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1.
J Math Biol ; 85(3): 30, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114394

RESUMO

Polyploidization, whereby an organism inherits multiple copies of the genome of their parents, is an important evolutionary event that has been observed in plants and animals. One way to study such events is in terms of the ploidy number of the species that make up a dataset of interest. It is therefore natural to ask: How much information about the evolutionary past of the set of species that form a dataset can be gleaned from the ploidy numbers of the species? To help answer this question, we introduce and study the novel concept of a ploidy profile which allows us to formalize it in terms of a multiplicity vector indexed by the species the dataset is comprised of. Using the framework of a phylogenetic network, we present a closed formula for computing the hybrid number (i.e. the minimal number of polyploidization events required to explain a ploidy profile) of a large class of ploidy profiles. This formula relies on the construction of a certain phylogenetic network from the simplification sequence of a ploidy profile and the hybrid number of the ploidy profile with which this construction is initialized. Both of them can be computed easily in case the ploidy numbers that make up the ploidy profile are not too large. To help illustrate the applicability of our approach, we apply it to a simplified version of a publicly available Viola dataset.


Assuntos
Genoma , Ploidias , Animais , Filogenia
2.
Biol Res ; 55(1): 26, 2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unsubstantiated concerns have been raised on the potential correlation between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination and infertility, leading to vaccine hesitancy in reproductive-aged population. Herein, we aim to evaluate the impact of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination on embryo ploidy, which is a critical indicator for embryo quality and pregnancy chance. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 133 patients who underwent preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) cycles with next-generation sequencing technology from June 1st 2021 to March 17th 2022 at a tertiary-care medical center in China. Women fully vaccinated with two doses of Sinopharm or Sinovac inactivated vaccines (n = 66) were compared with unvaccinated women (n = 67). The primary outcome was the euploidy rate per cycle. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: The euploidy rate was similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups (23.2 ± 24.6% vs. 22.6 ± 25.9%, P = 0.768), with an adjusted ß of 0.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.08-0.10). After frozen-thawed single euploid blastocyst transfer, the two groups were also comparable in clinical pregnancy rate (75.0% vs. 60.0%, P = 0.289), with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.21 (95% CI: 0.76-50.88). No significant associations were observed between vaccination and cycle characteristics or other laboratory and pregnancy outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination had no detrimental impact on embryo ploidy during in vitro fertilization treatment. Our finding provides further reassurance for vaccinated women who are planning to conceive. Future prospective cohort studies with larger datasets and longer follow-up are needed to confirm the conclusion.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Adulto , Aneuploidia , Blastocisto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Ploidias , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897665

RESUMO

Sexual vs. asexual reproduction-unisexual vs. bisexual populations-diploid vs. polyploid biotypes-genetic vs. environmental sex determination: all these natural phenomena are associated with the genus of teleost fish, Carassius. This review places emphasis on two Carassius entities with completely different biological characteristics: one globally widespread and invasive Carassius gibelio, and the other C. carassius with a decreasing trend of natural occurrence. Comprehensive biological and cytogenetic knowledge of both entities, including the physical interactions between them, can help to balance the advantages of highly invasive and disadvantages of threatened species. For example, the benefits of a wide-ranged colonization can lead to the extinction of native species or be compensated by parasitic enemies and lead to equilibrium. This review emphasizes the comprehensive biology and cytogenetic knowledge and the importance of the Carassius genus as one of the most useful experimental vertebrate models for evolutionary biology and genetics. Secondly, the review points out that effective molecular cytogenetics should be used for the identification of various species, ploidy levels, and hybrids. The proposed investigation of these hallmark characteristics in Carassius may be applied in conservation efforts to sustain threatened populations in their native ranges. Furthermore, the review focuses on the consequences of the co-occurrence of native and non-native species and outlines future perspectives of Carassius research.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Animais , Análise Citogenética , Citogenética , Diploide , Ploidias
4.
Mol Biol Cell ; 33(9)2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862496

RESUMO

Cells adopt a size that is optimal for their function, and pushing them beyond this limit can cause cell aging and death by senescence or reduce proliferative potential. However, by increasing their genome copy number (ploidy), cells can increase their size dramatically and homeostatically maintain physiological properties such as biosynthesis rate. Recent studies investigating the relationship between cell size and rates of biosynthesis and metabolism under normal, polyploid, and pathological conditions are revealing new insights into how cells attain the best function or fitness for their size by tuning processes including transcription, translation, and mitochondrial respiration. A new frontier is to connect single-cell scaling relationships with tissue and whole-organism physiology, which promises to reveal molecular and evolutionary principles underlying the astonishing diversity of size observed across the tree of life.


Assuntos
Ploidias , Poliploidia , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Celular , Humanos , Mitocôndrias
5.
J Evol Biol ; 35(8): 1126-1137, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830478

RESUMO

Hybridization is a route to speciation that occurs widely across the eukaryote tree of life. The success of allopolyploids (hybrid species with increased ploidy) and homoploid hybrids (with unchanged ploidy) is well documented. However, their formation and establishment is not straightforward, with a suite of near-instantaneous and longer term biological repercussions faced by the new species. Central to these challenges is the rewiring of gene regulatory networks following the merger of distinct genomes inherited from both parental species. Research on the evolution of hybrid gene expression has largely involved studies on a single hybrid species or a few gene families. Here, we present the first standardized transcriptome-wide study exploring the fates of genes following hybridization across three kingdoms: animals, plants and fungi. Within each kingdom, we pair an allopolyploid system with a closely related homoploid hybrid to decouple the influence of increased ploidy from genome merger. Genome merger, not changes in ploidy, has the greatest effect on posthybridization expression patterns across all study systems. Strikingly, we find that differentially expressed genes in parent species preferentially switch to more similar expression in hybrids across all kingdoms, likely as a consequence of regulatory trans-acting cross-talk within the hybrid nucleus. We also highlight the prevalence of gene loss or silencing among extremely differentially expressed genes in hybrid species across all kingdoms. These shared patterns suggest that the evolutionary process of hybridization leads to common high-level expression outcomes, regardless of the particular species or kingdom.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Eucariotos/genética , Genoma , Ploidias
6.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 24(4): 706-721, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35882688

RESUMO

Ploidy variants can be utilized to increase yield, introduce sterility, and modify specific traits with an economic impact. Despite economic importance of Saccharina species, their nuclear DNA content in different cell types and life stages remain unclear. The present research was initiated to determine the nuclear DNA content and intraindividual variation at different life cycle stages of the Laminarialean kelp Saccharina latissima. Nuclear DNA content in embryonic and mature sporophytes, released and unreleased zoospores, female, and male gametophytes from Sør-Trøndelag county in Norway were estimated by image analysis using the DNA-localizing fluorochrome DAPI and chicken's red blood cells as a standard. DNA content of a total of 6905 DAPI-stained nuclei was estimated. This is the first study of nuclear DNA content which covered the life cycle of kelp. The lowest level of DNA content (1C) was observed in zoospores with an average of 0.76 pg. Male and female single spore gametophyte cultures presented higher average DNA content, more than double that of zoospores, suggesting the presence of polyteny. Female gametophyte nuclei were slightly larger and more variable in size than those of male gametophytes. The DNA content observed in embryonic sporophytes and in meristoderm cells from older sporophytes (1.51 pg) was 2C as expected and in the range of previously published studies of sporophytes of S. latissima. Mature sporophytes showed intra-plant variation with DNA content values ranging from 2-16C. The main difference was between meristoderm cells (mostly 2C) and cortical and medullary cells (2-16C).


Assuntos
Kelp , Feófitas , Animais , DNA/genética , Kelp/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Feófitas/genética , Ploidias , Açúcares
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(7)2022 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35885934

RESUMO

Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, is an important cool, freshwater aquaculture species used as a model for biological research. However, its genome reference has not been annotated for epigenetic markers affecting various biological processes, including muscle growth/atrophy. Increased energetic demands during gonadogenesis/reproduction provoke muscle atrophy in rainbow trout. We described DNA methylation and its associated gene expression in atrophying muscle by comparing gravid, diploid females to sterile, triploid females. Methyl Mini-seq and RNA-Seq were simultaneously used to characterize genome-wide DNA methylation and its association with gene expression in rainbow trout muscle. Genome-wide enrichment in the number of CpGs, accompanied by depleted methylation levels, was noticed around the gene transcription start site (TSS). Hypermethylation of CpG sites within ±1 kb on both sides of TSS (promoter and gene body) was weakly/moderately associated with reduced gene expression. Conversely, hypermethylation of the CpG sites in downstream regions of the gene body +2 to +10 kb was weakly associated with increased gene expression. Unlike mammalian genomes, rainbow trout gene promotors are poor in CpG islands, at <1% compared to 60%. No signs of genome-wide, differentially methylated (DM) CpGs were observed due to the polyploidy effect; only 1206 CpGs (0.03%) were differentially methylated, and these were primarily associated with muscle atrophy. Twenty-eight genes exhibited differential gene expression consistent with methylation levels of 31 DM CpGs. These 31 DM CpGs represent potential epigenetic markers of muscle atrophy in rainbow trout. The DM CpG-harboring genes are involved in apoptosis, epigenetic regulation, autophagy, collagen metabolism, cell membrane functions, and Homeobox proteins. Our study also identified genes explaining higher water content and modulated glycolysis previously shown as characteristic biochemical signs of rainbow trout muscle atrophy associated with sexual maturation. This study characterized DNA methylation in the rainbow trout genome and its correlation with gene expression. This work also identified novel epigenetic markers associated with muscle atrophy in fish/lower vertebrates.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Mamíferos/genética , Músculos/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Ploidias
8.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(9): 9089-9094, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Broussonetia × hanjiana has been considered a hybrid owing to its morphology, which is intermediate between that of B. papyrifera (L.) L'Her. ex Vent. and B. kazinoki Siebold. A recent study demonstrated the hybrid origin of B. × hanjiana in Korea using molecular markers. In this study, we developed microsatellite markers for B. × hanjiana using next-generation sequencing and cross-species transferability analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 432 primers were designed from 205,819 contigs. Among them, 24 microsatellite markers showing polymorphisms were used to evaluate the population genetic characteristics. The observed heterozygosity (HO) and expected heterozygosity (HE) were 0.835 and 0.628, respectively. The cross-species transferability of these markers was evaluated in two closely related species of Broussonetia; all 24 markers showed cross-species amplification. Using flow cytometry, diploid and triploid individuals were identified in B. × hanjiana. In particular, the BR137 marker showed evidence of two parent species (B. papyripera and B. kazinoki), with a hybrid pattern observed in B. × hanjiana, demonstrating its utility for species identification and ploidy assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The new B. × hanjiana microsatellite markers can be useful in genetic studies of closely related B. papyripera, B. kazinoki, and B. × hanjiana.


Assuntos
Broussonetia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Broussonetia/classificação , Broussonetia/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ploidias
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9111, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650254

RESUMO

Aphids have evolved bacteriocytes or symbiotic host cells that harbor the obligate mutualistic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola. Because of the large cell size (approximately 100 µm in diameter) of bacteriocytes and their pivotal role in nutritional symbiosis, researchers have considered that these cells are highly polyploid and assumed that bacteriocyte polyploidy may be essential for the symbiotic relationship between the aphid and the bacterium. However, little is known about the ploidy levels and dynamics of aphid bacteriocytes. Here, we quantitatively analyzed the ploidy levels in the bacteriocytes of the pea-aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Image-based fluorometry revealed the hyper polyploidy of the bacteriocytes ranging from 16- to 256-ploidy throughout the lifecycle. Bacteriocytes of adult parthenogenetic viviparous females were ranged between 64 and 128C DNA levels, while those of sexual morphs (oviparous females and males) were comprised of 64C, and 32-64C cells, respectively. During post-embryonic development of viviparous females, the ploidy level of bacteriocytes increased substantially, from 16 to 32C at birth to 128-256C in actively reproducing adults. These results suggest that the ploidy levels are dynamically regulated among phenotypes and during development. Our comprehensive and quantitative data provides a foundation for future studies to understand the functional roles and biological significance of the polyploidy of insect bacteriocytes.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Buchnera , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Afídeos/microbiologia , Buchnera/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Ploidias , Poliploidia , Simbiose
10.
Nat Genet ; 54(6): 885-896, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654976

RESUMO

Saccharum spontaneum is a founding Saccharum species and exhibits wide variation in ploidy levels. We have assembled a high-quality autopolyploid genome of S. spontaneum Np-X (2n = 4x = 40) into 40 pseudochromosomes across 10 homologous groups, that better elucidates recent chromosome reduction and polyploidization that occurred circa 1.5 million years ago (Mya). One paleo-duplicated chromosomal pair in Saccharum, NpChr5 and NpChr8, underwent fission followed by fusion accompanied by centromeric split around 0.80 Mya. We inferred that Np-X, with x = 10, most likely represents the ancestral karyotype, from which x = 9 and x = 8 evolved. Resequencing of 102 S. spontaneum accessions revealed that S. spontaneum originated in northern India from an x = 10 ancestor, which then radiated into four major groups across the Indian subcontinent, China, and Southeast Asia. Our study suggests new directions for accelerating sugarcane improvement and expands our knowledge of the evolution of autopolyploids.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Cromossomos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica , Ploidias , Saccharum/genética
11.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(6): 1983-1992, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) are DNA coils that transcribe to ribosomal RNA. The NOR-associated protein, termed argyrophilic NOR (AgNOR), was visible within the nucleus by staining with silver nitrate examination via the light microscope. AgNOR counting is a proliferation marker and may help in the diagnosis and prognosis of various neoplastic lesions. Aneuploidy (abnormal DNA content) can predict the progression, survival and prognosis of the tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of AgNORs, DNA ploidy status, and total S-phase fraction (TSPF) as prognostic parameters in malignant salivary gland tumors (MSGTs). METHODS: The current study is a retrospective study on a cohort of MSGTs (N=47), to assess AgNORs using Silver Nitrate stain, DNA index (DI), and TSPF using flow cytometry (FCM). Data including tumor size and site, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), lymph node metastasis (LNM) were collected. RESULTS: The AgNORs count was statistically significant with MSGT type. DI was found to have a significant association with tumor site, tumor size and MSGT type. In addition, TSPF was found to be significantly associated with LVI. A moderate positive correlation was noted between AgNORs count and TSPF. LNM, tumor site, high AgNORs and low DI were all associated with short disease-free survival (DFS) and poor overall survival (OS). CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that high AgNORs count, DNA aneuploidy and TSPF had a poor influence on MSGTs prognosis.


Assuntos
Região Organizadora do Nucléolo , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares , Aneuploidia , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/genética , Ploidias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/genética , Nitrato de Prata , Coloração pela Prata
12.
F S Sci ; 3(1): 21-28, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35559993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of a cyclic fertilin-derived peptide (cFEE) on in vitro maturation of human oocytes. DESIGN: Randomized study. SETTING: Fertility center in an academic hospital. PATIENT(S): Not applicable. INTERVENTION(S): Human immature germinal vesicle-stage oocytes (n = 1,629) donated for research according to French bioethics laws were randomly allocated to groups treated with 1 or 100 µM of cFEE or to a control group. They were incubated at 37 °C in 6% CO2 and 5% O2, and their maturation was assessed using time-lapse microscopy over 24 hours. In vitro maturated metaphase II oocytes were analyzed for chromosomal content using microarray comparative genomic hybridization, and their transcriptomes were analyzed using Affymetrix Clariom D microarrays. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The percentage of oocytes undergoing maturation in vitro was observed. Aneuploidy and euploidy were assessed for all chromosomes, and differential gene expression was analyzed in oocytes treated with cFEE compared with the control to obtain insights into its mechanism of action. RESULT(S): cFEE significantly increased the percentage of oocytes that matured in vitro and improved euploidy in meiosis II oocytes by the up-regulation of FMN1 and FLNA genes, both of which encode proteins involved in spindle structure. CONCLUSION(S): cFEE improves human oocyte maturation in vitro and reduces aneuploidy. It may prove useful for treating oocytes before fertilization in assisted reproductive technology and for in vitro maturation in fertility preservation programs to improve oocyte quality and the chances for infertile couples to conceive.


Assuntos
Oócitos , Ploidias , Aneuploidia , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Fertilinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos/metabolismo
13.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 69(4): e12925, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598284

RESUMO

Monocercomonoides is a genus of anaerobic flagellates found mainly in the gut of insects and vertebrates. We explored the ploidy of six strains of Monocercomonoides using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes against the SufDSU gene known to be in a single copy in M. exilis. Our results show that all investigated strains are haploid, with a single clear signal displayed in most of the analyzed nuclei. Staining of the telomeric repeats TTAGGG using FISH revealed that all investigated strains, except for strains of M. merkovicensis, exhibit a similar number of telomeric signals to those of M. exilis. DNA content of the nuclei in seven strains was assessed using flow cytometry. With the knowledge of the ploidy, their haploid genome sizes were estimated to vary from 60 to 161 Mbp. The genome size variation observed in Monocercomonoides is much larger than the variation within other genera of metamonads such as Trichomonas, Tritrichomonas, or Giardia, but similar to the variations observed within genera of algae or plants.


Assuntos
Oximonadídeos , Animais , Tamanho do Genoma , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Oximonadídeos/genética , Plantas/genética , Ploidias
15.
Dev Cell ; 57(8): 945-946, 2022 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472320

RESUMO

Mammalian cardiomyocytes (CMs) undergo polyploidization after birth, accompanied by the loss of CM proliferation and regenerative capacity, although why this occurs is still poorly understood. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Gan et al. show that premature CM polyploidization, through defective RNA splicing, is detrimental to ventricular wall growth.


Assuntos
Microtúbulos , Miócitos Cardíacos , Animais , Mamíferos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Ploidias , Splicing de RNA/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267496, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482804

RESUMO

Pelargonium is a versatile genus mainly from the Cape Region, South Africa. The genus is divided into four subgenera and 16 sections characterized by several groups of chromosomes sizes and numbers. The DNA content of species from all subgenera and sections of Pelargonium, except for the sections Subsucculentia and Campylia was estimated using flow cytometry. Nuclei of Pelargonium samples (leaf or petal tissue) and an internal plant standard (leaf tissue) were isolated together and stained with propidium iodide. The DNA content was estimated providing that the 2C peaks of sample and standard be in linearity in the flow cytometer histograms. In total, 96 Pelargonium accessions of 60 species (22 Pelargonium species for the first time) were analyzed. The 2C DNA content ranged from 0.84 pg (P. longifolium, section Hoarea) to 6.69 pg (P. schizopetalum, section Magnistipulacea) and the corresponding 1Cx DNA content from 0.42 pg (P. longifolium) to 1.72 pg (P. transvaalense. This demonstrates the high plasticity within the genus Pelargonium. Some species, such as P. peltatum accessions revealed a pronounced endopolyploidization in leaves but not in petals underlining the importance to choose the right tissue as sample for the flow cytometry analysis. The reported genome sizes are a step forward towards the characterization of the Pelargonium collection within the German Gene Bank for Ornamental Plants and a valuable base for future sequencing programs of the Pelargonium genomes.


Assuntos
Pelargonium , DNA de Plantas/análise , DNA de Plantas/genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Genoma de Planta , Pelargonium/genética , Ploidias
17.
Theriogenology ; 186: 114-121, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462315

RESUMO

This study describes, for the first time, the relationship between morphology and ploidy in domestic cat embryos. Blastocyst morphology and quality were assessed using time-lapse recordings, while ploidy was analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Out of 54 blastocysts, clear fluorescence signals for all the molecular probes used were observed in 24 (44.4%) blastocysts, while in another 14 (25.9%) blastocysts, fluorescence signals only allowed for sex assessment. No clear signals were observed in the remaining 16 blastocysts (29.7%). Of the 24 blastocysts with clear signals, normal ploidy was detected in 10 (41.4%), 7 (29.2%) were diagnosed as haploid, and the remaining 7 blastocysts (29.2%) were mosaics. Additionally, results showed the distribution of diploid, haploid, and mosaic blastocysts in relation to the occurrence of morphological disorders and to embryo quality. The presence of abnormal embryo morphology and karyotype disorders may affect further development and the pregnancy rate. Due to the comparable proportion of good and poor quality blastocysts with disturbed ploidy, it is important to implement new methods of embryo assessment, especially when techniques used in humans, such as pronuclear observation, cannot be used.


Assuntos
Blastocisto , Ploidias , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/veterinária , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez
18.
Acta Cytol ; 66(5): 389-395, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Morphological indicators of chromosomal instability (CI), including multipolar mitoses, chromatin bridges (CB), strings, nuclear buds (NB), micronuclei (MN), and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ploidy analysis help in prognostication of breast carcinoma. The present study was done to evaluate CI in breast carcinoma and correlate with DNA ploidy and tumor grade. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty cases of carcinoma breast diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology were included. Robinson's grading method was used on smears to grade breast carcinoma. To assess the morphological features of CI, the best May-Grünwald Giemsa stained smear was chosen. At least 1,000 epithelial cells on oil immersion magnification (×100 objective) were counted. DNA ploidy on the aspirates was done by flow cytometry. RESULTS: All the patients were female, diagnosed as infiltrating ductal carcinoma on cytology. Eight tumors were grade I, 32 were grade II, and 10 were grade III. MN was seen in 48 cases, NB in 45, and CB in 12 cases. Mean MN, NB, and CB scores in aneuploid (24) cases were 9.96 ± 8.42, 5.29 ± 4.71, and 1.08 ± 1.84 while 6.19 ± 6.67, 1.92 ± 1.79, and 0.11 ± 0.33 were seen in diploid (26) cases. Statistically significant positive correlation was observed between CI and DNA ploidy. CONCLUSIONS: Morphological evaluation of CI by light microscopy on routinely stained breast aspirates is feasible, although a meticulous search is required. Cytomorphological features of CI and ploidy have a positive correlation with increasing tumor grade.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Instabilidade Cromossômica , DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , Ploidias
19.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265405, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294505

RESUMO

Asparagus wild relatives could be a promising possibility to extent the genetic variability of garden asparagus and for new cultivars with favorable traits such as high yield stability, disease resistance and stress tolerance. In order to achieve an efficient use in breeding, a detailed cytogenetic characterization of the accessions is necessary. This study worked on 35 Asparagus accessions, including A. officinalis cultivars ('Darlise', 'Ravel' and 'Steiners Violetta') and Asparagus wild relatives, for which the number of chromosomes, their size, the nuclear DNA content, and the genomic distribution of 5S and 45S rDNA were analyzed. Different ploidy levels (diploid, triploid, tetraploid, pentaploid and hexaploid) were found. Furthermore, the size of the chromosomes of all diploid Asparagus accessions was determined which led to differences in the karyotypic formula. A. plocamoides harbors the smallest chromosome with 1.21 µm, whereas the largest chromosome with 5.43 µm was found in A. officinalis. In all accessions one 5S rDNA locus per genome was observed, while the number of 45S rDNA loci varied between one (A. albus, A. plumosus, A. stipularis) to four (A. setaceus). In most Asparagus accessions, the 5S and 45S rDNA signals were located on different chromosomes. In contrast, the genomes of A. africanus, A. plocamoides, A. sp. (a taxonomically unclassified Asparagus species from Asia) and A. verticillatus (diploid accessions) have one 5S and one 45S rDNA signal on the same chromosome. The measured 2C DNA content ranges from 1.43 pg (A. plocamoides, diploid) to 8.24 pg (A. amarus, hexaploid). Intraspecific variations for chromosome number, karyotypic formula, signal pattern with 5S and 45s rDNA probes and DNA content were observed. Interspecific variations were also recognized in the genus Asparagus.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Ploidias , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(3)2022 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35327971

RESUMO

The twenty-first century has been an era of extensive genome exploration and modifications, using advanced methods such as genome sequencing and editing [...].


Assuntos
DNA , Ploidias , DNA/genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Fungos/genética , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Plantas/genética
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