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2.
Hum Reprod ; 39(5): 1098-1104, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498835

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is there any difference in ovarian response and embryo ploidy following progesterone-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) using micronized progesterone or GnRH antagonist protocol? SUMMARY ANSWER: Pituitary downregulation with micronized progesterone as PPOS results in higher number of oocytes retrieved and a comparable number of euploid blastocysts to a GnRH antagonist protocol. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although the GnRH antagonist is considered by most the gold standard protocol for controlling the LH surge during ovarian stimulation (OS) for IVF/ICSI, PPOS protocols are being increasingly used in freeze-all protocols. Still, despite the promising results of PPOS protocols, an early randomized trial reported potentially lower live births in recipients of oocytes resulting following downregulation with medroxyprogesterone acetate as compared with a GnRH antagonist protocol. The scope of the current prospective study was to investigate whether PPOS with micronized progesterone results in an equivalent yield of euploid blastocysts to a GnRH antagonist protocol. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In this prospective study, performed between September 2019 to January 2022, 44 women underwent two consecutive OS protocols within a period of 6 months in a GnRH antagonist protocol or in a PPOS protocol with oral micronized progesterone. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Overall, 44 women underwent two OS cycles with an identical fixed dose of rFSH (225 or 300 IU) in both cycles. Downregulation in the first cycles was performed with the use of a flexible GnRH antagonist protocol (0.25 mg per day as soon as one follicle of 14 mm) and consecutively, after a washout period of 1 month, control of LH surge was performed with 200 mg of oral micronized progesterone from stimulation Day 1. After the completion of both cycles, all generated blastocysts underwent genetic analysis for aneuploidy screening (preimplantation genetic testing for aneuplody, PGT-A). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Comparisons between protocols did not reveal differences between the duration of OS. The hormonal profile on the day of trigger revealed statistically significant differences between protocols in all the tested hormones except for FSH: with significantly higher serum E2 levels, more elevated LH levels and higher progesterone levels in PPOS cycles as compared with antagonist cycles, respectively. Compared with the GnRH antagonist protocol, the PPOS protocol resulted in a significantly higher number of oocytes (12.7 ± 8.09 versus 10.3 ± 5.84; difference between means [DBM] -2.4 [95% CI -4.1 to -0.73]), metaphase II (9.1 ± 6.12 versus 7.3 ± 4.15; DBM -1.8 [95% CI -3.1 to -0.43]), and 2 pronuclei (7.1 ± 4.99 versus 5.7 ± 3.35; DBM -1.5 [95% CI -2.6.1 to -0.32]), respectively. Nevertheless, no differences were observed regarding the mean number of blastocysts between the PPOS and GnRH antagonist protocols (2.9 ± 2.11 versus 2.8 ± 2.12; DBM -0.07 [95% CI -0.67 to 0.53]) and the mean number of biopsied blastocysts (2.9 ± 2.16 versus 2.9 ± 2.15; DBM -0.07 [95% CI -0.70 to 0.56]), respectively. Concerning the euploidy rates per biopsied embryo, a 29% [95% CI 21.8-38.1%] and a 35% [95% CI 26.6-43.9%] were noticed in the PPOS and antagonist groups, respectively. Finally, no difference was observed for the primary outcome, with a mean number of euploid embryos of 0.86 ± 0.90 versus 1.00 ± 1.12 for the comparison of PPOS versus GnRh antagonist. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The study was powered to detect differences in the mean number of euploid embryos and not in terms of pregnancy outcomes. Additionally, per protocol, there was no randomization, the first cycle was always a GnRH antagonist cycle and the second a PPOS with 1 month of washout period in between. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: In case of a freeze-all protocol, clinicians may safely consider oral micronized progesterone to control the LH surge and patients could benefit from the advantages of a medication of oral administration, with a potentially higher number of oocytes retrieved at a lower cost, without any compromise in embryo ploidy rates. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This research was supported by an unrestricted grant from Theramex. N.P.P. has received Research grants from Merck Serono, Organon, Ferring Pharmaceutical, Roche, Theramex, IBSA, Gedeon Richter, and Besins Healthcare; honoraria for lectures from: Merck Serono, Organon, Ferring Pharmaceuticals, Besins International, Roche Diagnostics, IBSA, Theramex, and Gedeon Richter; consulting fees from Merck Serono, Organon, Besins Healthcare, and IBSA. M.d.M.V., F.M., and I.R. declared no conflicts of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study was registered at Clinical Trials Gov. (NCT04108039).


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Indução da Ovulação , Ploidias , Progesterona , Feminino , Humanos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Estudos Prospectivos , Gravidez , Antagonistas de Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Hormônios/farmacologia , Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Gravidez , Recuperação de Oócitos , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Administração Oral , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos
3.
Brief Bioinform ; 25(2)2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517695

RESUMO

Given the universality of autopolyploid species in nature, it is crucial to develop genomic selection methods that consider different allele dosages for autopolyploid breeding. However, no method has been developed to deal with autopolyploid data regardless of the ploidy level. In this study, we developed a modified genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model (polyGBLUP) through constructing additive and dominant genomic relationship matrices based on different allele dosages. polyGBLUP could carry out genomic prediction for autopolyploid species regardless of the ploidy level. Through comprehensive simulations and analysis of real data of autotetraploid blueberry and guinea grass and autohexaploid sweet potato, the results showed that polyGBLUP achieved higher prediction accuracy than GBLUP and its superiority was more obvious when the ploidy level of autopolyploids is high. Furthermore, when the dominant effect was added to polyGBLUP (polyGDBLUP), the greater the dominance degree, the more obvious the advantages of polyGDBLUP over the diploid models in terms of prediction accuracy, bias, mean squared error and mean absolute error. For real data, the superiority of polyGBLUP over GBLUP appeared in blueberry and sweet potato populations and a part of the traits in guinea grass population due to the high correlation coefficients between diploid and polyploidy genomic relationship matrices. In addition, polyGDBLUP did not produce higher prediction accuracy than polyGBLUP for most traits of real data as dominant genetic variance was not captured for these traits. Our study will be a significant promising method for genomic prediction of autopolyploid species.


Assuntos
Genoma , Genômica , Humanos , Genômica/métodos , Fenótipo , Ploidias , Poliploidia , Modelos Genéticos , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
Genome Biol ; 25(1): 62, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438920

RESUMO

Cancer cells often exhibit DNA copy number aberrations and can vary widely in their ploidy. Correct estimation of the ploidy of single-cell genomes is paramount for downstream analysis. Based only on single-cell DNA sequencing information, scAbsolute achieves accurate and unbiased measurement of single-cell ploidy and replication status, including whole-genome duplications. We demonstrate scAbsolute's capabilities using experimental cell multiplets, a FUCCI cell cycle expression system, and a benchmark against state-of-the-art methods. scAbsolute provides a robust foundation for single-cell DNA sequencing analysis across different technologies and has the potential to enable improvements in a number of downstream analyses.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Ploidias , Ciclo Celular/genética , Divisão Celular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 78: 102527, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484440

RESUMO

Cell size affects many processes, including exchange of nutrients and external signals, cell division and tissue mechanics. Across eukaryotes, cells have evolved mechanisms that assess their own size to inform processes such as cell cycle progression or gene expression. Here, we review recent progress in understanding plant cell size regulation and its implications, relating these findings to work in other eukaryotes. Highlights include use of DNA contents as reference point to control the cell cycle in shoot meristems, a size-dependent cell fate decision during stomatal development and insights into the interconnection between ploidy, cell size and cell wall mechanics.


Assuntos
Células Vegetais , Plantas , Ciclo Celular/genética , Divisão Celular , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Plantas/genética , Ploidias , Tamanho Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 202: 116286, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554686

RESUMO

Enhancement of shellfish populations has long been discussed as a potential nutrient reduction tool, and eastern oyster aquaculture was recently approved as a nutrient reduction best management practice (BMP) in Chesapeake Bay, USA. This study addressed BMP-identified data gaps involving variation in nutrient concentration related to ploidy, effects of reproductive development, and a paucity of phosphorus concentration data. Diploid and triploid oysters were collected from farms in Maryland and Virginia across the typical local reproductive cycle. The nutrient concentration of tissue and shell was consistent with the currently implemented BMP. Minor variation observed in nitrogen and phosphorus concentration was within the previously reported range, for farm location, ploidy, and reproductive cycle timing. Ploidy-based differences in tissue dry weight were not observed at either farm, which contrasts with current nutrient reduction estimates. These results suggest separate crediting values for diploids and triploids may need further investigation and potential re-evaluation.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Reprodução , Animais , Fósforo/análise , Virginia , Nitrogênio/análise , Maryland , Ploidias , Nutrientes/análise , Ostrea
7.
Mol Biol Evol ; 41(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421617

RESUMO

Polyploidy, a significant catalyst for speciation and evolutionary processes in both plant and animal kingdoms, has been recognized for a long time. However, the exact molecular mechanism that leads to polyploid formation, especially in vertebrates, is not fully understood. Our study aimed to elucidate this phenomenon using the zebrafish model. We successfully achieved an effective knockout of the cyclin N-terminal domain containing 1 (cntd1) using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. This resulted in impaired formation of meiotic crossovers, leading to cell-cycle arrest during meiotic metaphase and triggering apoptosis of spermatocytes in the testes. Despite these defects, the mutant (cntd1-/-) males were still able to produce a limited amount of sperm with normal ploidy and function. Interestingly, in the mutant females, it was the ploidy not the capacity of egg production that was altered. This resulted in the production of haploid, aneuploid, and unreduced gametes. This alteration enabled us to successfully obtain triploid and tetraploid zebrafish from cntd1-/- and cntd1-/-/- females, respectively. Furthermore, the tetraploid-heterozygous zebrafish produced reduced-diploid gametes and yielded all-triploid or all-tetraploid offspring when crossed with wild-type (WT) or tetraploid zebrafish, respectively. Collectively, our findings provide direct evidence supporting the crucial role of meiotic crossover defects in the process of polyploidization. This is particularly evident in the generation of unreduced eggs in fish and, potentially, other vertebrate species.


Assuntos
Triploidia , Peixe-Zebra , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Tetraploidia , Sementes , Poliploidia , Ploidias
8.
Dev Biol ; 509: 85-96, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38387487

RESUMO

Genome duplications and ploidy transitions have occurred in nearly every major taxon of eukaryotes, but they are far more common in plants than in animals. Due to the conservation of the nuclear:cytoplasmic volume ratio increased DNA content results in larger cells. In plants, polyploid organisms are larger than diploids as cell number remains relatively constant. Conversely, vertebrate body size does not correlate with cell size and ploidy as vertebrates compensate for increased cell size to maintain tissue architecture and body size. This has historically been explained by a simple reduction in cell number that matches the increase in cell size maintaining body size as ploidy increases, but here we show that the compensatory mechanisms that maintain body size in triploid zebrafish are tissue-specific: A) erythrocytes respond in the classical pattern with a reduced number of larger erythrocytes in circulation, B) muscle, a tissue comprised of polynucleated muscle fibers, compensates by reducing the number of larger nuclei such that myofiber and myotome size in unaffected by ploidy, and C) vascular tissue compensates by thickening blood vessel walls, possibly at the expense of luminal diameter. Understanding the physiological implications of ploidy on tissue function requires a detailed description of the specific mechanisms of morphological compensation occurring in each tissue to understand how ploidy changes affect development and physiology.


Assuntos
Poliploidia , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Ploidias , Tamanho Celular , Tamanho Corporal
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1336679, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38410696

RESUMO

Introduction: In the Dongting water system, the Carassius auratus (Crucian carp) complex is characterized by the coexistence of diploid forms (2n=100, 2nCC) and polyploidy forms. The diploid (2nCC) and triploid C.auratus (3n=150, 3nCC) had the same fertility levels, reaching sexual maturity at one year. Methods: The nucleotide sequence, gene expression, methylation, and immunofluorescence of the gonadotropin releasing hormone 2(Gnrh2), Gonadotropin hormone beta(Gthß), and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor(Gthr) genes pivotal genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis were analyzed. Results: The analysis results indicated that Gnrh2, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor(Fshr), and Lethal hybrid rescue(Lhr) genes increased the copy number and distinct structural differentiation in 3nCC compared to that in 2nCC. The transcript levels of HPG axis genes in 3nCC were higher than 2nCC (P<0.05), which could promote the production and secretion of sex steroid hormones conducive to the gonadal development of 3nCC. Meanwhile, the DNA methylation levels in the promoter regions of the HPG axis genes were lower in 3nCC than in 2nCC. These results suggested that methylation of the promoter region had a potential regulatory effect on gene expression after triploidization. Immunofluorescence showed that the localization of the Fshß, Lhß, and Fshr genes between 3nCC and 2nCC remained unchanged, ensuring the normal expression of these genes at the corresponding sites after triploidization. Discussion: Relevant research results provide cell and molecular biology evidence for normal reproductive activities such as gonad development and gamete maturation in triploid C. auratus, and contribute to further understanding of the genetic basis for fertility restoration in triploid C. auratus.


Assuntos
Carpas , Carpa Dourada , Animais , Carpa Dourada/genética , Triploidia , Eixo Hipotalâmico-Hipofisário-Gonadal , Ploidias , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética
10.
New Phytol ; 242(3): 1348-1362, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407427

RESUMO

Asexual organisms often differ in their geographic distributions from their sexual relatives. This phenomenon, termed geographic parthenogenesis, has long been known, but the underlying factors behind its diverse patterns have been under dispute. Particularly problematic is an association between asexuality and polyploidy in most taxa. Here, we present a new system of geographic parthenogenesis on the tetraploid level, promising new insights into this complex topic. We used flow cytometric seed screen and microsatellite genotyping to characterise the patterns of distribution of sexuals and apomicts and genotypic distributions in Rubus ser. Glandulosi across its range. Ecological modelling and local-scale vegetation and soil analyses were used to test for niche differentiation between the reproductive groups. Apomicts were detected only in North-western Europe, sexuals in the rest of the range in Europe and West Asia, with a sharp borderline stretched across Central Europe. Despite that, we found no significant differences in ecological niches. Genotypic richness distributions suggested independence of the reproductive groups and a secondary contact. We argue that unless a niche differentiation (resulting from polyploidy and/or hybridity) evolves, the main factors behind the patterns of geographic parthenogenesis in plants are phylogeographic history and neutral microevolutionary processes, such as clonal turnover.


Assuntos
Apomixia , Rubus , Partenogênese/genética , Ploidias , Poliploidia
11.
J Ovarian Res ; 17(1): 30, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308314

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic neoplasm, and most patients experience recurrence and chemoresistance. Even the promising immunotherapy showed limited efficacy in ovarian cancer, probably due to the immunosuppressive microenvironment. However, the behind mechanisms of the immune exclusion or cold phenotype in ovarian cancer still remain to be explored. As a cancer dominated by copy number variations instead of mutations, ovarian cancer contains a high fraction of aneuploid, which might correlate with immune inhibition. Nevertheless, whether or how aneuploid affects ovarian cancer is still unclear. For exploring the role of aneuploid cancer cells and the potential ploidy-immune relationship, herein, the ploidy information was first comprehensively analyzed combining the karyotype data and copy number variation data obtained from Mitelman and cBioPortal databases, respectively. Ovarian cancer showed strong ploidy heterogeneity, with high fraction of aneuploid and recurrent arm-level and whole chromosome changes. Furthermore, clinical parameters were compared between the highly-aneuploid and the near-diploid ovarian cancers. Aneuploid indicated high grade, poor overall survival and poor disease-free survival in ovarian cancer. To understand the biofunction affected by aneuploid, the differentially expressed genes between the highly-aneuploid and the near-diploid groups were analyzed. Transcription data suggested that aneuploid cancer correlated with deregulated MHC expression, abnormal antigen presentation, and less infiltration of macrophages and activated T cells and higher level of T cell exclusion. Furthermore, the ploidy-MHC association was verified using the Human Protein Atlas database. All these data supported that aneuploid might be promising for cancer management and immune surveillance in ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Prognóstico , Aneuploidia , Ploidias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
12.
Hum Reprod ; 39(3): 516-525, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195766

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Does fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM)-based metabolic imaging assessment of human blastocysts prior to frozen transfer correlate with pregnancy outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: FLIM failed to distinguish consistent patterns in mitochondrial metabolism between blastocysts leading to pregnancy compared to those that did not. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FLIM measurements provide quantitative information on NAD(P)H and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD+) concentrations. The metabolism of embryos has long been linked to their viability, suggesting the potential utility of metabolic measurements to aid in selection. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a pilot trial enrolling 121 IVF couples who consented to have their frozen blastocyst measured using non-invasive metabolic imaging. After being warmed, 105 couples' good-quality blastocysts underwent a 6-min scan in a controlled temperature and gas environment. FLIM-assessed blastocysts were then transferred without any intervention in management. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Eight metabolic parameters were obtained from each blastocyst (4 for NAD(P)H and 4 for FAD): short and long fluorescence lifetime, fluorescence intensity, and fraction of the molecule engaged with enzyme. The redox ratio (intensity of NAD(P)H)/(intensity of FAD) was also calculated. FLIM data were combined with known metadata and analyzed to quantify the ability of metabolic imaging to differentiate embryos that resulted in pregnancy from embryos that did not. De-identified discarded aneuploid human embryos (n = 158) were also measured to quantify correlations with ploidy status and other factors. Statistical comparisons were performed using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves with 5-fold cross-validation averaged over 100 repeats with random sampling. AUC values were used to quantify the ability to distinguish between classes. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: No metabolic imaging parameters showed significant differences between good-quality blastocysts resulting in pregnancy versus those that did not. A logistic regression using metabolic data and metadata produced an ROC AUC of 0.58. In contrast, robust AUCs were obtained when classifying other factors such as comparison of Day 5 (n = 64) versus Day 6 (n = 41) blastocysts (AUC = 0.78), inner cell mass versus trophectoderm (n = 105: AUC = 0.88) and aneuploid (n = 158) versus euploid and positive pregnancy embryos (n = 108) (AUC = 0.82). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The study protocol did not select which embryo to transfer and the cohort of 105 included blastocysts were all high quality. The study was also limited in number of participants and study sites. Increased power and performing the trial in more sites may have provided a stronger conclusion regarding the merits of the use of FLIM clinically. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: FLIM failed to distinguish consistent patterns in mitochondrial metabolism between good-quality blastocysts leading to pregnancy compared to those that did not. Blastocyst ploidy status was, however, highly distinguishable. In addition, embryo regions and embryo day were consistently revealed by FLIM. While metabolic imaging detects mitochondrial metabolic features in human blastocysts, this pilot trial indicates it does not have the potential to serve as an effective embryo viability detection tool. This may be because mitochondrial metabolism plays an alternative role post-implantation. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was sponsored by Optiva Fertility, Inc. Boston IVF contributed to the clinical site and services. Becker Hickl, GmbH, provided the FLIM system on loan. T.S. was the founder and held stock in Optiva Fertility, Inc., and D.S. and E.S. had options with Optiva Fertility, Inc., during this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study was approved by WCG Connexus IRB (Study Number 1298156).


Assuntos
Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo , NAD , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Ploidias , Aneuploidia
13.
Plant J ; 118(4): 997-1015, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281284

RESUMO

Endoreduplication, during which cells increase their DNA content through successive rounds of full genome replication without cell division, is the major source of endopolyploidy in higher plants. Endoreduplication plays pivotal roles in plant growth and development and is associated with the activation of specific transcriptional programmes that are characteristic of each cell type, thereby defining their identity. In plants, endoreduplication is found in numerous organs and cell types, especially in agronomically valuable ones, such as the fleshy fruit (pericarp) of tomato presenting high ploidy levels. We used the tomato pericarp tissue as a model system to explore the transcriptomes associated with endoreduplication progression during fruit growth. We confirmed that expression globally scales with ploidy level and identified sets of differentially expressed genes presenting only developmental-specific, only ploidy-specific expression patterns or profiles resulting from an additive effect of ploidy and development. When comparing ploidy levels at a specific developmental stage, we found that non-endoreduplicated cells are defined by cell division state and cuticle synthesis while endoreduplicated cells are mainly defined by their metabolic activity changing rapidly over time. By combining this dataset with publicly available spatiotemporal pericarp expression data, we proposed a map describing the distribution of ploidy levels within the pericarp. These transcriptome-based predictions were validated by quantifying ploidy levels within the pericarp tissue. This in situ ploidy quantification revealed the dynamic progression of endoreduplication and its cell layer specificity during early fruit development. In summary, the study sheds light on the complex relationship between endoreduplication, cell differentiation and gene expression patterns in the tomato pericarp.


Assuntos
Endorreduplicação , Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ploidias , Solanum lycopersicum , Transcriptoma , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum lycopersicum/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Endorreduplicação/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Divisão Celular/genética
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 739, 2024 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185698

RESUMO

IVF embryos have historically been evaluated by morphological characteristics. The time-lapse system (TLS) has become a promising tool, providing an uninterrupted evaluation of morphological and dynamic parameters of embryo development. Furthermore, TLS sheds light on unknown phenomena such as direct cleavage and incomplete morula compaction. We retrospectively analyzed the morphology (Gardner Score) and morphokinetics (KIDScore) of 835 blastocysts grown in a TLS incubator (Embryoscope+), which were biopsied for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A). Only the embryos that reached the blastocyst stage were included in this study and time-lapse videos were retrospectively reanalysed. According to the pattern of initial cleavages and morula compaction, the embryos were classified as: normal (NC) or abnormal (AC) cleavage, and fully (FCM) or partially compacted (PCM) morulae. No difference was found in early cleavage types or morula compaction patterns between female age groups (< 38, 38-40 and > 40 yo). Most of NC embryos resulted in FCM (≅ 60%), while no embryos with AC resulted in FCM. Aneuploidy rate of AC-PCM group did not differ from that of NC-FCM group in women < 38 yo, but aneuploidy was significantly higher in AC-PCM compared to NC-FCM of women > 40 yo. However, the quality of embryos was lower in AC-PCM blastocysts in women of all age ranges. Morphological and morphokinetic scores declined with increasing age, in the NC-PCM and AC-PCM groups, compared to the NC-FCM. Similar aneuploidy rates among NC-FCM and AC-PCM groups support the hypothesis that PCM in anomalous-cleaved embryos can represent a potential correction mechanism, even though lower morphological/morphokinetic scores are seen on AC-PCM. Therefore, both morphological and morphokinetic assessment should consider these embryonic development phenomena.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Gastrópodes , Gravidez , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Mórula , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Ploidias , Blastocisto , Testes Genéticos , Fertilização in vitro
15.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 53(1): 70-78, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma are epithelial odontogenic tumors that can be morphologically similar. In the present study, we evaluated the DNA content and Ki-67 index in the two tumors. METHODS: The paraffin blocks of the tumors were selected to obtain sections for the immunohistochemical reactions and preparation of the cell suspension for acquisition in a flow cytometer. The Random Forest package of the R software was used to verify the contribution of each variable to classify lesions into ameloblastoma or ameloblastic carcinoma. RESULTS: Thirty-two ameloblastoma and five ameloblastic carcinoma were included in the study. In our sample, we did not find statistically significant differences in Ki-67 labeling rates. A higher fraction of cells in 2c (G1) was correlated with the diagnosis of ameloblastoma, whereas higher rates of 5c-exceeding rate (5cER) were correlated with ameloblastic carcinoma. The Random Forest model highlighted histopathological findings and parameters of DNA ploidy study as important features for distinguishing ameloblastoma from ameloblastic carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the parameters of the DNA ploidy study can be ancillary tools in the classification of ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma.


Assuntos
Ameloblastoma , Carcinoma , Tumores Odontogênicos , Humanos , Ameloblastoma/diagnóstico , Ameloblastoma/genética , Ameloblastoma/patologia , Antígeno Ki-67/genética , Tumores Odontogênicos/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Ploidias , DNA
16.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 77, 2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38243187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Peruvian 'chanque' or Chilean 'loco' Concholepas concholepas is an economically, ecologically, and culturally important muricid gastropod heavily exploited by artisanal fisheries in the temperate southeastern Pacific Ocean. In this study, we have profited from a set of bioinformatics tools to recover important biological information of C. concholepas from low-coverage short-read NGS datasets. Specifically, we calculated the size of the nuclear genome, ploidy, and estimated transposable elements content using an in silico k-mer approach, we discovered, annotated, and quantified those transposable elements, we assembled and annotated the 45S rDNA RNA operon and mitochondrial genome, and we confirmed the phylogenetic position of C. concholepas within the muricid subfamily Rapaninae based on translated protein coding genes. RESULTS: Using a k-mer approach, the haploid genome size estimated for the predicted diploid genome of C. concholepas varied between 1.83 Gbp (with kmer = 24) and 2.32 Gbp (with kmer = 36). Between half and two thirds of the nuclear genome of C. concholepas was composed of transposable elements. The most common transposable elements were classified as Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements and Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements, which were more abundant than DNA transposons, simple repeats, and Long Terminal Repeats. Less abundant repeat elements included Helitron mobile elements, 45S rRNA DNA, and Satellite DNA, among a few others.The 45S rRNA DNA operon of C. concholepas that encodes for the ssrRNA, 5.8S rRNA, and lsrRNA genes was assembled into a single contig 8,090 bp long. The assembled mitochondrial genome of C. concholepas is 15,449 bp long and encodes 13 protein coding genes, two ribosomal genes, and 22 transfer RNAs. CONCLUSION: The information gained by this study will inform the assembly of a high quality nuclear genome for C. concholepas and will support bioprospecting and biomonitoring using environmental DNA to advance development of conservation and management plans in this overexploited marine snail.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Gastrópodes/genética , Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Tamanho do Genoma , Filogenia , RNA Nuclear/metabolismo , Caramujos/genética , Óperon , Ploidias
17.
J Appl Genet ; 65(1): 1-11, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37934380

RESUMO

Apart from apomictic types, the Polygonum-type eight-nuclear embryo sac is considered to be dominant in grasses. A triploid endosperm is formed as a result of double fertilisation. This study showed, for the first time, the dominance of diploid nuclei in the syncytial stage of the central cell of embryo sac in oat species and amphiploids. The dominance of diploid nuclei, which were the basis for the formation of polyploid nuclei, was weaker in amphiploids due to aneuploid events. The genomic in situ hybridisation method applied in the study did not distinguish the maternal and paternal haploid nuclei of embryo sac. However, this method demonstrated the lack of a set of genomes of one haploid nucleus. Embryological analyses of the initial stages of oat endosperm development revealed a fertilised egg cell, and two polar nuclei differing in size. It can be assumed that the formation of diploid oat endosperm occurred after the fusion of one polar nucleus and the nucleus of a male gamete, while the second polar nucleus gave rise to 1n nuclei. The levels of ploidy of syncytial nuclei were not influenced by both aneuploid events and correlated with pollen developmental anomalies. The differences in the analysed cytogenetic events distinguished amphiploids and their parental species in the ordination space.


Assuntos
Diploide , Endosperma , Endosperma/genética , Avena/genética , Ploidias , Aneuploidia
18.
Urol J ; 21(2): 80-86, 2024 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37481706

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Post prostatectomy PSA kinetics and General Grade Groups (GGG) are the strongest prognostic markers of biochemical recurrence (BCR) and prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality after radical prostatectomy. Despite having low-risk PCa, some patients will experience BCR, for some, clinically significant BCR. There is a need for an objective prognostic marker at the time of prostatectomy to improve risk stratification within this population. In this study, we investigated the prognostic potential of DNA ploidy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prostatectomy samples from 97 patients with GGG1 and GGG2 with a low-risk CAPRA-S score were included in this study. PCa tissue with the worst Gleason pattern underwent tissue disaggregation, cell isolation and staining with a DNA stoichiometric stain. Using image cytometry, DNA ploidy was measured and a Ploidy Score (PS) was generated. RESULTS: Among the 97 patients, 79 had no BCR, 18 experienced BCR, of which 14 had a PSA doubling time (PSA-DT) >1 year (low-risk group) and 4 had a PSA-DT of <1 year (high-risk group). Using Logistic regression analysis, only pathological T stage (pT) and PS independently predicted BCR with PS being the most significant (p = 0.001). The number of aneuploid cells was significantly higher in the high-risk group compared to the other groups (p = 1.7x10-11). PS combined with GGG diagnosis further stratified risk groups of biochemical recurrence free survival within CAPRA-S low-risk cohort. CONCLUSION: DNA ploidy is an independent prognostic marker of BCR in low-risk PCa after radical prostatectomy, which could early on identify potentially aggressive PCa recurrences and introduce a more personalized approach to salvage treatments.


Assuntos
Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Prognóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/métodos , Ploidias , DNA
19.
Am J Bot ; 111(1): e16262, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38031672

RESUMO

PREMISE: Unreduced gametes are the primary mechanism of neopolyploid formation. Their production in diploid populations is arguably maladaptive, but the magnitude and patterns of genetically based variation maintained in natural populations are poorly understood. METHODS: We examined variation in male and female unreduced gamete production among plants from different elevations in fireweed, Chamerion angustifolium, grown in a common environment. Using seeds from three high-elevation and three low-elevation diploid populations in one study, and a single diploid population in another, we estimated realized rates of unreduced male (sperm) and female (egg) gamete production by reciprocally pollinating diploid and tetraploid plants and estimating the incidence of tetraploid seeds using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Unreduced gamete frequencies per plant were similar in the two studies (0.12% vs. 0.08%). High-elevation populations had a greater percentage of fruit with seeds from unreduced gametes, but a lower percentage of seeds per fruit than low-elevation populations. Female unreduced gamete frequencies differed among elevations, but male frequencies did not, and the gamete sexes were not correlated at the plant level. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that genetically based variation for unreduced gametes is maintained within and among natural populations, despite their fitness disadvantages, suggesting that local selection may be ineffective at purging them under some conditions.


Assuntos
Sementes , Tetraploidia , Sementes/genética , Ploidias , Diploide , Células Germinativas , Poliploidia
20.
Plant J ; 118(1): 73-89, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38112590

RESUMO

Actinidia ('Mihoutao' in Chinese) includes species with complex ploidy, among which diploid Actinidia chinensis and hexaploid Actinidia deliciosa are economically and nutritionally important fruit crops. Actinidia deliciosa has been proposed to be an autohexaploid (2n = 174) with diploid A. chinensis (2n = 58) as the putative parent. A CCS-based assembly anchored to a high-resolution linkage map provided a chromosome-resolved genome for hexaploid A. deliciosa yielded a 3.91-Gb assembly of 174 pseudochromosomes comprising 29 homologous groups with 6 members each, which contain 39 854 genes with an average of 4.57 alleles per gene. Here we provide evidence that much of the hexaploid genome matches diploid A. chinensis; 95.5% of homologous gene pairs exhibited >90% similarity. However, intragenome and intergenome comparisons of synteny indicate chromosomal changes. Our data, therefore, indicate that if A. deliciosa is an autoploid, chromosomal rearrangement occurred following autohexaploidy. A highly diversified pattern of gene expression and a history of rapid population expansion after polyploidisation likely facilitated the adaptation and niche differentiation of A. deliciosa in nature. The allele-defined hexaploid genome of A. deliciosa provides new genomic resources to accelerate crop improvement and to understand polyploid genome evolution.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Actinidia/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genoma de Planta/genética , Ploidias , Cromossomos , Frutas/genética
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