Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.233
Filtrar
1.
Respir Res ; 25(1): 125, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence revealed that lung microbiota dysbiosis was associated with pulmonary infection in lung transplant recipients (LTRs). Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that frequently causes lethal pneumonia in LTRs. However, the lung microbiota in LTRs with P. jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) remains unknow. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we performed metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) on 72 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 61 LTRs (20 with PJP, 22 with PJC, 19 time-matched stable LTRs, and 11 from LTRs after PJP recovery). We compared the lung microbiota composition of LTRs with and without P. jirovecii, and analyzed the related clinical variables. RESULTS: BALFs collected at the episode of PJP showed a more discrete distribution with a lower species diversity, and microbiota composition differed significantly compared to P. jirovecii colonization (PJC) and control group. Human gammaherpesvirus 4, Phreatobacter oligotrophus, and Pseudomonas balearica were the differential microbiota species between the PJP and the other two groups. The network analysis revealed that most species had a positive correlation, while P. jirovecii was correlated negatively with 10 species including Acinetobacter venetianus, Pseudomonas guariconensis, Paracandidimonas soli, Acinetobacter colistiniresistens, and Castellaniella defragrans, which were enriched in the control group. The microbiota composition and diversity of BALF after PJP recovery were also different from the PJP and control groups, while the main components of the PJP recovery similar to control group. Clinical variables including age, creatinine, total protein, albumin, IgG, neutrophil, lymphocyte, CD3+CD45+, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells were deeply implicated in the alterations of lung microbiota in LTRs. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that LTRs with PJP had altered lung microbiota compared to PJC, control, and after recovery groups. Furthermore, lung microbiota is related to age, renal function, nutritional and immune status in LTRs.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Transplantados , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Pneumocystis carinii/genética , Pulmão
2.
J Clin Microbiol ; 62(4): e0004524, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477535

RESUMO

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a serious and sometimes fatal infection occurring in immunocompromised individuals. High-risk patients include those with low CD4 counts due to human immunodeficiency virus infection and transplant recipients. The incidence of PJP is increasing, and rapid detection of PJP is needed to effectively target treatment and improve patient outcomes. A common method used is an immunofluorescent assay (IFA), which has limitations, including labor costs, low sensitivity, and requirement for expert interpretation. This study evaluates the performance of the DiaSorin Molecular Pneumocystis jirovecii analyte-specific reagent (ASR) in a laboratory-developed test (LDT) for the direct detection of P. jirovecii DNA without prior nucleic acid extraction. Respiratory samples (n = 135) previously tested by IFA from 111 patients were included. Using a composite standard of in-house IFA and reference lab PJP PCR, the percent positive agreement for the LDT using the DiaSorin ASR was 97.8% (90/92). The negative percent agreement was 97.7% (42/43). The lower limit of detection of the assay was determined to be 1,200 copies/mL in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Analytical specificity was assessed using cultures of oropharyngeal flora and common respiratory bacterial and fungal pathogens. No cross-reactivity was observed. Our study suggests that the DiaSorin Pneumocystis ASR accurately detects P. jirovecii DNA and demonstrates improved sensitivity compared to the IFA method. IMPORTANCE: Our study is unique compared to other previously published studies on the DiaSorin analyte-specific reagent (ASR) because we focused on microbiological diagnostic methods commonly used (immunofluorescent assay) as opposed to pathology findings or reference PCR. In addition, in our materials and methods, we describe the protocol for the use of the DiaSorin ASR as a singleplex assay, which will allow other users to evaluate the ASR for clinical use in their lab.


Assuntos
Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Humanos , Pneumocystis carinii/genética , Indicadores e Reagentes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/microbiologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , DNA
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511807

RESUMO

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is the primary therapeutic option for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP). Gastrointestinal symptoms and cutaneous rash are common side effects, with hyperkalemia being uncommon in patients without kidney dysfunction, and myelotoxicity being even rarer. We present the case of a male patient with hypertension and a recent diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, undergoing rituximab treatment for two months. He was admitted to the intensive care unit due to dyspnea, tachypnea, and pleuritic pain, requiring mechanical ventilation. Chest computed tomography showed bilateral and multilobed ground-glass opacities, compromising more than 80% of the lung parenchyma. Pulmonary tuberculosis and COVID-19 were ruled out. An angiotomography and Doppler ultrasound revealed an extensive pulmonary thrombus and deep venous thrombosis. Empiric treatment with TMP-SMX for PCP was initiated, but within four days, the patient experienced metabolic acidosis and severe hyperkalemia, necessitating hemodialysis. He also presented with progressive pancytopenia and critical levels of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. The hypothesis of TMP-SMX-induced myelotoxicity was suspected. Considering the unavailability of an alternative treatment, it was opted to continue TMP-SMX and initiate a granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor. However, the patient maintained medullary deterioration, becoming refractory to the transfusion of blood derivates. On the 17th day of treatment, a clinical decision was made to suspend TMP-SMX, leading to improvements within 48 hours in marrow and kidney functions, metabolic acidosis, and hyperkalemia. Despite all efforts, the patient died after 35 days of hospitalization due to hospital-acquired infections. This case highlights the importance of clinicians recognizing potential myelotoxicity with TMP-SMX and promptly discontinuing the drug if necessary.


Assuntos
Acidose , Hiperpotassemia , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Humanos , Masculino , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/complicações , Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose/induzido quimicamente , Acidose/complicações , Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Rim , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Transpl Int ; 37: 12192, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328616

RESUMO

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) remains life-threatening in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Our study investigated risk factors one-year before PcP. We conducted a monocentric, case-control study including all KTR at the Dijon University Hospital (France) with a diagnosis of PcP between 2005 and 2022 (cases), and matched control KTR with no history of PcP (3 controls/case). Among all 1,135 KTR, 57 cases (5%) and 169 matched-controls were included. PcP was associated with 18% mortality. Compared to controls, cases were older, with a higher immunological risk, and CMV infection was more frequent in the year preceding the occurrence of PcP (23% vs. 4%; p < 0.001). As early as 1 year before PcP, lymphocyte counts were lower and serum creatinine levels were higher in cases, but immunosuppressive regimens were not significantly different. Multivariable analysis identified lymphocyte count, serum creatinine level, being treated by immunosuppressive therapy other than anti-rejection drugs, and CMV infection in the year preceding the time PcP as independently associated with the occurrence of PcP. PcP was associated with an increased risk of subsequent chronic rejection (27% vs. 3%; p = 0.001) and return to dialysis (20% vs. 3%; p = 0.002). The occurrence of CMV infection and a low lymphocyte count could redefine the indications for continuation or reinitiation of anti-Pneumocystis prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Rim , Linfopenia , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Trombocitopenia , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Creatinina , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Linfopenia/complicações , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Transplantados , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0292507, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Long-term steroid use increases the risk of developing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP), but there are limited reports on the relation of long-term steroid and PcP mortality. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter study to identify risk factors for PcP mortality, including average steroid dose before the first visit for PcP in non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-PcP patients. We generated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for 90-day all-cause mortality and the mean daily steroid dose per unit body weight in the preceding 10 to 90 days in 10-day increments. Patients were dichotomized by 90-day mortality and propensity score-based stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) adjusted covariates of age, sex, and underlying disease. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression assessed whether long-term corticosteroid use affected outcome. RESULTS: Of 133 patients with non-HIV-PcP, 37 died within 90 days of initial diagnosis. The area under the ROC curve for 1-40 days was highest, and the optimal cutoff point of median adjunctive corticosteroid dosage was 0.34 mg/kg/day. Past steroid dose, underlying interstitial lung disease and emphysema, lower serum albumin and lower lymphocyte count, higher lactate dehydrogenase, use of therapeutic pentamidine and therapeutic high-dose steroids were all significantly associated with mortality. Underlying autoimmune disease, past immunosuppressant use, and a longer time from onset to start of treatment, were associated lower mortality. Logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, sex, and underlying disease with IPTW revealed that steroid dose 1-40 days before the first visit for PcP (per 0.1 mg/kg/day increment, odds ratio 1.36 [95% confidence interval = 1.16-1.66], P<0.001), low lymphocyte counts, and high lactate dehydrogenase revel were independent mortality risk factor, while respiratory failure, early steroid, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim for PcP treatment did not. CONCLUSION: A steroid dose before PcP onset was strongly associated with 90-day mortality in non-HIV-PcP patients, emphasizing the importance of appropriate prophylaxis especially in this population.


Assuntos
Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Humanos , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Lactato Desidrogenases , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Feminino
6.
J Neurooncol ; 167(1): 211-217, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363493

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diffuse gliomas are managed with radiation and temozolomide; however, this therapy often results in hematologic toxicities. Patients undergoing chemoradiation also risk contracting Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP), and frequently receive prophylaxis against PJP during treatment. Independent of chemoradiation, some PJP prophylaxis drugs have the potential to cause myelosuppression, which could require cessation of chemotherapy. Here, we evaluate differences in the frequency of hematologic toxicities during chemoradiation when patients receive PJP prophylaxis. METHODS: This retrospective chart review evaluated patients with primary brain tumors treated with radiation and concurrent temozolomide. Analyses were performed to assess the effect of the type of PJP prophylaxis on risk for neutropenia, lymphopenia, or thrombocytopenia and the severity of these adverse effects as defined using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. RESULTS: Of the 217 patients included in this analysis, 144 received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) and 69 received pentamidine. Of the patients who received TMP/SMX, 15.3% developed an absolute neutrophil count < 1500 cells/µL compared with 7.2% of patients receiving pentamidine (p = 0.10). Platelet count < 100,000/µL occurred in 18.1% of patients who received TMP/SMX and 20.3% of patients who received pentamidine (p = 0.70). No significant differences in lymphocyte counts between therapies were seen. Severity of hematologic toxicities were similar between PJP prophylaxis groups. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the type of PJP prophylaxis does not significantly affect the risk for hematologic toxicity in brain tumor patients receiving radiation and temozolomide. Additional studies are merited to evaluate the higher rate of neutropenia in patients on TMP/SMX observed in this study.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neutropenia , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/etiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/prevenção & controle , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/efeitos adversos , Pentamidina/farmacologia , Pentamidina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Temozolomida/efeitos adversos , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia
7.
Transplant Proc ; 56(2): 453-455, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336484

RESUMO

We describe the case of a 51-year-old Caucasian man with a background of a cardiac and renal transplant who developed Enterocytozoon bieneusi colitis and pneumocystis jirovecii (PJP) pneumonia following treatment for suspected rejection. The patient developed methemoglobinemia which was attributed to primaquine. He was treated with intravenous methylene blue leading to clinical and biochemical resolution. We describe in detail the pathophysiological mechanism for methemoglobinemia and its treatment, in particular with methylene blue.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Metemoglobinemia , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Metemoglobinemia/induzido quimicamente , Metemoglobinemia/diagnóstico , Metemoglobinemia/complicações , Azul de Metileno , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Primaquina/efeitos adversos
8.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 52, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342895

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJP) pneumonia is a serious life-threatening condition in immunocompromised individuals and is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) + patients. We describe a case of PJP pneumonia which provided a diagnostic challenge in a patient who presented with no known risk factors leading to a delay in initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old previously healthy white/Caucasian male presented with subacute hypoxic respiratory failure due to multifocal pneumonia with diffuse bilateral ground glass opacities with consolidations despite prior treatment with antibiotics and steroids. He was admitted and started on intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics but continued to deteriorate, eventually requiring intubation and transfer to the ICU. Bronchoscopy revealed PJP and treatment was initiated, but the patient developed refractory shock and multiorgan failure, and ultimately died. It was later discovered that he was HIV-1 positive. CLINICAL DISCUSSION: PJP, as a potential cause of his presentation, was not considered given that our patient lacked any overt risk factors for PJP pneumonia. He continued to worsen despite broad spectrum antibiotic therapy and hence bronchoscopy was pursued. His clinical profile, in hindsight, was suspicious for PJP pneumonia and early PJP-directed antibiotic therapy may have prevented a fatal outcome, as in this case. There was an element of cognitive bias across multiple providers which may have contributed to the delay in treatment despite his rapid clinical decline while on conventional pneumonia treatment protocol. His diagnosis was later evident when his BAL-DFA grew PJP in addition to his low levels of CD4 and CD8 cells. He was found to be HIV-1 positive five days after his death; there was a delay in this diagnosis since all positive HIV tests from the hospital are reported as 'pending' until the presumptive positive sample goes to the Connecticut Department of Public Health State laboratory for the confirmatory test. PJP-targeted therapies were initiated later in our patient's hospital course when the infection had progressed to refractory septic shock with multiorgan failure and eventual death. CONCLUSION: PJP pneumonia is a fatal disease if not recognized early in the course of illness, and the patient usually undergoes multiple antibiotic regimens before they are diagnosed and receive appropriate clinical care. The gold standard of diagnostic testing for PJP is by obtaining bronchial washings through a flexible bronchoscopy and the turnaround time for such results may take a few days to result. A significant proportion of patients may not have any overt risk factors of immunosuppression and early empiric treatment for PJP may be clinically appropriate as the delay in diagnosis may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality risk.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações
9.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 68(3): e0075623, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38259086

RESUMO

Pneumocystis cyst life forms contain abundant ß-glucan carbohydrates, synthesized using ß-1,3 and ß-1,6 glucan synthase enzymes and the donor uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose. In yeast, phosphoglucomutase (PGM) plays a crucial role in carbohydrate metabolism by interconverting glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate, a vital step in UDP pools for ß-glucan cell wall formation. This pathway has not yet been defined in Pneumocystis. Herein, we surveyed the Pneumocystis jirovecii and Pneumocystis murina genomes, which predicted a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae major PGM enzyme. Furthermore, we show that PjPgm2p and PmPgm2p function similarly to the yeast counterpart. When both Pneumocystis pgm2 homologs are heterologously expressed in S. cerevisiae pgm2Δ cells, both genes can restore growth and sedimentation rates to wild-type levels. Additionally, we demonstrate that yeast pgm2Δ cell lysates expressing the two Pneumocystis pgm2 transcripts individually can restore PGM activities significantly altered in the yeast pgm2Δ strain. The addition of lithium, a competitive inhibitor of yeast PGM activity, significantly reduces PGM activity. Next, we tested the effects of lithium on P. murina viability ex vivo and found the compound displays significant anti-Pneumocystis activity. Finally, we demonstrate that a para-aryl derivative (ISFP10) with known inhibitory activity against the Aspergillus fumigatus PGM protein and exhibiting 50-fold selectivity over the human PGM enzyme homolog can also significantly reduce Pmpgm2 activity in vitro. Collectively, our data genetically and functionally validate phosphoglucomutases in both P. jirovecii and P. murina and suggest the potential of this protein as a selective therapeutic target for individuals with Pneumocystis pneumonia.


Assuntos
Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumocystis , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , beta-Glucanas , Humanos , Pneumocystis carinii/genética , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfoglucomutase/genética , Fosfoglucomutase/metabolismo , Fosfoglucomutase/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Lítio/metabolismo , Lítio/farmacologia , Pneumocystis/genética , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Difosfato de Uridina/metabolismo , Difosfato de Uridina/farmacologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 152, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a life-threatening and severe disease in immunocompromised hosts. A synergistic regimen based on the combination of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) with caspofungin and glucocorticosteroids (GCSs) may be a potential first-line therapy for PJP. Therefore, it is important to explore the efficacy and safety of this synergistic therapy for treating non-HIV-related PJP patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the data of 38 patients with non-HIV-related PJP at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University. Patients were divided into two groups: the synergistic therapy group (ST group, n = 20) and the monotherapy group (MT group, n = 18). All patients were from the ICU and were diagnosed with severe PJP. In the ST group, all patients were treated with SMX-TMP (TMP 15-20 mg/kg per day) combined with caspofungin (70 mg as the loading dose and 50 mg/day as the maintenance dose) and a GCS (methylprednisolone 40-80 mg/day). Patients in the MT group were treated only with SMX-TMP (TMP 15-20 mg/kg per day). The clinical response, adverse events and mortality were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The percentage of patients with a positive clinical response in the ST group was significantly greater than that in the MT group (100.00% vs. 66.70%, P = 0.005). The incidence of adverse events in the MT group was greater than that in the ST group (50.00% vs. 15.00%, P = 0.022). Furthermore, the dose of TMP and duration of fever in the ST group were markedly lower than those in the MT group (15.71 mg/kg/day vs. 18.35 mg/kg/day (P = 0.001) and 7.00 days vs. 11.50 days (P = 0.029), respectively). However, there were no significant differences in all-cause mortality or duration of hospital stay between the MT group and the ST group. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with SMZ/TMP monotherapy, synergistic therapy (SMZ-TMP combined with caspofungin and a GCS) for the treatment of non-HIV-related PJP can increase the clinical response rate, decrease the incidence of adverse events and shorten the duration of fever. These results indicate that synergistic therapy is effective and safe for treating severe non-HIV-related PJP.


Assuntos
Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/efeitos adversos , Caspofungina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico
11.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 37(1): e0010122, 2024 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38235979

RESUMO

Pneumocystis jirovecii is a ubiquitous opportunistic fungus that can cause life-threatening pneumonia. People with HIV (PWH) who have low CD4 counts are one of the populations at the greatest risk of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP). While guidelines have approached the diagnosis, prophylaxis, and management of PCP, the numerous studies of PCP in PWH are dominated by the 1980s and 1990s. As such, most studies have included younger male populations, despite PCP affecting both sexes and a broad age range. Many studies have been small and observational in nature, with an overall lack of randomized controlled trials. In many jurisdictions, and especially in low- and middle-income countries, the diagnosis can be challenging due to lack of access to advanced and/or invasive diagnostics. Worldwide, most patients will be treated with 21 days of high-dose trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, although both the dose and the duration are primarily based on historical practice. Whether treatment with a lower dose is as effective and less toxic is gaining interest based on observational studies. Similarly, a 21-day tapering regimen of prednisone is used for patients with more severe disease, yet other doses, other steroids, or shorter durations of treatment with corticosteroids have not been evaluated. Now with the widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy, improved and less invasive PCP diagnostic techniques, and interest in novel treatment strategies, this review consolidates the scientific body of literature on the diagnosis and management of PCP in PWH, as well as identifies areas in need of more study and thoughtfully designed clinical trials.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia
12.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 11, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) could be fatal to patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Current diagnostic methods are either invasive or inaccurate. We aimed to establish an accurate and non-invasive radiomics-based way to identify the risk of PCP infection in non-HIV patients with computed tomography (CT) manifestation of pneumonia. METHODS: This is a retrospective study including non-HIV patients hospitalized for suspected PCP from January 2010 to December 2022 in one hospital. The patients were randomized in a 7:3 ratio into training and validation cohorts. Computed tomography (CT)-based radiomics features were extracted automatically and used to construct a radiomics model. A diagnostic model with traditional clinical and CT features was also built. The area under the curve (AUC) were calculated and used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the models. The combination of the radiomics features and serum ß-D-glucan levels was also evaluated for PCP diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 140 patients (PCP: N = 61, non-PCP: N = 79) were randomized into training (N = 97) and validation (N = 43) cohorts. The radiomics model consisting of nine radiomic features performed significantly better (AUC = 0.954; 95% CI: 0.898-1.000) than the traditional model consisting of serum ß-D-glucan levels (AUC = 0.752; 95% CI: 0.597-0.908) in identifying PCP (P = 0.002). The combination of radiomics features and serum ß-D-glucan levels showed an accuracy of 95.8% for identifying PCP infection (positive predictive value: 95.7%, negative predictive value: 95.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Radiomics showed good diagnostic performance in differentiating PCP from other types of pneumonia in non-HIV patients. A combined diagnostic method including radiomics and serum ß-D-glucan has the potential to provide an accurate and non-invasive way to identify the risk of PCP infection in non-HIV patients with CT manifestation of pneumonia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05701631).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , beta-Glucanas , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Glucanos , Tomografia
13.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 23(1): 8, 2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38245721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) is an opportunistic fungus responsible for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in deeply immunocompromised patients and for pulmonary colonization in individuals with mild immunosuppression or impaired respiratory function. PCP and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infections have been widely described whereas those involving other Herpesviruses (HVs) such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and -2), and Varicella zoster virus (VZV) remain scarce. To date, no data are available concerning HVs co-infections in P. jirovecii colonization. METHODS: Our main objective was to evaluate the frequency of HVs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from patients with PCP or with pulmonary colonization. The secondary objective was to assess the relationship between HVs and the mortality rate in PCP patients. A retrospective single-center study over a seven-year period was conducted. All patients with P. jirovecii detected using PCR in a BALF sample and for whom a PCR assay for HVs detection was performed were included in the study. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-five patients were included, corresponding to 77 patients with PCP and 48 colonized patients. At least one HV was detected in 54/77 (70.1%) PCP patients and in 28/48 (58.3%) colonized patients. EBV was the most frequent in both groups. Furthermore, the 30-day survival rate in PCP patients was significantly lower with [EBV + CMV] co-infection than that with EBV co-infection, [EBV + HSV-1] co-infection and without HV co-infection. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the frequency of HV, alone or in combination is similar in PCP and colonization. They also suggest that [EBV + CMV] detection in BALF samples from PCP patients is associated with an increased mortality rate, underlying the significance to detect HVs in the course of PCP.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Herpesviridae , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Humanos , Pneumocystis carinii/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Humano 4
14.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 37(2): 121-128, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230604

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the epidemiology of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in solid organ transplant recipients, advancements in the diagnostic landscape, and updates in treatment and prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: The increasing use of immune-depleting agents in the context of solid organ transplantation has given rise to P. jirovecii pneumonia in this population. The use of prophylaxis has dramatically reduced risk of infection; however, late-onset infections occur after cessation of prophylaxis and in the setting of lymphopenia, advancing patient age, acute allograft rejection, and cytomegalovirus infection. Diagnosis requires respiratory specimens, with PCR detection of Pneumocystis replacing traditional staining methods. Quantitative PCR may be a useful adjunct to differentiate between infection and colonization. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing is gaining attention as a noninvasive diagnostic tool. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remains the drug of choice for treatment and prevention of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Novel antifungal agents are under investigation. SUMMARY: P. jirovecii is a fungal opportunistic pathogen that remains a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. Early detection and timely treatment remain the pillars of management.


Assuntos
Transplante de Órgãos , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Transplantados
15.
Mycoses ; 67(1): e13688, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a common and troublesome complication of kidney transplantation. In the era of prophylaxis, the peak incidence of PJP after kidney transplantation and specific characteristics of late-onset PJP have always been debated. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study by analysing the data of post-transplantation pneumonia in adult kidney transplantation recipients between March 2014 and December 2021 in The Affiliated First Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). A total of 361 patients were included and divided into early-onset PJP, late-onset PJP and non-PJP groups. The characteristics of each group and related risk factors for the late-onset patients were investigated. RESULTS: Some patients developed PJP 9 months later with a second higher occurrence between month 10 and 15 after transplantation. Compared with non-PJP, ABO-incompatible and cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia were significantly associated with late onset of PJP in multivariate analysis. The use of tacrolimus, CMV viremia, elevated CD8(+) T cell percent and hypoalbuminemia were risk factors for late PJP. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that a combination of those factors could increase the sensitivity of prediction remarkably, with an area under the curve of 0.82, a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 83%. CONCLUSIONS: PJP could occur months after kidney transplantation. ABO-incompatible transplant recipients are at high risk of PJP. In the later stages of transplantation, CMV viremia, T lymphocyte subsets percentage and serum albumin levels should be monitored in patients using tacrolimus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Rim , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Adulto , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplantados , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Viremia/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações
16.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 68(2): e0081123, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206037

RESUMO

Pneumocystis jirovecii, the fungus that causes Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP), is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. We have previously shown that lung epithelial cells can bind Pneumocystis spp. ß-glucans via the EphA2 receptor, resulting in activation and release of proinflammatory cytokines. Herein, we show that in vivo Pneumocystis spp. ß-glucans activation of the inflammatory signaling cascade in macrophages can be pharmacodynamically inhibited with the EphA2 receptor small-molecule inhibitor ALW-II-41-27. In vitro, when ALW-II-41-27 is administrated via intraperitoneal to mice prior to the administration of highly proinflammatory Saccharomyces cerevisiae ß-glucans in the lung, a significant reduction in TNF-alpha release was noted in the ALW-II-41-27 pre-treated group. Taken together, our data suggest that targeting host lung macrophage activation via EphA2 receptor-fungal ß-glucans interactions with ALW-II-41-27 or other EphA2 receptor kinase targeting inhibitors might be an attractive and viable strategy to reduce detrimental lung inflammation associated with PJP.


Assuntos
Benzamidas , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumocystis , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Receptor EphA2 , beta-Glucanas , Camundongos , Animais , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/microbiologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido
17.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 108(3): 116168, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate differentiation between Pneumocystis jirovecii (Pj) infection and colonization is crucial for effective treatment. METHODS: From September 2016 to June 2022, 89 immunocompromised patients with unexplained lung infiltrates and clinical suspicion of Pj pneumonia were enrolled at Peking University People's Hospital. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of these patients were detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). RESULTS: The performance of ddPCR was superior to qPCR in detecting Pj infection. Area under the curve was 0.97 (95 %CI: 0.94-1) for ddPCR of the BALF in all patients. The optimal threshold value for discriminating Pj infection from colonization by ddPCR was 13.98 copies/test, with a sensitivity of 97.96 %, specificity of 85.71 %. No obvious correlation between ddPCR copy number and disease severity was observed. CONCLUSION: BALF ddPCR exhibits robust potential in detecting Pj and effectively discriminating colonization and infection.


Assuntos
Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumocystis carinii/genética , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(2): e0365323, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236033

RESUMO

Pneumocystis spp. are host obligate fungal pathogens that can cause severe pneumonia in mammals and rely heavily on their host for essential nutrients. The lack of a sustainable in vitro culture system poses challenges in understanding their metabolism, and the acquisition of essential nutrients from host lungs remains unexplored. Transmission electron micrographs show that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are found near Pneumocystis spp. within the lung. We hypothesized that EVs transport essential nutrients to the fungi during infection. To investigate this, EVs from P. carinii- and P. murina-infected rodents were biochemically and functionally characterized. These EVs contained host proteins involved in cellular, metabolic, and immune processes as well as proteins with homologs found in other fungal EV proteomes, indicating that Pneumocystis may release EVs. Notably, EV uptake by P. carinii indicated their potential involvement in nutrient acquisition and a possibility for using engineered EVs for efficient therapeutic delivery. However, EVs added to P. carinii in vitro did not show increased growth or viability, implying that additional nutrients or factors are necessary to support their metabolic requirements. Exposure of macrophages to EVs increased proinflammatory cytokine levels but did not affect macrophages' ability to kill or phagocytose P. carinii. These findings provide vital insights into P. carinii and host EV interactions, yet the mechanisms underlying P. carinii's survival in the lung remain uncertain. These studies are the first to isolate, characterize, and functionally assess EVs from Pneumocystis-infected rodents, promising to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen dynamics and therapeutic potential.IMPORTANCEPneumocystis spp. are fungal pathogens that can cause severe pneumonia in mammals, relying heavily on the host for essential nutrients. The absence of an in vitro culture system poses challenges in understanding their metabolism, and the acquisition of vital nutrients from host lungs remains unexplored. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are found near Pneumocystis spp., and it is hypothesized that these vesicles transport nutrients to the pathogenic fungi. Pneumocystis proteins within the EVs showed homology to other fungal EV proteomes, suggesting that Pneumocystis spp. release EVs. While EVs did not significantly enhance P. carinii growth in vitro, P. carinii displayed active uptake of these vesicles. Moreover, EVs induced proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages without compromising their ability to combat P. carinii. These findings provide valuable insights into EV dynamics during host-pathogen interactions in Pneumocystis pneumonia. However, the precise underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. This research also raises the potential for engineered EVs in therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumocystis , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Ratos , Animais , Proteoma/metabolismo , Pneumocystis/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Mamíferos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo
19.
Eur J Haematol ; 112(3): 433-438, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37947314

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a rare complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Primary prophylaxis for 6-12 months post-HSCT is the standard approach. However, there is no consensus regarding the optimal duration of prophylaxis. METHODS: We identified patients who developed PJP more than 1-year post-HSCT. All patients had previously received 12 months of PJP prophylaxis. PJP was diagnosed based on clinical findings and the detection of P. jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The CD4+ T-cell percentage was determined using flow cytometry. Data expressed as median (interquartile range). RESULTS: Ten patients developed PJP at 17.5 months (16-24 months) post-HSCT. PJP diagnosis occurred 5.5 months (3-15 months) after discontinuing prophylaxis. Eight patients received anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) as graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. At diagnosis, only one patient had lymphopenia; all patients had CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts ≥0.2 × 109 /L (median 0.337 × 109 /L). Three patients had concomitant bacterial infections. The clinical presentation was mild; only three required hospitalization, none of them required intensive care and there were no deaths. CONCLUSION: There is a need to develop risk-adapted prophylactic strategies in the contemporary era using ATG-based GVHD prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/etiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/prevenção & controle , Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 108(2): 116118, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37992564

RESUMO

(1-3)-Beta-D Glucan (BDG) detection has shown to be a highly effective tool to diagnose invasive fungal infections. Therefore, this study aimed to compare clinical characteristics of the Fungitell (FA) and Dynamiker Fungus (1-3)-ß-D-Glucan assay (DFA) for the diagnosis of candidemia. Using DFA and FA, the BDG levels of 57 serum samples from case and control groups were determined. The kappa coefficient (κ) and Spearman's rank correlation (rs) were used to examine the consistency of assays on a quantitative and qualitative level, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 94.6 %, 65.0 %, and 87.7% for DFA, and 94.6 %, 75.0 %, and 89.4 % for FA, respectively. The performance of the DFA for the diagnosis of candidemia was highly consistent with that of the FA, both quantitatively (rs: 0.9) and qualitatively (kappa = 0.78). Collectively, the DFA assay performed excellently in comparison to the FA for the diagnosis of candidemia.


Assuntos
Candidemia , Pneumocystis carinii , beta-Glucanas , Humanos , Candidemia/diagnóstico , Glucanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fungos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...