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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4519, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908150

RESUMO

The leaf economics spectrum (LES) describes consistent correlations among a variety of leaf traits that reflect a gradient from conservative to acquisitive plant strategies. So far, whether the LES holds in wetland plants at a global scale has been unclear. Using data on 365 wetland species from 151 studies, we find that wetland plants in general show a shift within trait space along the same common slope as observed in non-wetland plants, with lower leaf mass per area, higher leaf nitrogen and phosphorus, faster photosynthetic rates, and shorter leaf life span compared to non-wetland plants. We conclude that wetland plants tend to cluster at the acquisitive end of the LES. The presented global quantifications of the LES in wetland plants enhance our understanding of wetland plant strategies in terms of resources acquisition and allocation, and provide a stepping-stone to developing trait-based approaches for wetland ecology.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas/genética , Áreas Alagadas , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Plantas/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127337, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947656

RESUMO

The experiment was designed to evaluate the roles of Rhizophagus irregularis on chlorophyll fluorescence and chromium bioaccumulation in a grass species (Brachiaria mutica) by supplementing Cr+6 at different concentrations. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) association facilitated lessening of chromium level in contaminated soil and enhanced chromium bioavailability in Brachiaria mutica. The mycorrhizal inoculated increased the chlorophyll (0.925 mg/g), carotenoid (0.127 mg/g), protein (2.883 mg/g), proline (0.889 mg/g) contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase. The mycorrhizal inoculated plants also showed enhanced overall photosynthetic performance (PIϕ = 2.473) and enhanced PS-II to PS-I electron transport as evident from yield parameter (0.712) and TR0/RC (2.419) for 60 mg/kg Cr+6 treatment. The observations suggest that AMF association could defend the plants from chromium stress by elevating the number of antioxidants in plants. Rhizophagus irregularis was found to maintain a successful symbiotic relationship with Brachiaria mutica in chromium contaminated soil. The observations recommended that Rhizophagus irregularis in association with Brachiaria mutica would be an innovative approach for decontamination of Cr+6.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Brachiaria/metabolismo , Cromo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cromo/análise , Glomeromycota/metabolismo , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Simbiose
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110885, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650140

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) is a metalloid which is gaining worldwide attention of plant scientists due to its ameliorating impact on plants' growth and development. The beneficial response of Si is observed predominantly under numerous abiotic and biotic stress conditions. However, under favorable conditions, most of the plant can grow without it. Therefore, Si has yet not been fully accepted as essential element rather it is being considered as quasi-essential for plants' growth. Si is also known to enhance resilience in plants by reducing the plant's stress. Besides its second most abundance on the earth crust, most of the soils lack plant available form of Si i.e. silicic acid. In this regard, understanding the role of Si in plant metabolism, its uptake from roots and transport to aerial tissues along with its ionomics and proteomics under different circumstances is of great concern. Plants have evolved a well-optimized Si-transport system including various transporter proteins like Low silicon1 (Lsi1), Low silicon2 (Lsi2), Low silicon3 (Lsi3) and Low silicon6 (Lsi6) at specific sub-cellular locations along with the expression profiling that creates precisely coordinated network among these transporters, which also facilitate uptake and accumulation of Si. Though, an ample amount of information is available pertinent to the solute specificity, active sites, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of these transporter genes. Similarly, the information regarding transporters involved in Si accumulation in different organelles is also available particularly in silica cells occurred in poales. But in this review, we have attempted to compile studies related to plants vis à vis Si, its role in abiotic and biotic stress, its uptake in various parts of plants via different types of Si-transporters, expression pattern, localization and the solute specificity. Besides these, this review will also provide the compiled knowledge about the genetic variation among crop plants vis à vis enhanced Si uptake and related benefits.


Assuntos
Plantas/metabolismo , Silício/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649660

RESUMO

Freshwater wetlands of the temperate north are exposed to a range of pollutants that may alter their function, including nitrogen (N)-rich agricultural and urban runoff, seawater intrusion, and road salt contamination, though it is largely unknown how these drivers of change interact with the vegetation to affect wetland carbon (C) fluxes and microbial communities. We implemented a full factorial mesocosm (378.5 L tanks) experiment investigating C-related responses to three common wetland plants of eastern North America (Phragmites australis, Spartina pectinata, Typha latifolia), and four water quality treatments (fresh water control, N, road salt, sea salt). During the 2017 growing season, we quantified carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes, above- and below-ground biomass, root porosity, light penetration, pore water chemistry (NH4+, NO3-, SO4-2, Cl-, DOC), soil C mineralization, as well as sediment microbial communities via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Relative to freshwater controls, N enrichment stimulated plant biomass, which in turn increased CO2 uptake and reduced light penetration, especially in Spartina stands. Root porosity was not affected by water quality, but was positively correlated with CH4 emissions, suggesting that plants can be important conduits for CH4 from anoxic sediment to the atmosphere. Sediment microbial composition was largely unaffected by N addition, whereas salt amendments induced structural shifts, reduced sediment community diversity, and reduced C mineralization rates, presumably due to osmotic stress. Methane emissions were suppressed by sea salt, but not road salt, providing evidence for the additional chemical control (SO4-2 availability) on this microbial-mediated process. Thus, N may have stimulated plant activity while salting treatments preferentially enriched specific microbial populations. Together our findings underpin the utility of combining plant and microbial responses, and highlight the need for more integrative studies to predict the consequences of a changing environment on freshwater wetlands.


Assuntos
Microbiota/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Solo/química , Ciclo do Carbono , Connecticut , Água Doce/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Qualidade da Água , Áreas Alagadas
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16537-16545, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601191

RESUMO

Engineering biological nitrogen fixation in eukaryotic cells by direct introduction of nif genes requires elegant synthetic biology approaches to ensure that components required for the biosynthesis of active nitrogenase are stable and expressed in the appropriate stoichiometry. Previously, the NifD subunits of nitrogenase MoFe protein from Azotobacter vinelandii and Klebsiella oxytoca were found to be unstable in yeast and plant mitochondria, respectively, presenting a bottleneck to the assembly of active MoFe protein in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we have delineated the region and subsequently a key residue, NifD-R98, from K. oxytoca that confers susceptibility to protease-mediated degradation in mitochondria. The effect observed is pervasive, as R98 is conserved among all NifD proteins analyzed. NifD proteins from four representative diazotrophs, but not their R98 variants, were observed to be unstable in yeast mitochondria. Furthermore, by reconstituting mitochondrial-processing peptidases (MPPs) from yeast, Oryza sativa, Nicotiana tabacum, and Arabidopsis thaliana in Escherichia coli, we demonstrated that MPPs are responsible for cleavage of NifD. These results indicate a pervasive effect on the stability of NifD proteins in mitochondria resulting from cleavage by MPPs. NifD-R98 variants that retained high levels of nitrogenase activity were obtained, with the potential to stably target active MoFe protein to mitochondria. This reconstitution approach could help preevaluate the stability of Nif proteins for plant expression and paves the way for engineering active nitrogenase in plant organelles.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Expressão Gênica , Klebsiella oxytoca/enzimologia , Nitrogenase/genética , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Klebsiella oxytoca/genética , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Nitrogenase/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
6.
Postepy Biochem ; 66(2): 134-142, 2020 06 27.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700507

RESUMO

The light phase of photosynthesis is a key energy process in higher plants. Its purpose is to convert light energy into chemical one stored in ATP and NADPH molecules, which are then used to assimilate CO2 and in numerous metabolic processes. Maintaining optimal photosynthesis performance requires strict regulation of thylakoid membranes organization and rapid response to changing environmental conditions. The main factor affecting photosynthesis is light, which, if applied in excessive amounts, leads to a slowdown in the process. Therefore, plants have developed many protective mechanisms regulating the light reactions of photosynthesis and operating at the level of light energy absorption, electron transport, and the distribution and use of reducing power. These include, among others: (i) non-photochemical energy quenching regulating the amount of excitation energy delivered to the photosystems; (ii) 'state transition' process redistributing excitation energy between photosystems; (iii) redundant electron transport pathways responsible for maintaining redox balance in chloroplasts. All these mechanisms, in combination with antioxidant systems, are designed to maintain the function of the photosynthetic apparatus in adverse growth conditions.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/efeitos da radiação , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos da radiação , Oxirredução/efeitos da radiação
7.
Science ; 368(6498): 1490-1495, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587021

RESUMO

Photosynthesis achieves near unity light-harvesting quantum efficiency yet it remains unknown whether there exists a fundamental organizing principle giving rise to robust light harvesting in the presence of dynamic light conditions and noisy physiological environments. Here, we present a noise-canceling network model that relates noisy physiological conditions, power conversion efficiency, and the resulting absorption spectra of photosynthetic organisms. Using light conditions in full solar exposure, light filtered by oxygenic phototrophs, and light filtered under seawater, we derived optimal absorption characteristics for efficient solar power conversion. We show how light-harvesting antennae can be tuned to maximize power conversion efficiency by minimizing excitation noise, thus providing a unified theoretical basis for the observed wavelength dependence of absorption in green plants, purple bacteria, and green sulfur bacteria.


Assuntos
Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Plantas/metabolismo , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Adsorção , Chlorobi , Transferência de Energia , Luz , Oxigênio , Energia Solar
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2999, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532992

RESUMO

Recent studies show coordinated relationships between plant leaf traits and their capacity to predict ecosystem functions. However, how leaf traits will change within species and whether interspecific trait relationships will shift under future environmental changes both remain unclear. Here, we examine the bivariate correlations between leaf economic traits of 515 species in 210 experiments which mimic climate warming, drought, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition. We find divergent directions of changes in trait-pairs between species, and the directions mostly do not follow the interspecific trait relationships. However, the slopes in the logarithmic transformed interspecific trait relationships hold stable under environmental changes, while only their elevations vary. The elevation changes of trait relationship are mainly driven by asymmetrically interspecific responses contrary to the direction of the leaf economic spectrum. These findings suggest robust interspecific trait relationships under global changes, and call for linking within-species responses to interspecific coordination of plant traits.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Aquecimento Global , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Secas , Modelos Biológicos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Plantas/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110807, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505762

RESUMO

In order to investigate the decrease in total metal contents and to mitigate the availability and toxicity of metals from farmland near a lead mining area, a combination of two effective soil washing and eco-friendly stabilization technologies was applied in current research. The pre-treatment was performed with three types of agents including Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid (CA), and mixture of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and citric acid (HA)) and the post-treatment stabilization was adopted using four rich-carbon organic waste amendments (cow manure compost (CMC), vermicompost (VC), urban sewage sludge (SS), and sludge-derived biochar (BIO)). Furthermore, the fate of residual metals (leachability, plant-availability, bioaccessibility, and chemical distribution), soil quality indicators (phytotoxicity and enzyme activities), and some soil physicochemical properties were examined before and after the two-steps remediation. The soil washing, especially using HA and CA agents, dramatically increased the labile metals and negatively changed the soil microbial activity. The two-month stabilization with SS, BIO, and VC resulted in a significant control of the leachability and plant-availability of residual Zn and Pb. However, the post-treatment was only slightly immobilized of Cd. The amendments affected the restoration of soil pH and organic carbon as well as the improvement of available nutrients. Compared to the other amendments that caused restrictions, the SS significantly restored the enzyme activities. With the exception of CMC, the SS, VC, and BIO, indicated higher germination rate and growth of wheat were also obtained. This study reveal the ability of the complementary role of stabilization with soil washing to reduce metal toxicity and confirm the usefulness of municipal and animal wastes in enhancing soil and environmental qualities.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Animais , Bovinos , Carvão Vegetal/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Compostagem , Ácido Edético/química , Esterco/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Esgotos/química
10.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127436, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599387

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is an essential metal for human, animals and plants, although it is also potentially toxic above supra-optimal levels. In plants, Cu is an essential cofactor of numerous metalloproteins and is involved in several biochemical and physiological processes. However, excess of Cu induces oxidative stress inside plants via enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Owing to its dual nature (essential and a potential toxicity), this metal involves a complex network of uptake, sequestration and transport, essentiality, toxicity and detoxification inside the plants. Therefore, it is vital to monitor the biogeo-physiochemical behavior of Cu in soil-plant-human systems keeping in view its possible essential and toxic roles. This review critically highlights the latest understanding of (i) Cu adsorption/desorption in soil (ii) accumulation in plants, (iii) phytotoxicity, (iv) tolerance mechanisms inside plants and (v) health risk assessment. The Cu-mediated oxidative stress and resulting up-regulation of several enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants have been deliberated at molecular and cellular levels. Moreover, the role of various transporter proteins in Cu uptake and its proper transportation to target metalloproteins is critically discussed. The review also delineates Cu build-up in plant food and accompanying health disorders. Finally, this review proposes some future perspectives regarding Cu biochemistry inside plants. The review, to a large extent, presents a complete picture of the biogeo-physiochemical behavior of Cu in soil-plant-human systems supported with up-to-date 10 tables and 5 figures. It can be of great interest for post-graduate level students, scientists, industrialists, policymakers and regulatory authorities.


Assuntos
Cobre/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2204, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371877

RESUMO

Empirical studies show that plant-soil feedbacks (PSF) can generate negative density dependent (NDD) recruitment capable of maintaining plant community diversity at landscape scales. However, the observation that common plants often exhibit relatively weaker NDD than rare plants at local scales is difficult to reconcile with the maintenance of overall plant diversity. We develop a spatially explicit simulation model that tracks the community dynamics of microbial mutualists, pathogens, and their plant hosts. We find that net PSF effects vary as a function of both host abundance and key microbial traits (e.g., host affinity) in ways that are compatible with both common plants exhibiting relatively weaker local NDD, while promoting overall species diversity. The model generates a series of testable predictions linking key microbial traits and the relative abundance of host species, to the strength and scale of PSF and overall plant community diversity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Simbiose/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Retroalimentação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Modelos Teóricos , Micorrizas/classificação , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126774, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464764

RESUMO

Phytoremediation is an effective strategy for the remediation of lead-zinc slag, while the response of plant on lead and zinc was less concerned. In this study, mushroom residue was adding in lead-zinc slag to enhance the phytoremediation potential of P. fortunei, the effects of three treatments (lead-zinc slag, red soil, lead-zinc slag + 10% (m/m) mushroom residue) on the growth, physiology and microstructure of P. fortunei were determined. The results showed that the addition of mushroom residue increased the biomass, plant height and chlorophyll concentration of P. fortunei, indicating that the addition of mushroom residue can facilitate the growth of P. fortunei. Moreover, the proportions of oxalate-Pb forms and phosphate-Zn were dominant in leaves and stems of P. fortunei. With the addition of mushroom residue, Pb and Zn were transformed to the extraction state with weak migration activity, which can reduce the damage level of Pb and Zn to P. fortunei. The results from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) showed that, the mushroom residue amendment could maintain the integrity of the cell structural of P. fortunei. The results from fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) analysis showed that the mushroom residue amendment could increase the contents of proteins and polysaccharides in P. fortunei, which can combine with the metals. Clearly, the mushroom residue amendment could promote the growth ability of P. fortunei in lead and zinc slag and strengthen the phytoremediation potential.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Biomassa , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Compostos Orgânicos , Fosfatos/análise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco/análise
13.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(5): 1091-1102, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409904

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad spectrum of distinctive regulatory roles through interactions with proteins. However, only a few plant lncRNAs have been experimentally characterized. We propose GPLPI, a graph representation learning method, to predict plant lncRNA-protein interaction (LPI) from sequence and structural information. GPLPI employs a generative model using long short-term memory (LSTM) with graph attention. Evolutionary features are extracted using frequency chaos game representation (FCGR). Manifold regularization and l2-norm are adopted to obtain discriminant feature representations and mitigate overfitting. The model captures locality preserving and reconstruction constraints that lead to better generalization ability. Finally, potential interactions between lncRNAs and proteins are predicted by integrating catboost and regularized Logistic regression based on L-BFGS optimization algorithm. The method is trained and tested on Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays datasets. GPLPI achieves accuracies of 85.76% and 91.97% respectively. The results show that our method consistently outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Aprendizado Profundo , Modelos Logísticos , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas de Plantas/química , RNA Longo não Codificante/química , RNA de Plantas/química , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13810-13820, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471943

RESUMO

Extreme environmental conditions, such as heat, salinity, and decreased water availability, can have a devastating impact on plant growth and productivity, potentially resulting in the collapse of entire ecosystems. Stress-induced systemic signaling and systemic acquired acclimation play canonical roles in plant survival during episodes of environmental stress. Recent studies revealed that in response to a single abiotic stress, applied to a single leaf, plants mount a comprehensive stress-specific systemic response that includes the accumulation of many different stress-specific transcripts and metabolites, as well as a coordinated stress-specific whole-plant stomatal response. However, in nature plants are routinely subjected to a combination of two or more different abiotic stresses, each potentially triggering its own stress-specific systemic response, highlighting a new fundamental question in plant biology: are plants capable of integrating two different systemic signals simultaneously generated during conditions of stress combination? Here we show that plants can integrate two different systemic signals simultaneously generated during stress combination, and that the manner in which plants sense the different stresses that trigger these signals (i.e., at the same or different parts of the plant) makes a significant difference in how fast and efficient they induce systemic reactive oxygen species (ROS) signals; transcriptomic, hormonal, and stomatal responses; as well as plant acclimation. Our results shed light on how plants acclimate to their environment and survive a combination of different abiotic stresses. In addition, they highlight a key role for systemic ROS signals in coordinating the response of different leaves to stress.


Assuntos
Plantas/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 220-228, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-based dietary patterns may be related to better cardiovascular profiles. Whether a healthy plant-based dietary index is predictive of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) across people with different genetic susceptibility remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations of adherence to healthy plant-based diets with the incidence of CVD considering the genetic susceptibility. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included a total of 156,148 adults initially free of CVD and cancer. We calculated a healthful plant-based diet index (healthful-PDI) in which healthy plant foods received positive scores, and less healthy plant foods and animal foods received reverse scores. Genetic risk scores (GRSs) for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke were calculated to assess interactions between healthful-PDI and GRSs. RESULTS: During 5 y of follow-up, we observed 1812 incident cases of CVD. Higher healthful-PDI was associated with a lower CVD risk [HR per 10-unit increment: 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and other dietary factors (model 1); HR 0.90 (0.84, 0.97) after further adjusting for obesity and metabolic factors (model 2)]. The risk of CVD was gradually decreased in association with higher adherence to healthful-PDI, regardless of genetic susceptibility. The inverse associations of healthful-PDI with CVD were consistently observed in people with low GRS-MI [HR 0.85 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.94) in model 1; HR 0.88 (0.79, 0.97) in model 2] and those with high GRS-MI [HR 0.91 (0.82, 0.99) in model 1; HR 0.94 (0.86, 1.04) in model 2], without significant interactions (Pinteraction = 0.59 in model 1; Pinteraction = 0.66 in model 2). Similarly, higher healthful-PDI was related to a lower risk of CVD, regardless of low/high GRS-stroke. CONCLUSION: Adherence to healthy plant-based diets may be associated with a decreased incidence of CVD in the entire population, suggesting that plant-based dietary patterns may modify the risk of CVD, regardless of genetic susceptibility.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12444-12451, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393619

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance and viral diseases are rising around the world and are becoming major threats to global health, food security, and development. One measure that has been suggested to mitigate this crisis is the development of new antibiotics. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of the phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns of antiinfective compounds from seed plants in one of the most species-rich regions on Earth and identify clades with naturally occurring substances potentially suitable for the development of new pharmaceutical compounds. Specifically, we combine taxonomic and phylogenetic data for >7,500 seed plant species from the flora of Java with >16,500 secondary metabolites and 6,255 georeferenced occurrence records to 1) identify clades in the phylogeny that are characterized by either an overrepresentation ("hot clades") or an underrepresentation ("cold clades") of antiinfective compounds and 2) assess the spatial patterns of plants with antiinfective compounds relative to total plant diversity across the region. Across the flora of Java, we identify 26 "hot clades" with plant species providing a high probability of finding antibiotic constituents. In addition, 24 "cold clades" constitute lineages with low numbers of reported activities but which have the potential to yield novel compounds. Spatial patterns of plant species and metabolite diversity are strongly correlated across Java, indicating that regions of highest species diversity afford the highest potential to discover novel natural products. Our results indicate that the combination of phylogenetic, spatial, and phytochemical information is a useful tool to guide the selection of taxa for efforts aimed at lead compound discovery.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Filogenia , Plantas/química , Plantas/genética , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Biodiversidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/metabolismo
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12472-12480, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409606

RESUMO

Momilactones are bioactive diterpenoids that contribute to plant defense against pathogens and allelopathic interactions between plants. Both cultivated and wild grass species of Oryza and Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass) produce momilactones using a biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) in their genomes. The bryophyte Calohypnum plumiforme (formerly Hypnum plumaeforme) also produces momilactones, and the bifunctional diterpene cyclase gene CpDTC1/HpDTC1, which is responsible for the production of the diterpene framework, has been characterized. To understand the molecular architecture of the momilactone biosynthetic genes in the moss genome and their evolutionary relationships with other momilactone-producing plants, we sequenced and annotated the C. plumiforme genome. The data revealed a 150-kb genomic region that contains two cytochrome P450 genes, the CpDTC1/HpDTC1 gene and the "dehydrogenase momilactone A synthase" gene tandemly arranged and inductively transcribed following stress exposure. The predicted enzymatic functions in yeast and recombinant assay and the successful pathway reconstitution in Nicotiana benthamiana suggest that it is a functional BGC responsible for momilactone production. Furthermore, in a survey of genomic sequences of a broad range of plant species, we found that momilactone BGC is limited to the two grasses (Oryza and Echinochloa) and C. plumiforme, with no synteny among these genomes. These results indicate that while the gene cluster in C. plumiforme is functionally similar to that in rice and barnyard grass, it is likely a product of convergent evolution. To the best of our knowledge, this report of a BGC for a specialized plant defense metabolite in bryophytes is unique.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Lactonas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/genética
18.
Science ; 368(6486)2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241923

RESUMO

As primary producers, plants rely on a large aboveground surface area to collect carbon dioxide and sunlight and a large underground surface area to collect the water and mineral nutrients needed to support their growth and development. Accessibility of the essential nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the soil is affected by many factors that create a variable spatiotemporal landscape of their availability both at the local and global scale. Plants optimize uptake of the N and P available through modifications to their growth and development and engagement with microorganisms that facilitate their capture. The sensing of these nutrients, as well as the perception of overall nutrient status, shapes the plant's response to its nutrient environment, coordinating its development with microbial engagement to optimize N and P capture and regulate overall plant growth.


Assuntos
Nitratos/metabolismo , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Simbiose
19.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(3): 426-435, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237537

RESUMO

With the development of modern industry, heavy metal pollution of soil becomes more and more serious. Heavy metals can cause serious health problems to humans and animals even at very low concentrations. Thus, it is urgent to remediate the contaminated soils by effective methods. Different remediation strategies have been reported to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, among which phytoremediation is the most important one. Understanding the mechanisms underlying heavy metal accumulation and detoxification in plants is one of the key points for phytoremediation. In this review, we try to summarize the progresses and trends on phytoremediation and related molecular mechanisms, and discuss the prospects for the future research.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Plantas , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
20.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126826, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335444

RESUMO

Innumerable private households and small-scale producers currently operate on polluted soils. Phytoremediation is one of the most cost-effective remediation options but as a stand-alone technology, it is often not lucrative enough to make it appealing for farmers, especially in economically vulnerable regions. Economic incentives are crucial for remediation projects to materialise and synergies can be obtained by integrating phytoremediation with other profitable activities including food production. This review aims to synthesise state-of-the-art scientific data to provide a general understanding of opportunities and risks for sustainable remediation of agricultural soil by the use of combined phytoremediation and food production (CPFP). The results show that strategies based on CPFP may be appropriate options for most pollutants in virtually all climatic or socioeconomic contexts but a number of challenges need to be surpassed. The challenges include remediation-technological issues such as undeveloped post-harvest technology and inadequate soil governance. The need for remediation solutions for polluted fields is increasingly urgent since many farmers currently operate on polluted land and the scarcity of soil resources as the human population continuously increases will inevitably force more farmers to cultivate in contaminated areas. We conclude that, although large scale CPFP has not yet reached technological maturity, appropriate combinations of soil types, plant species/cultivars, and agronomic practices together with thorough monitoring of the pollutants' pathways can potentially allow for safe food production on polluted soil that restricts the transfer of a number of pollutants to the food chain while the soil pool of pollutants is gradually reduced.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Alimentos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Humanos , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo
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