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1.
Can J Rural Med ; 29(2): 71-79, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709017

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic presented an unprecedented challenge for rural family physicians. The lessons learned over the course of 2 years have potential to help guide responses to future ecosystem disruption. This qualitative study aims to explore the leadership experiences of rural Canadian family physicians during the COVID-19 pandemic as both local care providers and community health leaders and to identify potential supports and barriers to physician leadership. METHODS: Semi-structured, virtual, qualitative interviews were completed with participants from rural communities in Canada from December 2021 to February 2022 inclusive. Participant recruitment involved identifying seed contacts and conducting snowball sampling. Participants were asked about their experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, including the role of physician leadership in building community resilience. Data collection was completed on theoretical saturation. Data were thematically analysed using NVivo 12. RESULTS: Sixty-four participants took part from 22 rural communities in 4 provinces. Four key factors were identified that supported physician leadership towards rural resilience during ecosystem disruption: (1) continuity of care, (2) team-based care models, (3) physician well-being and (4) openness to innovative care models. CONCLUSION: Healthcare policy and practice transformation should prioritise developing opportunities to strengthen physician leadership, particularly in rural areas that will be adversely affected by ecosystem disruption. INTRODUCTION: La pandémie de COVID-19 a représenté un défi sans précédent pour les médecins de famille en milieu rural. Les leçons tirées au cours des deux années écoulées peuvent aider à orienter les réponses aux futures perturbations de l'écosystème. Cette étude qualitative vise à explorer les expériences de leadership des médecins de famille ruraux canadiens pendant la pandémie de COVID-19, en tant que prestataires de soins locaux et chefs de file de la santé communautaire, et à identifier les soutiens et les obstacles potentiels au leadership des médecins. MTHODES: Des entretiens qualitatifs virtuels semi-structurés ont été réalisés avec des participants issus de communautés rurales du Canada entre décembre 2021 et février 2022 inclus. Le recrutement des participants a consisté à identifier des contacts de base et à procéder à un échantillonnage boule de neige. Les participants ont été interrogés sur leurs expériences durant la pandémie de COVID-19, notamment sur le rôle du leadership des médecins dans le renforcement de la résilience des communautés. La collecte des données s'est achevée après saturation théorique. Les données ont été analysées thématiquement à l'aide de NVivo 12. RSULTATS: Soixante-quatre participants provenant de 22 communautés rurales de quatre provinces ont pris part à l'étude. Quatre facteurs clés ont été identifiés pour soutenir le leadership des médecins en faveur de la résilience rurale en cas de perturbation de l'écosystème: (1) la continuité des soins, (2) les modèles de soins en équipe, (3) le bien-être des médecins et (4) l'ouverture à des modèles de soins novateurs. CONCLUSION: La politique de santé et la transformation des pratiques devraient donner la priorité au développement d'opportunités pour renforcer le leadership des médecins, en particulier dans les zones rurales qui seront négativement affectées par la perturbation de l'écosystème.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Liderança , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Saúde Rural , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Médicos de Família , Feminino , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Ecossistema , Masculino , População Rural
2.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e53790, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent need for social distancing required the immediate pivoting of research modalities. Research that had previously been conducted in person had to pivot to remote data collection. Researchers had to develop data collection protocols that could be conducted remotely with limited or no evidence to guide the process. Therefore, the use of web-based platforms to conduct real-time research visits surged despite the lack of evidence backing these novel approaches. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to review the remote or virtual research protocols that have been used in the past 10 years, gather existing best practices, and propose recommendations for continuing to use virtual real-time methods when appropriate. METHODS: Articles (n=22) published from 2013 to June 2023 were reviewed and analyzed to understand how researchers conducted virtual research that implemented real-time protocols. "Real-time" was defined as data collection with a participant through a live medium where a participant and research staff could talk to each other back and forth in the moment. We excluded studies for the following reasons: (1) studies that collected participant or patient measures for the sole purpose of engaging in a clinical encounter; (2) studies that solely conducted qualitative interview data collection; (3) studies that conducted virtual data collection such as surveys or self-report measures that had no interaction with research staff; (4) studies that described research interventions but did not involve the collection of data through a web-based platform; (5) studies that were reviews or not original research; (6) studies that described research protocols and did not include actual data collection; and (7) studies that did not collect data in real time, focused on telehealth or telemedicine, and were exclusively intended for medical and not research purposes. RESULTS: Findings from studies conducted both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic suggest that many types of data can be collected virtually in real time. Results and best practice recommendations from the current protocol review will be used in the design and implementation of a substudy to provide more evidence for virtual real-time data collection over the next year. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that virtual real-time visits are doable across a range of participant populations and can answer a range of research questions. Recommended best practices for virtual real-time data collection include (1) providing adequate equipment for real-time data collection, (2) creating protocols and materials for research staff to facilitate or guide participants through data collection, (3) piloting data collection, (4) iteratively accepting feedback, and (5) providing instructions in multiple forms. The implementation of these best practices and recommendations for future research are further discussed in the paper. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/53790.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coleta de Dados , Pandemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/normas , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(6): 1088-1095, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781685

RESUMO

The characteristics of severe human parainfluenza virus (HPIV)-associated pneumonia in adults have not been well evaluated. We investigated epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of 143 patients with severe HPIV-associated pneumonia during 2010-2019. HPIV was the most common cause (25.2%) of severe virus-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia and the third most common cause (15.7%) of severe virus-associated community-acquired pneumonia. Hematologic malignancy (35.0%), diabetes mellitus (23.8%), and structural lung disease (21.0%) were common underlying conditions. Co-infections occurred in 54.5% of patients admitted to an intensive care unit. The 90-day mortality rate for HPIV-associated pneumonia was comparable to that for severe influenza virus-associated pneumonia (55.2% vs. 48.4%; p = 0.22). Ribavirin treatment was not associated with lower mortality rates. Fungal co-infections were associated with 82.4% of deaths. Clinicians should consider the possibility of pathogenic co-infections in patients with HPIV-associated pneumonia. Contact precautions and environmental cleaning are crucial to prevent HPIV transmission in hospital settings.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Adulto , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/mortalidade , História do Século XXI , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
4.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 18(3): 102991, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on pregnant women, especially those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), has yet to be fully understood. This review aims to examine the interaction between GDM and COVID-19 and to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the comorbidity of these two conditions. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search using the databases of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science with appropriate keywords and MeSH terms. Our analysis included studies published up to January 26, 2023. RESULTS: Despite distinct clinical manifestations, GDM and COVID-19 share common pathophysiological characteristics, which involve complex interactions across multiple organs and systems. On the one hand, infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may target the pancreas and placenta, resulting in ß-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in pregnant women. On the other hand, the hormonal and inflammatory changes that occur during pregnancy could also increase the risk of severe COVID-19 in mothers with GDM. Personalized management and close monitoring are crucial for treating pregnant women with both GDM and COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive understanding of the interactive mechanisms of GDM and COVID-19 would facilitate the initiation of more targeted preventive and therapeutic strategies. There is an urgent need to develop novel biomarkers and functional indicators for early identification and intervention of these conditions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Gestacional , Pandemias , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Gravidez , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Betacoronavirus
5.
Environ Int ; 187: 108658, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640612

RESUMO

During the unprecedented COVID-19 city lockdown, a unique opportunity arose to dissect the intricate dynamics of urban air quality, focusing on ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study delves into the nuanced interplay between traffic patterns and UFP emissions in a subtropical urban setting during the spring-summer transition of 2021. Leveraging meticulous roadside measurements near a traffic nexus, our investigation unravels the intricate relationship between particle number size distribution (PNSD), VOCs mixing ratios, and detailed vehicle activity metrics. The soft lockdown era, marked by a 20-27% dip in overall traffic yet a surprising surge in early morning motorcycle activity, presented a natural experiment. We observed a consequential shift in the urban aerosol regime: the decrease in primary emissions from traffic substantially amplified the role of aged particles and secondary aerosols. This shift was particularly pronounced under stagnant atmospheric conditions, where reduced dilution exacerbated the influence of alternative emission sources, notably solvent evaporation, and was further accentuated with the resumption of normal traffic flows. A distinct seasonal trend emerged as warmer months approached, with aromatic VOCs such as toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene not only increasing but also significantly contributing to more frequent particle growth events. These findings spotlight the criticality of targeted strategies at traffic hotspots, especially during periods susceptible to weak atmospheric dilution, to curb UFP and precursor emissions effectively. As we stand at the cusp of widespread vehicle electrification, this study underscores the imperative of a holistic approach to urban air quality management, embracing the complexities of primary emission reductions and the resultant shifts in atmospheric chemistry.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , SARS-CoV-2 , Emissões de Veículos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Pandemias , Tamanho da Partícula , Aerossóis/análise , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e247965, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652474

RESUMO

Importance: Numerous studies have provided evidence for the negative associations of the COVID-19 pandemic with mental health, but data on the use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking. Objective: To assess the rates and trends of psychotropic medication prescribing before and over the 2 years after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in children and adolescents in France. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used nationwide interrupted time-series analysis of outpatient drug dispensing data from the IQVIA X-ponent database. All 8 839 143 psychotropic medication prescriptions dispensed to children (6 to 11 years of age) and adolescents (12 to 17 years of age) between January 2016 and May 2022 in France were retrieved and analyzed. Exposure: Onset of COVID-19 pandemic. Main outcomes and Measures: Monthly rates of psychotropic medication prescriptions per 1000 children and adolescents were analyzed using a quasi-Poisson regression before and after the pandemic onset (March 2020), and percentage changes in rates and trends were assessed. After the pandemic onset, rate ratios (RRs) were calculated between estimated and expected monthly prescription rates. Analyses were stratified by psychotropic medication class (antipsychotic, anxiolytic, hypnotic and sedative, antidepressant, and psychostimulant) and age group (children, adolescents). Results: In total, 8 839 143 psychotropic medication prescriptions were analyzed, 5 884 819 [66.6%] for adolescents and 2 954 324 [33.4%] for children. In January 2016, the estimated rate of monthly psychotropic medication prescriptions was 9.9 per 1000 children and adolescents, with the prepandemic rate increasing by 0.4% per month (95% CI, 0.3%-0.4%). In March 2020, the monthly prescription rate dropped by 11.5% (95% CI, -17.7% to -4.9%). During the 2 years following the pandemic onset, the trend changed significantly, and the prescription rate increased by 1.3% per month (95% CI, 1.2%-1.5%), reaching 16.1 per 1000 children and adolescents in May 2022. Monthly rates of psychotropic medication prescriptions exceeded the expected rates by 11% (RR, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.08-1.14]). Increases in prescribing trends were observed for all psychotropic medication classes after the pandemic onset but were substantial for anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives, and antidepressants. Prescription rates rose above those expected for all psychotropic medication classes except psychostimulants (RR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.09-1.15] in adolescents and 1.06 [95% CI, 1.05-1.07] in children for antipsychotics; RR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.25-1.35] in adolescents and 1.11 [95% CI, 1.09-1.12] in children for anxiolytics; RR, 2.50 [95% CI, 2.23-2.77] in adolescents and 1.40 [95% CI, 1.30-1.50] in children for hypnotics and sedatives; RR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.29-1.47] in adolescents and 1.23 [95% CI, 1.20-1.25] in children for antidepressants; and RR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-0.98] in adolescents and 1.02 [95% CI, 1.00-1.04] in children for psychostimulants). Changes were more pronounced among adolescents than children. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that prescribing of psychotropic medications for children and adolescents in France significantly and persistently increased after the COVID-19 pandemic onset. Future research should identify underlying determinants to improve psychological trajectories in young people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Psicotrópicos , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , França/epidemiologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e247818, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652477

RESUMO

Importance: Self-report surveys suggest that long-lasting taste deficits may occur after SARS-CoV-2 infection, influencing nutrition, safety, and quality of life. However, self-reports of taste dysfunction are inaccurate, commonly reflecting deficits due to olfactory not taste system pathology; hence, quantitative testing is needed to verify the association of post-COVID-19 condition with taste function. Objective: To use well-validated self-administered psychophysical tests to investigate the association of COVID-19 with long-term outcomes in taste and smell function. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide cross-sectional study included individuals with and without a prior history of COVID-19 recruited from February 2020 to August 2023 from a social media website (Reddit) and bulletin board advertisements. In the COVID-19 cohort, there was a mean of 395 days (95% CI, 363-425 days) between diagnosis and testing. Exposure: History of COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: The 53-item Waterless Empirical Taste Test (WETT) and 40-item University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) were used to assess taste and smell function. Total WETT and UPSIT scores and WETT subtest scores of sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride, caffeine, and monosodium glutamate were assessed for groups with and without a COVID-19 history. The association of COVID-19 with taste and smell outcomes was assessed using analysis of covariance, χ2, and Fisher exact probability tests. Results: Tests were completed by 340 individuals with prior COVID-19 (128 males [37.6%] and 212 females [62.4%]; mean [SD] age, 39.04 [14.35] years) and 434 individuals with no such history (154 males [35.5%] and 280 females [64.5%]; mean (SD) age, 39.99 [15.61] years). Taste scores did not differ between individuals with and without previous COVID-19 (total WETT age- and sex-adjusted mean score, 33.41 [95% CI, 32.37-34.45] vs 33.46 [95% CI, 32.54-34.38]; P = .94). In contrast, UPSIT scores were lower in the group with previous COVID-19 than the group without previous COVID-19 (mean score, 34.39 [95% CI, 33.86-34.92] vs 35.86 [95% CI, 35.39-36.33]; P < .001]); 103 individuals with prior COVID-19 (30.3%) and 91 individuals without prior COVID-19 (21.0%) had some degree of dysfunction (odds ratio, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.18-2.27]). The SARS-CoV-2 variant present at the time of infection was associated with smell outcomes; individuals with original untyped and Alpha variant infections exhibited more loss than those with other variant infections; for example, total to severe loss occurred in 10 of 42 individuals with Alpha variant infections (23.8%) and 7 of 52 individuals with original variant infections (13.5%) compared with 12 of 434 individuals with no COVID-19 history (2.8%) (P < .001 for all). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, taste dysfunction as measured objectively was absent 1 year after exposure to COVID-19 while some smell loss remained in nearly one-third of individuals with this exposure, likely explaining taste complaints of many individuals with post-COVID-19 condition. Infection with earlier untyped and Alpha variants was associated with the greatest degree of smell loss.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , SARS-CoV-2 , Distúrbios do Paladar , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Pandemias , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Idoso
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(1): e20230791, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656058

RESUMO

Although control of Covid-19 has improved, the virus continues to cause infections, such as tuberculosis, that is still endemic in many countries, representing a scenario of coinfection. To compare Covid-19 clinical manifestations and outcomes between patients with active tuberculosis infection and matched controls. This is a matched case-control study based on data from the Brazilian Covid-19 Registry, in hospitalized patients aged 18 or over with laboratory confirmed Covid-19 from March 1, 2020, to March 31, 2022. Cases were patients with tuberculosis and controls were Covid-19 patients without tuberculosis. From 13,636 Covid-19, 36 also had active tuberculosis (0.0026%). Pulmonary fibrosis (5.6% vs 0.0%), illicit drug abuse (30.6% vs 3.0%), alcoholism (33.3% vs 11.9%) and smoking (50.0% vs 9.7%) were more common among patients with tuberculosis. They also had a higher frequency of nausea and vomiting (25.0% vs 10.4%). There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality, mechanical ventilation, need for dialysis and ICU stay. Patients with TB infection presented a higher frequency of pulmonary fibrosis, abuse of illicit drugs, alcoholism, current smoking, symptoms of nausea and vomiting. The outcomes were similar between them.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Hospitalização , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , Masculino , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Sistema de Registros , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Pandemias , Idoso , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 486, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antiviral drug Nirmatrelvir was found to be a key drug in controlling the progression of pneumonia during the infectious phase of COVID-19. However, there are very few options for effective treatment for cancer patients who have viral pneumonia. Glucocorticoids is one of the effective means to control pneumonia, but there are many adverse events. EGCG is a natural low toxic compound with anti-inflammatory function. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) aerosol to control COVID-19 pneumonia in cancer populations. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective, single-arm, open-label phase I/II trial at Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, between January 5, 2023 to March 31,2023 with viral pneumonia on radiographic signs after confirmed novel coronavirus infection. These patients were treated with EGCG nebulization 10 ml three times daily for at least seven days. EGCG concentrations were increased from 1760-8817umol/L to 4 levels with dose escalation following a standard Phase I design of 3-6 patients per level. Any grade adverse event caused by EGCG was considered a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is defined as the highest dose with less than one-third of patients experiencing dose limiting toxicity (DLT) due to EGCG. The primary end points were the toxicity of EGCG and CT findings, and the former was graded by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v. 5.0. The secondary end point was the laboratory parameters before and after treatment. RESULT: A total of 60 patients with high risk factors for severe COVID-19 pneumonia (factors such as old age, smoking and combined complications)were included in this phase I-II study. The 54 patients in the final analysis were pathologically confirmed to have tumor burden and completed the whole course of treatment. A patient with bucking at a level of 1760 umol/L and no acute toxicity associated with EGCG has been reported at the second or third dose gradients. At dose escalation to 8817umol/L, Grade 1 adverse events of nausea and stomach discomfort occurred in two patients, which resolved spontaneously within 1 hour. After one week of treatment, CT showed that the incidence of non-progression of pneumonia was 82% (32/39), and the improvement rate of pneumonia was 56.4% (22/39). There was no significant difference in inflammation-related laboratory parameters (white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, IL-6, ferritin, C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase) before and after treatment. CONCLUSION: Aerosol inhalation of EGCG is well tolerated, and preliminary investigation in cancer population suggests that EGCG may be effective in COVID-19-induced pneumonia, which can promote the improvement of patients with moderate pneumonia or prevent them from developing into severe pneumonia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05758571. Date of registration: 8 February 2023.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Oxigênio , Estudos Prospectivos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Aerossóis e Gotículas Respiratórios
10.
Saudi Med J ; 45(4): 379-386, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the traits and risk factors of pregnant women admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) with COVID-19. Moreover, the study classifies outcomes based on differing levels of required respiratory support during their intensive care stay. METHODS: This retrospective and descriptive study included all pregnant women with COVID-19 admitted to the adult critical care unit at a specialized tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Between January 2020 and December 2022. A total of 38 pregnant women were identified and were eligible for our study. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 32.9 (19-45) years, and the average Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV (APACHI IV) score was 49.9 (21-106). Approximately 60.5% of the patients suffered from superimposed infections during their ICU stay. Approximately 81.6% patients were delivered by C-section, 33 of the newborns survived, and 5 died. The crude mortality rate among pregnant women in our cohort was 15.8%. Patients treated with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) were mostly discharged or delivered normally, while the mechanical ventilation (MV) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation groups mostly underwent C-sections. Most of the surviving newborns were on HFNC and MV. Patients with multiple infections had the longest ICU stay and had the highest risk of death. CONCLUSION: The results of this study highlight the characteristics of pregnant women admitted to the ICU at a specialized tertiary healthcare center in Saudi Arabia. The APACHI IV scores accurately predicted patient's mortality, duration of MV, and length of ICU stay. In our study, we shared our experience of managing severe COVID-19 infections in pregnant patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Respiração Artificial , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Fatores de Risco , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado da Gravidez , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 51(3): 525-530, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and vaccinations on otologic diseases, including facial nerve paralysis (including Ramsay Hunt syndrome), vestibular neuritis, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and Meniere's disease. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we conducted a time-series analysis employing a causal impact algorithm on a large-scale inpatient database in Japan. We compared the actual number of hospitalized patients with otologic diseases to two predictions: one without any covariates and another with a covariate accounting for the reduction in the number of hospitalized patients due to lockdown measures. Additionally, we performed Granger causality tests to ensure the robustness of our findings. RESULTS: No significant increase was noted in the number of hospitalized patients with otologic diseases following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the causal impact analysis. Similarly, no notable surge was observed in hospitalizations for these diseases following the introduction of the COVID-19 vaccine. The Granger causality tests results aligned with the causal impact analysis findings. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that COVID-19 and vaccinations had minimal discernible effects on hospitalization of patients with otologic diseases, suggesting that otologic diseases may not be significantly impacted by COVID-19 and vaccinations, which could have implications for public health policies and the allocation of healthcare resources during a pandemic. Further research and monitoring of long-term effects are warranted to validate these findings and guide healthcare decision-making.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hospitalização , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , Otopatias/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Feminino , Betacoronavirus , Doença de Meniere/epidemiologia
13.
Virol J ; 21(1): 39, 2024 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336670

RESUMO

Pneumonia is the most common complication of varicella infections. Although previous studies have tended to focus mainly on immunocompromised patients, varicella pneumonia can also occur in healthy adults. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the progression of varicella pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts. This retrospective study involved immunocompetent adult outpatients with varicella who attended the adult Fever Emergency facility of Peking University Third Hospital from April 1, 2020, to October 31, 2022. Varicella pneumonia was defined as a classic chickenpox-type rash in patients with infiltrates on chest computed tomography. The study included 186 patients, 57 of whom had a contact history of chickenpox exposure. Antiviral pneumonia therapy was administered to 175 patients by treating physicians. Computed tomography identified pneumonia in 132 patients, although no deaths from respiratory failure occurred. Seventy of the discharged patients were subsequently contacted, all of whom reported being well. Follow-up information, including computed tomography findings, was available for 37 patients with pneumonia, among whom 24 reported complete resolution whereas the remaining 13 developed persistent calcifications. Notably, we established that the true incidence of varicella pneumonia is higher than that previously reported, although the prognosis for immunocompetent hosts is generally good.


Assuntos
Varicela , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Humanos , Varicela/complicações , Varicela/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevalência , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Imunocompetência , Herpesvirus Humano 3
14.
Metabolism ; 155: 155812, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360130

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for severe respiratory diseases, including COVID-19 infection. Meta-analyses on mortality risk were inconsistent. We systematically searched 3 databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL) and assessed the quality of studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa tool (CRD42020220140). We included 199 studies from US and Europe, with a mean age of participants 41.8-78.2 years, and a variable prevalence of metabolic co-morbidities of 20-80 %. Exceptionally, one third of the studies had a low prevalence of obesity of <20 %. Compared to patients with normal weight, those with obesity had a 34 % relative increase in the odds of mortality (p-value 0.002), with a dose-dependent relationship. Subgroup analyses showed an interaction with the country income. There was a high heterogeneity in the results, explained by clinical and methodologic variability across studies. We identified one trial only comparing mortality rate in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated patients with obesity; there was a trend for a lower mortality in the former group. Mortality risk in COVID-19 infection increases in parallel to an increase in BMI. BMI should be included in the predictive models and stratification scores used when considering mortality as an outcome in patients with COVID-19 infections. Furthermore, patients with obesity might need to be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Obesidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/mortalidade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Pandemias , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Idoso , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Ann Anat ; 254: 152234, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relevance of anatomical dissection in instructing anatomy to medical, dental, and other health science students is indisputable. Ethiopian anatomists encountered challenges in obtaining human bodies for anatomy education and research, both prior to and following the COVID-19 outbreak. The challenges intensified during the pandemic, significantly affecting anatomy education in Ethiopia. This study seeks to investigate the sources of bodies for anatomy, spanning the periods before and after COVID-19, with a particular focus on identifying the primary challenges associated with sourcing of bodies in Ethiopia. METHODS: Fifty (50) anatomists completed a survey distributed to ten (10) randomly chosen medical institutions in Ethiopia. The survey gathered information on the body profile (number of bodies, age, sex, sources, and methods of body disposal), and the challenges faced during the sourcing of bodies in the years 2018 and 2023. RESULTS: A total of sixty-three (63) bodies were used by the sampled medical institutions between 2018 and 2023 academic years. All (100%) of the bodies used were unclaimed human bodies. Most (66.7%) of these bodies were males. The majority (65.5%) of these bodies were sourced from Tikur Anbessa hospital in Addis Ababa. None (0%) of the sampled medical institutions had body donation programs. Disposal of human tissues encompassed various methods, including the retention of skeletons, prosection of vital organs, and burial of remaining tissues. Economic constraints and the absence of a legal framework document were the main challenges in acquiring bodies in the pre-pandemic period. The COVID-19 pandemic prevention policies and the civil war further exacerbated the challenges in sourcing of bodies for anatomy dissections during the post-pandemic period. CONCLUSION: The reliance on unclaimed human bodies for anatomy education and research in Ethiopian medical institutions mirrors a common practice across many African countries. The authors suggest the development of a legislative framework or operational guidelines, coupled with empowering the medical institutions to outsource their own funding that will ultimately lead to an increased number of bodies available for anatomical dissection. Over time, implementation and promotion of body donation programs may also resolve body shortages for anatomy education in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Anatomia , COVID-19 , Cadáver , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Etiópia , Anatomia/educação , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Dissecação/educação , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/legislação & jurisprudência , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia
16.
Arkh Patol ; 86(1): 27-35, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319269

RESUMO

Post-Covid syndrome is characterized by general somatic manifestations, changes in the psycho-emotional sphere, cognitive disorders, disorders of the cardiovascular, respiratory systems and excretory function. However, there is little information in the literature about the mechanisms of thanatogenesis in patients who have had COVID-19. An analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters and pathomorphological changes was carried out in 9 autopsy cases of patients who had previously suffered a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19). The age of the deceased ranged from 80 to 96 years. At the time of hospitalization, the concentration of IgG varied from 32.61 to 1013.5 RLU, IgM - from 0.29 to 16.98 U/ml. The period from clinical diagnosis to death ranged from 12 to 46 days, and the time from clinical recovery (negative polymerase chain reaction) to death ranged from 2 to 30 days. In all cases, unresolved viral pneumonia and diffuse alveolar damage (exudative-proliferative phase) were diagnosed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Autopsia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pulmão
17.
Turk Patoloji Derg ; 40(2): 78-88, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review which aims to examine the recent and current status of pathology education in medical schools, and covers the publications related to undergraduate pathology education published between 2010 January and June 2023. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A search was performed through PubMed, Google Scholar, Semantic Scholar, and Ulakbim search engines for the Science Citation Index, Science Citation Index Expanded, Emerging Sources Citation Index, Directory of Open Access Journals, Scopus, PubMed as well as TR Dizin indexed articles. The findings are categorized into two periods as 2010 January - 2020 April (pre-COVID-19 pandemic) and May 2020 - 2023 June. A total of 24 reviews/editorials/letters to the editor and 63 research articles in the pre-pandemic period and 11 reviews/ editorials/ letters to the editor and 35 research articles between 2020 May and 2023 June are included in the analysis. RESULTS: Currently, medical education generally depends on core education programs with defined learning objectives and outcomes. Moreover, problem-based, case-based, and team-based interactive learning are being used along with traditional didactic courses. Additionally, digital/ web-based/remote education methods have gained prominence after the COVID-19 pandemic. The virtual or augmented reality and 3D drawing applications are offered as a solution for the autopsy and macroscopy courses. A scarce number of publications are found on measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of learning. CONCLUSION: Artificial intelligence in pathology education is a topic that looks likely to become important in the near future. National and international comprehensive standardization is a necessity. A joint effort and collective intelligence are needed to achieve the desired goals in undergraduate pathology education.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Pandemias , Patologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Patologia/educação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Currículo , Betacoronavirus
18.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 45(2): 207-224, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228165

RESUMO

Respiratory viruses are increasingly recognized as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The implementation of new diagnostic technologies has facilitated their identification, especially in vulnerable population such as immunocompromised and elderly patients and those with severe cases of pneumonia. In terms of severity and outcomes, viral pneumonia caused by influenza viruses appears similar to that caused by non-influenza viruses. Although several respiratory viruses may cause CAP, antiviral therapy is available only in cases of CAP caused by influenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus. Currently, evidence-based supportive care is key to managing severe viral pneumonia. We discuss the evidence surrounding epidemiology, diagnosis, management, treatment, and prevention of viral pneumonia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Pneumonia Viral , Pneumonia , Humanos , Idoso , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia/complicações
19.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(2): e0300523, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230924

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease-19 had become an unprecedented global health emergency, quickly expanding worldwide. Omicron (B.1.1.529), as a novel variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was initially identified in South Africa and Botswana. Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are a special group and are more vulnerable to viral pneumonia. Thus, this study aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia that occurred in RTRs with Omicron infection. This single-center case-control study enrolled the RTRs who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection by the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test, which were divided into two groups according to the imaging features of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The parameters were collected by questionnaires and analyzed using Statistical Product and Service Solutions. A total of 313 RTRs completed the questionnaires, and 131 were enrolled in this study with a mean age of 42.66 years. The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia among the enrolled participants was 76.3%. The first symptoms included fever (89.3%), cough (93.1%), and expectoration (81.7%). From the comparison, the parameters such as age, gender, body mass index, lymphocyte count, and the percent of neutrophils and the basic serum creatinine before SARS-CoV-2 infection were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, age and the basic serum creatinine were independent risk factors for developing SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (P < 0.05). Older RTRs with a high level of serum creatinine before SARS-CoV-2 infection were more at risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. More randomized controlled studies are needed.IMPORTANCEThis study aimed to assess the incidence and the risk factors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia that occurred in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) with Omicron infection. In conclusion, older RTRs with a high level of serum creatinine before SARS-CoV-2 infection were more at risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and should be timely treated, in case of severe pneumonia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transplante de Rim , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2 , Pequim , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Creatinina , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Transplantados
20.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 38(1): 183-212, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280763

RESUMO

Influenza and other respiratory viruses are commonly identified in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia. Clinically, it is difficult to differentiate viral from bacterial pneumonia. Similarly, the radiological findings of viral infection are in general nonspecific. The advent of polymerase chain reaction testing has enormously facilitated the identification of respiratory viruses, which has important implications for infection control measures and treatment. Currently, treatment options for patients with viral infection are limited but there is ongoing research on the development and clinical testing of new treatment regimens and strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Influenza Humana , Pneumonia Bacteriana , Pneumonia Viral , Viroses , Vírus , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia
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