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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252143, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364526

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is one of non-essential heavy metals which is released into environment naturally or anthropogenically. It is highly persistent toxic metals that are exceptionally distressing industrial and agriculture activities by contaminating soil, water and food. Its long-duration endurance in soil and water results in accumulation and uptake into plants, leading to the food chain. This becomes a serious global problem threatening humans and animals as food chain components. Living organisms, especially humans, are exposed to Cd through plants as one of the main vegetative food sources. This review paper is concentrated on the symptoms of the plants affected by Cd toxicity. The absorption of Cd triggers several seen and unseen symptoms by polluted plants such as stunted growth, chlorosis, necrosis and wilting. Apart from that, factors that affect the uptake and translocation of Cd in plants are elaborated to understand the mechanism that contributes to its accumulation. By insight of Cd accumulation, this review also discussed the phytoremediation techniques-phytoextraction, phytostimulation, phytostabilization, phytovolatization and rhizofiltration in bioremediating the Cd.


O cádmio (Cd) é um dos metais pesados ​​não essenciais que é liberado no meio ambiente de forma natural ou antropogênica. São metais tóxicos altamente persistentes que prejudicam excepcionalmente as atividades industriais e agrícolas, contaminando o solo, a água e os alimentos. Sua resistência de longa duração no solo e na água resulta em acúmulo e absorção pelas plantas, levando à cadeia alimentar. Isso se torna um sério problema global que ameaça humanos e animais como componentes da cadeia alimentar. Os organismos vivos, principalmente os humanos, são expostos ao Cd através das plantas como uma das principais fontes de alimento vegetativo. Este artigo de revisão concentra-se nos sintomas das plantas afetadas pela toxicidade do Cd. A absorção de Cd desencadeia vários sintomas visíveis e invisíveis por plantas poluídas, como crescimento atrofiado, clorose, necrose e murcha. Além disso, são elaborados fatores que afetam a absorção e translocação de Cd nas plantas para entender o mecanismo que contribui para o seu acúmulo. A partir do conhecimento do acúmulo de Cd, esta revisão também discutiu as técnicas de fitorremediação - fitoextração, fitoestimulação, fitoestabilização, fitovolatização e rizofiltração na biorremediação do Cd.


Assuntos
Plantas/toxicidade , Cádmio , Metais Pesados , Alimentos/toxicidade
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257969, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364513

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated variation in vegetative and reproductive phenological events of four phylogenetically related plant species subjected to a seasonal environment. To this aim, we sampled 15 individuals of each plant species every fortnight for one year, between January and December of 2017. To assess when a given phenophase occurred more intensely in the population, the Fournier intensity index was used and the synchrony of individuals of the sample in a given phenological event was estimated using the activity index. The Rayleigh (Z) test was used to determine whether the phenological events have seasonal distribution. The relationship of abiotic factors (photoperiod, precipitation, relative humidity and temperature) with the intensity of phenophases was evaluated for each plant species using generalized linear models (GLMs). The phenophases of all plants showed a seasonal distribution pattern, as well as variation in synchrony of phenophases and specific sets of abiotic factors significantly influenced their phenophases. New leaves, for example, were produced throughout the seasons, with intense leaf fall in the dry season. Flowering periods, on the other hand, did not overlap. Indeed, species exhibited sequential flowering and asynchronous flowering among individuals. Our results suggest that the phenological patterns of four sympatric plant species are directly linked to climatic variables, but different abiotic factors affected different phenophases.


Neste estudo, avaliamos a variação nos eventos fenológicos vegetativos e reprodutivos de quatro espécies de plantas filogeneticamente relacionadas submetidas a um ambiente sazonal. Para isso, amostramos 15 indivíduos de cada espécie quinzenalmente, pelo período de um ano, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2017. Para avaliar quando uma determinada fenofase ocorreu de modo mais intenso na população foi utilizado o índice de intensidade de Fournier e a sincronia dos indivíduos da amostra em determinado evento fenológico foi estimada utilizando-se o índice de atividade. O teste de Rayleigh (Z) foi usado para determinar se os eventos fenológicos têm distribuição sazonal. A relação dos fatores abióticos (fotoperíodo, precipitação, temperatura e umidade relativa) com a intensidade das fenofases foi avaliada para cada espécie de planta usando modelos lineares generalizados (GLMs). As fenofases de todas as plantas apresentaram um padrão de distribuição sazonal, bem como variação na sincronia das fenofases e conjuntos específicos de fatores abióticos influenciaram significativamente suas fenofases. Folhas novas, por exemplo, foram produzidas ao longo das estações, com intensa queda de folhas na estação seca. Os períodos de floração, por outro lado, não se sobrepuseram. De fato, as espécies exibiram floração sequencial e floração assíncrona entre os indivíduos. Nossos resultados sugerem que os padrões fenológicos das quatro espécies de plantas simpátricas estão diretamente ligados às variáveis climáticas, mas diferentes fatores abióticos afetaram diferentes fenofases.


Assuntos
Plantas , Estações do Ano , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Simpatria/fisiologia
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255485, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350312

RESUMO

Abstract The current focus is on the overall pattern of seed storage present in the fragments of the soil of piedmont and alluvial landscapes of the environment. The present study predicted the seed banks of both soils of alluvial and piedmont zones in different ecological conditions and evaluate the potential of seeds in the restoration of both environments. The composition of the seed bank of soil is mainly affected by the alluvial environment and the structure of cleared area shows that more species of germinating annual grasses and growable seeds with the higher total number. Extant vegetation structures have an important role in the diversity of soil seed reservoirs, whose composition corresponded with the openness of the site. When in situ soil seed bank is recruited, it helps to restore only some components of the plant community in an alluvial environment. In our current research, it was confirmed that seed richness was higher in number at lower elevation (alluvial) than that at high elevation (piedmont). Seed richness showed a significant negative correlation with anions, cations, while significantly positive with altitude that suggests the richness pattern of the overall seed bank of the area is influenced by various environmental factors.


Resumo O foco atual está no padrão geral de armazenamento de sementes presente nos fragmentos de solo do Piemonte e nas paisagens aluviais do meio ambiente. O presente estudo previu os bancos de sementes de ambos os solos das zonas aluvial e piemontesa em diferentes condições ecológicas e avaliou o potencial das sementes na restauração de ambos os ambientes. A composição do banco de sementes do solo é afetada principalmente pelo ambiente aluvial e a estrutura da área desmatada mostra que mais espécies de gramíneas anuais em germinação e sementes cultiváveis ​​apresentam o maior número total. As estruturas da vegetação existente têm um papel importante na diversidade dos reservatórios de sementes do solo, cuja composição correspondeu à abertura do local. Quando o banco de sementes do solo in situ é recrutado, o mesmo ajuda a restaurar apenas alguns componentes da comunidade de plantas em um ambiente aluvial. Em nossa pesquisa atual, foi confirmado que a riqueza de sementes era maior em número em altitudes mais baixas (aluviais) do que em altitudes elevadas (Piemonte). A riqueza de sementes mostrou uma correlação negativa significativa com ânions, cátions, enquanto significativamente positiva com a altitude, o que sugere que o padrão de riqueza do banco geral de sementes da área é influenciado por vários fatores ambientais.


Assuntos
Solo , Banco de Sementes , Paquistão , Plantas , Sementes , Ecossistema , Poaceae
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2564: 203-211, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107343

RESUMO

Fluorescent proteins (FPs) remarkably advanced the study of cellular biology of plants. The most common application is their use as reporter proteins to determine the subcellular localization of a protein of interest (POI) by endogenous expression of a suitable FP-POI fusion construct in plant cells. In this chapter we describe three approaches, namely, particle bombardment, protoplast transformation, and Agrobacterium infiltration, to transiently express such fusion constructs in plant cells of different species. These approaches are versatile and can be utilized for diverse fluorescent protein-based applications.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium , Plantas , Agrobacterium/genética , Agrobacterium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico
6.
Food Chem ; 399: 133941, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007445

RESUMO

A deep eutectic system (DESys) is formed when a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) is processed with polysaccharide (hydrogen bond donor, HBD) containing plant substance in water to dissolve, extract, and recover the polysaccharide directly, instead of using a traditional deep eutectic solvent (DES). The extraction efficiency is enhanced by the direct formation of the DESys, in a mechanochemical extraction (MCE) system. Key factors affecting the extraction efficiency were systematically studied and optimized. The effects of the DESys on the structure and physicochemical properties of polysaccharides were studied by several analytical techniques. The findings demonstrated that the direct DESys formation extraction efficiency was superior than that of traditional extraction methods while retaining physicochemical properties of polysaccharides. Moreover, the composition of polysaccharides extracted with this method is different from that obtained by conventional methods. The recovery and purification process of polysaccharides is simplified by eliminating the need for an additional HBD.


Assuntos
Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Extratos Vegetais , Polissacarídeos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas , Solventes/química
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245862, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339337

RESUMO

Abstract Except for a few stick insects that are economically valuable, most species be considered to be forest pests, so it is extremely important to obtain plant host-use information of more stick insects. In this paper, the plant hosts of three species of stick insects were recorded for the first time. We also discovered these stick insects can feed upon the flowers or leaves of plants. Lopaphus unidentatus (Chen & He, 1995) (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) attacked Hypericum choisianum Wall. ex N. Robson, 1973 (Hypericaceae), Leurophasma dolichocercum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Aschiphasmatidae) attacked Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Roberty & Vautier, 1964 (Polygonaceae) and Megalophasma granulatum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) attacked Debregeasia orientalis C. J. Chen, 1991 (Urticaceae). Finally, we were lucky enough to also obtain photographs of them mating and feeding.


Resumo Exceto por alguns insetos-pau que são economicamente valiosos, a maioria das espécies pode ser considerada praga florestal, por isso é extremamente importante obter informações sobre o uso de hospedeiros de plantas de mais insetos-pau. Neste artigo, as plantas hospedeiras de três espécies de bicho-pau foram registradas pela primeira vez. Também descobrimos que esses bichos-pau podem se alimentar de flores ou folhas de plantas. Lopaphus unidentatus (Chen & He, 1995) (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) atacou a parede de Hypericum choisianum. ex N. Robson, 1973 (Hypericaceae), Leurophasma dolichocercum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Aschiphasmatidae) atacou Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Roberty & Vautier, 1964 (Polygonaceae) e Megalophasma granulatum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Lonchodidae orientaled) atacou Chen, 1991 (Urticaceae). Finalmente, tivemos a sorte de também obter fotos deles se acasalando e se alimentando.


Assuntos
Animais , Plantas , Insetos , Tibet , Folhas de Planta , Flores
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244732, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278538

RESUMO

Abstract Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Resumo Alguns estudos relatam o efeito positivo de resíduos orgânicos de formigueiros nas propriedades do solo e na estrutura da comunidade de plantas adjacentes em experimentos de campo, mas há uma lacuna sobre o efeito em espécies individuais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento de Turnera subulata Smith, uma espécie ornamental, na presença do substrato de descarte (SD) de formigueiros produzido pela formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) por meio de experimento em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido com dois tratamentos: solo controle e solo com 25% de SD. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de 1L por 90 dias. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, comprimento da raiz, número de folhas, massa seca da raiz, biomassa seca e fresca da parte aérea. Além disso, o conteúdo relativo de clorofila e os nutrientes foliares foram usados como parâmetros fisiológicos. Como resultado, as plantas que cresceram no solo com SD apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de todos os parâmetros avaliados quando comparadas ao tratamento controle (p < 0.001). Concluímos que esse biofertilizante contribuiu para a produção de plantas mais vigorosas, podendo atuar na dinâmica local de nutrientes nos ecossistemas onde A. balzani ocorre. Além disso, por ser relativamente abundante e fácil de coletar, o SD de A. balzani tem potencial para ser utilizado como biofertilizante na produção de plantas de ciclo de vida curta.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Turnera , Plantas , Solo , Simbiose , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta
9.
Environ Entomol ; 51(1): 222-228, 2022 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864970

RESUMO

The invasive spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, (White Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) continues to spread throughout the Eastern United States. This species exhibits a broad host range, with tree of heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, commonly referred to as the preferred host. Here, we evaluated 2-wk survivorship of early nymphal instars, late nymphal instars, and adult L. delicatula on single diets of ten wild and cultivated hosts: tree of heaven; apple, Malus domestica; peach, Prunus persica; black cherry, P. serotina Ehrh; black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L.; black walnut, Juglans nigra L.; common hackberry Celtis occidentalis L.; mulberry Morus alba L.; sugar maple Acer saccharum Marshall; white oak, Quercus alba L.. Among them, early and late instars had significantly greater survivorship on tree of heaven and black walnut and adults had greatest survivorship on tree of heaven. Additionally, we evaluated development and survivorship of L. delicatula from newly hatched nymphs to adulthood on single diets of tree of heaven, black walnut, grapevine, apple, and peach, and mixed diets of tree of heaven plus one other host. Single host diets that supported L. delicatula development to adulthood were tree of heaven and black walnut. Interestingly, mixed diets also supported development, and reduced development time to adults by up to 12% compared with the single tree of heaven diet. Our results suggest that within agroecosystems and across landscapes, L. delicatula can develop on single hosts such as tree of heaven, but also on multiple host plants, yielding adults earlier in the growing season.


Assuntos
Ailanthus , Hemípteros , Animais , Ninfa , Plantas , Sobrevivência
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4683, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050293

RESUMO

Global patterns of regional (gamma) plant diversity are relatively well known, but whether these patterns hold for local communities, and the dependence on spatial grain, remain controversial. Using data on 170,272 georeferenced local plant assemblages, we created global maps of alpha diversity (local species richness) for vascular plants at three different spatial grains, for forests and non-forests. We show that alpha diversity is consistently high across grains in some regions (for example, Andean-Amazonian foothills), but regional 'scaling anomalies' (deviations from the positive correlation) exist elsewhere, particularly in Eurasian temperate forests with disproportionally higher fine-grained richness and many African tropical forests with disproportionally higher coarse-grained richness. The influence of different climatic, topographic and biogeographical variables on alpha diversity also varies across grains. Our multi-grain maps return a nuanced understanding of vascular plant biodiversity patterns that complements classic maps of biodiversity hotspots and will improve predictions of global change effects on biodiversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Traqueófitas , Ecossistema , Plantas
11.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 2805004, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36061980

RESUMO

The high production potential of coffee and animals in the Gedeo zone that could produce huge amounts of coffee pulp and animal manure wastes has been polluting the environment. In this sense, this study was aimed at averting pollution and managing plant and animal wastes, focusing on the effect of coffee pulp and animal manure in the form of vermicompost, biochar, and ordinary compost on hot pepper vegetative and reproductive growth. A 15 ton per hectare of each treatment was applied in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Vegetative and reproductive growth parameters (plant height, leaf number, number of branches, days to 50% flowering, total fresh biomass, number of fruits per plant, single fruit length, and fruit yield per hectare) were recorded, and the statistical difference was determined at 5% significance level using R-program. The result showed that there was a significant difference among treatments. Coffee pulp vermicompost prepared using Eisenia fetida earthworm had significantly (P < 0.05) higher results in plant height, leaf number, number of branches, total fresh biomass, number of fruits per plant, single fruit length, and total yield, while the minimum values were recorded in topsoil (control treatment) and animal manure compost. The direct and residual effects of vermicompost and biochar organic amendments were the potential organic fertilizers for hot pepper fast growth and to produce enormous yield, which might be due to their nature in improving soil physicochemical and biological properties as well as nutrient uptake.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Compostagem , Oligoquetos , Animais , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco , Plantas , Solo/química
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15174, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071152

RESUMO

Local knowledge and uses of forage resources are highly dynamic, and can be mediated by multiple factors, such as seasonality, floristic diversity and the morphophysiological characteristics of plants. We investigate how seasonality and vegetation cover mediate the use of forage resources. The study was carried out with agro-pastoralists from two areas of Brazilian semiarid region. To select the areas, we used the normalized difference vegetation index. We selected one area with low vegetation cover (Area I) and another with high vegetation cover (Area II). Respondents were selected using the snowball technique. Using semi-structured interviews, we collect the information about forage use in the dry and rainy seasons, preferences of ruminants and specific characteristics of plant species. A total of 57 informants were interviewed in the two areas. We used the Chi-square test to assess differences in the richness of species cited between areas, seasons (dry/rainy), origins (exotic/native) and strate (herbaceous/woody). Our results revealed that agro-pastoralists living in the area with the highest vegetation cover (Area II) cited a greater number of species. We found that the use and selection of species is guided by a series of functional characters, related to palatability and nutritional value, which change between seasons. These results highlight the vast knowledge of ecological characteristics of species and diet of ruminants acquired by agro-pastoralists during field experience, with seasonality defining the use of species. Different from what we expected, the richness of exotic species mentioned did not differ between areas. This diversity of information contributes to a better understanding of the use of forage resources and indicates the importance of including local experiences as strategies to ensure proper use and provide insights for the conservation of local resources.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Plantas , Brasil , Conhecimento , Madeira
13.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274003, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054184

RESUMO

Modeling oviposition as a function of female insect age, temperature, and host plant suitability may provide valuable insight into insect population growth of polyphagous insect pests at a landscape level. In this study, we quantified oviposition by beet leafhoppers, Circulifer (= Neoaliturus) tenellus (Baker) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), on four common non-agricultural host plant species [Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Hér. (Geraniaceae), Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrader (Amaranthaceae), Plantago ovata Forsskál (Plantaginaceae), and Salsola tragus L. (Amaranthaceae)] at two constant temperature conditions. Additionally, temperature-based oviposition models for each host plant species were validated, under semi-field and greenhouse conditions. We found that K. scoparia was the most suitable host plant, and optimal temperature for oviposition was estimated to be 30.6°C. Accordingly, beet leafhoppers appear to be well-adapted to high-temperature conditions, so increasing temperatures due to climate change may favor population growth in non-agricultural areas. Maximum total fecundity (Rm) was used as an indicator of relative suitability of host plants. S. tragus has been considered an important non-agricultural host plant, however, we found that S. tragus and E. cicutarium have lower Rm compared to K. scoparia and P. ovata. The combination of detailed experimental oviposition bioassays, modeling, and model validation is considered widely relevant and applicable to host plant assessments and modeling of population dynamics of other polyphagous insect pests.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Hemípteros , Mariposas , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Oviposição , Plantas , Temperatura
15.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 102: 275-339, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064295

RESUMO

Plant-derived bioactive compounds have been extensively studied and used within food industry for the last few decades. Those compounds have been used to extend the shelf-life and improve physico-chemical and sensory properties on food products. They have also been used as nutraceuticals due to broad range of potential health-promoting properties. Unlike the synthetic additives, the natural plant-derived compounds are more acceptable and often regarded as safer by the consumers. This chapter summarizes the extraction methods and sources of those plant-derived bioactives as well as recent findings in relation to their health-promoting properties, including cardio-protective, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, immuno-modulatory and neuro-protective properties. In addition, the impact of applying those plant-derived compounds on seafood products is also investigated by reviewing the recent studies on their use as anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, coloring and flavoring agents as well as freshness indicators. Moreover, the current limitations of the use of plant-derived bioactive compounds as well as future prospects are discussed. The discoveries show high potential of those compounds and the possibility to apply on many different seafood. The compounds can be applied as individual while more and more studies are showing synergetic effect when those compounds are used in combination providing new important research possibilities.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos , Plantas , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Indústria Alimentícia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas/química , Alimentos Marinhos
16.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 102: 93-122, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064297

RESUMO

Pigments-producing microorganisms are quite common in Nature. However, there is a long journey from the Petri dish to the market place. Twenty-five years ago, scientists wondered if such productions would remain a scientific oddity or become an industrial reality. The answer is not straightforward as processes using fungi, bacteria or yeasts can now indeed provide carotenoids or phycocyanin at an industrial level. Another production factor to consider is peculiar as Monascus red colored food is consumed by more than one billion Asian people; however, still banned in many other countries. European and American consumers will follow as soon as "100%-guaranteed" toxin-free strains (molecular engineered strains, citrinin gene deleted strains) will be developed and commercialized at a world level. For other pigmented biomolecules, some laboratories and companies invested and continue to invest a lot of money as any combination of new source and/or new pigment requires a lot of experimental work, process optimization, toxicological studies, and regulatory approval. Time will tell whether investments in pigments such as azaphilones or anthraquinones were justified. Future trends involve combinatorial engineering, gene knock-out, and the production of niche pigments not found in plants such as C50 carotenoids or aryl carotenoids.


Assuntos
Corantes de Alimentos , Fungos , Bactérias , Carotenoides , Humanos , Plantas
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 730, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066693

RESUMO

Nanomaterials (NMs) are currently being used in agricultural soils as part of a new bioremediation (BR) process. In this study, we reviewed the biosynthesis of NMs, as well as their chemical composition and prospective strategies for helpful and sustainable agricultural soil bioremediation (BR). Different types of NMs, such as nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanocrystals, nano-powders, and nanotubes, are used in agricultural soil reclamation, and they reflect the toxicity of NMs to microorganisms. Plants (Sargassum muticum, Dodonaea viscose, Aloe Vera, Rosemarinus officinalis, Azadirachta indica, Green tea, and so on) and microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Shewanella oneidensis, Pleurotus sp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Aspergillus clavatus, and so on) are the primary sources for the biosynthesis of NMs. By using the BR process, microorganisms, such as bacteria and plants, can immobilize metals and change both inorganic and organic contaminants in the soil. Combining NMs with bioremediation techniques for agricultural soil remediation will be a valuable long-term solution.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plantas , Estudos Prospectivos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Sci Signal ; 15(750): eade6800, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067334

RESUMO

Plants detect and respond to neighbors with root-produced hormones.


Assuntos
Lactonas , Plantas , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas
19.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(9): 587, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048258

RESUMO

Beauveria bassiana, a potential entomopathogenic biocontrol agent, has recently drawn attention worldwide for its other additional beneficial roles such as plant disease antagonist, beneficial rhizosphere colonizer, plant growth promoter and an endophyte. In the present study, endophytic colonizing behaviour of five (5) B. bassiana isolates viz., Bb4, Bb16, Bb25, Bb44 and Bb53 were studied in rice following three (3) artificial inoculation techniques viz., seed treatment, root inoculation and foliar spray and the endophytic colonizing ability were determined by culture-based assay. After B. bassiana inoculation, rice plants were challenged with Rhizoctonia solani and disease incidence and plant growth promotion were assessed. Per cent colonization of rice stems, leaves and roots were influenced by inoculation technique, post-inoculation time (7th, 14th, 21st and 28th dpi) and plant growth medium (sterile soil, non-sterile soil), recorded maximum on 14th-day post-inoculation (dpi) i.e., 96% in stems, 92% in leaves and 28% in roots, whereas, lower colonization was recorded on 7th, 21st and 28th dpi. Whereas, the foliar spray was found best as compared to seed and root inoculation techniques, and maximum fungal recovery was observed in stems and leaves and least in roots. Upon colonization, the physical presence of B. bassiana in rice was localized by light microscopy-based studies. Potential B. bassiana strains with endophytic ability were re-isolated and their identity was determined based on morphometric and PCR-based techniques. Further, the present study also identified several virulent genes viz., BbChit1, Cdep1, Bbhog1 and Bbjen1 and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes viz., α-amylase, cellulase, lipase, pectinase and xylanase secreted by endophytic B. bassiana strains as determinants responsible for establishing the endophytic association in rice. On the other hand, a significant reduction in disease incidence was observed in the endophytic B. bassiana Bb4-, Bb16- and Bb44-inoculated plants as compared to the non-endophytic B. bassiana Bb25- and Bb53-inoculated plants along with enhanced plant growth promotion. This is one of the few studies investigating the colonization of B. bassiana in rice and its promising role as a plant disease antagonist and plant growth promoter in rice.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Oryza , Beauveria/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Plantas , Rhizoctonia , Solo
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14823, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050344

RESUMO

The potential for climate change to exacerbate the burden of human infectious diseases is increasingly recognized, but its effects on infectious diseases of plants have received less attention. Understanding the impacts of climate on the epidemiological dynamics of plant pathogens is imperative, as these organisms play central roles in natural ecosystems and also pose a serious threat to agricultural production and food security. We use the fungal 'flax rust' pathogen (Melampsora lini) and its subalpine wildflower host Lewis flax (Linum lewisii) to investigate how climate change might affect the dynamics of fungal plant pathogen epidemics using a combination of empirical and modeling approaches. Our results suggest that climate change will initially slow transmission at both the within- and between-host scales. However, moderate resurgences in disease spread are predicted as warming progresses, especially if the rate of greenhouse gas emissions continues to increase at its current pace. These findings represent an important step towards building a holistic understanding of climate effects on plant infectious disease that encompasses demographic, epidemiological, and evolutionary processes. A core result is that neglecting processes at any one scale of plant pathogen transmission may bias projections of climate effects, as climate drivers have variable and cascading impacts on processes underlying transmission that occur at different scales.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Linho , Ecossistema , Linho/microbiologia , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/microbiologia
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