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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2594: 173-183, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264496

RESUMO

Reconstruction of gene regulatory networks is a very important but difficult issue in plant sciences. Recently, numerous high-throughput techniques, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and DNA affinity purification sequencing (DAP-seq), have been developed to identify the genomic binding landscapes of regulatory factors. To understand the relationships among transcription factors (TFs) and their corresponding binding sites on target genes is usually the first step for elucidating gene regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, a good database for plant TFs and transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) will be useful for starting a series of complex experiments. In this chapter, PlantPAN (version 3.0) is utilized as an example to explain how bioinformatics systems advance research on gene regulation.


Assuntos
Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Sítios de Ligação , Ligação Proteica , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 310: 136881, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257391

RESUMO

Pollution of the environment by heavy metals (HMs) has recently become a global issue, affecting the health of all living organisms. Continuous human activities (industrialization and urbanization) are the major causes of HM release into the environment. Over the years, two methods (physical and chemical) have been widely used to reduce HMs in polluted environment. However, these two methods are inefficient and very expensive to reduce the HMs released into the atmosphere. Alternatively, researchers are trying to remove the HMs by employing hyper-accumulator plants. This method, referred to phytoremediation, is highly efficient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly. Phytoremediation can be divided into five types: phytostabilization, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytoextraction, and phytovolatilization, all of which contribute to HMs removal from the polluted environment. Brassicaceae family members (particularly Arabidopsis thaliana) can accumulate more HMs from the contaminated environment than those of other plants. This comprehensive review focuses on how HMs pollute the environment and discusses the phytoremediation measures required to reduce the impact of HMs on the environment. We discuss the role of metal transporters in phytoremediation with a focus on Arabidopsis. Then draw insights into the role of genome editing tools in enhancing phytoremediation efficiency. This review is expected to initiate further research to improve phytoremediation by biotechnological approaches to conserve the environment from pollution.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130186, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265381

RESUMO

Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are macromolecules with environment beneficial properties. Currently, numerous studies focus on the absorption of heavy metals by EPS, but less attention has been paid to the effects of EPS on the plants. This study explored the effects of EPS from Lactobacillus plantarum LPC-1 on the structure and function of cell walls in rice seedling roots under cadmium (Cd) stress. The results showed that EPS could regulate the remodeling process of the cell walls of rice roots. EPS affects the synthesis efficiency and the content of the substances that made up the cell wall, and thus plays an essential role in limiting the uptake and transport of Cd in rice root. Furthermore, EPS could induce plant resistance to heavy metals by regulating the lignin biosynthesis pathway in rice roots. Finally, the cell wall remodeling induced by EPS likely contributes to plant stress responses by activating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oryza , Oryza/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130206, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279652

RESUMO

Understanding the molecular mechanism of tolerance to heavy metals in hyperaccumulators is important for improving the efficiency of phytoremediation and is interesting for evolutionary studies on plant adaption to abiotic stress. Celosia argentea Linn. was recently discovered to hyperaccumulate both manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Mn and Cd detoxification in C. argentea are poorly understood. Laboratory studies were conducted using C. argentea seedlings exposed to 360 µM Mn and 8.9 µM Cd hydroponic solutions. Plant leaves were analyzed using transcriptional and metabolomic techniques. A total of 3960 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in plants were identified under Cd stress, among which 17 were associated with metal transport, and 10 belonged to the ATP transporter families. Exposures to Mn or Cd led to the differential expression of three metal transport genes (HMA3, ABCC15, and ATPase 4). In addition, 33 and 77 differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs) were identified under Mn and Cd stresses, respectively. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that the ABC transporter pathway was the most affected in Mn/Cd exposed seedlings. Conjoint transcriptome and metabolome analysis showed that the glutathione (GSH) metabolic pathway was over-represented in the KEGG pathway of both DEGs and DEMs. Our results confirm that the ABC transporter and GSH metabolic pathways play important roles in Mn and Cd detoxification. These findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of tolerance to Mn and Cd toxicity in plants.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Celosia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/metabolismo , Celosia/metabolismo , Manganês/toxicidade , Manganês/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Plântula/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2575: 77-103, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301472

RESUMO

The molecular map of diverse biological molecules linked with structure, function, signaling, and regulation within a cell can be elucidated using an analytically demanding omic approach. The latest trend of using "metabolomics" technologies has explained the natural phenomenon of opening a new avenue to understand and enhance bioactive compounds' production. Examination of sequenced plant genomes has revealed that a considerable portion of these encodes genes of secondary metabolism. In addition to genetic and molecular tools developed in the current era, the ever-increasing knowledge about plant metabolism's biochemistry has initiated an approach for wisely designed, more productive genetic engineering of plant secondary metabolism for improved defense systems and enhanced biosynthesis of beneficial metabolites. Secondary plant metabolites are natural products synthesized by plants that are not directly involved with their average growth and development but play a vital role in plant defense mechanisms. Plant secondary metabolites are classified into four major classes: terpenoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, and sulfur-containing compounds. More than 200,000 secondary metabolites are synthesized by plants having a unique and complex structure. Secondary plant metabolites are well characterized and quantified by omics approaches and therefore used by humans in different sectors such as agriculture, pharmaceuticals, chemical industries, and biofuel. The aim is to establish metabolomics as a comprehensive and dynamic model of diverse biological molecules for biomarkers and drug discovery. In this chapter, we aim to illustrate the role of metabolomic technology, precisely liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, specifically as a research tool in the production and identification of novel bioactive compounds for drug discovery and to obtain a unified insight of secondary metabolism in plants.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Plantas , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Plantas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Descoberta de Drogas
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129904, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096061

RESUMO

As an important subtopic within phytoremediation, hyperaccumulators have garnered significant attention due to their ability of super-enriching heavy metals. Identifying the factors that affecting phytoextraction efficiency has important application value in guiding the efficient remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. However, it is challenging to identify the critical factors that affect the phytoextraction of heavy metals in soil-hyperaccumulator ecosystems because the current projections on phytoremediation extrapolations are rudimentary at best using simple linear models. Here, machine learning (ML) approaches were used to predict the important factors that affecting phytoextraction efficiency of hyperaccumulators. ML analysis was based on 173 data points with consideration of soil properties, experimental conditions, plant families, low-molecular-weight organic acids from plants, plant genes, and heavy metal properties. Heavy metal properties, especially the metal ion radius, were the most important factors that affect heavy metal accumulation in shoots, and the plant family was the most important factor that affect the bioconcentration factor, metal extraction ratio, and remediation time. Furthermore, the Crassulaceae family had the highest potential as hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation, which was related to the expression of genes encoding heavy metal transporting ATPase (HMA), Metallothioneins (MTL), and natural resistance associated macrophage protein (NRAMP), and also the secretion of malate and threonine. New insights into the effects of plant characteristics, experimental conditions, soil characteristics, and heavy metal properties on phytoextraction efficiency from ML model interpretation could guide the efficient phytoremediation by identifying the best hyperaccumulators and resolving its efficient remediation mechanisms.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Aprendizado de Máquina , Malatos/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Treonina/metabolismo
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 367: 128275, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347479

RESUMO

Naturally occurring, microbial contaminants were found in plant biomasses from common bioenergy crops and agricultural wastes. Unexpectedly, indigenous thermophilic microbes were abundant, raising the question of whether they impact thermophilic consolidated bioprocessing fermentations that convert biomass directly into useful bioproducts. Candidate microbial platforms for biomass conversion, Acetivibrio thermocellus (basionym Clostridium thermocellum; Topt 60 °C) and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii (Topt 78 °C), each degraded a wide variety of plant biomasses, but only A. thermocellus was significantly affected by the presence of indigenous microbial populations harbored by the biomass. Indigenous microbial growth was eliminated at ≥75 °C, conditions where C. bescii thrives, but where A. thermocellus cannot survive. Therefore, 75 °C is the thermophilic threshold to avoid sterilizing pre-treatments on the biomass that prevents native microbes from competing with engineered microbes and forming undesirable by-products. Thermophiles that naturally grow at and above 75 °C offer specific advantages as platform microorganisms for biomass conversion into fuels and chemicals.


Assuntos
Clostridium thermocellum , Lignina , Biomassa , Fermentação , Lignina/química , Clostridium thermocellum/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2564: 203-211, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107343

RESUMO

Fluorescent proteins (FPs) remarkably advanced the study of cellular biology of plants. The most common application is their use as reporter proteins to determine the subcellular localization of a protein of interest (POI) by endogenous expression of a suitable FP-POI fusion construct in plant cells. In this chapter we describe three approaches, namely, particle bombardment, protoplast transformation, and Agrobacterium infiltration, to transiently express such fusion constructs in plant cells of different species. These approaches are versatile and can be utilized for diverse fluorescent protein-based applications.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium , Plantas , Agrobacterium/genética , Agrobacterium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158888, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36165908

RESUMO

The union of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) and rhizosphere confers a series of functions beneficial to plant. However, the lack of an opearable in situ method limits the further understanding on the mechanism. In this study, a weak electric field was designed to regulate rhizospheric microflora in a constructed root-splitting reactor. Compared with the control, the aboveground and underground biomass of rice seedling increased by 17 % and 18 % (p < 0.05) respectively under the exist of weak electric field of 0.14 V/cm. The joint action of rhizosphere and PGPB displayed the detoxification ability in the condition of soluble petroleum hydrocarbons, where the height, stem diameter, biomass and root vigor of the plant was increased by 58 %, 32 %, 43 % and 48 % respectively than the control. The selective reproduction of endophytes and ectophytes (denitrifying, auxin-producing, hydrocarbon-degrading and electroactive bacteria) was observed under applied weak electric field, which enhanced the nitrogen utilization, cellular metabolic activity and resistance to toxic organics of plant. This was further confirmed by the up-regulated OTUs related to the hydrocarbon degradation function, tryptophan metabolism and metabolism of nicotinate and nicotinamide. Moreover, the weak electric field also enhanced the transfer ability of partial endophytes grown in the root to improve plant stress resistance. The results in this work inspired an exercisable method for in situ enrichment of PGPB in the rhizosphere to cope with food crisis and provided a new way to deal with sudden environmental events.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes do Solo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Endófitos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116499, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257227

RESUMO

Over-compensatory growth of plants after disturbance is generally preferred by grassland users and managers because of more forage. How the grassland productivity and the plant growth condition before disturbance affect the compensatory growth are important for grazing management and the understanding of grassland degradation, yet they are not well understood. A clipping experiment was conducted on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau to understand the compensatory growth and conditions for the occurrence of over-compensatory at alpine meadows with different degradation status. Results showed the competition for light constrains the plant growth post-clipping at non-degraded and slightly degraded alpine meadows, while the reduction of soil nitrogen limits it at heavily degraded alpine meadow. The biomass accumulated post-clipping was positively correlated with the growing season biomass in unclipped plots and the biomass at clipping in clipped plots. When the aboveground biomass at clipping was less than 40.10 g m-2 and the growing season biomass was between 38 and 97 g m-2, the over-compensatory growth of alpine meadow could occur. Higher clipping rate is required for the alpine meadow with high productivity but the maximum clipping rate should be less than 0.71 to induce the over-compensatory growth. Equal-compensatory occurred at non-degraded and slightly degraded, while over-compensatory growth was observed at moderately degraded and a marginally significant over-compensatory growth at heavily degraded alpine meadow. The over-compensatory growth occurred at moderately degraded alpine meadow is mainly due to the performance of forbs. Our results suggest that grazing at moderately degraded alpine meadow may induce the over-compensatory growth at the community level, but the over-compensatory growth of forbs at moderately degraded alpine meadow may aggravate the alpine meadow degradation.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Solo , Tibet , Biomassa , Nitrogênio/análise , Plantas/metabolismo
11.
Postepy Biochem ; 68(3): 310-320, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317991

RESUMO

ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins are integral parts of regulatory pathways under the control of small RNA (sRNA) that are fundamental for the proper functioning of eukaryotic cells. AGOs, as highly specialized platforms binding specific sRNA, coordinate gene silencing through interaction with other protein factors (forming the RNA-induced silencing complex, RISC), contributing to endonucleolytic cleavage of the target mRNA and/or influencing the translation process. The increasing number of evidence confirms the participation of AGO proteins in several other cellular processes, such as i.e.: transcription regulation, sequestration, RNA-dependent methylation of DNA, repair of DNA damages, synthesis of siRNA independent of DCL (DICER-like) proteins, or co-transcriptional regulation of MIRNA genes expression and intron splicing. Particular plant species are characterized by the presence of a different number of AGO proteins, in many cases of yet unknown regulatory and/or biological function. This review article covers the current knowledge about the functions of AGOs in cell biology and plant development.


Assuntos
Proteínas Argonauta , MicroRNAs , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
12.
Postepy Biochem ; 68(3): 300-309, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317993

RESUMO

Secondary metabolites produced by plants are a rich group of bioactive compounds with many health-promoting properties, which can be used in various sectors of industry including pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. One of the problems with application of plant derived compounds are their low levels in plant tissues. Thus, new methods aiming at stimulation of the biosynthesis of plant metabolites are being investigated. In recent years several articles on the use of metals as elicitors have been published. Present review presents the examples of the application of copper (Cu), zin (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and selected nanoparticles as elicitors.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Zinco , Zinco/metabolismo , Zinco/farmacologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacologia , Cobre/metabolismo , Cobre/farmacologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1389: 137-157, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350509

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark conserved in eukaryotes from fungi to animals and plants, where it plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression and transposon silencing. Once the methylation mark is established by de novo DNA methyltransferases, specific regulatory mechanisms are required to maintain the methylation state during chromatin replication, both during meiosis and mitosis. Plant DNA methylation is found in three contexts; CG, CHG, and CHH (H = A, T, C), which are established and maintained by a unique set of DNA methyltransferases and are regulated by plant-specific pathways. DNA methylation in plants is often associated with other epigenetic modifications, such as noncoding RNA and histone modifications. This chapter focuses on the structure, function, and regulatory mechanism of plant DNA methyltransferases and their crosstalk with other epigenetic pathways.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Metilação de DNA , Animais , Metiltransferases/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo
14.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364054

RESUMO

Coumarins and furanocoumarins are plant secondary metabolites with known biological activities. As they are present in low amounts in plants, their heterologous production emerged as a more sustainable and efficient approach to plant extraction. Although coumarins biosynthesis has been positively established, furanocoumarin biosynthesis has been far more challenging. This study aims to evaluate if Escherichia coli could be a suitable host for furanocoumarin biosynthesis. The biosynthetic pathway for coumarins biosynthesis in E. coli was effectively constructed, leading to the production of umbelliferone, esculetin and scopoletin (128.7, 17.6, and 15.7 µM, respectively, from tyrosine). However, it was not possible to complete the pathway with the enzymes that ultimately lead to furanocoumarins production. Prenyltransferase, psoralen synthase, and marmesin synthase did not show any activity when expressed in E. coli. Several strategies were tested to improve the enzymes solubility and activity with no success, including removing potential N-terminal transit peptides and expression of cytochrome P450 reductases, chaperones and/or enzymes to increase dimethylallylpyrophosphate availability. Considering the results herein obtained, E. coli does not seem to be an appropriate host to express these enzymes. However, new alternative microbial enzymes may be a suitable option for reconstituting the furanocoumarins pathway in E. coli. Nevertheless, until further microbial enzymes are identified, Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be considered a preferred host as it has already been proven to successfully express some of these plant enzymes.


Assuntos
Furocumarinas , Furocumarinas/química , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Escopoletina/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
15.
Planta ; 256(6): 108, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348172

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This review describes zinc sensing and transcriptional regulation of the zinc deficiency response in Arabidopsis, and discusses how their evolutionary conservation in land plants facilitates translational approaches for improving the Zn nutritional value of crop species. Zinc is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms due to its presence in a large number of proteins, as a structural or catalytic cofactor. In plants, zinc homeostasis mechanisms comprise uptake from soil, transport and distribution throughout the plant to provide adequate cellular zinc availability. Here, I discuss the transcriptional regulation of the response to zinc deficiency and the zinc sensing mechanisms in Arabidopsis, and their evolutionary conservation in land plants. The Arabidopsis F-group basic region leucine-zipper (F-bZIP) transcription factors bZIP19 and bZIP23 function simultaneously as sensors of intracellular zinc status, by direct binding of zinc ions, and as the central regulators of the zinc deficiency response, with their target genes including zinc transporters from the ZRT/IRT-like Protein (ZIP) family and nicotianamine synthase enzymes that produce the zinc ligand nicotianamine. I note that this relatively simple mechanism of zinc sensing and regulation, together with the evolutionary conservation of F-bZIP transcription factors across land plants, offer important research opportunities. One of them is to use the F-bZIP-regulated zinc deficiency response as a tractable module for evolutionary and comparative functional studies. Another research opportunity is translational research in crop plants, modulating F-bZIP activity as a molecular switch to enhance zinc accumulation. This should become a useful plant-based solution to alleviate effects of zinc deficiency in soils, which impact crop production and crop zinc content, with consequences for human nutrition globally.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Embriófitas , Humanos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Embriófitas/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277101, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355807

RESUMO

Phytoremediation assisted with plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) is a green technology to remediate metal contaminated soils. Plants usually produce secondary metabolites to tolerate metal toxicity. Present study was designed to explore the phytoremediation potential of Vigna radiata var. NM-II in the presence of metal resistant PGPB and comparison of metabolites produced under heavy metal stresses (Pb, Ni, Cr). Three PGPB selected for present study include Bacillus pumilus MB246, Serratia nematodiphila MB307 and Delftia Lacustris MB322. Pot experiments were conducted with inoculated V. radiata NM-II seeds grown in soil artificially contaminated with lead (Pb), Nickle (Ni) and chromium (Cr) at a concentration of 300, 200 and 100 mg/kg respectively. After harvesting various growth parameters were studied (root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight). Bacterial colonization on root surfaces of harvested plants was observed through Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Elemental composition was recorded through Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) attached with SEM. Metabolic response of harvested plants was studied through Gas chromatography Mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis. Metal accumulation in roots, shoots and soil was analysed by acid digestion method from which Bioaccumulation factor (BF) and Translocation factor (TF) of metal from soil to plant was calculated. Results revealed stimulatory effect of PGPB on growth and phytoextraction ability of V. radiata. Soil metal removal efficiency was in the order Pb>Ni>Cr, whereas metal distribution in each part of plant was root>stem>leaf. The BF and TF values suggested V. radiata as Pb and Ni excluder while moderate accumulator for Cr. Elemental analysis through Energy Dispersive X- ray spectroscopy (EDX) found potassium (K+)and calcium (Ca+)as highly abundant nutrients with least accumulation of sulphur (S). Metabolites study through GC-MS revealed variety of compounds (carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, steroids etc) detected differentially under each metal treatment and their concentration was influenced by different bacterial inoculations. Overall 9-Octadecenamide was found as commonly present lipid compound in most of the treatments which is required for detoxification in plants. The study concluded beneficial role of PGPB for successful phytoremediation of heavy metals and differential response of metabolites towards each metal stress that is related to metal tolerance ability of V. radiata.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Vigna , Biodegradação Ambiental , Solo/química , Cromo/análise , Vigna/metabolismo , Níquel/análise , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(47): e2117803119, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375069

RESUMO

The formation of cell polarity is essential for many developmental processes such as polar cell growth and spatial patterning of cell division. A plant-specific ROP (Rho-like GTPases from Plants) subfamily of conserved Rho GTPase plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell polarity. However, the functional study of ROPs in angiosperm is challenging because of their functional redundancy. The Marchantia polymorpha genome encodes a single ROP gene, MpROP, providing an excellent genetic system to study ROP-dependent signaling pathways. Mprop knockout mutants exhibited rhizoid growth defects, and MpROP was localized at the tip of elongating rhizoids, establishing a role for MpROP in the control of polar cell growth and its functional conservation in plants. Furthermore, the Mprop knockout mutant showed defects in the formation of meristem notches associated with disorganized cell division patterns. These results reveal a critical function of MpROP in the regulation of plant development. Interestingly, these phenotypes were complemented not only by MpROP but also Arabidopsis AtROP2, supporting the conservation of ROP's function among land plants. Our results demonstrate a great potential for M. polymorpha as a powerful genetic system for functional and mechanistic elucidation of ROP signaling pathways during plant development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Marchantia , Meristema/genética , Meristema/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Marchantia/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Divisão Celular/genética , Plantas/metabolismo
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19232, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357494

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soils represent a major treat for ecosystems health. Plant biostimulation of autochthonous microbial PCB degraders is a way to restore polluted sites where traditional remediation techniques are not sustainable, though its success requires the understanding of site-specific plant-microbe interactions. In an historical PCB contaminated soil, we applied DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) using 13C-labeled 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CB) and 16S rRNA MiSeq amplicon sequencing to determine how the structure of total and PCB-degrading bacterial populations were affected by different treatments: biostimulation with Phalaris arundinacea subjected (PhalRed) or not (Phal) to a redox cycle and the non-planted controls (Bulk and BulkRed). Phal soils hosted the most diverse community and plant biostimulation induced an enrichment of Actinobacteria. Mineralization of 4-CB in SIP microcosms varied between 10% in Bulk and 39% in PhalRed soil. The most abundant taxa deriving carbon from PCB were Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Comamonadaceae was the family most represented in Phal soils, Rhodocyclaceae and Nocardiaceae in non-planted soils. Planted soils subjected to redox cycle enriched PCB degraders affiliated to Pseudonocardiaceae, Micromonosporaceae and Nocardioidaceae. Overall, we demonstrated different responses of soil bacterial taxa to specific rhizoremediation treatments and we provided new insights into the populations active in PCB biodegradation.


Assuntos
Actinomycetales , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes do Solo , Solo/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Biodegradação Ambiental , Bactérias , Plantas/metabolismo , Actinomycetales/genética , Isótopos/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo
19.
J Chem Phys ; 157(17): 174104, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347697

RESUMO

We describe a method for simulating exciton dynamics in protein-pigment complexes, including effects from charge transfer as well as fluorescence. The method combines the hierarchical equations of motion, which are used to describe quantum dynamics of excitons, and the Nakajima-Zwanzig quantum master equation, which is used to describe slower charge transfer processes. We study the charge transfer quenching in light harvesting complex II, a protein postulated to control non-photochemical quenching in many plant species. Using our hybrid approach, we find good agreement between our calculation and experimental measurements of the excitation lifetime. Furthermore, our calculations reveal that the exciton energy funnel plays an important role in determining quenching efficiency, a conclusion we expect to extend to other proteins that perform protective excitation quenching. This also highlights the need for simulation methods that properly account for the interplay of exciton dynamics and charge transfer processes.


Assuntos
Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz , Plantas , Transferência de Energia , Movimento (Física) , Plantas/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Luz
20.
Nature ; 611(7935): 301-305, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323777

RESUMO

Enrichment of nutrients and loss of herbivores are assumed to cause a loss of plant diversity in grassland ecosystems because they increase plant cover, which leads to a decrease of light in the understory1-3. Empirical tests of the role of competition for light in natural systems are based on indirect evidence, and have been a topic of debate for the last 40 years. Here we show that experimentally restoring light to understory plants in a natural grassland mitigates the loss of plant diversity that is caused by either nutrient enrichment or the absence of mammalian herbivores. The initial effect of light addition on restoring diversity under fertilization was transitory and outweighed by the greater effect of herbivory on light levels, indicating that herbivory is a major factor that controls diversity, partly through light. Our results provide direct experimental evidence, in a natural system, that competition for light is a key mechanism that contributes to the loss of biodiversity after cessation of mammalian herbivory. Our findings also show that the effects of herbivores can outpace the effects of fertilization on competition for light. Management practices that target maintaining grazing by native or domestic herbivores could therefore have applications in protecting biodiversity in grassland ecosystems, because they alleviate competition for light in the understory.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Herbivoria , Luz , Plantas , Animais , Pradaria , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Fertilizantes
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