) have long been known to have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, and antiviral properties and are being proposed to have activity against SARC-CoV-2 virus. Owing to their lipophilic nature, EOs are advocated to penetrate viral membranes easily leading to membrane disruption. Moreover, EOs contain multiple active phytochemicals that can act synergistically on multiple stages of viral replication and also induce positive effects on host respiratory system including bronchodilation and mucus lysis. At present, only computer-aided docking and few in vitro studies are available which show anti-SARC-CoV-2 activities of EOs. In this review, role of EOs in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 is discussed. A discussion on possible side effects associated with EOs as well as anti-corona virus claims made by EOs manufacturers are also highlighted. Based on the current knowledge a chemo-herbal (EOs) combination of the drugs could be a more feasible and effective approach to combat this viral pandemic.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Óleos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Plantas Medicinais/química
12.
Planta Med ; 86(15): 1058-1072, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777833

RESUMO

Viruses have a high mutation rate, and, thus, there is a continual emergence of new antiviral-resistant strains. Therefore, it becomes imperative to explore and develop new antiviral compounds continually. The search for pharmacological substances of plant origin that are effective against animal viruses, which have a high mortality rate or cause large economic losses, has garnered interest in the last few decades. This systematic review compiles 130 plant species that exhibit antiviral activity on 37 different virus species causing serious diseases in animals. The kind of extract, fraction, or compound exhibiting the antiviral activity and the design of the trial were particularly considered for review. The literature revealed details regarding plant species exhibiting antiviral activities against pathogenic animal virus species of the following families-Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Parvoviridae, Poxviridae, Nimaviridae, Coronaviridae, Reoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae-that cause infections, among others, in poultry, cattle, pigs, horses, shrimps, and fish. Overall, 30 plant species exhibited activity against various influenza viruses, most of them causing avian influenza. Furthermore, 30 plant species were noted to be active against Newcastle disease virus. In addition, regarding the pathogens most frequently investigated, this review provides a compilation of 20 plant species active against bovine herpesvirus, 16 against fowlpox virus, 12 against white spot syndrome virus in marine shrimps, and 10 against suide herpesvirus. Nevertheless, some plant extracts, particularly their compounds, are promising candidates for the development of new antiviral remedies, which are urgently required.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Antivirais , Orthomyxoviridae , Plantas Medicinais , Doenças dos Animais/terapia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Bovinos , Cavalos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suínos , Medicina Veterinária
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(13)2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629817

RESUMO

By attaching to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein on lung and intestinal cells, Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) can cause respiratory and homeostatic difficulties leading to sepsis. The progression from acute respiratory failure to sepsis has been correlated with the release of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). Lack of effective conventional treatment of this septic state has spiked an interest in alternative medicine. This review of herbal extracts has identified multiple candidates which can target the release of HMGB1 and potentially reduce mortality by preventing progression from respiratory distress to sepsis. Some of the identified mixtures have also been shown to interfere with viral attachment. Due to the wide variability in chemical superstructure of the components of assorted herbal extracts, common motifs have been identified. Looking at the most active compounds in each extract it becomes evident that as a group, phenolic compounds have a broad enzyme inhibiting function. They have been shown to act against the priming of SARS-CoV-2 attachment proteins by host and viral enzymes, and the release of HMGB1 by host immune cells. An argument for the value in a nonspecific inhibitory action has been drawn. Hopefully these findings can drive future drug development and clinical procedures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , Sepse/patologia , Proteína HMGB1/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/química , Exsudatos de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Insuficiência Respiratória/metabolismo , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Sepse/metabolismo , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605306

RESUMO

Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and norovirus (NV) are highly contagious pathogens that threaten human health. Here we focused on the antiviral potential of the medicinal herb, Saxifraga spinulosa (SS). Water-soluble extracts of SS were prepared, and their virus-inactivating activity was evaluated against the human virus pathogens SARS-CoV-2 and IAV; we also examined virucidal activity against feline calicivirus and murine norovirus, which are surrogates for human NV. Among our findings, we found that SS-derived gallocatechin gallate compounds were capable of inactivating all viruses tested. Interestingly, a pyrogallol-enriched fraction (Fr 1C) inactivated all viruses more rapidly and effectively than did any of the component compounds used alone. We found that 25 µg/mL of Fr 1C inactivated >99.6% of SARS-CoV-2 within 10 s (reduction of ≥2.33 log10 TCID50/mL). Fr 1C resulted in the disruption of viral genomes and proteins as determined by gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-PCR. Taken together, our results reveal the potential of Fr 1C for development as a novel antiviral disinfectant.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Saxifragaceae , Betacoronavirus/ultraestrutura , Calicivirus Felino/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Genoma Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Proteínas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20887, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dry eye symptom threatens human health and causes a larger burden of disease, the study aims to systematically compare the therapeutic effect of Lycium-rehmannia pills combined with topical eye drops and pure western medicine (western medicine eye drops) on dry eye symptom, to provide a reflection and enlightenment for clinical treatment. METHOD: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMbase, MEDLINE, CBM, WanFang, VIP, and CNKI databases were searched manually and automatically by the computer until March 2019 and relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected. Article selection and data extraction were conducted by 2 researchers independently, then RevMan 5.3 was applied for meta-analysis. RESULT: Fifteen randomized controlled trials were included, including 1222 patients (eyes = 2382). The meta-analysis results showed that Lycium-rehmannia pills combined with western medicine were superior to the control group in terms of therapeutic efficiency [OR = 4.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) (3.26, 5.89), P < .00001]. There were controversial results that the study group was better than the control group in Basic Schirmer test [MD, 2.46, 95% CI (1.49, 3.44), P < .00001], tear break up time [MD, 3.79, 95% CI (3.57, 4.01), P < .00001], and Fluorescein test [MD, -1.29, 95% CI (-1.42, -1.15), P < .00001], but Lycium-rehmannia pills combined with western medicine could not reduce the incidence of adverse reactions, including eyelid inflammation [OR = 1.00, 95% CI (0.37, 2.72), P = 1.00] and congestion symptom [OR = 0.55, 95% CI (0.18, 1.65), P = .28]. CONCLUSION: Lycium-rehmannia pills combined with western medicine is better than the control group of therapeutic efficiency in the treatment of dry eye symptom. Due to the quantity and quality limitations of the literature, there were controversial results that the study group was better than the control group in Basic Schirmer test, Tear break up time, Fluorescein test, and reduced adverse reactions, including inflammation of the eyelids and congestion. The above conclusion needs more clinical trials to test and verify.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Lycium/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Rehmannia/efeitos adversos , Lágrimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Doenças Palpebrais/epidemiologia , Doenças Palpebrais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Soluções Oftálmicas/uso terapêutico , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Lágrimas/fisiologia
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21153, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity among women is increasing. Obesity is associated with various metabolic syndromes; conventional treatments are limited and may induce serious adverse events due to polytherapy regimens. Currently, demands for complementary and alternative medicine that has a proven safety profile for the treatment of obesity with or without metabolic risk factors are increasing.Our team of preclinical experts reported a significant anti-obesity effect of the Korean herbal medicine, Galgeun-tang (GGT). Thus, we designed this trial to explore the effects of GGT among obese women to accumulate optimal clinical evidence.Obesity is not only a component of metabolic syndrome and a factor associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease but is also related to insulin resistance. Previous research has confirmed that an increasing body mass index is highly related with increased risk of metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese individuals. The effectiveness of the Korean medicine herbal formula, GGT on obesity has been previously reported. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of GGT for weight loss among obese Korean women with or without high risk for metabolic syndrome. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multi-center clinical trial. A total of 160 participants will be randomly distributed in 2 groups, the GGT group or the placebo group in a 1:1 ratio using a web-based randomization system. Each group will be administered GGT or placebo 3 times a day for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint is to assess the change in weight from baseline. The secondary endpoints are the following: the changes in body composition measurements, anthropomorphic measurements, obesity screening Laboratory tests, patient self-reported questionnaires, and economic evaluation outcomes. Adverse events will also be reported. DISCUSSION: The findings of this study will confirm methodologies regarding the efficacy and safety of GGT for weight loss among obese Korean women with or without metabolic risk factors.


Assuntos
Medicina Herbária/normas , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/terapia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 548, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720051

RESUMO

This paper aims to determine the potential for using medicinal aromatic plants, which have been considered living heritage since prehistoric times, in urban landscapes. The area of study covers Malatya City and its counties, which are found in Eastern Anatolia, a region of importance in terms of the endemic species in Turkey. Malatya is specifically selected as the study area, as the city's geomorphological, hydrological and climatic characteristics favour a high floral diversity. The methods used in this paper consist of five stages: floristic field works conducted in Battalgazi county (Malatya) in the scope of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Project No. 217O290, the identification of the plants by a taxonomist, the determination of the medicinal and aromatic species in other counties of Malatya based on literature review, the establishment of criteria for the application potential of the identified species in landscape designs and the assessment of the use of the identified species in landscape architecture according to the parameters set in the criteria. Aromatic medicinal species were analysed to generate planting designs in landscape projects; the aesthetic properties (flower, leaf and fruit characteristics), sensory properties (scent and texture), seasonal change characteristics (flowering period and colour change) and use areas (flower parterres, solitary plantings, live fences and site coverings) of the plants were analysed. As a result of ethnobotanical and floristic studies carried out within the boundaries of the study area, a total of 189 medical aromatic species were identified. A total of 157 of these species were herbaceous plants. In conclusion, it was determined that 80 aromatic medicinal species conform to the planting design criteria and could be used in landscape designs in Malatya City.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Plantas Medicinais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Etnobotânica , Turquia
18.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(3): 131-137, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660190

RESUMO

The prevailing sandstorm environment of Lop Nur is a high-risk factor which can induce respiratory diseases. Ephedra can cure the patients or relieve the symptom. These may make ancient Lop Nur peoples worship ephedra. Therefore, viewed it as burial objects. From the point of view of some eastern and western religions, ephedra was the elixir of life. Since ephedrine ephedra contains can excite the sympathetic nerves of human body, it makes people have an illusion.Ephedra can restore their youth. Ancient people of Lop Nur viewed ephedra as a holy item. Both the functions of therapy and "youth restoration" from exciting the nerves, meant guarantee for life. For ancient Lop Nur peoples, ephedra has the value of both medicine and religion.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Ephedra/química , Efedrina/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Religião , China , Humanos
19.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(8): 1040-1048, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692643

RESUMO

Given the increased reporting of multi-resistant bacteria and the shortage of newly approved medicines, researchers have been looking towards extreme and unusual environments as a new source of antibiotics. Streptomyces currently provides many of the world's clinical antibiotics, so it comes as no surprise that these bacteria have recently been isolated from traditional medicine. Given the wide array of traditional medicines, it is hoped that these discoveries can provide the much sought after core structure diversity that will be required of a new generation of antibiotics. This review discusses the contribution of Streptomyces to antibiotics and the potential of newly discovered species in traditional medicine. We also explore how knowledge of traditional medicines can aid current initiatives in sourcing new and chemically diverse antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Descoberta de Drogas/tendências , Microbiologia do Solo , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Cavernas/química , Invertebrados/química , Medicina Tradicional , Peptídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Poríferos/química , Streptomyces/química , Streptomyces/enzimologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235886, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658902

RESUMO

The people of Tengger, Indonesia have used plants as traditional medicine for a long time. However, this local knowledge has not been well documented until recently. Our study aims to understand the utilization of plants in traditional medicine by the people of Tengger, who inhabit the Ngadisari village, Sukapura District, Probolinggo Regency, Indonesia. We conducted semi-structured and structured interviews with a total of 52 informants that represented 10% of the total family units in the village. The parameters observed in this study include species use value (SUV), family use value (FUV), plant part use (PPU), and the relative frequency of citation that was calculated based on fidelity level (FL). We successfully identified 30 species belonging to 28 genera and 20 families that have been used as a traditional medicine to treat 20 diseases. We clustered all the diseases into seven distinct categories. Among the recorded plant families, Poaceae and Zingiberaceae were the most abundant. Plant species within those families were used to treat internal medical diseases, respiratory-nose, ear, oral/dental, and throat problems. The plant species with the highest SUV was Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (1.01), whereas the Aloaceae family (0.86) had the highest FUV. Acorus calamus L. (80%) had the highest FL percentage. The leaves were identified as the most used plant part and decoction was the dominant mode of a medicinal preparation. Out of the plants and their uses documented in our study, 26.7% of the medicinal plants and 71.8% of the uses were novel. In conclusion, the diversity of medicinal plant uses in the Ngadisari village could contribute to the development of new plant-based drugs and improve the collective revenue of the local society.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Etnobotânica , Povos Indígenas , Indonésia , Poaceae/classificação , Zingiberaceae/classificação
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