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1.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 145, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A few studies have suggested that the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was present in Northern Italy several weeks before its official detection on February 21, 2020. On the other hand, no clinical data have been provided so far to support such hypothesis. We investigated clinical-epidemiological evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and adults referring to emergency department (ED) in the main hospital of the center of Milan (Italy) before February 21, 2020. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of medical records of ED visits at the Fondazione Ca' Granda Policlinico, Milan between January 11 and February 15 in 2017, 2018, 2019 and in 2020 was performed. The number of subjects referring with fever, cough or dyspnea was compared between the studied period of 2020 and the previous 3 years, by calculating a standardized referral ratio (SRR, number of observed cases in 2020 divided by the number of expected cases according to 2017-2019) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: In the pediatric ED, 7709 (average 2570/year) and 2736 patients were visited during the period 2017-2019 and in the 2020, respectively. Among adults, 13,465 (average 4488/year) and 4787 were visited during the period 2017-2019 and in the 2020, respectively. The SRR was 1.16 (95% CI 1.10-1.23) in children and 1.25 (95% CI 1.16-1.35) in adults. The ratio for the two (children and adults) SRRs was 0.93 (0.84-1.02), suggesting a trend towards a higher frequency in adults compared to children. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 might have spread in Milan before February 21, 2020 with a minor trend among children.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
WMJ ; 120(2): 100-105, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Testing and mitigation strategies for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection often focus on high-prevalence, urban communities, leaving low-prevalence rural areas without specific strategies to maintain the health and safety of their populations. We evaluated a cost-effective strategy for SARS-CoV-2 testing to determine point prevalence in a rural community with a generally low prevalence of infection. METHODS: We voluntarily tested asymptomatic clinic employees and conducted 2 community SARS-CoV-2 testing events in Cashton, Wisconsin, that included testing for asymptomatic persons. We also partnered with local clinics and public health departments to conduct weekly drive-up clinics for asymptomatic, high-risk persons identified through enhanced contact tracing. This was possible as testing capacity in Wisconsin never reached its maximum, and we continued symptomatic testing through our clinic. RESULTS: We tested 61 employees, 268 individuals at 2 community events, 36 high-risk asymptomatic people at drive-up clinic events, and 128 symptomatic people within our clinic. We observed 1 positive result in asymptomatic people and 5 positive results in symptomatic patients, confirming the low prevalence in our area. CONCLUSIONS: Our testing events confirmed a low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, providing prevalence information to local businesses and schools. We reinforced our partnership with local public health departments to facilitate enhanced contact tracing and test asymptomatic persons, and we provided a service to asymptomatic persons requiring testing for travel, school, or work. Local businesses and community members appreciated the services and expressed relief for point-in-time testing results during a period of stress and uncertainty.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Documentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , População Rural , SARS-CoV-2 , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
3.
Ulster Med J ; 90(2): 86-89, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276086

RESUMO

Background: Traditional surgical dogma is that paediatric appendicitis necessitates an appendicectomy; however there is an increasing cohort of evidence suggesting that non-operative management (NOM) using antibiotic therapy is safe and effective. During the COVID-19 surge (April - June 2020) with centralization of paediatric surgical care and risks from anaesthetics to both patients and staff a NOM pathway was used to manage clinically diagnosed appendicitis in the Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children (RBHSC). Methods: Prospective data collection was undertaken of all children (<16 years) diagnosed with appendicitis who entered the NOM pathway in RBHSC from 01/04/2020 to 30/06/2020. This was compared to a cohort from the same timeframe in 2019. Primary end-points were inpatient success rate of NOM and 30-day success rate of NOM (success defined as no appendectomy performed). Results: 47 patients completed the NOM pathway, with 43% (20/47) suspected to have complicated appendicitis. The cohort was similar to that of 2019 in terms of age (p=0.1) and sex (p=0.8), but was 155% larger (42 v. 20).For those with simple appendicitis, there was a 96% (26/27) success rate of NOM on discharge, with a 93% (25/27) 30-day success rate. For complicated appendicitis, there was a 40% (8/20) success rate on discharge, with a 30% (6/20) 30-day success rate. Conclusion: The use of a NOM pathway for paediatric appendicitis during the COVID-19 surge in Northern Ireland was safe and effective for staff and patients. With a small sample size and restricted follow up more evidence is required to prove if this is an effective treatment modality with a return to normal theatre availability. In the interests of antibiotic stewardship we would not advocate NOM pathways utilisation by non-surgical clinicians.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Apendicite/tratamento farmacológico , Apendicite/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Apendicectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Criança , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Masculino , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: e43, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic and clinical characteristics of adult patients hospitalized in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) due to viral pneumonia and investigate the association between some comorbidities and death during hospitalization. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted with secondary data of adults admitted to SUS due to viral pneumonia between 2002 and 2015. Patient profile was characterized based on demographic and clinical variables. The association between the ten Elixhauser comorbidities and in-hospital death was investigated using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. Results were quantified as incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and we built five models using successive inclusion of variables blocks. RESULTS: Hospital admissions for viral pneumonias decreased throughout the study period, and it was observed that 5.8% of hospitalized patients had an in-hospital death. We observed significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics by comparing individuals who died during hospitalization with those who did not, with the occurrence of one or more comorbidities being more expressive among patients who died. Although not considered risk factors for in-hospital death, chronic pulmonary disease and congestive heart failure were the most common comorbidities. Conversely, IRR for in-hospital death increased with other neurological disorders, diabetes, cancer, obesity, and especially with HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals presenting with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases require proper attention during hospitalization, as well as those with other neurological diseases, diabetes, cancer, obesity, and especially HIV/AIDS. Understanding the influence of chronic diseases on viral infections may support the healthcare system in achieving better outcomes.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral , Pneumonia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 119, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is often non severe and in the majority of cases does not require long term hospitalization, nevertheless it is burdened with social issues and managing difficulties. To our knowledge there is no literature on telephonic follow up in pediatric patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on rhino-pharyngeal swab after discharge. The aim of the study is to describe our experience in a telephonic follow up which can allow early and safe discharge from hospital while keeping the patients under close clinical monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five children were admitted for SARS-CoV-2 infection at Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital COVID Center from 16th March to 3rd July. We monitored through a telephonic follow-up, using a specific survey, the patients discharged still presenting a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2. We checked if any symptoms occurred at home until recovery, defined as two consecutive negative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on rhino-pharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: During the follow up 7 patients had mild and self-limited symptoms related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while 2 patients were re-hospitalized. One patient had Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), the other patient had an increase in troponin and D-dimers. We also monitored the average time of viral shedding, resulting in a median duration of 28 days. CONCLUSION: Our experience describes the daily telephonic follow up as safe in pediatric patients discharged with positive PCR. As a matter of fact it could avoid long term hospitalization and allow to promptly re-hospitalize children with major complications such as MIS-C.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Telefone , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
8.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 131, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the effective burden of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in pediatric population are very limited, mostly because of the higher rate of asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic cases among children. Updated data on COVID-19 prevalence are needed for their relevance in public health and for infection control policies. In this single-centre cross-sectional study we aimed to assess prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection through IgG antibodies detection in an Italian pediatric cohort. METHODS: The study was conducted in January 2021 among both inpatients and outpatients referring to Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health "Burlo Garofolo" in Trieste, Friuli Venezia-Giulia, Italy, who needed for blood test for any reason. Collected samples were sent to Italian National Institute of Health for analysis through chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). RESULTS: One hundred sixty-nine patients were included in the study, with a median age of 10.5 ± 4.1 years, an equal distribution for sex (49.7% female patients), and a 55.6% prevalence of comorbidities. Prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 trimeric Spike protein IgG antibodies was 9.5% (n = 16), with a medium titre of 482.3 ± 387.1 BAU/mL. Having an infected cohabitant strongly correlated with IgG positivity (OR 23.83, 95% CI 7.19-78.98, p < 0.0001), while a cohabitant healthcare worker wasn't associated with a higher risk (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.4-5.86, p 0.46). All of the 5 patients who had previously tested positive to a nasopharyngeal swab belonged to the IgG positive group, with a 3-month interval from the infection at most. CONCLUSION: We assessed a 9.5% SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in a pediatric cohort from Friuli Venezia-Giulia region in January 2021, showing a substantial increase after the second peak of the pandemic occurred starting from October 2020, compared to 1% prevalence observed by National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) in July 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
9.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 49(4): 286-292, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of hypertension and pre-existing use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 viral pneumonias. METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients were retrospectively analyzed. The presence of hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), and pre-existing use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were compared between the groups. RESULTS: A total of 103 COVID-19 and 91 non-COVID-19 hospitalized viral pneumonia patients were enrolled. Hypertension and CAD were more common in patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia than in patients with COVID-19 (39.6% vs 22.3%, respectively, p=0.012 and 24.2% vs 4.9%, respectively, p<0.001). In our study, 2.9% and 6.8% of patients with COVID-19 were on ACEIs and ARBs, respectively, whereas 13.2% and 19.8% of patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia were on ACEIs and ARBs, respectively (p=0.009 and p=0.013). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p<0.001) was prominent in patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia compared with patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our study results indicate that hypertension and CAD are more common among patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia than patients with COVID-19. The prevalence of ACEIs and ARBs use was not higher in patients with COVID-19. Our results support that the use of ACEIs and ARBs do not play a specific role in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Healthc Policy ; 16(4): 6-15, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129474

RESUMO

As contemporaneous data emerge from publicly funded healthcare providers, the COVID-19 pandemic provides a unique opportunity to measure their resiliency. Resiliency matters because it connotes a higher level of confidence in being able to provide needed healthcare during times of health, social or environmental stress or calamity. At the beginning of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, there were warnings regarding hospitals' ability to successfully manage large surges of critically ill COVID-19 patients who were expected to soon be presenting at hospitals in every province and territory. Shortly thereafter, hospitals implemented policies to clear hospital beds - there were public reports that hospitals rapidly went from nearly full occupancy to below 50% (CIHI 2020a; Howlett 2020; Zeidler 2020).


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Healthc Policy ; 16(4): 17-24, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129475

RESUMO

Increased alcohol consumption among Canadians during the COVID-19 pandemic will impact our health systems in the short and longer term, through increased hospitalizations due to alcohol-related illness, addiction, violence and accidents. The increased stress due to involuntary unemployment, confinement and boredom during the pandemic has led to an escalation in alcohol use. It is imperative that policy makers recognize and address the inherently conflicting roles of provincial/territorial governments as regulators/retailers of alcohol and funders of healthcare and prioritize the development and implementation of an evidence-based framework to mitigate the increased population health risks of alcohol-related harms.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Liderança , Fatores Etários , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Healthc Policy ; 16(4): 84-96, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129480

RESUMO

Language barriers can reduce access to medical and virtual care. Although the topic of healthcare professionals and linguistic minorities has been studied in Canada, it has mainly been done for official languages (i.e., English and French). Non-official languages (NOLs) have not been explored previously in the healthcare system at the pan-Canadian level. The objective of this study is to determine to what extent NOLs spoken by physicians relate to those of Canadian ethnic groups and are an enabler of access to care. Using data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) and Statistics Canada, we found an imbalance in the physician-to-population NOL ratios in Montreal and, to a lesser extent, Vancouver.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Barreiras de Comunicação , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Relações Médico-Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , População Urbana
13.
Healthc Manage Forum ; 34(4): 205-210, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098760

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare systems have been under extreme levels of stress due to increases in patient distress and patient deaths. While additional research and public health funding initiatives can alleviate these systemic issues, it is also important to consider the ongoing mental health and well-being of professionals working in healthcare. By surveying healthcare workers working in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic, we found that there was an elevated level of depressive symptomatology in that population. We also found that when employees were provided with accurate and timely information about the pandemic, and additional protective measures in the workplace, they were less likely to report negative effects on well-being. We recommend that healthcare employers take these steps, as well as providing targeted mental health interventions, in order to maintain the mental health of their employees, which in turn will provide better healthcare at the population level.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Gestão da Segurança
14.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(6): 225-226, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally changed the workflow of clinics. We applied Lean Six Sigma processes to optimize clinic workflow to reduce patient wait times and improve the patient experience. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: We implemented (1) pushing most extended wait times to the end of the workflow by rooming the patient directly and (2) using distractions during the waiting process by using educational videos and a timer for physician arrival in the patient exam room. We compared the patient wait times and subcomponents of Press Ganey scores as a surrogate for changes in patient experience and satisfaction from the preimplementation period (n = 277) to the 3-month (September 1, 2020, to November 30, 2020) postimplementation period (n = 218). RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in overall throughput time (38 vs 35 minutes) and wait before rooming (11 vs 8 minutes), and increased physician time with patients (15 vs 17 minutes) (P < .0001 for all). These results corresponded with a significant improvement in Press Ganey subcomponents of (1) waiting time in the exam room before being seen by the care provider, (2) degree to which you were informed about any delays, (3) wait time at clinic (from arriving to leaving), and (4) length of wait before going to an exam room (P < .001 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Simple, inexpensive measures can improve patient engagement and provide a safe setting for patients for clinic visits in the wake of COVID-19. In the future, clinics' common wait areas could be reappropriated to increase the number of clinic exam rooms.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Eficiência Organizacional , Gestão da Qualidade Total , Fluxo de Trabalho , Humanos , Pandemias , Satisfação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Listas de Espera
15.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(6): 256-260, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156219

RESUMO

Individuals with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) represent a growing proportion of the adult population in the United States, particularly among lower-income individuals and people of color. Despite ongoing efforts to characterize this population and develop approaches for effective management, individuals with MCCs continue to contribute substantially to health care expenditures. Based on a review of recent literature, several identified barriers limit the effectiveness of care for patients with MCCs. Health care delivery system structural limitations, evidence-based care concerns, patient-clinician relationship constraints, and barriers to inclusion of patient-centered priorities may singly or in combination negatively affect outcomes for individuals with MCCs. The COVID-19 pandemic has shed further light on inequities contributing to suboptimal MCC patient management. Awareness of the prevalence and demographic attributes of patients with MCCs and the identified barriers to care may help improve patient engagement and treatment outcomes for this high-cost population. This paper provides recommendations for enhancing MCC patient care outcomes in the current and post-COVID-19 health care delivery settings.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Multimorbidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Melhoria de Qualidade , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 122, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies described the epidemiological link and main clinical features of pediatric COVID-19, during the first pandemic period. Our study encompasses several different phases since the National Lockdown in Italy. The primary outcome is (I) to analyze the prevalence of positive NST (Nasopharyngeal Swab Test) among the largest Italian Pediatric cohort admitted to a single regional PED Hub for COVID-19 during an eight-month period. Secondary outcomes are: (II) the description of trend of admissions in our PED and (III) the categorization of the positive patients according to clinical manifestations and epidemiological link. METHODS: We described 316 patients with a positive NST for SARS-CoV2, on a total of 5001 nasopharyngeal swabs performed among 13,171 admissions at our PED, over a period starting from March 17th, 2020 to December 1st, 2020. Age, epidemiological link, clinical features and hospitalizations were analyzed according to different lockdown phases. Data were collected anonymously from electronic records and analyzed using SPSS 22.00 statistics software (Chicago, IL). RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of total admissions have been tested. During the post lockdown period, we performed the highest percentage of NST (Nasopharyngeal Swab Test) 49.7%, and among them 7.9% were positive. The prevalence of infection during a 10-month period was 2.3%. Mean age was 6.5 years old. Familial Link accounted for the 67.7% of infection, while Extrafamilial and Unknown link accounted for 17 and 14.9%, respectively. Familial link is predominant during all phases. Seventeen patients showed an intra-scholastic link, and the highest prevalence was observed in the 7-10 years age group, with a prevalence of 12.8% (5 patients). Fever was the most frequent symptom (66%), in particular among preschooler children aged 0-6 years (71.9%). Older children were more frequently symptomatic. Seven patients were admitted with MIS-C diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Different levels of containment measures caused important changes in number of positive NST for SARS-CoV2. Familial link was predominant in our cohort, during all phases of Lockdown. The risk of being infected at home is four time greater than the risk of being infected from an extra familial individual. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clear impact of intra-scholastic link. The constant improvement in knowledge on onset symptoms and risk factor for SARS-CoV2 infection and its complications (e.g. MIS-C), can impact on number of hospitalizations, ICU admissions and early management.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Teste para COVID-19 , Criança , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
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