Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.717
Filtrar
1.
J Plant Res ; 137(3): 343-357, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693461

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant life and growth. P is primarily acquired in the form of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from soil. To cope with Pi deficiency, plants have evolved an elaborate system to improve Pi acquisition and utilization through an array of developmental and physiological changes, termed Pi starvation response (PSR). Plants also assemble and manage mutualistic microbes to enhance Pi uptake, through integrating PSR and immunity signaling. A trade-off between plant growth and defense favors the notion that plants lower a cellular state of immunity to accommodate host-beneficial microbes for nutrition and growth at the cost of infection risk. However, the existing data indicate that plants selectively activate defense responses against pathogens, but do not or less against non-pathogens, even under nutrient deficiency. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the principles and mechanisms with which plants balance immunity and growth-related processes to optimize their adaptation to Pi deficiency.


Assuntos
Fosfatos , Imunidade Vegetal , Fosfatos/deficiência , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Plantas/imunologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Plant Signal Behav ; 19(1): 2356406, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785260

RESUMO

In nature, co-evolution shaped balanced entities of host plants and their associated microorganism. Plants maintain this balance by detecting their associated microorganism and coordinating responses to them. Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread bacterial cell-to-cell communication mechanism to modulate the collective behavior of bacteria. As a well-characterized QS signal, N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) also influence plant fitness. Plants need to coordinate their responses to diverse AHL molecules since they might host bacteria producing various AHL. This opinion paper discusses plants response to a mixture of multiple AHL molecules. The function of various phytohormones and WRKY transcription factors seems to be characteristic for plants' response to multiple AHL. Additionally, the perspectives and possible approaches to facilitate further research and the application of AHL-producing bacteria are discussed.


Assuntos
Acil-Butirolactonas , Acil-Butirolactonas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Percepção de Quorum , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo
3.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 647, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727981

RESUMO

Calcium (Ca2+) is a universal signaling molecule that is tightly regulated, and a fleeting elevation in cytosolic concentration triggers a signal cascade within the cell, which is crucial for several processes such as growth, tolerance to stress conditions, and virulence in fungi. The link between calcium and calcium-dependent gene regulation in cells relies on the transcription factor Calcineurin-Responsive Zinc finger 1 (CRZ1). The direct regulation of approximately 300 genes in different stress pathways makes it a hot topic in host-pathogen interactions. Notably, CRZ1 can modulate several pathways and orchestrate cellular responses to different types of environmental insults such as osmotic stress, oxidative stress, and membrane disruptors. It is our belief that CRZ1 provides the means for tightly modulating and synchronizing several pathways allowing pathogenic fungi to install into the apoplast and eventually penetrate plant cells (i.e., ROS, antimicrobials, and quick pH variation). This review discusses the structure, function, regulation of CRZ1 in fungal physiology and its role in plant pathogen virulence.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas , Fungos , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Fungos/patogenicidade , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Virulência/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética
4.
Ecol Lett ; 27(5): e14432, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698727

RESUMO

Pairwise interactions between species can be modified by other community members, leading to emergent dynamics contingent on community composition. Despite the prevalence of such higher-order interactions, little is known about how they are linked to the timing and order of species' arrival. We generate population dynamics from a mechanistic plant-soil feedback model, then apply a general theoretical framework to show that the modification of a pairwise interaction by a third plant depends on its germination phenology. These time-dependent interaction modifications emerge from concurrent changes in plant and microbe populations and are strengthened by higher overlap between plants' associated microbiomes. The interaction between this overlap and the specificity of microbiomes further determines plant coexistence. Our framework is widely applicable to mechanisms in other systems from which similar time-dependent interaction modifications can emerge, highlighting the need to integrate temporal shifts of species interactions to predict the emergent dynamics of natural communities.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Modelos Biológicos , Microbiologia do Solo , Dinâmica Populacional , Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química , Fatores de Tempo , Germinação
5.
Microbiol Res ; 284: 127726, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643524

RESUMO

Understanding rhizosphere microbial ecology is necessary to reveal the interplay between plants and associated microbial communities. The significance of rhizosphere-microbial interactions in plant growth promotion, mediated by several key processes such as auxin synthesis, enhanced nutrient uptake, stress alleviation, disease resistance, etc., is unquestionable and well reported in numerous literature. Moreover, rhizosphere research has witnessed tremendous progress due to the integration of the metagenomics approach and further shift in our viewpoint from taxonomic to functional diversity over the past decades. The microbial functional genes corresponding to the beneficial functions provide a solid foundation for the successful establishment of positive plant-microbe interactions. The microbial functional gene composition in the rhizosphere can be regulated by several factors, e.g., the nutritional requirements of plants, soil chemistry, soil nutrient status, pathogen attack, abiotic stresses, etc. Knowing the pattern of functional gene composition in the rhizosphere can shed light on the dynamics of rhizosphere microbial ecology and the strength of cooperation between plants and associated microbes. This knowledge is crucial to realizing how microbial functions respond to unprecedented challenges which are obvious in the Anthropocene. Unraveling how microbes-mediated beneficial functions will change under the influence of several challenges, requires knowledge of the pattern and composition of functional genes corresponding to beneficial functions such as biogeochemical functions (nutrient cycle), plant growth promotion, stress mitigation, etc. Here, we focus on the molecular traits of plant growth-promoting functions delivered by a set of microbial functional genes that can be useful to the emerging field of rhizosphere functional ecology.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Metagenômica
6.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 100(5)2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38678007

RESUMO

While the One Health framework has emphasized the importance of soil microbiomes for plant and human health, one of the most diverse and abundant groups-bacterial viruses, i.e. phages-has been mostly neglected. This perspective reviews the significance of phages for plant health in rhizosphere and explores their ecological and evolutionary impacts on soil ecosystems. We first summarize our current understanding of the diversity and ecological roles of phages in soil microbiomes in terms of nutrient cycling, top-down density regulation, and pathogen suppression. We then consider how phages drive bacterial evolution in soils by promoting horizontal gene transfer, encoding auxiliary metabolic genes that increase host bacterial fitness, and selecting for phage-resistant mutants with altered ecology due to trade-offs with pathogen competitiveness and virulence. Finally, we consider challenges and avenues for phage research in soil ecosystems and how to elucidate the significance of phages for microbial ecology and evolution and soil ecosystem functioning in the future. We conclude that similar to bacteria, phages likely play important roles in connecting different One Health compartments, affecting microbiome diversity and functions in soils. From the applied perspective, phages could offer novel approaches to modulate and optimize microbial and microbe-plant interactions to enhance soil health.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Bacteriófagos , Microbiota , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bactérias/virologia , Bactérias/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/virologia , Ecossistema
7.
Nat Plants ; 10(5): 710-718, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641664

RESUMO

The prevalence and potential functions of common mycorrhizal networks, or the 'wood-wide web', resulting from the simultaneous interaction of mycorrhizal fungi and roots of different neighbouring plants have been increasingly capturing the interest of science and society, sometimes leading to hyperbole and misinterpretation. Several recent reviews conclude that popular claims regarding the widespread nature of these networks in forests and their role in the transfer of resources and information between plants lack evidence. Here we argue that mycoheterotrophic plants associated with ectomycorrhizal or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi require resource transfer through common mycorrhizal networks and thus are natural evidence for the occurrence and function of these networks, offering a largely overlooked window into this methodologically challenging underground phenomenon. The wide evolutionary and geographic distribution of mycoheterotrophs and their interactions with a broad phylogenetic range of mycorrhizal fungi indicate that common mycorrhizal networks are prevalent, particularly in forests, and result in net carbon transfer among diverse plants through shared mycorrhizal fungi. On the basis of the available scientific evidence, we propose a continuum of carbon transfer options within common mycorrhizal networks, and we discuss how knowledge on the biology of mycoheterotrophic plants can be instrumental for the study of mycorrhizal-mediated transfers between plants.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Plantas , Madeira , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Madeira/microbiologia , Processos Heterotróficos , Simbiose , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Florestas
8.
J Microbiol ; 62(3): 231-248, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587594

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved signaling modules that coordinate diverse biological processes such as plant innate immunity and development. Recently, MAPK cascades have emerged as pivotal regulators of the plant holobiont, influencing the assembly of normal plant microbiota, essential for maintaining optimal plant growth and health. In this review, we provide an overview of current knowledge on MAPK cascades, from upstream perception of microbial stimuli to downstream host responses. Synthesizing recent findings, we explore the intricate connections between MAPK signaling and the assembly and functioning of plant microbiota. Additionally, the role of MAPK activation in orchestrating dynamic changes in root exudation to shape microbiota composition is discussed. Finally, our review concludes by emphasizing the necessity for more sophisticated techniques to accurately decipher the role of MAPK signaling in establishing the plant holobiont relationship.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas , Microbiota/fisiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Simbiose , Imunidade Vegetal
9.
Chemosphere ; 358: 142182, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38685321

RESUMO

Globally, air pollution is an unfortunate aftermath of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Although the best strategy is to prevent air pollution, it is not always feasible. This makes it imperative to devise and implement techniques that can clean the air continuously. Plants and microbes have a natural potential to transform or degrade pollutants. Hence, strategies that use this potential of living biomass to remediate air pollution seem to be promising. The simplest future trend can be planting suitable plant-microbe species capable of removing air pollutants like SO2, CO2, CO, NOX and particulate matter (PM) along roadsides and inside the buildings. Established wastewater treatment strategies such as microbial fuel cells (MFC) and constructed wetlands (CW) can be suitably modified to ameliorate air pollution. Green architecture involving green walls and green roofs is facile and aesthetic, providing urban ecosystem services. Certain microbe-based bioreactors such as bioscrubbers and biofilters may be useful in small confined spaces. Several generative models have been developed to assist with planning and managing green spaces in urban locales. The physiological limitations of using living organisms can be circumvent by applying biotechnology and transgenics to improve their potential. This review provides a comprehensive update on not just the plants and associated microbes for the mitigation of air pollution, but also lists the technologies that are available and/or can be modified and used for air pollution control. The article also gives a detailed analysis of this topic in the form of strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-challenges (SWOC). The strategies mentioned in this review would help to attain corporate Environmental Social and Governance (ESG) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), while reducing carbon footprint in the urban scenario. The review aims to emphasise that urbanization is possible while tackling air pollution using facile, green techniques involving plants and associated microbes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Biodegradação Ambiental , Plantas , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Áreas Alagadas , Material Particulado/análise
10.
Mol Plant ; 17(5): 699-724, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594902

RESUMO

Beyond their function as structural barriers, plant cell walls are essential elements for the adaptation of plants to environmental conditions. Cell walls are dynamic structures whose composition and integrity can be altered in response to environmental challenges and developmental cues. These wall changes are perceived by plant sensors/receptors to trigger adaptative responses during development and upon stress perception. Plant cell wall damage caused by pathogen infection, wounding, or other stresses leads to the release of wall molecules, such as carbohydrates (glycans), that function as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). DAMPs are perceived by the extracellular ectodomains (ECDs) of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to activate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and disease resistance. Similarly, glycans released from the walls and extracellular layers of microorganisms interacting with plants are recognized as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by specific ECD-PRRs triggering PTI responses. The number of oligosaccharides DAMPs/MAMPs identified that are perceived by plants has increased in recent years. However, the structural mechanisms underlying glycan recognition by plant PRRs remain limited. Currently, this knowledge is mainly focused on receptors of the LysM-PRR family, which are involved in the perception of various molecules, such as chitooligosaccharides from fungi and lipo-chitooligosaccharides (i.e., Nod/MYC factors from bacteria and mycorrhiza, respectively) that trigger differential physiological responses. Nevertheless, additional families of plant PRRs have recently been implicated in oligosaccharide/polysaccharide recognition. These include receptor kinases (RKs) with leucine-rich repeat and Malectin domains in their ECDs (LRR-MAL RKs), Catharanthus roseus RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE 1-LIKE group (CrRLK1L) with Malectin-like domains in their ECDs, as well as wall-associated kinases, lectin-RKs, and LRR-extensins. The characterization of structural basis of glycans recognition by these new plant receptors will shed light on their similarities with those of mammalians involved in glycan perception. The gained knowledge holds the potential to facilitate the development of sustainable, glycan-based crop protection solutions.


Assuntos
Parede Celular , Resistência à Doença , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/fisiologia
11.
Am J Bot ; 111(4): e16316, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38659131

RESUMO

Soil microorganisms play a critical role in shaping the biodiversity dynamics of plant communities. These microbial effects can arise through direct mediation of plant fitness by pathogens and mutualists, and over the past two decades, numerous studies have shined a spotlight on the role of dynamic feedbacks between plants and soil microorganisms as key determinants of plant species coexistence. Such feedbacks occur when plants modify the composition of the soil community, which in turn affects plant performance. Stimulated by a theoretical model developed in the 1990s, a bulk of the empirical evidence for microbial controls over plant coexistence comes from experiments that quantify plant growth in soil communities that were previously conditioned by conspecific or heterospecific plants. These studies have revealed that soil microbes can generate strong negative to positive frequency-dependent dynamics among plants. Even as soil microbes have become recognized as a key player in determining plant coexistence outcomes, the past few years have seen a renewed interest in expanding the conceptual foundations of this field. New results include re-interpretations of key metrics from classic two-species models, extensions of plant-soil feedback theory to multispecies communities, and frameworks to integrate plant-soil feedbacks with processes like intra- and interspecific competition. Here, I review the implications of theoretical developments for interpreting existing empirical results and highlight proposed analyses and designs for future experiments that can enable a more complete understanding of microbial regulation of plant community dynamics.


Assuntos
Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo , Plantas/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Biodiversidade
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(6): 178, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662173

RESUMO

Oxalic acid and oxalates are secondary metabolites secreted to the surrounding environment by fungi, bacteria, and plants. Oxalates are linked to a variety of processes in soil, e.g. nutrient availability, weathering of minerals, or precipitation of metal oxalates. Oxalates are also mentioned among low-molecular weight compounds involved indirectly in the degradation of the lignocellulose complex by fungi, which are considered to be the most effective degraders of wood. The active regulation of the oxalic acid concentration is linked with enzymatic activities; hence, the biochemistry of microbial biosynthesis and degradation of oxalic acid has also been presented. The potential of microorganisms for oxalotrophy and the ability of microbial enzymes to degrade oxalates are important factors that can be used in the prevention of kidney stone, as a diagnostic tool for determination of oxalic acid content, as an antifungal factor against plant pathogenic fungi, or even in efforts to improve the quality of edible plants. The potential role of fungi and their interaction with bacteria in the oxalate-carbonate pathway are regarded as an effective way for the transfer of atmospheric carbon dioxide into calcium carbonate as a carbon reservoir.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Biotecnologia , Fungos , Ácido Oxálico , Ácido Oxálico/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Oxalatos/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo
13.
J Microbiol Methods ; 221: 106937, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648958

RESUMO

Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are predominantly probiotic microorganisms and the most are Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS). LAB inhabit in the human gut ecosystem and are largely found in fermented foods and silage. In the last decades, LAB have also has been found in plant microbiota as a new class of microbes with probiotic activity to plants. For this reason, today the scientific interest in the study and isolation of LAB for agronomic application has increased. However, isolation protocols from complex samples such as plant tissues are scarce and inefficient. In this study, we developed a new protocol (CLI, Complex samples LAB Isolation) which yields purified LAB from plants. The sensitivity of CLI protocol was sufficient to isolate representative microorganisms of LAB genera (i.e. Leuconostoc, Lactococcus and Enterococcus). CLI protocol consists on five steps: i) sample preparation and pre-incubation in 1% sterile peptone at 30 °C for 24-48 h; ii) Sample homogenization in vortex by 10 min; iii) sample serial dilution in quarter-strength Ringer solution, iv) incubation in MRS agar plates with 0.2% of sorbic acid, with 1% of CaCO3, O2 < 15%, at pH 5.8 and 37 °C for 48 h.; v) Selection of single colonies with LAB morphology and CaCO3-solubilization halo. Our scientific contribution is that CLI protocol could be used for several complex samples and represents a useful method for further studies involving native LAB.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillales/classificação , Plantas/microbiologia , Leuconostoc/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Lactococcus/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo
14.
Environ Int ; 187: 108688, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38685158

RESUMO

The phyllosphere, particularly the leaf surface of plants, harbors a diverse range of microbiomes that play a vital role in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. However, our understanding of microbial successions and their impact on functional genes during plant community development is limited. In this study, considering core and satellite microbial taxa, we characterized the phyllosphere microbiome and functional genes in various microhabitats (i.e., leaf litter, moss and plant leaves) across the succession of a plant community in a low-altitude glacier foreland. Our findings indicate that phyllosphere microbiomes and associated ecosystem stability increase during the succession of the plant community. The abundance of core taxa increased with plant community succession and was primarily governed by deterministic processes. In contrast, satellite taxa abundance decreased during plant community succession and was mainly governed by stochastic processes. The abundance of microbial functional genes (such as C, N, and P hydrolysis and fixation) in plant leaves generally increased during the plant community succession. However, in leaf litter and moss leaves, only a subset of functional genes (e.g., C fixation and degradation, and P mineralization) showed a tendency to increase with plant community succession. Ultimately, the community of both core and satellite taxa collaboratively influenced the characteristics of phyllosphere nutrient-cycling genes, leading to the diverse profiles and fluctuating abundance of various functional genes during plant community succession. These findings offer valuable insights into the phyllosphere microbiome and plant-microbe interactions during plant community development, advancing our understanding of the succession and functional significance of the phyllosphere microbial community.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Folhas de Planta , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Ecossistema , Plantas/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 210: 108619, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604013

RESUMO

Rhizosphere interactions from plant-soil-microbiome occur dynamically all the time in the "black microzone" underground, where we can't see intuitively. Rhizosphere metabolites including root exudates and microbial metabolites act as various chemical signalings involving in rhizosphere interactions, and play vital roles on plant growth, development, disease suppression and resistance to stress conditions as well as proper soil health. Although rhizosphere metabolites are a mixture from plant roots and soil microbes, they often are discussed alone. As a rapid appearance of various omics platforms and analytical methods, it offers possibilities and opportunities for exploring rhizosphere interactions in unprecedented breadth and depth. However, our comprehensive understanding about the fine-tuning mechanisms of rhizosphere interactions mediated by these chemical compounds still remain clear. Thus, this review summarizes recent advances systemically including the features of rhizosphere metabolites and their effects on rhizosphere ecosystem, and looks forward to the future research perspectives, which contributes to facilitating better understanding of biochemical communications belowground and helping identify novel rhizosphere metabolites. We also address challenges for promoting the understanding about the roles of rhizosphere metabolites in different environmental stresses.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia
16.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(2): e13253, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575147

RESUMO

Partner specificity is a well-documented phenomenon in biotic interactions, yet the factors that determine specificity in plant-fungal associations remain largely unknown. By utilizing composite soil samples, we identified the predictors that drive partner specificity in both plants and fungi, with a particular focus on ectomycorrhizal associations. Fungal guilds exhibited significant differences in overall partner preference and avoidance, richness, and specificity to specific tree genera. The highest level of specificity was observed in root endophytic and ectomycorrhizal associations, while the lowest was found in arbuscular mycorrhizal associations. The majority of ectomycorrhizal fungal species showed a preference for one of their partner trees, primarily at the plant genus level. Specialist ectomycorrhizal fungi were dominant in belowground communities in terms of species richness and relative abundance. Moreover, all tree genera (and occasionally species) demonstrated a preference for certain fungal groups. Partner specificity was not related to the rarity of fungi or plants or environmental conditions, except for soil pH. Depending on the partner tree genus, specific fungi became more prevalent and relatively more abundant with increasing stand age, tree dominance, and soil pH conditions optimal for the partner tree genus. The richness of partner tree species and increased evenness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in multi-host communities enhanced the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, it was primarily the partner-generalist fungi that contributed to the high diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in mixed forests.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Micorrizas/genética , Árvores/microbiologia , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Fungos/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2788: 139-155, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656512

RESUMO

This computational protocol describes how to use pyPGCF, a python software package that runs in the linux environment, in order to analyze bacterial genomes and perform: (i) phylogenomic analysis, (ii) species demarcation, (iii) identification of the core proteins of a bacterial genus and its individual species, (iv) identification of species-specific fingerprint proteins that are found in all strains of a species and, at the same time, are absent from all other species of the genus, (v) functional annotation of the core and fingerprint proteins with eggNOG, and (vi) identification of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (smBGCs) with antiSMASH. This software has already been implemented to analyze bacterial genera and species that are important for plants (e.g., Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Streptomyces). In addition, we provide a test dataset and example commands showing how to analyze 165 genomes from 55 species of the genus Bacillus. The main advantages of pyPGCF are that: (i) it uses adjustable orthology cut-offs, (ii) it identifies species-specific fingerprints, and (iii) its computational cost scales linearly with the number of genomes being analyzed. Therefore, pyPGCF is able to deal with a very large number of bacterial genomes, in reasonable timescales, using widely available levels of computing power.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Filogenia , Plantas , Software , Plantas/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Genômica/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Família Multigênica , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 315, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689185

RESUMO

The plant microbes are an integral part of the host and play fundamental roles in plant growth and health. There is evidence indicating that plants have the ability to attract beneficial microorganisms through their roots in order to defend against pathogens. However, the mechanisms of plant microbial community assembly from below- to aboveground compartments under pathogen infection remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the bacterial and fungal communities in bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, root, stem, and leaf of both healthy and infected (Potato virus Y disease, PVY) plants. The results indicated that bacterial and fungal communities showed different recruitment strategies in plant organs. The number and abundance of shared bacterial ASVs between bulk and rhizosphere soils decreased with ascending migration from below- to aboveground compartments, while the number and abundance of fungal ASVs showed no obvious changes. Field type, plant compartments, and PVY infection all affected the diversity and structures of microbial community, with stronger effects observed in the bacterial community than the fungal community. Furthermore, PVY infection, rhizosphere soil pH, and water content (WC) contributed more to the assembly of the bacterial community than the fungal community. The analysis of microbial networks revealed that the bacterial communities were more sensitive to PVY infection than the fungal communities, as evidenced by the lower network stability of the bacterial community, which was characterized by a higher proportion of positive edges. PVY infection further increased the bacterial network stability and decreased the fungal network stability. These findings advance our understanding of how microbes respond to pathogen infections and provide a rationale and theoretical basis for biocontrol technology in promoting sustainable agriculture. KEY POINTS: • Different recruitment strategies between plant bacterial and fungal communities. • Bacterial community was more sensitive to PVY infection than fungal community. • pH and WC drove the microbial community assembly under PVY infection.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Fungos , Doenças das Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Fungos/fisiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiota , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Micobioma , Plantas/microbiologia
19.
Ecology ; 105(5): e4290, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570923

RESUMO

Plants face trade-offs between allocating resources to growth, while also defending against herbivores or pathogens. Species differences along defense trade-off axes may promote coexistence and maintain diversity. However, few studies of plant communities have simultaneously compared defense trade-offs against an array of herbivores and pathogens for which defense investment may differ, and even fewer have been conducted in the complex natural communities in which these interactions unfold. We tested predictions about the role of defense trade-offs with competition and growth in diversity maintenance by tracking plant species abundance in a field experiment that removed individual consumer groups (mammals, arthropods, fungi) and added nutrients. Consistent with a growth-defense trade-off, plant species that increased in mass in response to nutrient addition also increased when consumers were removed. This growth-defense trade-off occurred for all consumer groups studied. Nutrient addition reduced plant species richness, which is consistent with trade-off theory. Removing foliar fungi increased plant diversity via increased species evenness, whereas removal of other consumer groups had little effect on diversity, counter to expectations. Thus, while growth-defense trade-offs are general across consumer groups, this trade-off observed in wild plant communities does not necessarily support plant diversity maintenance.


Assuntos
Fungos , Insetos , Mamíferos , Plantas , Fungos/fisiologia , Animais , Insetos/fisiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/classificação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Herbivoria
20.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 549, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lichen is a symbiotic association of algae and fungi, recognized as a self-sustaining ecosystem that constitutes an indeterminant number of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and protozoa. We evaluated the endolichenic fungal assemblage given the dearth of knowledge on endolichenic fungi (ELFs), particularly from part of the Central Western Ghats, Karnataka, and conducted a phylogenetic analysis of xylariaceous fungi, the most diversified group of fungi using ITS and ITS+Tub2 gene set. RESULTS: Out of 17 lichen thalli collected from 5 ecoregions, 42 morphospecies recovered, belong to the class Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Leotiomycetes, Saccharomycetes. About 19 and 13 ELF genera have been reported from Parmotrema and Heterodermia thallus. Among the ecoregions EC2 showing highest species diversity (Parmotrema (1-D) = 0.9382, (H) = 2.865, Fisher-α = 8.429, Heterodermia (1-D) = 0.8038, H = 1.894, F-α = 4.57) followed the EC3 and EC1. Xylariales are the predominant colonizer reported from at least one thallus from four ecoregions. The morphotypes ELFX04, ELFX05, ELFX08 and ELFX13 show the highest BLAST similarity (> 99%) with Xylaria psidii, X. feejeensis, X. berteri and Hypoxylon fragiforme respectively. Species delimitation and phylogenetic position reveal the closest relation of Xylariaceous ELFs with plant endophytes. CONCLUSIONS: The observation highlights that the deciduous forest harness a high number of endolichenic fungi, a dominant portion of these fungi are non-sporulating and still exist as cryptic. Overall, 8 ELF species recognized based on phylogenetic analysis, including the two newly reported fungi ELFX03 and ELFX06 which are suspected to be new species based on the present evidence. The study proved, that the lichen being rich source to establish fungal diversity and finding new species. Successful amplification of most phylogenetic markers like RPB2, building of comprehensive taxonomic databases and application of multi-omics data are further needed to understand the complex nature of lichen-fungal symbiosis.


Assuntos
Líquens , Parmeliaceae , Líquens/microbiologia , Filogenia , Ecossistema , Índia , Plantas/microbiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...