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1.
Physiol Plant ; 176(1): e14155, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342490

RESUMO

Leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) play a pivotal role in diverse aspects of growth, development, and immunity in plants by sensing extracellular signals. Typically, LRR-RKs are activated through the ligand-induced interaction with a SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE (SERK) coreceptor, triggering downstream signaling. ROOT MERISTEM GROWTH FACTOR1 (RGF1) INSENSITIVEs (RGIs) LRR-RLK receptors promote primary root meristem activity while inhibiting lateral root (LR) development in response to RGF peptide. In this study, we employed rapamycin-induced dimerization (RiD) and BAK1-INTERACTING RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE3 (BIR3) chimera approaches to explore the gain-of-function of RGI1, RGI4, and RGI5. Rapamycin induced the association of cytosolic kinase domains (CKDs) of RGI1 and the BAK1 coreceptor, activating both mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) and MPK6. Rapamycin significantly inhibited LR formation in RiD-RGI1/RGI4/RGI5-BAK1 plants. Using transgenic Arabidopsis expressing RGI1CKD fused to the BIR3-LRR chimera under estradiol control, we observed a substantial reduction in LR density upon ß-estradiol treatment. Additionally, we identified a decrease in root gravitropism in BIR3 chimera plants. In contrast, RiD-RGI/BAK1 plants did not exhibit defects in root gravitropism, implying the importance of combinatorial interactions between RGIs and SERK coreceptors in the inhibition of root gravitropism. Constitutive activation of RGIs with BAK1 in RiD-RGI/BAK1 plants by rapamycin treatment resulted in the inhibition of primary root growth, resembling the inhibitory effects observed with high concentrations of phytohormones on primary root elongation. Our findings highlight that the interactions between CKDs of RGIs and BAK1, constitutively induced by rapamycin or BIR3 chimera, efficiently control LR development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Dimerização , Plantas/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estradiol/farmacologia
2.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 70(1): 1-11, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372120

RESUMO

Autophagy is classified into macro-autophagy and micro-autophagy. Two major types of autophagy in the complex eukaryotic organism are microautophagy and macroautophagy. During microautophagy, cytoplasmic components that need to be degraded are taken up by lysosomes in animals and by vacuole in yeast and plants via the invagination of tonoplast. While macroautophagy is initiated after the formation of a cup-shaped membrane structure, a phagophore develops at cargo that grows in size and is sealed by double-membrane vesicles to form autophagosome; a generalized mechanism for degradation of the organelle. Autophagic removal of damaged mitochondria is a conserved cellular process to maintain a healthy mitochondrion called Mitophagy. In plants and animals, mitophagy has crucial roles in stress responses, senescence, development, and programmed cell death. Mitophagy appears in mammals, fungi, and plants but many genes that controlled mitophagy are absent from plants. Numerous studies have been conducted by using ATG mutants for the identification of functional roles of Autophagy Related Genes (ATG) required during the autophagy process at various steps like; auto phagosome formation, ATG protein recruitment, etc. The role of more than 25 ATG genes in mitophagy has been discussed in this review paper. The main parameters, reviewed and summarized in this review paper, are the name of species, common name, function, domain, deletion, induction, and localization of these autophagy-related genes in the cell. This review will facilitate the students, researchers, and academics for their further research insights.


Assuntos
Mitofagia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Humanos , Animais , Mitofagia/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética , Vacúolos/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Mamíferos/genética
3.
Bioengineered ; 15(1): 2314888, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375815

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) has become a severe issue in relatively low concentration and attracts expert attention due to its toxicity, accumulation, and biomagnification in living organisms. Cd does not have a biological role and causes serious health issues. Therefore, Cd pollutants should be reduced and removed from the environment. Microalgae have great potential for Cd absorption for waste treatment since they are more environmentally friendly than existing treatment methods and have strong metal sorption selectivity. This study evaluated the tolerance and ability of the microalga Tetratostichococcus sp. P1 to remove Cd ions under acidic conditions and reveal mechanisms based on transcriptomics analysis. The results showed that Tetratostichococcus sp. P1 had a high Cd tolerance that survived under the presence of Cd up to 100 µM, and IC50, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration value, was 57.0 µM, calculated from the change in growth rate based on the chlorophyll content. Long-term Cd exposure affected the algal morphology and photosynthetic pigments of the alga. Tetratostichococcus sp. P1 removed Cd with a maximum uptake of 1.55 mg g-1 dry weight. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the upregulation of the expression of genes related to metal binding, such as metallothionein. Group A, Group B transporters and glutathione, were also found upregulated. While the downregulation of the genes were related to photosynthesis, mitochondria electron transport, ABC-2 transporter, polysaccharide metabolic process, and cell division. This research is the first study on heavy metal bioremediation using Tetratostichococcus sp. P1 and provides a new potential microalga strain for heavy metal removal in wastewater.[Figure: see text]Abbreviations:BP: Biological process; bZIP: Basic Leucine Zipper; CC: Cellular component; ccc1: Ca (II)-sensitive cross complementary 1; Cd: Cadmium; CDF: Cation diffusion facilitator; Chl: Chlorophyll; CTR: Cu TRansporter families; DAGs: Directed acyclic graphs; DEGs: Differentially expressed genes; DVR: Divinyl chlorophyllide, an 8-vinyl-reductase; FPN: FerroportinN; FTIR: Fourier transform infrared; FTR: Fe TRansporter; GO: Gene Ontology; IC50: Growth half maximal inhibitory concentration; ICP: Inductively coupled plasma; MF: molecular function; NRAMPs: Natural resistance-associated aacrophage proteins; OD: Optical density; RPKM: Reads Per Kilobase of Exon Per Million Reads Mapped; VIT1: Vacuolar iron transporter 1 families; ZIPs: Zrt-, Irt-like proteins.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Metais Pesados , Cádmio/toxicidade , Bioacumulação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Plantas/metabolismo , Clorófitas/genética , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Clorofila
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(7): e2313343121, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315839

RESUMO

Plants tightly control growth of their lateral organs, which led to the concept of apical dominance. However, outgrowth of the dormant lateral primordia is sensitive to the plant's nutritional status, resulting in an immense plasticity in plant architecture. While the impact of hormonal regulation on apical dominance is well characterized, the prime importance of sugar signaling to unleash lateral organ formation has just recently emerged. Here, we aimed to identify transcriptional regulators, which control the trade-off between growth of apical versus lateral organs. Making use of locally inducible gain-of-function as well as single and higher-order loss-of-function approaches of the sugar-responsive S1-basic-leucine-zipper (S1-bZIP) transcription factors, we disclosed their largely redundant function in establishing apical growth dominance. Consistently, comprehensive phenotypical and analytical studies of S1-bZIP mutants show a clear shift of sugar and organic nitrogen (N) allocation from apical to lateral organs, coinciding with strong lateral organ outgrowth. Tissue-specific transcriptomics reveal specific clade III SWEET sugar transporters, crucial for long-distance sugar transport to apical sinks and the glutaminase GLUTAMINE AMIDO-TRANSFERASE 1_2.1, involved in N homeostasis, as direct S1-bZIP targets, linking the architectural and metabolic mutant phenotypes to downstream gene regulation. Based on these results, we propose that S1-bZIPs control carbohydrate (C) partitioning from source leaves to apical organs and tune systemic N supply to restrict lateral organ formation by C/N depletion. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms controlling plant C/N partitioning is of pivotal importance for breeding strategies to generate plants with desired architectural and nutritional characteristics.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Açúcares , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(7): e2318586121, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319969

RESUMO

Monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) are a large and diverse class of plant natural products, and their biosynthetic construction has been a subject of intensive study for many years. The enzymatic basis for the production of aspidosperma and iboga alkaloids, which are produced exclusively by members of the Apocynaceae plant family, has recently been discovered. Three carboxylesterase (CXE)-like enzymes from Catharanthus roseus and Tabernanthe iboga catalyze regio- and enantiodivergent [4+2] cycloaddition reactions to generate the aspidosperma (tabersonine synthase, TS) and iboga (coronaridine synthase, CorS; catharanthine synthase, CS) scaffolds from a common biosynthetic intermediate. Here, we use a combined phylogenetic and biochemical approach to investigate the evolution and functional diversification of these cyclase enzymes. Through ancestral sequence reconstruction, we provide evidence for initial evolution of TS from an ancestral CXE followed by emergence of CorS in two separate lineages, leading in turn to CS exclusively in the Catharanthus genus. This progression from aspidosperma to iboga alkaloid biosynthesis is consistent with the chemotaxonomic distribution of these MIAs. We subsequently generate and test a panel of chimeras based on the ancestral cyclases to probe the molecular basis for differential cyclization activity. Finally, we show through partial heterologous reconstitution of tabersonine biosynthesis using non-pathway enzymes how aspidosperma alkaloids could have first appeared as "underground metabolites" via recruitment of promiscuous enzymes from common protein families. Our results provide insight into the evolution of biosynthetic enzymes and how new secondary metabolic pathways can emerge through small but important sequence changes following co-option of preexisting enzymatic functions.


Assuntos
Aspidosperma , Catharanthus , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina , Tabernaemontana , Tabernaemontana/metabolismo , Aspidosperma/metabolismo , Carboxilesterase/metabolismo , Filogenia , Alcaloides Indólicos/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/química , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Catharanthus/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1102, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321044

RESUMO

The Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway provides an alternative to glycolysis. It converts 6-phosphogluconate (6-PG) to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and pyruvate in two steps consisting of a dehydratase (EDD) and an aldolase (EDA). Here, we investigate its distribution and significance in higher plants and determine the ED pathway is restricted to prokaryotes due to the absence of EDD genes in eukaryotes. EDDs share a common origin with dihydroxy-acid dehydratases (DHADs) of the branched chain amino acid pathway (BCAA). Each dehydratase features strict substrate specificity. E. coli EDD dehydrates 6-PG to 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate, while DHAD only dehydrates substrates from the BCAA pathway. Structural modeling identifies two divergent domains which account for their non-overlapping substrate affinities. Coupled enzyme assays confirm only EDD participates in the ED pathway. Plastid ancestors lacked EDD but transferred metabolically promiscuous EDA, which explains the absence of the ED pathway from the Viridiplantae and sporadic persistence of EDA genes across the plant kingdom.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Via de Pentose Fosfato , Escherichia coli/genética , Glicólise , Ácido Pirúvico , Plantas/metabolismo , Hidroliases/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(6): 2984-2997, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306608

RESUMO

Most aquatic plants applied to ecological restoration have demonstrated a clonal growth pattern. The risk-spreading strategy plays a crucial role in facilitating clonal plant growth under external environmental stresses via clonal integration. However, the effects of different concentrations of nanoplastics (NPs) on the growth traits of clonal aquatic plants are not well understood. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of NPs exposure on seedlings of parent plants and connected offspring ramets. A dose response experiment (0.1, 1, and 10 mg L-1) showed that the growth of Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) was affected by 100 nm polystyrene nanoplastics after 28 days of exposure. Tracer analysis revealed that NPs are accumulated by parent plants and transferred to offspring ramets through stolon. Quantification analysis showed that when the parent plant was exposed to 10 mg L-1 NPs alone for 28 days, the offspring ramets contained approximately 13 ± 2 µg/g NPs. In the case of connected offspring ramets, leaf and root biomass decreased by 24%-51% and 32%-51%, respectively, when exposed to NP concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg L-1. Excessive enrichment of NPs had a detrimental effect on the photosynthetic system, decreasing the chlorophyll content and nonphotochemical quenching. An imbalance in the antioxidant defense systems, which were unable to cope with the oxidative stress caused by NP concentrations, further damaged various organs. The root system can take up NPs and then transfer them to the offspring through the stolon. Interference effects of NPs were observed in terms of root activity, metabolism, biofilm composition, and the plant's ability to purify water. However, the risk-spreading strategy employed by parent plants (interconnected offspring ramets) offered some relief from NP-induced stress, as it increased their relative growth rate by 1 to 1.38 times compared to individual plants. These findings provide substantial evidence of the high NP enrichment capacity of E. crassipes for ecological remediation. Nevertheless, we must also remain aware of the environmental risk associated with the spread of NPs within the clonal system of E. crassipes, and contaminated cloned individuals need to be precisely removed in a timely manner to maintain normal functions.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Fotossíntese , Humanos , Clorofila , Biomassa , Plantas/metabolismo
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 99, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids are plant specialised metabolites, which derive from phenylalanine and acetate metabolism. They possess a variety of beneficial characteristics for plants and humans. Several modification steps in the synthesis of tricyclic flavonoids cause for the amazing diversity of flavonoids in plants. The 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs) flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, synonym FHT), flavonol synthase (FLS) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS, synonym leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX)), catalyse oxidative modifications to the central C ring. They are highly similar and have been shown to catalyse, at least in part, each other's reactions. FLS and ANS have been identified as bifunctional enzymes in many species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, stressing the capability of plants to bypass missing or mutated reaction steps on the way to flavonoid production. However, little is known about such bypass reactions and the flavonoid composition of plants lacking all three central flavonoid 2-ODDs. RESULTS: To address this issue, we generated a f3h/fls1/ans mutant, as well as the corresponding double mutants and investigated the flavonoid composition of this mutant collection. The f3h/fls1/ans mutant was further characterised at the genomic level by analysis of a nanopore DNA sequencing generated genome sequence assembly and at the transcriptomic level by RNA-Seq analysis. The mutant collection established, including the novel double mutants f3h/fls1 and f3h/ans, was used to validate and analyse the multifunctionalities of F3H, FLS1, and ANS in planta. Metabolite analyses revealed the accumulation of eriodictyol and additional glycosylated derivatives in mutants carrying the f3h mutant allele, resulting from the conversion of naringenin to eriodictyol by flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) activity. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the in planta multifunctionality of the three central flavonoid 2-ODDs from A. thaliana and identify a bypass in the f3h/fls1/ans triple mutant that leads to the formation of eriodictyol derivatives. As (homo-)eriodictyols are known as bitter taste maskers, the annotated eriodictyol (derivatives) and in particular the observations made on their in planta production, could provide valuable insights for the creation of novel food supplements.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Flavanonas , Humanos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas/metabolismo
9.
Physiol Plant ; 176(1): e14195, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332400

RESUMO

This review aims to elucidate the intricate effects and mechanisms of terahertz (THz) wave stress on Pinellia ternata, providing valuable insights into plant responses. The primary objective is to highlight the imperative for future research dedicated to comprehending THz wave impacts across plant structures, with a specific focus on the molecular intricacies governing root system structure and function, from shoots to roots. Notably, this review highlights the accelerated plant growth induced by THz waves, especially in conjunction with other environmental stressors, and the subsequent alterations in cellular homeostasis, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an increase in brassinosteroids. Brassinosteroids are explored for their dual role as toxic by-products of stress metabolism and vital signal transduction molecules in plant responses to abiotic stresses. The paper further investigates the spatio-temporal regulation and long-distance transport of phytohormones, including growth hormone, cytokinin, and abscisic acid (ABA), which significantly influence the growth and development of P. ternata under THz wave stress. With a comprehensive review of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Brassinosteroid Insensitive (BRI) homeostasis and signalling under THz wave stress, the article elucidates the current understanding of BRI involvement in stress perception, stress signalling, and domestication response regulation. Additionally, it underscores the importance of spatio-temporal regulation and long-distance transport of key plant hormones, such as growth hormone, cytokinin, and ABA, in determining root growth and development under THz wave stress. The study of how plants perceive and respond to environmental stresses holds fundamental biological significance, and enhancing plant stress tolerance is crucial for promoting sustainable agricultural practices and mitigating the environmental burdens associated with low-tolerance crop cultivation.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides , Pinellia , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pinellia/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Citocininas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento/farmacologia
10.
Physiol Plant ; 176(1): e14210, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38380683

RESUMO

Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an outstanding turfgrass and forage cultivated in temperate regions worldwide. However, poor tolerance to extreme cold, heat, or drought limits wide extension and cultivation. DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTOR1s (DREB1s) play a vital role in enhancing plant tolerance to abiotic stress, specifically for low-temperature stress. In this study, a total of 24 LpDREB1 family members were identified from the released genome of perennial ryegrass. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the LpDREB1 genes are divided into 7 groups that have close relationships with rice homologues. Conserved motif analysis revealed that members within the same group have similar conserved motif compositions. All LpDREB1s lack introns, and the promoter sequences of LpDREB1 genes contain multiple cis-acting elements associated with stress response, phytohormone signal transduction and plant growth and development. The majority of LpDREB1 genes were upregulated by drought, submergence, heat and cold stress treatments, including LpDREB1H2. Further investigation showed that LpDREB1H2 is localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of LpDREB1H2 in Arabidopsis induced the expression of cold-responsive (COR) genes, increased the levels of osmotic adjusting substances, and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, thus improving the cold tolerance of Arabidopsis. This study lays a foundation for further understanding the function of LpDREB1 genes in perennial ryegrass and provides insights for plant stress tolerance breeding.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Lolium , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Lolium/genética , Lolium/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Plantas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética
11.
Sci Adv ; 10(8): eadh0911, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394196

RESUMO

Photosystem II (PSII) is an integral part of the photosynthesis machinery, in which several light-harvesting complexes rely on inter-complex excitonic energy transfer (EET) processes to channel energy to the reaction center. In this paper, we report on a direct observation of the inter-complex EET in a minimal PSII supercomplex from plants, containing the trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), the monomeric light-harvesting complex CP26, and the monomeric PSII core complex. Using two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy, we measure an inter-complex EET timescale of 50 picoseconds for excitations from the LHCII-CP26 peripheral antenna to the PSII core. The 2D electronic spectra also reveal that the transfer timescale is nearly constant over the pump spectrum of 600 to 700 nanometers. Structure-based calculations reveal the contribution of each antenna complex to the measured inter-complex EET time. These results provide a step in elucidating the full inter-complex energy transfer network of the PSII machinery.


Assuntos
Clorofila , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Tilacoides/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Transferência de Energia
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 272: 116086, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354433

RESUMO

Anthropogenic influences such as plastic pollution are causing serious environmental problems. While effects of microplastics on marine organisms are well studied, less is known about effects of plastic particles on terrestrial organisms such as plants. We investigated the effects of microplastic particles on different growth and metabolic traits of savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. sabauda). Sections of seedlings exposed to polystyrene particles were analysed by coherent Raman scattering microscopy. These analyses revealed an uptake of particles in a size range of 0.5 µm to 2.0 µm into cells of the hypocotyl. Furthermore, plants were grown in substrate amended with polyethylene and polystyrene particles of different sizes (s1: 200-500 µm; s2: 100-200 µm; s3: 20-100 µm; s4: < 100 µm, with most particles < 20 µm; s5: < 20 µm) and in different concentrations (c1 = 0.1%, c2 = 0.01%, c3 = 0.001%). After several weeks, shoot and root biomass were harvested. Leaves were analysed for their carbon to nitrogen ratio, while amino acid and glucosinolate composition were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Plastic type, particle size and concentration showed distinct effects on certain plant traits. Shoot biomass was interactively influenced by size and concentration of polyethylene, while root biomass was not modified by any of the plastic exposure treatments. Likewise, the composition and total concentrations of leaf amino acids were not affected, but the leucine concentration was significantly increased in several of the plastic-exposed plants. Glucosinolates were also slightly altered, depending on the particle size. Some of the observed effects may be independent of plastic uptake, as larger particles were not taken up but still could affect plant traits. For example, in the rhizosphere plastic particles may increase the water holding capacity of the soil, impacting some of the plant traits. In summary, this study shows how important the plastic type, particle size and concentration are for the uptake of microplastics and their effects on plant traits, which may have important implications for crops, but also for ecosystems.


Assuntos
Brassica , Microplásticos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/análise , Ecossistema , Poliestirenos/análise , Brassica/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Polietileno/toxicidade , Polietileno/análise
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 272: 116113, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364761

RESUMO

Heavy metals in soil significantly threaten human health, and their remediation is essential. Among the various techniques used, phytoremediation is one of the safest, most innovative, and effective. In recent years, the use of biodegradable chelators to assist plants in improving their remediation efficiency has gained popularity. These biodegradable chelators aid in the transformation of metal ions or metalloids, thereby facilitating their mobilization and uptake by plants. Developed countries are increasingly adopting biodegradable chelators for phytoremediation, with a growing emphasis on green manufacturing and technological innovation in the chelating agent market. Therefore, it is crucial to gain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms and market prospects of biodegradable chelators for phytoremediation. This review focuses on elucidating the uptake, translocation, and detoxification mechanisms of chelators in plants. In this study, we focused on the effects of biodegradable chelators on the growth and environmental development of plants treated with phytoremediation agents. Finally, the potential risks associated with biodegradable chelator-assisted phytoremediation are presented in terms of their availability and application prospects in the market. This study provides a valuable reference for future research in this field.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Quelantes/farmacologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Plantas/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo
14.
Planta ; 259(3): 57, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307982

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This review summarizes the physiological, biochemical, and molecular regulatory network changes in plants in response to high temperature. With the continuous rise in temperature, high temperature has become an important issue limiting global plant growth and development, affecting the phenotype and physiological and biochemical processes of plants and seriously restricting crop yield and tree growth speed. As sessile organisms, plants inevitably encounter high temperatures and improve their heat tolerance by activating molecular networks related to heat stress, such as signal transduction, synthesis of metabolites, and gene expression. Heat tolerance is a polygenic trait regulated by a variety of genes, transcription factors, proteins, and metabolites. Therefore, this review summarizes the changes in physiological, biochemical and molecular regulatory networks in plants under high-temperature conditions to lay a foundation for an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms involved in plant heat tolerance responses.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Plantas , Temperatura , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Estresse Fisiológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170607, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336057

RESUMO

Plant overcompensatory growth (OCG) is an important mechanism by which plant communities adapt to environmental disturbance. However, it is not clear whether plant OCG can occur in degraded alpine meadows. Here, we conducted a mowing experiment in an alpine meadow at three degradation levels (i.e., severe degradation, SD; moderate degradation, MD; and light degradation, LD) on the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 2018 to 2020 to investigate plant OCG and its relationships with soil available nutrients, plant nutrient use efficiency (i.e., nitrogen use efficiency, NUE; and phosphorus use efficiency, PUE), and precipitation. The results showed that 1) the OCG of the plant community generally occurred across all degradation levels, and the OCG strength of the plant community decreased with mowing duration. Moreover, the OCG strength of the plant community in the SD treatment was significantly greater than that in the MD and LD treatments after two years of mowing (p < 0.05). 2) In LD and MD, the soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-) and available phosphorus (AP) concentrations exhibited a decreasing trend (p < 0.05), while the soil ammonium nitrogen (NH4+) concentration did not change from 2018 to 2020 (p > 0.05). In the SD treatment, the soil NO3- concentration tended to decrease (p < 0.05), the NH4+ concentration tended to increase (p < 0.05), and the AP concentration exhibited an inverse parabolic trend (p < 0.05) from 2018 to 2020. 3) From 2018 to 2020, plant NUE and PUE exhibited decreasing trends at all degradation levels. 4) Plant nutrient use efficiency, which is regulated by complex plant-soil interactions, strongly controlled the OCG of the plant community along each degradation gradient. Moreover, precipitation not only directly promoted the OCG of the plant community but also indirectly affected it by regulating the structure of the plant community and plant nutrient use efficiency. These results suggest that the OCG of the plant community in degraded alpine meadows may benefit not only from the strong self-regulating capacity of the plant-soil system but also from humid climatic conditions.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Plantas , Tibet , Plantas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo/química , Fósforo/metabolismo
16.
Am J Bot ; 111(2): e16284, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351495

RESUMO

PREMISE: The adaptive significance of amphistomy (stomata on both upper and lower leaf surfaces) is unresolved. A widespread association between amphistomy and open, sunny habitats suggests the adaptive benefit of amphistomy may be greatest in these contexts, but this hypothesis has not been tested experimentally. Understanding amphistomy informs its potential as a target for crop improvement and paleoenvironment reconstruction. METHODS: We developed a method to quantify "amphistomy advantage" ( AA $\text{AA}$ ) as the log-ratio of photosynthesis in an amphistomatous leaf to that of the same leaf but with gas exchange blocked through the upper surface (pseudohypostomy). Humidity modulated stomatal conductance and thus enabled comparing photosynthesis at the same total stomatal conductance. We estimated AA $\text{AA}$ and leaf traits in six coastal (open, sunny) and six montane (closed, shaded) populations of the indigenous Hawaiian species 'ilima (Sida fallax). RESULTS: Coastal 'ilima leaves benefit 4.04 times more from amphistomy than montane leaves. Evidence was equivocal with respect to two hypotheses: (1) that coastal leaves benefit more because they are thicker and have lower CO2 conductance through the internal airspace and (2) that they benefit more because they have similar conductance on each surface, as opposed to most conductance being through the lower surface. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first direct experimental evidence that amphistomy increases photosynthesis, consistent with the hypothesis that parallel pathways through upper and lower mesophyll increase CO2 supply to chloroplasts. The prevalence of amphistomatous leaves in open, sunny habitats can partially be explained by the increased benefit of amphistomy in "sun" leaves, but the mechanistic basis remains uncertain.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Folhas de Planta , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Havaí , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Plantas/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas
17.
Am J Bot ; 111(2): e16285, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353923

RESUMO

PREMISE: Plants grown at high densities show increased tolerance to heavy metals for reasons that are not clear. A potential explanation is the release of citrate by plant roots, which binds metals and prevents uptake. Thus, pooled exudates at high plant densities might increase tolerance. We tested this exclusion facilitation hypothesis using mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana defective in citrate exudation. METHODS: Wild type Arabidopsis and two allelic mutants for the Ferric Reductase Defective 3 (FRD3) gene were grown at four densities and watered with copper sulfate at four concentrations. Plants were harvested before bolting and dried. Shoot biomass was measured, and shoot material and soil were digested in nitric acid. Copper contents were determined by atomic absorption. RESULTS: In the highest-copper treatment, density-dependent reduction in toxicity was observed in the wild type but not in FRD3 mutants. For both mutants, copper concentrations per gram biomass were up to seven times higher than for wild type plants, depending on density and copper treatment. In all genotypes, total copper accumulation was greater at higher plant densities. Plant size variation increased with density and copper treatment because of heterogeneous distribution of copper throughout the soil. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that citrate exudation is responsible for density-dependent reductions in toxicity of metals. Density-dependent copper uptake and growth in contaminated soils underscores the importance of density in ecotoxicological testing. In soils with a heterogeneous distribution of contaminants, competition for nontoxic soil regions may drive size hierarchies and determine competitive outcomes.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Poluentes do Solo , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/análise , Cobre/metabolismo , Solo , Plantas/metabolismo , Citratos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas , Biodegradação Ambiental
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396732

RESUMO

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene family plays a crucial role in both plant growth and response to abiotic stress. Approximately half of the Orchidaceae species are estimated to perform CAM pathway, and the availability of sequenced orchid genomes makes them ideal subjects for investigating the PEPC gene family in CAM plants. In this study, a total of 33 PEPC genes were identified across 15 orchids. Specifically, one PEPC gene was found in Cymbidium goeringii and Platanthera guangdongensis; two in Apostasia shenzhenica, Dendrobium chrysotoxum, D. huoshanense, Gastrodia elata, G. menghaiensis, Phalaenopsis aphrodite, Ph. equestris, and Pl. zijinensis; three in C. ensifolium, C. sinense, D. catenatum, D. nobile, and Vanilla planifolia. These PEPC genes were categorized into four subgroups, namely PEPC-i, PEPC-ii, and PEPC-iii (PTPC), and PEPC-iv (BTPC), supported by the comprehensive analyses of their physicochemical properties, motif, and gene structures. Remarkably, PEPC-iv contained a heretofore unreported orchid PEPC gene, identified as VpPEPC4. Differences in the number of PEPC homolog genes among these species were attributed to segmental duplication, whole-genome duplication (WGD), or gene loss events. Cis-elements identified in promoter regions were predominantly associated with light responsiveness, and circadian-related elements were observed in each PEPC-i and PEPC-ii gene. The expression levels of recruited BTPC, VpPEPC4, exhibited a lower expression level than other VpPEPCs in the tested tissues. The expression analyses and RT-qPCR results revealed diverse expression patterns in orchid PEPC genes. Duplicated genes exhibited distinct expression patterns, suggesting functional divergence. This study offered a comprehensive analysis to unveil the evolution and function of PEPC genes in Orchidaceae.


Assuntos
Orchidaceae , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase , Humanos , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Orchidaceae/genética , Orchidaceae/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Filogenia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396875

RESUMO

Plants possess the remarkable ability to sense detrimental environmental stimuli and launch sophisticated signal cascades that culminate in tailored responses to facilitate their survival, and transcription factors (TFs) are closely involved in these processes. Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs) are among these TFs and belong to the basic helix-loop-helix family. PIFs are initially identified and have now been well established as core regulators of phytochrome-associated pathways in response to the light signal in plants. However, a growing body of evidence has unraveled that PIFs also play a crucial role in adapting plants to various biological and environmental pressures. In this review, we summarize and highlight that PIFs function as a signal hub that integrates multiple environmental cues, including abiotic (i.e., drought, temperature, and salinity) and biotic stresses to optimize plant growth and development. PIFs not only function as transcription factors to reprogram the expression of related genes, but also interact with various factors to adapt plants to harsh environments. This review will contribute to understanding the multifaceted functions of PIFs in response to different stress conditions, which will shed light on efforts to further dissect the novel functions of PIFs, especially in adaption to detrimental environments for a better survival of plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Fitocromo , Fitocromo/genética , Fitocromo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo
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