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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281289

RESUMO

Several recent studies have shown that citric acid/citrate (CA) can confer abiotic stress tolerance to plants. Exogenous CA application leads to improved growth and yield in crop plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Improved physiological outcomes are associated with higher photosynthetic rates, reduced reactive oxygen species, and better osmoregulation. Application of CA also induces antioxidant defense systems, promotes increased chlorophyll content, and affects secondary metabolism to limit plant growth restrictions under stress. In particular, CA has a major impact on relieving heavy metal stress by promoting precipitation, chelation, and sequestration of metal ions. This review summarizes the mechanisms that mediate CA-regulated changes in plants, primarily CA's involvement in the control of physiological and molecular processes in plants under abiotic stress conditions. We also review genetic engineering strategies for CA-mediated abiotic stress tolerance. Finally, we propose a model to explain how CA's position in complex metabolic networks involving the biosynthesis of phytohormones, amino acids, signaling molecules, and other secondary metabolites could explain some of its abiotic stress-ameliorating properties. This review summarizes our current understanding of CA-mediated abiotic stress tolerance and highlights areas where additional research is needed.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Secas , Engenharia Genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Metabólica , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Modelos Biológicos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201937

RESUMO

The AVRPPHB SUSCEPTIBLE1 (PBS1) and RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE 5 (RPS5) proteins are involved in signal transduction to evoke innate plant immune response. In Arabidopsis, PBS1 is cleaved by the AvrPphB (Pseudomonas phaseolicola Avirulence protein B) protease, activating RPS5 and turning in a hypersensitive response (HR). We searched for PBS1 orthologs to trace their origin and evolution. PBS1 orthologs were found in embryophytes and in other plant taxa but with lower similarity. PBS1 phylogenetic analysis indicates high divergence, suggesting that the decoy function described for Arabidopsis PBS1 might be associated with a small fraction of orthologs. Ancestral reconstruction analysis suggests an elevated diversity in the amino acid sequence within the described motifs. All the orthologs contain the conserved PBS1 kinase subdomains, whereas the cleavage motif is present in several embryophyte orthologs but absent in most other taxa. The putative resistance recognition motifs in PBS1 orthologs are highly diverse. PBS1 cleavage site motif is exposed in some 3D structure predictions, whereas it is not in others, suggesting different modes of regulation and functions in PBS1 orthologs. Our findings suggest that PBS1 originated in the lineage that gave rise to embryophytes, with the angiosperm sequences forming a separate clade from pteridophyte proteins.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência Conservada , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Transdução de Sinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202092

RESUMO

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic lacks treatments; for this reason, the search for potential compounds against therapeutic targets is still necessary. Bioinformatics tools have allowed the rapid in silico screening of possible new metabolite candidates from natural resources or repurposing known ones. Thus, in this work, we aimed to select phytochemical candidates from Peruvian plants with antiviral potential against three therapeutical targets of SARS-CoV-2. (2) Methods: We applied in silico technics, such as virtual screening, molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and MM/GBSA estimation. (3) Results: Rutin, a compound present in Peruvian native plants, showed affinity against three targets of SARS-CoV-2. The molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated the high stability of receptor-ligand systems during the time of the simulation. Our results showed that the Mpro-Rutin system exhibited higher binding free energy than PLpro-Rutin and N-Rutin systems through MM/GBSA analysis. (4) Conclusions: Our study provides insight on natural metabolites from Peruvian plants with therapeutical potential. We found Rutin as a potential candidate with multiple pharmacological properties against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/química , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/química , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/química , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Lepidium/química , Lepidium/metabolismo , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peru , Fosfoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoproteínas/química , Rutina/química , Rutina/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204994

RESUMO

Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls, together with carotenoids, serve, noncovalently bound to specific apoproteins, as principal light-harvesting and energy-transforming pigments in photosynthetic organisms. In recent years, enormous progress has been achieved in the elucidation of structures and functions of light-harvesting (antenna) complexes, photosynthetic reaction centers and even entire photosystems. It is becoming increasingly clear that light-harvesting complexes not only serve to enlarge the absorption cross sections of the respective reaction centers but are vitally important in short- and long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus and regulation of the energy-transforming processes in response to external and internal conditions. Thus, the wide variety of structural diversity in photosynthetic antenna "designs" becomes conceivable. It is, however, common for LHCs to form trimeric (or multiples thereof) structures. We propose a simple, tentative explanation of the trimer issue, based on the 2D world created by photosynthetic membrane systems.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Transferência de Energia , Modelos Moleculares , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica
5.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206860

RESUMO

In this paper, a combination of modification of the source and regulation of the process was used to control the degradation of PBDEs by plants and microorganisms. First, the key proteins that can degrade PBDEs in plants and microorganisms were searched in the PDB (Protein Data Bank), and a molecular docking method was used to characterize the binding ability of PBDEs to two key proteins. Next, the synergistic binding ability of PBDEs to the two key proteins was evaluated based on the queuing integral method. Based on this, three groups of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models of plant-microbial synergistic degradation were constructed. A total of 30 PBDE derivatives were designed using BDE-3 as the template molecule. Among them, the effect on the synergistic degradation of six PBDE derivatives, including BDE-3-4, was significantly improved (increased by more than 20%) and the environment-friendly and functional evaluation parameters were improved. Subsequently, studies on the synergistic degradation of PBDEs and their derivatives by plants and microorganisms, based on the molecular docking method, found that the addition of lipophilic groups by modification is beneficial to enhance the efficiency of synergistic degradation of PBDEs by plants and microorganisms. Further, while docking PBDEs, the number of amino acids was increased and the binding bond length was decreased compared to the template molecules, i.e., PBDE derivatives could be naturally degraded more efficiently. Finally, molecular dynamics simulation by the Taguchi orthogonal experiment and a full factorial experimental design were used to simulate the effects of various regulatory schemes on the synergistic degradation of PBDEs by plants and microorganisms. It was found that optimal regulation occurred when the appropriate amount of carbon dioxide was supplied to the plant and microbial systems. This paper aims to provide theoretical support for enhancing the synergistic degradation of PBDEs by plants and microorganisms in e-waste dismantling sites and their surrounding polluted areas, as well as, realize the research and development of green alternatives to PBDE flame retardants.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206311

RESUMO

Chemotaxis, the ability of motile bacteria to direct their movement in gradients of attractants and repellents, plays an important role during the rhizosphere colonization by rhizobacteria. The rhizosphere is a unique niche for plant-microbe interactions. Root exudates are highly complex mixtures of chemoeffectors composed of hundreds of different compounds. Chemotaxis towards root exudates initiates rhizobacteria recruitment and the establishment of bacteria-root interactions. Over the last years, important progress has been made in the identification of root exudate components that play key roles in the colonization process, as well as in the identification of the cognate chemoreceptors. In the first part of this review, we summarized the roles of representative chemoeffectors that induce chemotaxis in typical rhizobacteria and discussed the structure and function of rhizobacterial chemoreceptors. In the second part we reviewed findings on how rhizobacterial chemotaxis and other root-microbe interactions promote the establishment of beneficial rhizobacteria-plant interactions leading to plant growth promotion and protection of plant health. In the last part we identified the existing gaps in the knowledge and discussed future research efforts that are necessary to close them.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Quimiotaxia , Exsudatos de Plantas , Plantas/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Microbiota , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208600

RESUMO

Coumarins belong to a group of secondary metabolites well known for their high biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal properties. Recently, an important role of coumarins in plant resistance to pathogens and their release into the rhizosphere upon pathogen infection was discovered. It is also well documented that coumarins play a crucial role in the Arabidopsis thaliana growth under Fe-limited conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying interplay between plant resistance, accumulation of coumarins and Fe status, remain largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the effect of both mentioned factors on the disease severity using the model system of Arabidopsis/Dickeya spp. molecular interactions. We evaluated the disease symptoms in Arabidopsis plants, wild-type Col-0 and its mutants defective in coumarin accumulation, grown in hydroponic cultures with contrasting Fe regimes and in soil mixes. Under all tested conditions, Arabidopsis plants inoculated with Dickeya solani IFB0099 strain developed more severe disease symptoms compared to lines inoculated with Dickeya dadantii 3937. We also showed that the expression of genes encoding plant stress markers were strongly affected by D. solani IFB0099 infection. Interestingly, the response of plants to D. dadantii 3937 infection was genotype-dependent in Fe-deficient hydroponic solution.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Dickeya/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença , Ferro/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Hidroponia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
8.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(6): 1858-1868, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227281

RESUMO

Sucrose is a natural product occurs widely in nature. In living organisms such as plants, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is the key rate-limiting enzyme for sucrose synthesis. SPS catalyzes the synthesis of sucrose-6-phosphate, which is further hydrolyzed by sucrose phosphatase to form sucrose. Researches on SPS in recent decades have been focused on the determination of enzymatic activity of SPS, the identification of the inhibitors and activators of SPS, the covalent modification of SPS, the carbohydrate distribution in plants regulated by SPS, the mechanism for promoting plant growth by SPS, the sweetness of fruit controlled by SPS, and many others. A systematic review of these aspects as well as the crystal structure and catalytic mechanism of SPS are presented.


Assuntos
Glucosiltransferases , Sacarose , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066274

RESUMO

Polyamines are ubiquitous, low-molecular-weight aliphatic compounds, present in living organisms and essential for cell growth and differentiation. Copper amine oxidases (CuAOs) oxidize polyamines to aminoaldehydes releasing ammonium and hydrogen peroxide, which participates in the complex network of reactive oxygen species acting as signaling molecules involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. CuAOs have been identified and characterized in different plant species, but the most extensive study on a CuAO gene family has been carried out in Arabidopsis thaliana. Growing attention has been devoted in the last years to the investigation of the CuAO expression pattern during development and in response to an array of stress and stress-related hormones, events in which recent studies have highlighted CuAOs to play a key role by modulation of a multilevel phenotypic plasticity expression. In this review, the attention will be focused on the involvement of different AtCuAOs in the IAA/JA/ABA signal transduction pathways which mediate stress-induced phenotypic plasticity events.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hormônios/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/enzimologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Plantas/imunologia , Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064786

RESUMO

Single-molecule imaging is emerging as a revolutionary approach to studying fundamental questions in plants. However, compared with its use in animals, the application of single-molecule imaging in plants is still underexplored. Here, we review the applications, advantages, and challenges of single-molecule fluorescence imaging in plant systems from the perspective of methodology. Firstly, we provide a general overview of single-molecule imaging methods and their principles. Next, we summarize the unprecedented quantitative details that can be obtained using single-molecule techniques compared to bulk assays. Finally, we discuss the main problems encountered at this stage and provide possible solutions.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas/metabolismo , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066424

RESUMO

Named for the characteristic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) region in their protein structure, bHLH proteins are a widespread transcription factor class in eukaryotes. bHLHs transcriptionally regulate their target genes by binding to specific positions on their promoters and thereby direct a variety of plant developmental and metabolic processes, such as photomorphogenesis, flowering induction, shade avoidance, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, which are important for promoting plant tolerance or adaptation to adverse environments. In this review, we discuss the vital roles of bHLHs in plant responses to abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, cold, and iron deficiency. We suggest directions for future studies into the roles of bHLH genes in plant and discuss their potential applications in crop breeding.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112403, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147863

RESUMO

The advent of the nanotechnology era offers a unique opportunity for sustainable agriculture provided that the exposure and toxicity are adequately assessed and properly controlled. The global production and application of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) in various industrial sectors have tremendously increased. Most of the nanoparticles end up in water and soil where they interact with soil microorganisms and plants. Investigating the uptake, translocation and accumulation of CeO2-NPs is critical for its safe application in agriculture. Plant uptake of CeO2-NPs may lead to their accumulation in different plant tissues and interference with key metabolic processes of plants. Soil microbes can also be affected by increasing CeO2-NPs in soil, leading to changes in the physiology and enzymatic activity of soil microorganisms. The interactions between CeO2-NPs, microbes and plants in the agricultural system need systemic research in ecologically relevant conditions. In the present review, The uptake pathways and in-planta translocation of CeO2-NPs,and their impact on plant morphology, nutritional values, antioxidant enzymes and molecular determinants are presented. The role of CeO2-NPs in modifying soil microbial community in plant rhizosphere is also discussed. Overall, the review aims to provide a comprehensive account on the behaviour of CeO2-NPs in soil-plant systems and their potential impacts on the soil microbial community and plant health.


Assuntos
Cério/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Plantas/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112437, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153540

RESUMO

Agricultural soils are receiving higher inputs of trace elements (TEs) from anthropogenic activities. Application of nanoparticles (NPs) in agriculture as nano-pesticides and nano-fertilizers has gained rapid momentum worldwide. The NPs-based fertilizers can facilitate controlled-release of nutrients which may be absorbed by plants more efficiently than conventional fertilizers. Due to their large surface area with high sorption capacity, NPs can be used to reduce excess TEs uptake by plants. The present review summarizes the effects of NPs on plant growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrients uptake and TEs concentrations. It also highlights the possible mechanisms underlying NPs-mediated reduction of TEs toxicity at the soil and plant interphase. Nanoparticles are effective in immobilization of TEs in soil through alteration of their speciation and improving soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. At the plant level, NPs reduce TEs translocation from roots to shoots by promoting structural alterations, modifying gene expression, and improving antioxidant defense systems. However, the mechanisms underlying NPs-mediated TEs uptake and toxicity reduction vary with NPs type, mode of application, time of NPs exposure, and plant conditions (e.g., species, cultivars, and growth rate). The review emphasizes that NPs may provide new perspectives to resolve the problem of TEs toxicity in crop plants which may also reduce the food security risks. However, the potential of NPs in metal-contaminated soils is only just starting to be realized, and additional studies are required to explore the mechanisms of NPs-mediated TEs immobilization in soil and uptake by plants. Such future knowledge gap has been highlighted and discussed.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Agricultura , Metais/metabolismo , Metais/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112368, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082243

RESUMO

A field investigation on the content of heavy metals in soils and dominant plants was conducted in three sites (A<0.5 km, B<1.0 km, C<1.5 km) with different distances of mine tailings. The spatial distribution of heavy metals and the accumulation in plants were compared, and the candidate species for ecosystem restoration were selected. The results indicated that the soil was polluted by chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) in varying degrees, which is 2.07, 2.60, 1.79, and 4.49 times higher than the Class-Ⅱ standard in China. The concentrate of Ni, Cd, and Zinc (Zn) increased, while Cr, Lead (Pb), and Cu decreased with the distance from the mine tailings. 73 species (34 families) were found and mainly herbaceous plants. The concentrate of Cd, Cu, Cr, and Ni in 29 dominant plants were measured and 66.67%, 21.43%, 100%, 47.62% plants exceeded the normal concentration range. Based on the comparative analysis of heavy metal content, bioconcentration factor, and translocation factor in plants, Polygonum capitatum has good phytoextraction ability, Boehmeria nivea, Chrysanthemum indicum, Miscanthus floridulus, Conyza canadensis, Rubus setchuenensis, Senecio scandens, and Arthraxon hispidus showed remarkable phytostabilization abilities of Cr, Cd, Ni, and Cu, which can be used as potential phytoremediation candidate.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Mineração , Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas/classificação , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
15.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066075

RESUMO

The way of plant sterols transformation and their benefits for humans is still a question under the massive continuing revision. In fact, there are no receptors for binding with sterols in mammalians. However, possible biotransformation to steroids that can be catalyzed by gastro-intestinal microflora, microbial cells in prebiotics or cytochromes system were repeatedly reported. Some products of sterols metabolization are capable to imitate resident human steroids and compete with them for the binding with corresponding receptors, thus affecting endocrine balance and entire physiology condition. There are also tremendous reports about the natural origination of mammalian steroid hormones in plants and corresponding receptors for their binding. Some investigations and reports warn about anabolic effect of sterols, however, there are many researchers who are reluctant to believe in and have strong opposing arguments. We encounter plant sterols everywhere: in food, in pharmacy, in cosmetics, but still know little about their diverse properties and, hence, their exact impact on our life. Most of our knowledge is limited to their cholesterol-lowering influence and protective effect against cardiovascular disease. However, the world of plant sterols is significantly wider if we consider the thousands of publications released over the past 10 years.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Plantas/metabolismo , Esteróis/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Esteróis/efeitos adversos , Esteróis/farmacologia
16.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 2838-2850, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151426

RESUMO

Plant-derived exosome-like nanoparticles (PDENs) are small vesicles released by multivesicular bodies mainly to communicate between cells and regulate immunity against pathogen attack. Current studies have reported that PDENs could modulate gene expression in a cross-kingdom fashion. Therefore, PDENs could be a potential future functional food ingredient as their cross-kingdom communication abilities were reported to exert multiple health benefits. Macrophage and other cells have been reported to absorb PDENs in a manner regulated by the membrane lipid and protein profile and the intactness of the PDENs lipid bilayer. PDENs could be extracted from plant materials by various techniques such as ultracentrifugation, immunoaffinity, size-based isolation, and precipitation, though each method has its pros and cons. PDENs mainly contain lipid, protein, and genetic materials, mainly micro RNAs, which could exert multiple health benefits and functionalities when consumed in sufficient amounts. However, most studies on the health functionalities of PDENs were conducted through in-vitro and in-vivo studies, and its potency to be used as a functional ingredient remains a question as PDENs are sensitive to storage and processing condition and requires costly extraction method. This concise review features various exosome extraction methods, contents of PDENs and their roles, the health functionalities of PDENs, and its potency as a functional food ingredient.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Nanopartículas/química , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Exossomos/imunologia , Humanos , Ultracentrifugação/métodos
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3718, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140479

RESUMO

Identification of small molecules is a critical task in various areas of life science. Recent advances in mass spectrometry have enabled the collection of tandem mass spectra of small molecules from hundreds of thousands of environments. To identify which molecules are present in a sample, one can search mass spectra collected from the sample against millions of molecular structures in small molecule databases. The existing approaches are based on chemistry domain knowledge, and they fail to explain many of the peaks in mass spectra of small molecules. Here, we present molDiscovery, a mass spectral database search method that improves both efficiency and accuracy of small molecule identification by learning a probabilistic model to match small molecules with their mass spectra. A search of over 8 million spectra from the Global Natural Product Social molecular networking infrastructure shows that molDiscovery correctly identify six times more unique small molecules than previous methods.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Algoritmos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Benchmarking , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados de Compostos Químicos , Humanos , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Estatísticos , Plantas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Software
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063156

RESUMO

Iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) are two essential elements for plant growth. Both elements are abundant in soils but with poor availability for plants, which favor their acquisition by developing morphological and physiological responses in their roots. Although the regulation of the genes related to these responses is not totally known, ethylene (ET) and nitric oxide (NO) have been involved in the activation of both Fe-related and P-related genes. The common involvement of ET and NO suggests that they must act in conjunction with other specific signals, more closely related to each deficiency. Among the specific signals involved in the regulation of Fe- or P-related genes have been proposed Fe-peptides (or Fe ion itself) and microRNAs, like miR399 (P), moving through the phloem. These Fe- or P-related phloem signals could interact with ET/NO and confer specificity to the responses to each deficiency, avoiding the induction of the specific responses when ET/NO increase due to other nutrient deficiencies or stresses. Besides the specificity conferred by these signals, ET itself could confer specificity to the responses to Fe- or P-deficiency by acting through different signaling pathways in each case. Given the above considerations, there are preliminary results suggesting that ET could regulate different nutrient responses by acting both in conjunction with other signals and through different signaling pathways. Because of the close relationship among these two elements, a better knowledge of the physiological and molecular basis of their interaction is necessary to improve their nutrition and to avoid the problems associated with their misuse. As examples of this interaction, it is known that Fe chlorosis can be induced, under certain circumstances, by a P over- fertilization. On the other hand, Fe oxides can have a role in the immobilization of P in soils. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the dynamic of known Fe- and P-related genes expression, selected ad hoc and involved in each of these deficiencies, would allow us to get a profound knowledge of the processes that regulate the responses to both deficiencies. The better knowledge of the regulation by ET of the responses to these deficiencies is necessary to properly understand the interactions between Fe and P. This will allow the obtention of more efficient varieties in the absorption of P and Fe, and the use of more rational management techniques for P and Fe fertilization. This will contribute to minimize the environmental impacts caused by the use of P and Fe fertilizers (Fe chelates) in agriculture and to adjust the costs for farmers, due to the high prices and/or scarcity of Fe and P fertilizers. This review aims to summarize the latest advances in the knowledge about Fe and P deficiency responses, analyzing the similarities and differences among them and considering the interactions among their main regulators, including some hormones (ethylene) and signaling substances (NO and GSNO) as well as other P- and Fe-related signals.


Assuntos
Etilenos/metabolismo , Ferro/deficiência , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fósforo/deficiência , Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065193

RESUMO

The scientific interest in the beneficial properties of natural substances has been recognized for decades, as well as the growing attention in extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by different organisms, in particular from animal cells. However, there is increasing interest in the isolation and biological and functional characterization of these lipoproteic structures in the plant kingdom. Similar to animal vesicles, these plant-derived extracellular vesicles (PDEVs) exhibit a complex content of small RNAs, proteins, lipids, and other metabolites. This sophisticated composition enables PDEVs to be therapeutically attractive. In this review, we report and discuss current knowledge on PDEVs in terms of isolation, characterization of their content, biological properties, and potential use as drug delivery systems. In conclusion, we outline controversial issues on which the scientific community shall focus the attention shortly.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073675

RESUMO

Root system architecture (RSA) is an important developmental and agronomic trait that is regulated by various physical factors such as nutrients, water, microbes, gravity, and soil compaction as well as hormone-mediated pathways. Phytohormones act as internal mediators between soil and RSA to influence various events of root development, starting from organogenesis to the formation of higher order lateral roots (LRs) through diverse mechanisms. Apart from interaction with the external cues, root development also relies on the complex web of interaction among phytohormones to exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effects to improve crop performance. However, there are considerable gaps in understanding the interaction of these hormonal networks during various aspects of root development. In this review, we elucidate the role of different hormones to modulate a common phenotypic output, such as RSA in Arabidopsis and crop plants, and discuss future perspectives to channel vast information on root development to modulate RSA components.


Assuntos
Organogênese Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Arabidopsis/anatomia & histologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Solo
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