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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1422, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658492

RESUMO

Trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases (trans-AT PKSs) are bacterial multimodular enzymes that biosynthesize diverse pharmaceutically and ecologically important polyketides. A notable feature of this natural product class is the existence of chemical hybrids that combine core moieties from different polyketide structures. To understand the prevalence, biosynthetic basis, and evolutionary patterns of this phenomenon, we developed transPACT, a phylogenomic algorithm to automate global classification of trans-AT PKS modules across bacteria and applied it to 1782 trans-AT PKS gene clusters. These analyses reveal widespread exchange patterns suggesting recombination of extended PKS module series as an important mechanism for metabolic diversification in this natural product class. For three plant-associated bacteria, i.e., the root colonizer Gynuella sunshinyii and the pathogens Xanthomonas cannabis and Pseudomonas syringae, we demonstrate the utility of this computational approach for uncovering cryptic relationships between polyketides, accelerating polyketide mining from fragmented genome sequences, and discovering polyketide variants with conserved moieties of interest. As natural combinatorial hybrids are rare among the more commonly studied cis-AT PKSs, this study paves the way towards evolutionarily informed, rational PKS engineering to produce chimeric trans-AT PKS-derived polyketides.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Filogenia , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Policetídeos/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lactonas/metabolismo , Macrolídeos/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Piperidonas/química , Plantas/microbiologia , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Policetídeos/química , Pseudomonas syringae/metabolismo , Xanthomonas/metabolismo , Xanthomonas/patogenicidade
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2246: 111-128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576986

RESUMO

High-resolution, spatial characterization of microbial communities is critical for the accurate understanding of microbe-microbe and microbe-plant interactions in leaf surfaces (phyllosphere). However, leaves are specially challenging surfaces for imaging methods due to their high autofluorescence. In this chapter we describe the Leaf-FISH method. Leaf-FISH is a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method specially adapted to the requirements of plant tissues. Leaf-FISH uses a combination of leaf pretreatments coupled with spectral imaging confocal microscopy and image post-processing to visualize bacterial taxa on a structural-informed context recreated from the residual background autofluorescence of the tissues. Leaf-FISH is suitable for simultaneous identification of multiple bacterial taxa using multiple taxon-specific fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes (combinatorial labeling).


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Sondas de Oligonucleotídeos/genética
3.
Science ; 371(6531)2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602828

RESUMO

During 450 million years of diversification on land, plants and microbes have evolved together. This is reflected in today's continuum of associations, ranging from parasitism to mutualism. Through phylogenetics, cell biology, and reverse genetics extending beyond flowering plants into bryophytes, scientists have started to unravel the genetic basis and evolutionary trajectories of plant-microbe associations. Protection against pathogens and support of beneficial, symbiotic, microorganisms are sustained by a blend of conserved and clade-specific plant mechanisms evolving at different speeds. We propose that symbiosis consistently emerges from the co-option of protection mechanisms and general cell biology principles. Exploring and harnessing the diversity of molecular mechanisms used in nonflowering plant-microbe interactions may extend the possibilities for engineering symbiosis-competent and pathogen-resilient crops.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Evolução Biológica , Fungos/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Plantas/genética , Simbiose , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência à Doença , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Imunidade Inata , Oomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oomicetos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1183, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608518

RESUMO

Ice-nucleation active (INA) bacteria can promote the growth of ice more effectively than any other known material. Using specialized ice-nucleating proteins (INPs), they obtain nutrients from plants by inducing frost damage and, when airborne in the atmosphere, they drive ice nucleation within clouds, which may affect global precipitation patterns. Despite their evident environmental importance, the molecular mechanisms behind INP-induced freezing have remained largely elusive. We investigate the structural basis for the interactions between water and the ice-nucleating protein InaZ from the INA bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. Using vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the ice-active repeats of InaZ adopt a ß-helical structure in solution and at water surfaces. In this configuration, interaction between INPs and water molecules imposes structural ordering on the adjacent water network. The observed order of water increases as the interface is cooled to temperatures close to the melting point of water. Experimental SFG data combined with molecular-dynamics simulations and spectral calculations show that InaZ reorients at lower temperatures. This reorientation can enhance water interactions, and thereby the effectiveness of ice nucleation.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Água/química , Atmosfera , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Óxido de Deutério , Congelamento , Gelo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas syringae/metabolismo
5.
Nat Protoc ; 16(2): 988-1012, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442053

RESUMO

Cultivating native bacteria from roots of plants grown in a given environment is essential for dissecting the functions of the root microbiota for plant growth and health with strain-specific resolution. In this study, we established a straightforward protocol for high-throughput bacterial isolation from fresh root samples using limiting dilution to ensure that most cultured bacteria originated from only one microorganism. This is followed by strain characterization using a two-sided barcode polymerase chain reaction system to identify pure and heterogeneous bacterial cultures. Our approach overcomes multiple difficulties of traditional bacterial isolation and identification methods, such as obtaining bacteria with diverse growth rates while greatly increasing throughput. To facilitate data processing, we developed an easy-to-use bioinformatic pipeline called 'Culturome' ( https://github.com/YongxinLiu/Culturome ) and a graphical user interface web server ( http://bailab.genetics.ac.cn/culturome/ ). This protocol allows any research group (two or three lab members without expertise in bioinformatics) to systematically cultivate root-associated bacteria within 8-9 weeks.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Plantas/microbiologia
6.
Molecules ; 26(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466477

RESUMO

Continued expansion of the chemical biology toolbox presents many new and diverse opportunities to interrogate the fundamental molecular mechanisms driving complex plant-microbe interactions. This review will examine metabolic labeling with click chemistry reagents and activity-based probes for investigating the impacts of plant-associated microbes on plant growth, metabolism, and immune responses. While the majority of the studies reviewed here used chemical biology approaches to examine the effects of pathogens on plants, chemical biology will also be invaluable in future efforts to investigate mutualistic associations between beneficial microbes and their plant hosts.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Microbiota , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Química Click
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2232: 1-21, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161534

RESUMO

Recent studies indicate that seed microbiomes affect germination and plant performance. However, the interplay between seed microbiota and plant health is still poorly understood. To get a complete picture of the system, a comprehensive analysis is required, comprising culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. In this chapter, we provide a combination of methods that are established and optimized for the analysis of the seed microbiome. These include methods to: (1) activate and cultivate dormant seed microbiota, (2) analyze microbiota in germinated seeds (with and without substrate), (3) quantify microbial DNA via real-time PCR, (4) deplete host DNA for amplicon and metagenome analysis, and (5) visualize seed endophytes in microtomed sections using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). A deep understanding of the seed microbiome and its functions can help in developing new seed treatments and breeding strategies for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação/genética , Metagenoma/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sementes/microbiologia
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2232: 61-75, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161540

RESUMO

Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are a group of beneficial microorganisms that can positively influence plant fitness and development by improving nutrient acquisition, influencing global plant hormone levels (direct effect), or by reducing the detrimental effects of various pathogens on plant development (indirect effect). The use of PGPB in agriculture as formulated bioinoculants is a potential approach to reduce the negative environmental impacts caused by the continuous application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The evaluation of a great number of bacteria in the laboratory for key traits involved in the improvement of plant fitness is a suitable strategy to find prospective candidates for bioinoculants. This chapter presents the main methods described in the literature to quickly screen potential candidates from a bacterial collection to directly and indirectly promote the plant growth.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2232: 77-84, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161541

RESUMO

Protists are mostly unicellular eukaryotes. Some protists are beneficial for plants, while others live as endosymbionts and can cause severe plant diseases. More detailed studies on plant-protist interactions exist only for plant pathogens and parasites. A number of protists live as inconspicuous endophytes and cause no visible disease symptoms, while others appear closely associated with the rhizosphere or phyllosphere of plants, but we still have only a vague understanding on their identities and functions. Here, we provide a protocol on how to assess the plant-associated protist community via Illumina-sequencing of ribosomal marker-amplicons and describe how to assign taxonomic affiliation to the obtained sequences.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Rizosfera , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2232: 85-112, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161542

RESUMO

Plants harbor a large reservoir of fungal diversity, encompassing endophytic, epiphytic, phytopathogenic, and rhizosphere-associated fungi. Despite this diversity, relatively few fungal species have been characterized as sources of bioactive secondary metabolites. The role of secondary metabolites is still not fully understood; however, it is suggested that these metabolites play important roles in defense mechanisms and fungal interactions with other organisms. Hence, fungal secondary metabolites have potential biotechnological applications as prototype molecules for the development of therapeutic drugs. In this chapter, we describe the main methods used for routine fungi isolation, production of crude fungal extracts, and chemical characterization of bioactive compounds. In addition, explicative notes about the steps described are provided to explore the diversity of the endophytic, phytopathogenic, epiphytic, and rhizosphere fungi and to evaluate the biotechnological potential of each group.


Assuntos
Bioprospecção/métodos , Classificação/métodos , Fungos/genética , Plantas/genética , Antifúngicos/química , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/química , Fungos/classificação , Plantas/microbiologia
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2232: 123-134, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161544

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing of universal bacterial 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) amplicons is a routine method for characterizing bacterial diversity in a range of environments. For eukaryotic host-associated communities, however, plastid and mitochondrial genes are often co-amplified with, and greatly outnumber, bacterial 16S rDNA. This makes it difficult to obtain sufficient numbers of target 16S rDNA sequences to characterize the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities. This chapter describes a method that improves the amplification of bacterial 16S rDNA from plant tissues by using a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) PCR clamp. The PNA clamp selectively binds to a targeted region of the plant genome and inhibits its amplification during PCR. PNA clamps are especially useful for characterizing bacterial communities on plant tissues with lower levels of microbial colonization such as the root tips and leaves.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/genética , Ácidos Nucleicos Peptídicos/genética , Plantas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2232: 147-153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161546

RESUMO

DNA sequencing has become a common tool in environmental microbial ecology, facilitating characterization of microbial populations as well as complex microbial communities by circumventing culture bottlenecks. However, certain samples especially from host-associated environments (rhizosphere, human tissue) or complex communities (soils) can contain a high degree of DNA sequences derived from hosts (plants, human) or other organisms of non-interest (arthropods, unicellular eukaryotes). This chapter presents a simple in silico method to remove contaminating sequences in metagenomes based on aligning sequences to reference genomes of the target organism.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Animais , Artrópodes/microbiologia , Eucariotos/genética , Humanos , Microbiota , Plantas/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2232: 173-191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161548

RESUMO

Bacillus spp. have great agricultural potential as a plant growth promoter and biocontrol agent. However, little is known concerning the bacterial molecular basis for the improvement of plant fitness. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop techniques that can contribute to the elucidation of the genetic basis for the mechanisms involved in beneficial bacterium-plant interactions. In this context, CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 is a powerful tool based on programmable molecular scissors that perform precise incisions in any DNA sequence. CRISPR-Cas9 can alter gene sequences and constitutes a cutting-edge tool to elucidate the role and function of bacterial genes associated with the benefits of plant interactions. The method described here uses a feasible CRISPR-Cas9 system in a double plasmid, one plasmid harboring the Cas9 endonuclease and the other the sgRNA, to promote gene knockout/editing in the Bacillus genus. This approach favors high efficiency in generating mutants for one or more genes in continuous or multiplex editing. Additionally, due to its universality, it can be applied to genera other than Bacillus.


Assuntos
Bacillus/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/métodos , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/genética , Plasmídeos/genética
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2232: 291-303, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161555

RESUMO

Plant root exudation has long been recognized as a vital communication system between plants and microbial communities populating the rhizosphere. Due to the high complexity of the collection process and analysis, a variety of techniques have been developed to mimic natural exudation conditions. In addition, significant progress improving existing techniques and developing new methodologies of root exudate collection and analysis have been made. However, optimal standard methods that compare closely with environmental soil conditions are not yet available. In this review, we provide an overview of all those topics and provide suggestions for improvement.


Assuntos
Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Microbiota/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Rizosfera
15.
Postepy Biochem ; 66(1): 49-61, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320473

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharides synthesized by rhizobia have a various structure. Differences are observed in lipid A (considered as the most conservative part of LPS), in the core region, and in the O-specific polysaccharide. Lipids A may have different compositions of the sugar backbone and the acylation pattern. The core region of rhizobia mainly consists of hexoses, uronic acids, N-acetylquinohozamine, and Kdo, but has no heptose region typical for enterobacteria. The O-PSs may have a different structure even among strains of the same species. They are built of various monosaccharides and are often hydrophobic. An appropriate structure of LPS domains is required for establishment of an effective symbiosis between bacteria and their plant host. Changes in the structure of LPS (most often caused by mutations) resulted in a decrease in efficiency or failure of atmospheric nitrogen fixation. Complete LPS protects symbiotic bacteria penetrating plant cells and determines the proper organization and maturation of symbiosomes.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizobium/química , Rhizobium/metabolismo , Simbiose , Fixação de Nitrogênio
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5125, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046698

RESUMO

Mycorrhizal fungi are mutualists that play crucial roles in nutrient acquisition in terrestrial ecosystems. Mycorrhizal symbioses arose repeatedly across multiple lineages of Mucoromycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Considerable variation exists in the capacity of mycorrhizal fungi to acquire carbon from soil organic matter. Here, we present a combined analysis of 135 fungal genomes from 73 saprotrophic, endophytic and pathogenic species, and 62 mycorrhizal species, including 29 new mycorrhizal genomes. This study samples ecologically dominant fungal guilds for which there were previously no symbiotic genomes available, including ectomycorrhizal Russulales, Thelephorales and Cantharellales. Our analyses show that transitions from saprotrophy to symbiosis involve (1) widespread losses of degrading enzymes acting on lignin and cellulose, (2) co-option of genes present in saprotrophic ancestors to fulfill new symbiotic functions, (3) diversification of novel, lineage-specific symbiosis-induced genes, (4) proliferation of transposable elements and (5) divergent genetic innovations underlying the convergent origins of the ectomycorrhizal guild.


Assuntos
Fungos/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Micorrizas/genética , Simbiose , Ecossistema , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/fisiologia , Micorrizas/classificação , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Filogenia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas/microbiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237258, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756605

RESUMO

Aquatic weeds such as muskgrass (Chara spp.), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillate), filamentous algae (Lyngbya wollei), and duckweed (Lemna minor) thrive in farm canals within the Everglades Agricultural Area of South Florida. Their presence, particularly during the summer months is an environmental concern with regards to water quality, in addition to being a nuisance because of their ability to multiply and spread rapidly in open waters causing restricted drainage/irrigation flow and low dissolved oxygen levels. Chemical control is effective but can have undesirable off-target effects, so reduced herbicide use is desirable. Hence, need exists to discover ways in which these weeds could be best managed or utilized. The objective of this research was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of these weeds to determine their use as potential biopesticides. Six aqueous extracts were tested against 100 bacterial strains isolated from plants and soil to evaluate their antimicrobial activity. These extracts were also used to determine their insecticidal and antifeedant effects on fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda). Both extracts and powder form of the aquatic weeds were tested for their herbicidal activity towards seed germination and growth of three common terrestrial weed species. At a dilution of 1:100 and 1:1,000, none of the aquatic weeds inhibited in-vitro growth of the bacterial strains, with one exception (filamentous algae extract at 1:100 reduced growth of one bacterial isolate by 54%). Water lettuce reduced the survival rate of FAW by 14% while hydrilla and duckweed caused 11% and 9% reduction of FAW growth, respectively. Powdered duckweed inhibited the growth of nutsedge by 41%, whereas filamentous algae powder and extract reduced germination of amaranth by 20% and 28%, respectively. Harvesting these weeds and converting them into useable compounds could not only eliminate the in situ farm canal and water quality problems but also result in development of new soil amendments or biopesticides.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Agentes de Controle Biológico/toxicidade , Plantas Daninhas/química , Agricultura , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Agentes de Controle Biológico/química , Cianobactérias/química , Eichhornia/química , Hydrocharitaceae/química , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2401-2404, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757057

RESUMO

A novel mycovirus, named "Corynespora cassiicola bipartite mycovirus 1" (CcBV1), was isolated from a phytopathogenic fungus, Corynespora cassiicola, the causal agent of rubber leaf fall disease. The nucleotide sequence of the complete genome of CcBV1, which consists of two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments, was determined. The first dsRNA is 2,002 bp in length and contains a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) (69 kDa), while the second is 1,738 bp in length and contains a single ORF encoding a hypothetical protein of unknown function, with an approximately molecular weight of 36 kDa. The amino acid sequences of the both deduced proteins are most similar (58.9% and 45.1% identity, respectively) to those of Cryphonectria parasitica bipartite mycovirus 1 (CpBV1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CcBV1 clusters together with CpBV1 and other unassigned dsRNA mycoviruses. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of a mycovirus infecting C. cassiicola.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/virologia , Micovírus/genética , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Sequência de Bases , China , Micovírus/classificação , Micovírus/isolamento & purificação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Proteínas Virais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2955, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528123

RESUMO

The ecological niche can be thought of as a volume in multidimensional space, where each dimension describes an abiotic condition or biotic resource required by a species. The shape, size, and evolution of this volume strongly determine interactions among species and influence their current and potential geographical distributions, but the geometry of niches is poorly understood. Here, we analyse temperature response functions and host plant ranges for hundreds of potentially destructive plant-associated fungi and oomycetes. We demonstrate that niche specialization is uncorrelated on abiotic (i.e. temperature response) and biotic (i.e. host range) axes, that host interactions restrict fundamental niche breadth to form the realized niche, and that both abiotic and biotic niches show limited phylogenetic constraint. The ecological terms 'generalist' and 'specialist' therefore do not apply to these microbes, as specialization evolves independently on different niche axes. This adaptability makes plant pathogens a formidable threat to agriculture and forestry.


Assuntos
Plantas/microbiologia , Ecossistema , Fungos/patogenicidade , Filogenia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574172

RESUMO

Plant-soil feedback studies attempt to understand the interplay between composition of plant and soil microbial communities. A growing body of literature suggests that plant species can coexist when they interact with a subset of the soil microbial community that impacts plant performance. Most studies focus on the microbial community in the soil rhizosphere; therefore, the degree to which the bacterial community within plant roots (root-endophytic compartment) influences plant-microbe interactions remains relatively unknown. To determine if there is an interaction between conspecific vs heterospecific soil microbes and plant performance, we sequenced root-endophytic bacterial communities of five tallgrass-prairie plant species, each reciprocally grown with soil microbes from each hosts' soil rhizosphere. We found evidence of plant-soil feedbacks for some pairs of plant hosts; however, the strength and direction of feedbacks varied substantially across plant species pairs-from positive to negative feedbacks. Additionally, each plant species harbored a unique subset of root-endophytic bacteria. Conspecifics that hosted similar bacterial communities were more similar in biomass than individuals that hosted different bacterial communities, suggesting an important functional link between root-endophytic bacterial community composition and plant fitness. Our findings suggest a connection between an understudied component of the root-endophytic microbiome and plant performance, which may have important implications in understanding plant community composition and coexistence.


Assuntos
Microbiota/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Pradaria , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera
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