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1.
J Evol Biol ; 37(2): 248-255, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302071

RESUMO

Ecology and geography can play important roles in the evolution of reproductive isolation across the speciation continuum, but few studies address both at the later stages of speciation. This notable gap in knowledge arises from the fact that traditional ecological speciation studies have predominantly focused on the role of ecology in initiating the speciation process, while many studies exploring the effect of geography (e.g., reinforcement) concentrate on species pairs that lack divergent ecological characteristics. We simultaneously examine the strength of habitat isolation and sexual isolation among three closely related species of Belonocnema gall-forming wasps on two species of live oaks, Quercus virginiana and Q. geminata, that experience divergent selection from their host plants and variable rates of migration due to their geographic context. We find that the strength of both habitat isolation and sexual isolation is lowest among allopatric species pairs with the same host plant association, followed by allopatric species with different host plant associations, and highest between sympatric species with different host-plant associations. This pattern suggests that divergent selection due to different host use interacts with geography in the evolution of habitat isolation and sexual isolation during the later stages of speciation of Belonocnema wasps.


Assuntos
Vespas , Animais , Ecossistema , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Geografia , Plantas , Especiação Genética
2.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 117(1): 33, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334837

RESUMO

Plant probiotics are live microbial cells or cultures that support plant growth and control plant pathogens through different mechanisms. They have various effects on plants, including plant growth promotion through the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), biological control activity (BCA), and production of cellulase enzymes, thus inducing systemic resistance and increasing the availability of mineral elements. The present work aimed to study the potential of Achromobacter marplatensis and Bacillus velezensis as plant probiotics for the field cultivation of potatoes. In vitro studies have demonstrated the ability of selected probiotics to produce IAA and cellulase, as well as antimicrobial activity against two plant pathogens that infect Solanum tuberosum as Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia solanacearum under different conditions at a broad range of different temperatures and pH values. In vivo study of the effects of the probiotics A. marplatensis and B. velezensis on S. tuberosum plants grown in sandy clay loamy soil was detected after cultivation for 90 days. Probiotic isolates A. marplatensis and B. velezensis were able to tolerate ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure for up to two hours, the dose response curve exhibited that the D10 values of A. marplatensis and B. velezensis were 28 and 16 respectively. In the case of loading both probiotics with broth, the shoot dry weight was increased significantly from 28 in the control to 50 g, shoot length increased from 24 to 45.7 cm, branches numbers increased from 40 to 70 branch, leaves number increased from 99 to 130 leaf, root dry weight increased from 9.3 to 12.9 g, root length increased from 24 to 35.7 cm, tuber weight increased from 15 to 37.0 g and tubers number increased from 9 to 24.4 tuber, the rot percentage was reduced to 0%. The addition of both probiotic isolates, either broth or wheat grains load separately has enhanced all the growth parameters; however, better results and increased production were in favor of adding probiotics with broth more than wheat. On the other hand, both probiotics showed a remarkable protective effect against potato pathogens separately and reduced the negative impact of the infection using them together.


Assuntos
Celulases , Fusarium , Ralstonia solanacearum , Solanum tuberosum , Raios Ultravioleta , Plantas , Celulases/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
3.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0295377, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335167

RESUMO

Land modification causes biodiversity loss and ecosystem modification. Despite many studies on the impacts of this factor, there is little empirical evidence on how it affects the interaction networks of plants, herbivores and their natural enemies; likewise, there is little evidence on how those networks change due to differences in the complexity of the communities they comprise. We analyzed the effects of land use and number of trophic levels on the interaction networks of exotic legume species and their associated arthropods. We collected seedpods from five exotic legume species (one of them invasive) in four land use types (urbanization, roadside, L. leucocephala plantation, wooded pasture) on Santa Cruz Island in the Galapagos, and obtained all arthropods that emerged from the seeds. Then, we built and analyzed the interaction networks for each land use at two community scales, each with different numbers of trophic levels: (1) three levels: plant-seed beetle-parasitoid (PSP), and (2) more than three levels: plant-seed beetle-parasitoid-predator and other trophic guilds (PSPP). Land use was more relevant than number of trophic levels in the configuration of species interactions. The number of species and interactions was highest on roadsides at PSPP and lowest in plantations at PSP. We found a significant effect of land use on connectance and interaction evenness (IE), and no significant effect of number of trophic levels on connectance, diversity or IE. The simultaneous analysis of land use and number of trophic levels enabled the identification of more complex patterns of community structure. Comparison of the patterns we found among islands and between exotic and native legumes is recommended. Understanding the structure of the communities analyzed here, as well as the relative contribution of their determinants of change, would allow us to develop conservation plans according to the dynamics of these neo-ecosystems.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Ecossistema , Animais , Biodiversidade , Plantas , Herbivoria
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1219, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336770

RESUMO

Plants with the C4 photosynthesis pathway typically respond to climate change differently from more common C3-type plants, due to their distinct anatomical and biochemical characteristics. These different responses are expected to drive changes in global C4 and C3 vegetation distributions. However, current C4 vegetation distribution models may not predict this response as they do not capture multiple interacting factors and often lack observational constraints. Here, we used global observations of plant photosynthetic pathways, satellite remote sensing, and photosynthetic optimality theory to produce an observation-constrained global map of C4 vegetation. We find that global C4 vegetation coverage decreased from 17.7% to 17.1% of the land surface during 2001 to 2019. This was the net result of a reduction in C4 natural grass cover due to elevated CO2 favoring C3-type photosynthesis, and an increase in C4 crop cover, mainly from corn (maize) expansion. Using an emergent constraint approach, we estimated that C4 vegetation contributed 19.5% of global photosynthetic carbon assimilation, a value within the range of previous estimates (18-23%) but higher than the ensemble mean of dynamic global vegetation models (14 ± 13%; mean ± one standard deviation). Our study sheds insight on the critical and underappreciated role of C4 plants in the contemporary global carbon cycle.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Fotossíntese , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Poaceae/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
5.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(3): 61, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336900

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: TALE-based editors provide an alternative way to engineer the organellar genomes in plants. We update and discuss the most recent developments of TALE-based organellar genome editing in plants. Gene editing tools have been widely used to modify the nuclear genomes of plants for various basic research and biotechnological applications. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 editing platform is the most commonly used technique because of its ease of use, fast speed, and low cost; however, it encounters difficulty when being delivered to plant organelles for gene editing. In contrast, protein-based editing technologies, such as transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-based tools, could be easily delivered, expressed, and targeted to organelles in plants via Agrobacteria-mediated nuclear transformation. Therefore, TALE-based editors provide an alternative way to engineer the organellar genomes in plants since the conventional chloroplast transformation method encounters technical challenges and is limited to certain species, and the direct transformation of mitochondria in higher plants is not yet possible. In this review, we update and discuss the most recent developments of TALE-based organellar genome editing in plants.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes , Efetores Semelhantes a Ativadores de Transcrição , Edição de Genes/métodos , Efetores Semelhantes a Ativadores de Transcrição/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Plantas/genética , Organelas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta/genética
6.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(2): e17127, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337165

RESUMO

Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane (CH4 ) globally. Climate and land use change are expected to alter CH4 emissions but current and future wetland CH4 budgets remain uncertain. One important predictor of wetland CH4 flux, plants, play an important role in providing substrates for CH4 -producing microbes, increasing CH4 consumption by oxygenating the rhizosphere, and transporting CH4 from soils to the atmosphere. Yet, there remain various mechanistic knowledge gaps regarding the extent to which plant root systems and their traits influence wetland CH4 emissions. Here, we present a novel conceptual framework of the relationships between a range of root traits and CH4 processes in wetlands. Based on a literature review, we propose four main CH4 -relevant categories of root function: gas transport, carbon substrate provision, physicochemical influences and root system architecture. Within these categories, we discuss how individual root traits influence CH4 production, consumption, and transport (PCT). Our findings reveal knowledge gaps concerning trait functions in physicochemical influences, and the role of mycorrhizae and temporal root dynamics in PCT. We also identify priority research needs such as integrating trait measurements from different root function categories, measuring root-CH4 linkages along environmental gradients, and following standardized root ecology protocols and vocabularies. Thus, our conceptual framework identifies relevant belowground plant traits that will help improve wetland CH4 predictions and reduce uncertainties in current and future wetland CH4 budgets.


Assuntos
Metano , Áreas Alagadas , Plantas , Clima , Dióxido de Carbono
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338798

RESUMO

The shoot apical meristem (SAM) gives rise to the aerial structure of plants by producing lateral organs and other meristems. The SAM is responsible for plant developmental patterns, thus determining plant morphology and, consequently, many agronomic traits such as the number and size of fruits and flowers and kernel yield. Our current understanding of SAM morphology and regulation is based on studies conducted mainly on some angiosperms, including economically important crops such as maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa), and the model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, studies in other plant species from the gymnosperms are scant, making difficult comparative analyses that help us understand SAM regulation in diverse plant species. This limitation prevents deciphering the mechanisms by which evolution gave rise to the multiple plant structures within the plant kingdom and determines the conserved mechanisms involved in SAM maintenance and operation. This review aims to integrate and analyze the current knowledge of SAM evolution by combining the morphological and molecular information recently reported from the plant kingdom.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Oryza , Meristema/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338824

RESUMO

In nature, plants are exposed to a range of climatic conditions. Those negatively impacting plant growth and survival are called abiotic stresses. Although abiotic stresses have been extensively studied separately, little is known about their interactions. Here, we investigate the impact of long-term mild metal exposure on the cold acclimation of Salix viminalis roots using physiological, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches. We found that, while metal exposure significantly affected plant morphology and physiology, it did not impede cold acclimation. Cold acclimation alone increased glutathione content and glutathione reductase activity. It also resulted in the increase in transcripts and proteins belonging to the heat-shock proteins and related to the energy metabolism. Exposure to metals decreased antioxidant capacity but increased catalase and superoxide dismutase activity. It also resulted in the overexpression of transcripts and proteins related to metal homeostasis, protein folding, and the antioxidant machinery. The simultaneous exposure to both stressors resulted in effects that were not the simple addition of the effects of both stressors taken separately. At the antioxidant level, the response to both stressors was like the response to metals alone. While this should have led to a reduction of frost tolerance, this was not observed. The impact of the simultaneous exposure to metals and cold acclimation on the transcriptome was unique, while at the proteomic level the cold acclimation component seemed to be dominant. Some genes and proteins displayed positive interaction patterns. These genes and proteins were related to the mitigation and reparation of oxidative damage, sugar catabolism, and the production of lignans, trehalose, and raffinose. Interestingly, none of these genes and proteins belonged to the traditional ROS homeostasis system. These results highlight the importance of the under-studied role of lignans and the ROS damage repair and removal system in plants simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors.


Assuntos
Lignanas , Metais Pesados , Salix , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Salix/genética , Salix/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteômica , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Aclimatação , Lignanas/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339166

RESUMO

Herein, we applied DNA barcoding for the genetic characterization of Sideritis syriaca subsp. syriaca (Lamiaceae; threatened local Cretan endemic plant) using seven molecular markers of cpDNA. Five fertilization schemes were evaluated comparatively in a pilot cultivation in Crete. Conventional inorganic fertilizers (ChFs), integrated nutrient management (INM) fertilizers, and two biostimulants were utilized (foliar and soil application). Plant growth, leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, and color were assessed and leaf content of chlorophyll, key antioxidants (carotenoids, flavonoids, phenols), and nutrients were evaluated. Fertilization schemes induced distinct differences in leaf shape, altering quality characteristics. INM-foliar and ChF-soil application promoted yield, without affecting tissue water content or biomass partitioning to inflorescences. ChF-foliar application was the most stimulatory treatment when the primary target was enhanced antioxidant contents while INM-biostimulant was the least effective one. However, when the primary target is yield, INM, especially by foliar application, and ChF, by soil application, ought to be employed. New DNA sequence datasets for the plastid regions of petB/petD, rpoC1, psbK-psbI, and atpF/atpH were deposited in the GenBank for S. syriaca subsp. syriaca while the molecular markers rbcL, trnL/trnF, and psbA/trnH were compared to those of another 15 Sideritis species retrieved from the GenBank, constructing a phylogenetic tree to show their genetic relatedness.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Sideritis , Sideritis/genética , Filogenia , Grécia , Fertilizantes , Plantas/genética , Clorofila , Solo , Fertilização , DNA de Plantas/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339199

RESUMO

Multiple cis-acting elements are present in promoter sequences that play critical regulatory roles in gene transcription and expression. In this study, we isolated the cotton FDH (Fiddlehead) gene promoter (pGhFDH) using a real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression analysis and performed a cis-acting elements prediction analysis. The plant expression vector pGhFDH::GUS was constructed using the Gateway approach and was used for the genetic transformation of Arabidopsis and upland cotton plants to obtain transgenic lines. Histochemical staining and a ß-glucuronidase (GUS) activity assay showed that the GUS protein was detected in the roots, stems, leaves, inflorescences, and pods of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines. Notably, high GUS activity was observed in different tissues. In the transgenic lines, high GUS activity was detected in different tissues such as leaves, stalks, buds, petals, androecium, endosperm, and fibers, where the pGhFDH-driven GUS expression levels were 3-10-fold higher compared to those under the CaMV 35S promoter at 10-30 days post-anthesis (DPA) during fiber development. The results indicate that pGhFDH can be used as an endogenous constitutive promoter to drive the expression of target genes in various cotton tissues to facilitate functional genomic studies and accelerate cotton molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Gossypium , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Glucuronidase/genética , Glucuronidase/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339212

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that exposure of plants to unfavorable environments leads to the accumulation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). H2S interacts with the ROS-mediated oxidative stress response network at multiple levels. Therefore, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms by which H2S and ROS interact. The molecular mechanism of action by H2S relies on the post-translational modification of the cysteine sulfur group (-SH), known as persulfidation. H2S cannot react directly with -SH, but it can react with oxidized cysteine residues, and this oxidation process is induced by H2O2. Evidently, ROS is involved in the signaling pathway of H2S and plays a significant role. In this review, we summarize the role of H2S-mediated post-translational modification mechanisms in oxidative stress responses. Moreover, the mechanism of interaction between H2S and ROS in the regulation of redox reactions is focused upon, and the positive cooperative role of H2S and ROS is elucidated. Subsequently, based on the existing evidence and clues, we propose some potential problems and new clues to be explored, which are crucial for the development of the crosstalk mechanism of H2S and ROS in plants.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredução , Plantas/metabolismo
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(3)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339634

RESUMO

A spectral image analysis has the potential to replace traditional approaches for assessing plant responses to different types of stresses, including herbicides, through non-destructive and high-throughput screening (HTS). Therefore, this study was conducted to develop a rapid bioassay method using a multi-well plate and spectral image analysis for the diagnosis of herbicide activity and modes of action. Crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris), as a model weed, was cultivated in multi-well plates and subsequently treated with six herbicides (paraquat, tiafenacil, penoxsulam, isoxaflutole, glufosinate, and glyphosate) with different modes of action when the crabgrass reached the 1-leaf stage, using only a quarter of the recommended dose. To detect the plant's response to herbicides, plant spectral images were acquired after herbicide treatment using RGB, infrared (IR) thermal, and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) sensors and analyzed for diagnosing herbicide efficacy and modes of action. A principal component analysis (PCA), using all spectral data, successfully distinguished herbicides and clustered depending on their modes of action. The performed experiments showed that the multi-well plate assay combined with a spectral image analysis can be successfully applied for herbicide bioassays. In addition, the use of spectral image sensors, especially CF images, would facilitate HTS by enabling the rapid observation of herbicide responses at as early as 3 h after herbicide treatment.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Plantas , Bioensaio , Plantas Daninhas
13.
Int. microbiol ; 27(1): 311-324, Feb. 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230263

RESUMO

Management and improving saline-alkali land is necessary for sustainable agricultural development. We conducted a field experiment to investigate the effects of spraying lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the cucumber and tomato plant soils. Three treatments were designed, including spraying of water, viable or sterilized LAB preparations to the soils of cucumber and tomato plants every 20 days. Spraying sterilized or viable LAB could reduce the soil pH, with a more obvious effect by using viable LAB, particularly after multiple applications. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that the soil microbiota in LAB-treated groups had higher alpha-diversity and more nitrogen-fixing bacteria compared with the water-treated groups. Both viable and sterilized LAB, but not water application, increased the complexity of the soil microbiota interactive network. The LAB-treated subgroups were enriched in some KEGG pathways compared with water or sterilized LAB subgroups, such as environmental information processing–related pathways in cucumber plant; and metabolism-related pathways in tomato plant, respectively. Redundancy analysis revealed association between some soil physico-chemical parameters (namely soil pH and total nitrogen) and bacterial biomarkers (namely Rhodocyclaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Gemmatimonadaceae, and Nitrosomonadales). Our study demonstrated that LAB is a suitable strategy for decreasing soil pH and improving the microbial communities in saline-alkali land.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Bactérias/genética , Microbiologia do Solo , Plantas , Álcalis , Lactobacillales , Metagenoma , Microbiologia , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Solo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Metagenômica , Água/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1330, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351066

RESUMO

Human factors and plant characteristics are important drivers of plant invasions, which threaten ecosystem integrity, biodiversity and human well-being. However, while previous studies often examined a limited number of factors or focused on a specific invasion stage (e.g., naturalization) for specific regions, a multi-factor and multi-stage analysis at the global scale is lacking. Here, we employ a multi-level framework to investigate the interplay between plant characteristics (genome size, Grime's adaptive CSR-strategies and native range size) and economic use and how these factors collectively affect plant naturalization and invasion success worldwide. While our findings derived from structural equation models highlight the substantial contribution of human assistance in both the naturalization and spread of invasive plants, we also uncovered the pivotal role of species' adaptive strategies among the factors studied, and the significantly varying influence of these factors across invasion stages. We further revealed that the effects of genome size on plant invasions were partially mediated by species adaptive strategies and native range size. Our study provides insights into the complex and dynamic process of plant invasions and identifies its key drivers worldwide.


Assuntos
Cidadania , Ecossistema , Humanos , Tamanho do Genoma , Espécies Introduzidas , Ecologia , Biodiversidade , Plantas/genética
15.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 100(3)2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364305

RESUMO

The holobiont Holobiont theory is more than 80 years old, while the importance of microbial communities for plant holobionts was already identified by Lorenz Hiltner more than a century ago. Both concepts are strongly supported by results from the new field of microbiome research. Here, we present ecological and genetic features of the plant holobiont that underpin principles of a shared governance between hosts and microbes and summarize the relevance of plant holobionts in the context of global change. Moreover, we uncover knowledge gaps that arise when integrating plant holobionts in the broader perspective of the holobiome as well as one and planetary health concepts. Action is needed to consider interacting holobionts at the holobiome scale, for prediction and control of microbiome function to improve human and environmental health outcomes.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Saúde Única , Humanos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simbiose , Plantas
16.
Gene ; 893: 147927, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374023

RESUMO

Recent semi-targeted metabolomics studies have highlighted a number of metabolites in wheat that associate with leaf rust resistance genes and/or rust infection. Here, we report the structural characterization of a novel glycosylated and partially saturated apocarotenoid, reminiscent of a reduced form of mycorradicin, (6E,8E,10E)-4,9-dimethyl-12-oxo-12-((3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(2-hydroxyethoxy)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methoxy)-3-((3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)dodeca-6,8,10-trienoic acid, isolated from Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) variety 'Thatcher' (Tc) flag leaves. While its accumulation was not associated with any of Lr34, Lr67 or Lr22a resistance genes, infection of Tc with leaf rust was found to deplete it, consistent with the idea of this metabolite being a glycosylated-storage form of an apocarotenoid of possible relevance to plant defense. A comparative analysis of wheat transcriptomic changes shows modulation of terpenoid, carotenoid, UDP-glycosyltransferase and glycosylase -related gene expression profiles, consistent with anticipated biosynthesis and degradation mechanisms. However, details of the exact nature of the relevant pathways remain to be validated in the future. Together these findings highlight another example of the breadth of unique metabolites underlying plant host-fungal pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Piranos
17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(2): e17189, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375686

RESUMO

Terrestrial ecosystems affect climate by reflecting solar irradiation, evaporative cooling, and carbon sequestration. Yet very little is known about how plant traits affect climate regulation processes (CRPs) in different habitat types. Here, we used linear and random forest models to relate the community-weighted mean and variance values of 19 plant traits (summarized into eight trait axes) to the climate-adjusted proportion of reflected solar irradiation, evapotranspiration, and net primary productivity across 36,630 grid cells at the European extent, classified into 10 types of forest, shrubland, and grassland habitats. We found that these trait axes were more tightly linked to log evapotranspiration (with an average of 6.2% explained variation) and the proportion of reflected solar irradiation (6.1%) than to net primary productivity (4.9%). The highest variation in CRPs was explained in forest and temperate shrubland habitats. Yet, the strength and direction of these relationships were strongly habitat-dependent. We conclude that any spatial upscaling of the effects of plant communities on CRPs must consider the relative contribution of different habitat types.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Plantas , Clima , Processos Climáticos , Biodiversidade
18.
Bioengineered ; 15(1): 2314888, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375815

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) has become a severe issue in relatively low concentration and attracts expert attention due to its toxicity, accumulation, and biomagnification in living organisms. Cd does not have a biological role and causes serious health issues. Therefore, Cd pollutants should be reduced and removed from the environment. Microalgae have great potential for Cd absorption for waste treatment since they are more environmentally friendly than existing treatment methods and have strong metal sorption selectivity. This study evaluated the tolerance and ability of the microalga Tetratostichococcus sp. P1 to remove Cd ions under acidic conditions and reveal mechanisms based on transcriptomics analysis. The results showed that Tetratostichococcus sp. P1 had a high Cd tolerance that survived under the presence of Cd up to 100 µM, and IC50, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration value, was 57.0 µM, calculated from the change in growth rate based on the chlorophyll content. Long-term Cd exposure affected the algal morphology and photosynthetic pigments of the alga. Tetratostichococcus sp. P1 removed Cd with a maximum uptake of 1.55 mg g-1 dry weight. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the upregulation of the expression of genes related to metal binding, such as metallothionein. Group A, Group B transporters and glutathione, were also found upregulated. While the downregulation of the genes were related to photosynthesis, mitochondria electron transport, ABC-2 transporter, polysaccharide metabolic process, and cell division. This research is the first study on heavy metal bioremediation using Tetratostichococcus sp. P1 and provides a new potential microalga strain for heavy metal removal in wastewater.[Figure: see text]Abbreviations:BP: Biological process; bZIP: Basic Leucine Zipper; CC: Cellular component; ccc1: Ca (II)-sensitive cross complementary 1; Cd: Cadmium; CDF: Cation diffusion facilitator; Chl: Chlorophyll; CTR: Cu TRansporter families; DAGs: Directed acyclic graphs; DEGs: Differentially expressed genes; DVR: Divinyl chlorophyllide, an 8-vinyl-reductase; FPN: FerroportinN; FTIR: Fourier transform infrared; FTR: Fe TRansporter; GO: Gene Ontology; IC50: Growth half maximal inhibitory concentration; ICP: Inductively coupled plasma; MF: molecular function; NRAMPs: Natural resistance-associated aacrophage proteins; OD: Optical density; RPKM: Reads Per Kilobase of Exon Per Million Reads Mapped; VIT1: Vacuolar iron transporter 1 families; ZIPs: Zrt-, Irt-like proteins.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Metais Pesados , Cádmio/toxicidade , Bioacumulação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Plantas/metabolismo , Clorófitas/genética , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Clorofila
19.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(3): 88, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311656

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) stand as a promising alternative to conventional pesticides, leveraging a multifaceted approach to combat plant pathogens. This study focuses on identifying and characterizing the AMP produced by Lactiplantibacillus argentoratensis strain IT, demonstrating potent antibacterial activity against various harmful microorganisms. Evaluation of AMPs' antibacterial activity was conducted through an agar well diffusion assay, a reliable method for assessing secondary metabolite antimicrobial efficacy. The study unveils the antimicrobial potential of the purified extract obtained from Lactiplantibacillus argentoratensis IT, isolated from goat milk. Notably, the AMP exhibited robust antibacterial activity against phytopathogens affecting solanaceous crops, including the Gram-negative Ralstonia solanacearum. Expression conditions and purification methods were optimized to identify the peptide's mass and sequence, utilizing LC-MS and SDS-PAGE. This paper underscores the application potential of Lactiplantibacillus spp. IT as a biocontrol agent for managing bacterial infectious diseases in plants. Results indicate optimal AMP production at 37 °C, with a culture broth pH of 5 during fermentation. The obtained peptide sequence corresponded to peaks at 842.5 and 2866.4 m/z ratio, with a molecular weight of approximately 5 kDa according to tricine SDS-PAGE analysis. In conclusion, this study lays the foundation for utilizing Lactiplantibacillus spp. IT derived AMPs in plant biocontrol strategies, showcasing their efficacy against bacterial phytopathogens. These findings contribute valuable insights for advancing sustainable agricultural practices.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Peptídeos , Bactérias , Antibacterianos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Plantas/microbiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3814, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360842

RESUMO

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in middle- and low-income countries, and this disease is a burden on public health systems. Notably, dietary components are crucial regulatory factors in T2DM. Plant-based dietary patterns and certain food groups, such as whole grains, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits, are inversely correlated with diabetes incidence. We conducted the present study to determine the association between adherence to a plant-based diet and the risk of diabetes among adults. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based RaNCD cohort study involving 3401 men and 3699 women. The plant-based diet index (PDI) was developed using a 118-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the PDI score and the risk of T2DM. A total of 7100 participants with a mean age of 45.96 ± 7.78 years were analysed. The mean PDI scores in the first, second, and third tertiles (T) were 47.13 ± 3.41, 54.44 ± 1.69, and 61.57 ± 3.24, respectively. A lower PDI was significantly correlated with a greater incidence of T2DM (T1 = 7.50%, T2 = 4.85%, T3 = 4.63%; P value < 0.001). Higher PDI scores were associated with significantly increased intakes of fibre, vegetables, fruits, olives, olive oil, legumes, soy products, tea/coffee, whole grains, nuts, vitamin E, vitamin C, and omega-6 fatty acids (P value < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables, the odds of having T2DM were significantly lower (by 30%) at T3 of the PDI than at T1 (OR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.96; P value < 0.001). Our data suggest that adhering to plant-based diets comprising whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, vegetable oils, and tea/coffee can be recommended today to reduce the risk of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fabaceae , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Café , Dieta , Verduras , Plantas , Chá
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