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1.
Talanta ; 222: 121534, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167242

RESUMO

As COVID-19 has reached pandemic status and the number of cases continues to grow, widespread availability of diagnostic testing is critical in helping identify and control the emergence of this rapidly spreading and serious illness. However, a lacking in making a quick reaction to the threat and starting early development of diagnostic sensing tools has had an important impact globally. In this regard, here we will review critically the current developed diagnostic tools in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and compare the different types through the discussion of their pros and cons such as nucleic acid detection tests (including PCR and CRISPR), antibody and protein-based diagnosis tests. In addition, potential technologies that are under development such as on-site diagnosis platforms, lateral flow, and portable PCR units are discussed. Data collection and epidemiological analysis could also be an interesting factor to incorporate with the emerging technologies especially with the wide access to smartphones. Lastly, a SWOT analysis and perspectives on how the development of novel sensory platforms should be treated by the different decision-makers are analyzed.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Humanos , Testes Imediatos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico
2.
Clin Sports Med ; 40(1): 213-220, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187611

RESUMO

As the COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic continues, the paradigm of treatment continues to rapidly evolve, especially for sports medicine surgeons, because treatment before the pandemic was considered predominantly elective. This article provides subjective and objective data on the changes implicated by the COVID-19 pandemic with regard to the interactions and practices of sports medicine surgeons. This perspective also considers the potential impact on the patients and athletes treated by sports medicine surgeons. This article discusses the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sports medicine and provides thoughts on how the landscape of the field may continue to change.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
3.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 70-75, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The symptoms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vary among patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical manifestation and disease duration in young versus elderly patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 187 patients (87 elderly and 100 young patients) with confirmed COVID-19. The clinical characteristics and chest computed tomography (CT) extent as defined by a score were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The numbers of asymptomatic cases and severe cases were significantly higher in the elderly group (elderly group vs. young group; asymptomatic cases, 31 [35.6%] vs. 10 [10%], p < 0.0001; severe cases, 25 [28.7%] vs. 8 [8.0%], p = 0.0002). The proportion of asymptomatic patients and severe patients increased across the 10-year age groups. There was no significant difference in the total CT score and number of abnormal cases. A significant positive correlation between the disease duration and patient age was observed in asymptomatic patients (ρ = 0.4570, 95% CI 0.1198-0.6491, p = 0.0034). CONCLUSIONS: Although the extent of lung involvement did not have a significant difference between the young and elderly patients, elderly patients were more likely to have severe clinical manifestations. Elderly patients were also more likely to be asymptomatic and a source of COVID-19 viral shedding.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 94-98, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988730

RESUMO

The effect of systemic corticosteroids on clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial. While the use of corticosteroids raises concerns regarding delayed viral clearance, secondary infections, and long-term complications that can lead to increased mortality, corticosteroids have the potential to reduce mortality if used appropriately. Herein, we report good outcomes in two patients with COVID-19 who received systemic corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy. An 83-year-old man with hypertension and smoking history and a 62-year-old man with a drinking habit were transferred to our hospital with a diagnosis of COVID-19. The patients developed general malaise and loss of appetite with persistent high fever. Despite the prescription of antiviral drugs, their hypoxemia progressed rapidly. However, after the introduction of systemic corticosteroids, their symptoms improved as the fever decreased, and their hypoxemia gradually improved. These results suggest that some patients with COVID-19 may benefit from the appropriate use of systemic corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 76-82, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Japanese patients is unreported. We retrospectively examined significant factors associated with disease severity in symptomatic COVID-19 patients (COVID-Pts) admitted to our institution between February 20 and April 30, 2020. METHODS: All patients were diagnosed based on the genetic detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Information on the initial symptoms, laboratory data, and computed tomography (CT) images at hospitalization were collected from the patients' records. COVID-Pts were categorized as those with critical or severe illness (Pts-CSI) or those with moderate or mild illness (Pt-MMI). All statistical analyses were performed using R software. RESULTS: Data from 61 patients (16 Pt-CSI, 45 Pt-MMI), including 58 Japanese and three East Asians, were analyzed. Pt-CSI were significantly older and had hypertension or diabetes than Pt-MMI (P < 0.001, 0.014 and < 0.001, respectively). Serum albumin levels were significantly lower in Pt-CSI than in Pt-MMI (P < 0.001), whereas the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and C-reactive protein level were significantly higher in Pt-CSI than in Pt-MMI (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). In the CT images of 60 patients, bilateral lung lesions were more frequently observed in Pt-CSI than in Pt-MMI (P = 0.013). Among the 16 Pt-CSI, 15 received antiviral therapy, 12 received tocilizumab, five underwent methylprednisolone treatment, six received mechanical ventilation, and one died. CONCLUSIONS: The illness severity of Japanese COVID-Pts was associated with older age, hypertension and/or diabetes, low serum albumin, high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and C-reactive protein.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica/análise , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
6.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1842661, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108248

RESUMO

Methods of anatomical education have, as with many facets of normal life, been forced to evolve rapidly due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Whilst some authors claim that cadaver dissection is now under threat, we believe the centuries-old practice can and must be upheld.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dissecação/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Cadáver , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudantes de Medicina
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141946, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889290

RESUMO

Deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic have disproportionately affected older adults and residents in nursing homes. Although emerging research has identified place-based risk factors for the general population, little research has been conducted for nursing home populations. This GIS-based spatial modeling study aimed to determine the association between nursing home-level metrics and county-level, place-based variables with COVID-19 confirmed cases in nursing homes across the United States. A cross-sectional research design linked data from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, American Community Survey, the 2010 Census, and COVID-19 cases among the general population and nursing homes. Spatial cluster analysis identified specific regions with statistically higher COVID-19 cases and deaths among residents. Multivariate analysis identified risk factors at the nursing home level including, total count of fines, total staffing levels, and LPN staffing levels. County-level or place-based factors like per-capita income, average household size, population density, and minority composition were significant predictors of COVID-19 cases in the nursing home. These results provide a framework for examining further COVID-19 cases in nursing homes and highlight the need to include other community-level variables when considering risk of COVID-19 transmission and outbreaks in nursing homes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Medicare , Casas de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Renda , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
8.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 62-64, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As countermeasures against the COVID-19 outbreak, sports and entertainment events were canceled (VEC) in Japan for two weeks from 26 February through 13 March. Moreover, most schools were closed (SC). OBJECTIVE: For this study, we estimated the basic reproduction number (R0) and SC and VEC effects. METHOD: After constructing a susceptible-infected-recovered model with three age classes, we used data of symptomatic patients in Japan for 14 January through 24 March. The SC and VEC effects were incorporated into the model through changes in contact patterns and contact frequencies among age classes. RESULTS: Results suggest R0 as 2.56, with 95% CI of [2.51, 2.96] before SC and VEC. The respective effects of SC and VEC were estimated as 0.4 (95% CI [0.3, 0.5]) and 0.5 (95% CI [0.3, 0.7]). CONCLUSION: The estimated R0 is similar to those found from other studies of China and Japan. Significant reduction of contact frequency has been achieved by SC and VEC. Nevertheless, its magnitude was insufficient to contain the outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113319, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882361

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Due to the outbreaks such as SARS, bird flu and swine flu, which we frequently encounter in our century, we need fast solutions with no side effects today more than ever. Due to having vast ethnomedical experience and the richest flora (34% endemic) of Europe and the Middle East, Turkey has a high potential for research on this topic. Plants that locals have been using for centuries for the prevention and treatment of influenza can offer effective alternatives to combat this problem. In this context, 224 herbal taxa belonging to 45 families were identified among the selected 81 studies conducted in the seven regions of Turkey. However, only 35 (15.6%) of them were found to be subjected to worldwide in vitro and in vivo research conducted on anti-influenza activity. Quercetin and chlorogenic acid, the effectiveness of which has been proven many times in this context, have been recorded as the most common (7.1%) active ingredients among the other 56 active substances identified. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study has been carried out to reveal the inventory of plant species that have been used in flu treatment for centuries in Turkish folk medicine, which could be used in the treatment of flu or flu-like pandemics, such as COVID 19, that humanity has been suffering with, and also compare them with experimental studies in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigation was conducted in two stages on the subject above by using electronic databases, such as Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, Medline, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, HighWire Press, PubMed and Google Scholar. The results of both scans are presented in separate tables, together with their regional comparative analysis. RESULTS: Data obtained on taxa are presented in a table, including anti-influenza mechanism of actions and the active substances. Rosa canina (58.7%) and Mentha x piperita (22.2%) were identified as the most common plants used in Turkey. Also, Sambucus nigra (11.6%), Olea europaea (9.3%), Eucalyptus spp., Melissa officinalis, and Origanum vulgare (7.0%) emerged as the most investigated taxa. CONCLUSION: This is the first nationwide ethnomedical screening work conducted on flu treatment with plants in Turkey. Thirty-nine plants have been confirmed in the recent experimental anti-influenza research, which strongly shows that these plants are a rich pharmacological source. Also, with 189 (84.4%) taxa, detections that have not been investigated yet, they are an essential resource for both national and international pharmacological researchers in terms of new natural medicine searches. Considering that the production of antimalarial drugs and their successful use against COVID-19 has begun, this correlation was actually a positive and remarkable piece of data, since there are 15 plants, including Centaurea drabifolia subsp. Phlocosa (an endemic taxon), that were found to be used in the treatment of both flu and malaria.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fitoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Turquia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141758, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898806

RESUMO

SARS-Cov-2 has erupted across the globe, and confirmed cases of COVID-19 pose a high infection risk. Infected patients typically receive their treatment in specific isolation wards, where they are confined for at least 14 days. The virus may contaminate any surface of the room, especially frequently touched surfaces. Therefore, surface contamination in wards should be monitored for disease control and hygiene purposes. Herein, surface contamination in the ward was detected on-site using an RNA extraction-free rapid method. The whole detection process, from surface sample collection to readout of the detection results, was finished within 45 min. The nucleic acid extraction-free method requires minimal labor. More importantly, the tests were performed on-site and the results were obtained almost in real-time. The test confirmed that 31 patients contaminated seven individual sites. Among the sampled surfaces, the electrocardiogram fingertip presented a 72.7% positive rate, indicating that this surface is an important hygiene site. Meanwhile, the bedrails showed the highest correlation with other surfaces, so should be detected daily. Another surface with high contamination risk was the door handle in the bathroom. To our knowledge, we present the first on-site analysis of COVID-19 surface contamination in wards. The results and applied technique provide a potential further reference for disease control and hygiene suggestions.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Hospitais , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
11.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 39: e2020217, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the current scientific literature to document, in an integrative review, the main findings that correlate Kawasaki disease (KD) to COVID-19. DATA SOURCES: The search was carried out in June 2020 in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), periódico da CAPES and U.S National Library of Medicine (PubMed). The combination of descriptors used was [(COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2) AND (Kawasaki disease)], and the inclusion criteria stipulated were studies published from January 2019 to June 2020, without restriction of language or location, and available online in full. News, editorials, comments, and letters, as well as duplicates and articles that did not answer the guiding question were excluded. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 97 articles were identified, of which seven comprised this review. The association of KD to the new coronavirus appears to trigger a severe clinical condition of vasculitis. Different from the usual, in this inflammatory syndrome, patients are older, and prevalence is higher in children from African or Caribbean ancestry; clinical and laboratory manifestations are also atypical, with a predominance of abdominal complaints and exaggerated elevation of inflammatory markers. In addition, there was a greater report of rare complications and greater resistance to the recommended treatment for KD. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric COVID-19 and its potential association to severe KD, still unfamiliar to health professionals, reinforces the importance of testing patients with vasculitis for the new coronavirus and the need to wage high surveillance and preparation of the health system during the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/terapia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia
12.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed) ; 13: 117-139, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048778

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a member of the human coronavirus (HCoV) family that targets the lower part of the respiratory tract and causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In a short span of time, this infection has led to a global pandemic and has become a significant threat to the existence of present human society. Currently, there are no treatments for this infection and the measures established across various countries such as social distancing, usage of mask to prevent entry of the virus into the respiratory tract, quarantine, and containment together have reduced the prevalence of this disease and mortality in highly susceptible individuals. Here, we examine the structure, replication cycle, phylogeny and genomic organization of this virus and discuss the role of spike (S) protein of the virus, an important structure that interacts with the host ACE2 receptor facilitating viral entry. Further, we explore the epidemiology, symptoms of the disease, describe the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that establishes the diagnosis of the disease and also review its unique diagnostic features in the chest CT-Scan. Finally, we review the current approaches to develop therapies and vaccines as a measure for disease prevention and control.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
14.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 13(4): 257-261, oct.-dic. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193462

RESUMO

The pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome disease caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), had profound impact in many countries and their health care systems. Regarding Portugal, a suppression strategy with social distancing was adopted, attempting to break the transmission chains, bending the epidemy curve and reducing mortality. These measures seek to prevent an eventual National Health Service over-running, enforcing the suspension of all elective and non-urgent health care. Despite the success in so far, there is a consensus on the need to recover the previous level of health care provision and further enhance it. The Portuguese National Health Service, as a public, universal access, health care system funded by the State proved, in this context, its importance and relevance to the Portuguese population. However, long standing issues, such as the pre pandemic over long waiting lists for hospital ophthalmology attendance, whose determinants are fully identified but still unmet, emerge amplified from this pandemic. The lack of primary eye care in the National Health Service is a significant bottleneck, placing a huge stress on hospital-based care. An exclusive ophthalmologist's center care was over-runned before pandemic and will be even more so. The optometrist's exclusion from differentiated, multisectoral and multidisciplinary eye care teams remains the main hurdle to overcome and insure universal eye care in Portugal. National Health Service highlights the consequences of an overcome model. Universal eye care more than ever demands an evidence-based, integrated approach with primary eye care, in the community, on time and of proximity


La pandemia del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave causado por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) ha tenido amplias repercusiones en muchos países y en sus sistemas sanitarios. En Portugal, se ha adoptado una estrategia de contención basada en el distanciamiento social, con la cual se ha intentado cortar las cadenas de transmisión, frenar la curva de la epidemia y reducir la mortalidad. Con estas medidas se trataba de evitar un eventual desbordamiento del Servicio Nacional de Salud y se imponía la suspensión de toda la atención médica programada, que no fuera urgente. A pesar del éxito logrado hasta este momento, existe consenso sobre la necesidad de recuperar el nivel anterior de atención médica y fomentar su mejora. El Servicio Nacional de Salud de Portugal, como sistema sanitario público y de acceso universal, a cargo del Estado, ha demostrado, en este contexto, su importancia y pertinencia para la población portuguesa. Sin embargo, los problemas que acarrea desde hace mucho tiempo, como las largas listas de espera, anteriores a la pandemia, en la asistencia oftalmológica hospitalaria, cuyos factores determinantes están completamente identificados, pero que continúan sin solución, se han visto agravados a resultas de esta pandemia. La falta de atención primaria oftalmológica en el Servicio Nacional de Salud es un importante cuello de botella, que ejerce una enorme presión en la atención hospitalaria. La atención de un centro exclusivamente oftalmológico estaba desbordada antes de la pandemia y lo estará aún más después de esta. La exclusión de los optómetras de los equipos de atención oftalmológica diferenciados, multisectoriales y multidisciplinarios continúa siendo el principal obstáculo que debe superar y asegurar la atención oftalmológica universal en Portugal. El Servicio Nacional de Salud hace hincapié en las consecuencias de un modelo superado. La atención oftalmológica universal exige, más que nunca, un enfoque integral basado en la evidencia para abordar la atención primaria oftalmológica en la comunidad, puntual y de proximidad


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Sistemas de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Ocular , Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Portugal/epidemiologia
15.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 20(3): 183-191, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of COVID-19 and the lack of vaccine made extraordinary actions such as social distancing necessary. While some individuals experience the restrictions on daily life as a heavy burden, others adapt to the situation and try to make the best of it. The present longitudinal study investigated the extent and predictors of the burden induced by the outbreak of COVID-19 in Germany. METHOD: Data were assessed in October 2019 using the DASS-21 and the PMH-Scale, and in March 2020 adding a six-item measure of burden and a 2-item rating of sense of control. RESULTS: In a sample of 436 participants, about 28% stayed in self-quarantine, 22 persons had relevant symptoms and one person was positively tested for COVID-19. Most participants experienced medium to high levels of burden but tried to make the best of it. Stress symptoms in 2019 predicted a higher level of burden and PMH predicted a lower level of burden in March 2020. Remarkably, depression and anxiety symptoms did not significantly predict burden. The protective effect of PMH and the negative impact of stress symptoms were mediated by perceived sense of control. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasize the protective effect of PMH in extraordinary situations such as the current outbreak of COVID-19


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El brote COVID-19 y la falta de vacuna hicieron necesarias acciones extraordinarias como la distancia social. Algunas personas experimentan las restricciones en la vida diaria como sobrecarga emocional y otras se adaptan a la situación, tratando de sacar lo mejor de ella. Se investigó el alcance y predictores de sobrecarga emocional inducida por el COVID-19 en Alemania. MÉTODO: Se evaluaron niveles de estrés y salud mental positiva en octubre de 2019 con DASS-21 y Escala-PMH, y en marzo de 2020, agregando medidas de sobrecarga emocional y percepción de control. RESULTADOS: En una muestra de 436 participantes, el 28% permaneció en cuarentena, 22 personas tuvieron síntomas relevantes y una dio positivo en COVID-19. La mayoría experimentaron niveles de sobrecarga emocional medio-alto, aunque trataron de sobrellevar la situación lo mejor posible. Los síntomas de estrés en octubre 2019 predijeron un nivel de sobrecarga más elevado en marzo 2020 y, contrariamente, los niveles de salud mental positiva en octubre 2019 predijeron un menor nivel de sobrecarga emocional en marzo 2020. Sorprendentemente, los síntomas de depresión y ansiedad no predijeron la sensación de sobrecarga posterior. El efecto protector de la salud mental positiva y el impacto negativo de los síntomas de estrés fueron mediados por la percepción de control. CONCLUSIONES: Se resalta el efecto protector de la salud mental positiva en situaciones extraordinarias como el brote COVID-19


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Alemanha Ocidental/epidemiologia
16.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-CONASS | ID: lis-47960

RESUMO

Registros realizados pela Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro de casos confirmados, óbitos por coronavírus (Covid-19) e casos de pacientes recuperados no estado no período do dia 30/09 ao dia 05/11.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182661

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has forced parents and children to adopt significant changes in their daily routine, which has been a big challenge for families, with important implications for family stress. In this study, we aimed to analyze the potential risk and protective factors for parents' and children's well-being during a potentially traumatic event such as the COVID-19 quarantine. Specifically, we investigated parents' and children's well-being, parental stress, and children's resilience. The study involved 463 Italian parents of children aged 5-17. All participants completed an online survey consisting of the Psychological General Well Being Index (PGWB) to assess parental well-being, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to measure children's well-being, the Parent Stress Scale (PSS) to investigate parental stress, and the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-R) to measure children's resilience. The results show that confinement measures and changes in daily routine negatively affect parents' psychological dimensions, thus exposing children to a significant risk for their well-being. Our results also detect some risk factors for psychological maladjustments, such as parental stress, lower levels of resilience in children, changes in working conditions, and parental psychological, physical, or genetic problems. In this study, we attempted to identify the personal and contextual variables involved in the psychological adjustment to the COVID-19 quarantine to identify families at risk for maladjustment and pave the way for ad hoc intervention programs intended to support them. Our data show promising results for the early detection of the determinants of families' psychological health. It is important to focus attention on the needs of families and children-including their mental health-to mitigate the health and economic implications of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182696

RESUMO

ED-visits and through-ED admissions to medical/surgical wards (MSW) and intensive care unit (ICU) during influenza, COVID-19 and lockdown periods were evaluated in a four-hospital prospective observational study from November 2018 to March 2020. ED visit characteristics and main diagnostic categories were assessed. Analysis of 368,262 ED-visits highlighted a significantly increasing trend in ED-visits during influenza followed by a significantly decreasing trend after lockdown. For MSW-admissions, a pattern of growth during influenza was followed by a fall that began during COVID-19 pandemic and intensified during the lockdown. For ICU-admissions, a significant rise during the COVID-19 pandemic was followed by diminution during the lockdown period. During lockdown, significantly diminishing trends were shown for all diagnostic categories (between -40.8% and -73.6%), except influenza-like illness/COVID cases (+31.6%), Pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis (+33.5%) and frequent users (+188.0%). The present study confirms an increase in demand during the influenza epidemic and during the initial phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, but a drop in activity during the lockdown, mainly related to non-COVID conditions. Syndromic surveillance of ILI cases in ED is a tool for monitoring influenza and COVID-19, and it can predict ED activity and the need for MSW and ICU beds.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , França , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 511-516, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, so as to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on the national schistosomiasis control program in China. METHODS: On April 2020, 3 counties (districts) were randomly selected from each of the 12 schistosomiasis-endemic provinces (municipality, autonomous region), and a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the implementation of schistosomiasis control activities in these counties (districts) from January to March 2020. Then, the impact of the COVID-19 epidemics on the national schistosomiasis control program of China was evaluated using a comparative analysis approach. RESULTS: Among the 36 counties (cities, districts) sampled from 12 provinces (municipality, autonomous region), 66.67% were at a high and medium risk of COVID-19 epidemics. The implementation of schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human schistosomiasis examination and treatment, snail control with chemical treatment and health education reduced by 44.26% to 91.56% as compared to 2019 during the same time period, and the schistosomiasis control program was more affected by COVID-19 in transmission-controlled provinces. The gross funds invested into the schistosomiasis control program reduced by 23.39% in relative to the expected, while the total expenditure increased by 41.22%. In addition, all 36 surveyed counties (districts) considered that the COVID-19 epidemic had a short-term impact on the schistosomiasis control program, with the most predominant impact on schistosomiasis control activities assignment, human resources and monitoring of endemic situation of schistosomiasis. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 epidemics affect the routine schistosomiasis control program across the endemic-foci of China. Policy and financial support should be strengthened to ensure the completion of the schistosomiasis control program.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Caramujos/parasitologia
20.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(11): 829-835, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187002

RESUMO

The COVID 19 crisis offers unique opportunities and poses special challenges for practical and theoretical public health. Management of the pandemic was initially dominated by virologists, supported by epidemiologists who did not always exercise the necessary scientific rigour. Expertise in interdisciplinary health sciences and complex considerations from a broader public health perspective, however, did not have noticeable impact on the COVID 19 debate and even less on the strategies for containing the pandemic. Public health is universal and more than health security or health protection. As an explicitly political discipline, public health takes a far-reaching socio-political approach and must not be reduced to biomedical aspects. Medical and biotechnological solutions alone will not meet the challenges of the corona crisis. The analysis of the political, economic, social and ecological determinants that led to the crisis is indispensable for the sustainable management of the pandemic. In order to improve population health and reduce the risk of future outbreaks of dangerous infections, a comprehensive policy is needed that also addresses hegemonies and power relations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/tendências , Betacoronavirus , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos
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