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Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 45(2): 207-224, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228165


Respiratory viruses are increasingly recognized as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The implementation of new diagnostic technologies has facilitated their identification, especially in vulnerable population such as immunocompromised and elderly patients and those with severe cases of pneumonia. In terms of severity and outcomes, viral pneumonia caused by influenza viruses appears similar to that caused by non-influenza viruses. Although several respiratory viruses may cause CAP, antiviral therapy is available only in cases of CAP caused by influenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus. Currently, evidence-based supportive care is key to managing severe viral pneumonia. We discuss the evidence surrounding epidemiology, diagnosis, management, treatment, and prevention of viral pneumonia.

COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Pneumonia Viral , Pneumonia , Humanos , Idoso , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia/complicações
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 38(1): 183-212, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280763


Influenza and other respiratory viruses are commonly identified in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia. Clinically, it is difficult to differentiate viral from bacterial pneumonia. Similarly, the radiological findings of viral infection are in general nonspecific. The advent of polymerase chain reaction testing has enormously facilitated the identification of respiratory viruses, which has important implications for infection control measures and treatment. Currently, treatment options for patients with viral infection are limited but there is ongoing research on the development and clinical testing of new treatment regimens and strategies.

Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Influenza Humana , Pneumonia Bacteriana , Pneumonia Viral , Viroses , Vírus , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia
Intern Med ; 62(24): 3609-3617, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37779065


Objective To clarify both the histologic changes in primary viral pneumonia other than COVID-19 and whether patients with severe lung injury (SLI) on biopsy specimens progress to severe respiratory insufficiency. Methods Patients with primary viral pneumonia other than COVID-19, who underwent lung tissue biopsy, were retrospectively studied. Patients Forty-three patients (41 living patients and 2 autopsied cases) were included in the study. Results Nine patients had SLI, whereas most of patients who recovered from primary viral pneumonia showed a nonspecific epithelial injury pattern. One patient underwent a biopsy under mechanical ventilation. Two of 8 (25.0%) patients on ambient air or low-flow oxygen therapy progressed to a severe respiratory condition and then to death, while only 1 (3.1%) of 32 patients without SLI progressed to a severe respiratory condition and death (p=0.096). The proportion of patients who required O2 treatment for ≥2 weeks was higher in patients with SLI than in those without SLI (p=0.033). The 2 autopsy cases showed a typical pattern of diffuse alveolar damage, with both showing hyaline membranes. Non-specific histologic findings were present in 32 patients without SLI. Conclusion Some patients with SLI progressed to severe respiratory insufficiency, whereas those without SLI rarely progressed to severe respiratory insufficiency or death. The frequency of patients progressing to a severe respiratory condition or death did not differ significantly between those with and without SLI. The proportion of patients who required longer O2 treatment was higher in SLI group than in those without SLI.

COVID-19 , Pneumonia Viral , Insuficiência Respiratória , Humanos , COVID-19/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/patologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , Progressão da Doença
Heart Lung ; 61: 153-157, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37290136


BACKGROUND: Infection with viral pneumonia (PNA) is known to offset the coagulation cascade. Recent studies assessing novel SARS-CoV-2 infection observed a high frequency of systemic thrombotic events resulting in ambiguity if severity of infection or specific viral strain drive thrombosis and worsen clinical outcomes. Furthermore, limited data exists addressing SARS-CoV-2 in underrepresented patient populations. OBJECTIVES: Assess clinical outcomes events and death in patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia compared to patients with other types of viral pneumonia. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study evaluated electronic medical records in adult patients admitted to University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System (UIHHSS) with primary diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 PNA or other viral (H1N1 or H3N2) PNA between 10/01/2017 and 09/01/2020. Primary composite outcome was the following event incidence rates: death, ICU admission, infection, thrombotic complications, mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, and major bleeding. RESULTS: Of 257 patient records, 199 and 58 patients had SARS-CoV-2 PNA and other viral PNA, respectively. There was no difference in primary composite outcome. Thrombotic events (n = 6, 3%) occurred solely in SARS-CoV-2 PNA patients in the ICU. A significantly higher incidence of renal replacement therapy (8.5% vs 0%, p=0.016) and mortality (15.6% vs 3.4%, p=0.048) occurred in the SARS-CoV-2 PNA group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed age, presence of SARS-CoV-2, and ICU admission, aOR 1.07, 11.37, and 41.95 respectively, was significantly associated with mortality risk during hospitalization; race and ethnicity were not. CONCLUSION: Low overall incidence of thrombotic events occurred only in the SARS-CoV-2 PNA group. SARS-CoV-2 PNA may lead to higher incidence of clinical events than those observed in H3N2/H1N1 viral pneumonia, and that race/ethnicity does not drive mortality outcomes.

COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Pneumonia Viral , Trombose , Adulto , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Trombose/epidemiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos
J Infect ; 87(2): 120-127, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37201858


OBJECTIVE: Prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, influenza was the most frequent cause of viral respiratory pneumonia requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Few studies have compared the characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and influenza. METHODS: This was a French nationwide study comparing COVID-19 (March 1, 2020-June 30, 2021) and influenza patients (January 1, 2014-December 31, 2019) admitted to an ICU during pre-vaccination era. Primary outcome was in-hospital death. Secondary outcome was need for mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: 105,979 COVID-19 patients were compared to 18,763 influenza patients. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 were more likely to be men with more comorbidities. Patients with influenza required more invasive mechanical ventilation (47 vs. 34%, p < 0·001), vasopressors (40% vs. 27, p < 0·001) and renal-replacement therapy (22 vs. 7%, p < 0·001). Hospital mortality was 25% and 21% (p < 0·001) in patients with COVID-19 and influenza, respectively. In the subgroup of patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay was significantly longer in patients with COVID-19 (18 [10-32] vs. 15 [8-26] days, p < 0·001). Adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, and modified SAPS II score, in-hospital death was higher in COVID-19 patients (adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratio [aSHR]=1.69; 95%CI=1.63-1.75) compared with influenza patients. COVID-19 was also associated with less invasive mechanical ventilation (aSHR=0.87; 95%CI=0.85-0.89) and a higher likelihood of death without invasive mechanical ventilation (aSHR=2.40; 95%CI=2.24-2.57). CONCLUSION: Despite younger age and lower SAPS II score, critically ill COVID-19 patients had a longer hospital stay and higher mortality than patients with influenza.

COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Pneumonia Viral , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Estado Terminal/terapia , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 47(5): 257-266, mayo 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-219675


Objetivo Describir las secuelas al mes del alta hospitalaria en pacientes que precisaron ingreso en Cuidados Intensivos por neumonía grave COVID-19 y analizar las diferencias entre los que recibieron terapia exclusivamente con oxigenoterapia con alto flujo con respecto a los que precisaron ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI). Diseño Estudio de cohorte, prospectivo y observacional. Ámbito Consulta multidisciplinar pos Cuidados Intensivos. Pacientes o participantes Pacientes que superaron el ingreso en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) por neumonía grave COVID-19 desde abril 2020 hasta octubre 2021. Intervenciones Inclusión en el programa multidisciplinar pos UCI. Variables de interés principales Secuelas motoras, sensitivas, psicológicas/psiquiátricas, respiratorias y nutricionales tras el ingreso hospitalario. Resultados Se incluyeron 104 pacientes. 48 pacientes recibieron oxigenoterapia nasal de alto flujo (ONAF) y 56 VMI. Las principales secuelas encontradas fueron la neuropatía distal (33,9% VMI vs. 10,4% ONAF); plexopatía braquial (10,7% VMI vs. 0% ONAF); disminución de fuerza de agarre: mano derecha 20,67 kg (± 8,27) en VMI vs. 31,8 kg (± 11,59) en ONAF y mano izquierda 19,39 kg (± 8,45) en VMI vs. 30,26 kg (± 12,74) en ONAF; y balance muscular limitado en miembros inferiores (28,6% VMI vs. 8,6% ONAF). Las diferencias observadas entre ambos grupos no alcanzaron significación estadística en el estudio multivariable. Conclusiones Los resultados obtenidos tras el estudio multivariable sugieren no existir diferencias en cuanto a las secuelas físicas percibidas al mes del alta hospitalaria en función de la terapia respiratoria empleada, ya fuera ONAF o ventilación mecánica prolongada, si bien son precisos más estudios para poder obtener conclusiones al respecto (AU)

Objective To describe the sequelae one month after hospital discharge in patients who required admission to intensive care for severe COVID-19 pneumonia and to analyze the differences between those who received therapy exclusively with high-flow oxygen therapy compared to those who required invasive mechanical ventilation. Design Cohort, prospective and observational study. Setting Post-intensive care multidisciplinary program. Patients or participants Patients who survived admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) for severe COVID-19 pneumonia from April 2020 to October 2021. Interventions Inclusion in the post-ICU multidisciplinary program. Main variables of interest Motor, sensory, psychological/psychiatric, respiratory and nutritional sequelae after hospital admission. Results One hundred and four patients were included. 48 patients received high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (ONAF) and 56 invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The main sequelae found were distal neuropathy (33.9% IMV vs. 10.4% ONAF); brachial plexopathy (10.7% IMV vs. 0% ONAF); decrease in grip strength: right hand 20.67 kg (± 8.27) in VMI vs. 31.8 kg (± 11.59) in ONAF and left hand 19.39 kg (± 8.45) in VMI vs. 30.26 kg (± 12.74) in ONAF; and limited muscle balance in the lower limbs (28.6% VMI vs. 8.6% ONAF). The differences observed between both groups did not reach statistical significance in the multivariable study. Conclusions The results obtained after the multivariate study suggest that there are no differences in the perceived physical sequelae one month after hospital discharge depending on the respiratory therapy used, whether it was high-flow nasal oxygen therapy or prolonged mechanical ventilation, although more studies are needed to be able to draw conclusions (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 47(4): 212-220, abr. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-218041


Objective We examined weather a protocol for fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) adjustment can reduce hyperoxemia and excess oxygen use in COVID-19 patients mechanically ventilated. Design Prospective cohort study. Settin Two intensive care units (ICUs) dedicated to COVID-19 patients in Brazil. Patients Consecutive patients with COVID-19 mechanically ventilated. Interventions One ICU followed a FiO2 adjustment protocol based on SpO2 (conservative-oxygen ICU) and the other, which did not follow the protocol, constituted the control ICU. Main variables of interest Prevalence of hyperoxemia (PaO2>100mmHg) on day 1, sustained hyperoxemia (present on days 1 and 2), and excess oxygen use (FiO2>0.6 in patients with hyperoxemia) were compared between the two ICUs. Results Eighty two patients from the conservative-oxygen ICU and 145 from the control ICU were included. The conservative-oxygen ICU presented lower prevalence of hyperoxemia on day 1 (40.2% vs. 75.9%, p<0.001) and of sustained hyperoxemia (12.2% vs. 49.6%, p<0.001). Excess oxygen use was less frequent in the conservative-oxygen ICU on day 1 (18.3% vs. 52.4%, p<0.001). Being admitted in the control ICU was independently associated with hyperoxemia and excess oxygen use. Multivariable analyses found no independent relationship between day 1 hyperoxemia, sustained hyperoxemia, or excess FiO2 use and adverse clinical outcomes. Conclusions Following FiO2 protocol was associated with lower hyperoxemia and less excess oxygen use. Although those results were not associated with better clinical outcomes, adopting FiO2 protocol may be useful in a scenario of depleted oxygen resources, as was seen during the COVID-19 pandemic (AU)

Objetivo Evaluar si un protocolo para el ajuste de la FiO2 reduce la hiperoxemia y el uso excesivo de oxígeno en pacientes con COVID-19 en ventilación mecánica. Diseño Estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Ámbito Unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) dedicadas a pacientes con COVID-19 en Brasil. Pacientes Pacientes con COVID-19. Intervenciones Una UCI siguió un protocolo de ajuste de FiO2 basado en SpO2 (UCI de oxigenoterapia conservadora, N=82) y la otra no siguió el protocolo (UCI control, N=145). Principales variables de interés Prevalencia de hiperoxemia (PaO2>100mmHg) en el día 1, hiperoxemia sostenida (presente en los días 1 y 2) y exceso de uso de oxígeno (FiO2>0,6 en pacientes con hiperoxemia) entre las 2 UCI. Resultados La UCI de oxigenoterapia conservadora presentó menor prevalencia de hiperoxemia en el día 1 (40,2 vs. 75,9%; p<0,001) y de hiperoxemia sostenida (12,2 vs. 49,6%; p<0,001). El uso excesivo de oxígeno fue menos frecuente en la UCI de oxigenoterapia conservadora el día 1 (18,3 vs. 52,4%; p<0,001). El ingreso en la UCI control se asoció de forma independiente con la hiperoxemia y el uso excesivo de oxígeno. Los análisis multivariables no encontraron una relación independiente entre hiperoxemia o uso excesivo de FiO2 y resultados clínicos adversos. Conclusiones Seguir el protocolo de FiO2 se asoció con menor hiperoxemia y menor consumo de oxígeno en exceso. Aunque esos resultados no se asociaron con mejores resultados clínicos, la adopción del protocolo FiO2 puede ser útil en un escenario de recursos de oxígeno agotados, como se vio durante la pandemia de COVID-19 (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , /métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Protocolos Clínicos
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 43(2): 202-212, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36941089


INTRODUCTION: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are considered the drugs, whose effectiveness in viral pandemics has been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate of adding fluoxetine to the treatment regimen of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This study was a double-blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial .36 patients in the fluoxetine and 36 patients in the placebo group were enrolled. Patients in the intervention group were first treated with fluoxetine 10 mg for 4 days and then the dose of 20 mg was continued for 4 weeks. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS V. 22.0. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of clinical symptoms at the beginning of the study and also the score of anxiety and depression, oxygen saturation at the time of hospitalization, mid-hospitalization and discharge periods. The need for mechanical ventilator support (p = 1.00), the need for admission in the intensive care unit (ICU) (p = 1.00), rate for mortality (p = 1.00), and discharge with relative recovery (p = 1.00) were not significantly different between the two groups. The distribution of CRP within the study groups showed a significant decrease during different time periods (p = 0.001), and although there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on the first day (p = 1.00) and at discharge (p = 0.585), mid-hospital CRP showed a significant decrease in the fluoxetine group (p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Fluoxetine resulted in a faster reduction of patients' inflammation without association with depression and anxiety.

COVID-19 , Fluoxetina , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/complicações , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Depressão/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Fluoxetina/administração & dosagem , Fluoxetina/efeitos adversos , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Alta do Paciente , Placebos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Inibidores Seletivos de Recaptação de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Seletivos de Recaptação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores Seletivos de Recaptação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
Can J Anaesth ; 70(3): 374-383, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36918454


PURPOSE: To compare the incidence and nature of secondary infections (SI) between critically ill patients with viral pneumonia due to COVID-19 and seasonal influenza and explore the association between SI and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a historical cohort study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at two tertiary care centers during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and patients admitted with influenza during the 2018-2019 season. The primary outcome was the rate of SI. Secondary outcomes included rates of ICU and in-hospital mortality, organ-support-dependent disease, and length of ICU and hospital stay. RESULTS: Secondary infections developed in 55% of 95 COVID-19 patients and 51% of 47 influenza patients (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 2.33). After adjusting for baseline differences between cohorts, there were no significant differences between the COVID-19 cohort and the influenza cohort (adjusted OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.41 to 2.44). COVID-19 patients with SI had longer ICU and hospital stays and duration of mechanical ventilation. The SI incidence was higher in COVID-19 patients treated with steroids than in those not treated with steroids (15/20, 75% vs 37/75, 49%). CONCLUSION: Secondary infections were common among critically ill patients with viral pneumonia including COVID-19. We found no difference in the incidence of SI between COVID-19 and influenza in our cohort study, but SI in patients with COVID-19 were associated with worse clinical outcomes and increased healthcare resource use. The small cohort size precludes any causal inferences but may provide a basis for future research.

RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Comparer l'incidence et la nature des infections secondaires entre les patients gravement malades atteints de pneumonie virale due à la COVID-19 et ceux atteints de la grippe saisonnière et explorer l'association entre les infections secondaires et les issues cliniques. MéTHODE: Nous avons réalisé une étude de cohorte historique de patients admis à l'unité de soins intensifs (USI) dans deux centres de soins tertiaires pendant la première vague de la pandémie de COVID-19 et de patients admis pour la grippe au cours de la saison 2018-2019. Le critère d'évaluation principal était le taux d'infections secondaires. Les critères d'évaluation secondaires comprenaient les taux de mortalité à l'USI et à l'hôpital, les maladies nécessitant un support d'organes et la durée du séjour à l'USI et à l'hôpital. RéSULTATS: Des infections secondaires se sont développées chez 55 % des 95 patients atteints de COVID-19 et 51 % des 47 patients grippaux (rapport des cotes [RC] non ajusté, 1,16; intervalle de confiance [IC] à 95 %, 0,57 à 2,33). Après ajustement pour tenir compte des différences initiales entre les cohortes, aucune différence significative n'a été observée entre la cohorte de COVID-19 et la cohorte de grippe (RC ajusté, 1,00; IC 95 %, 0,41 à 2,44). Les patients atteints de COVID-19 atteints d'infections secondaires ont séjourné plus longtemps aux soins intensifs et à l'hôpital et la durée de la ventilation mécanique était plus longue pour ces patients. L'incidence d'infections secondaires était plus élevée chez les patients atteints de COVID-19 traités par stéroïdes que chez ceux non traités par stéroïdes (15/20, 75 % vs 37/75, 49 %). CONCLUSION: Les infections secondaires étaient fréquentes chez les patients gravement malades atteints de pneumonie virale, y compris de COVID-19. Nous n'avons observé aucune différence dans l'incidence d'infections secondaires entre les patients atteints de COVID-19 et ceux atteints de grippe dans notre étude de cohorte, mais les infections secondaires chez les patients atteints de COVID-19 étaient associées à de moins bonnes issues cliniques et à une utilisation accrue des ressources de soins de santé. La petite taille de la cohorte exclut toute inférence causale, mais peut fournir une base pour les recherches futures.

COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Influenza Humana , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , SARS-CoV-2 , Estado Terminal , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 148(6): 335-341, 2023 03.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36878234


RISK FACTORS FOR SEVERE COURSES: The CRB-65 score is recommended as a risk predictor, as well as consideration of unstable comorbidities and oxygenation. GROUPING OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA: Community-acquired pneumonia is divided into 3 groups: mild pneumonia, moderate pneumonia, severe pneumonia. Whether there is a curative vs palliative treatment goal should be determined early. DIAGNOSTIC RECOMMENDATION: An X-ray chest radiograph is recommended to confirm the diagnosis, also in the outpatient setting if possible. Sonography of the thorax is an alternative, asking for additional imaging if negative. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common bacterial pathogen. THERAPY: Community-acquired pneumonia continues to be associated with high morbidity and lethality. Prompt diagnosis and prompt initiation of risk-adapted antimicrobial therapy are essential measures. However, in times of COVID-19, as well as the current influenza and RSV epidemic, purely viral pneumonias must also be expected. At least with COVID-19, antibiotics can often be avoided. Antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs are used here. POST-ACUTE COURSE: Patients after community-acquired pneumonia have increased acute and long-term mortality due to cardiovascular events in particular. The focus of research is on improved pathogen identification, a better understanding of the host response with the potential of developing specific therapeutics, the role of comorbidities, and the long-term consequences of the acute illness.

COVID-19 , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais
Pneumologie ; 77(3): 143-157, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36918016


The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had a tremendous impact on diagnosis and treatment of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). Especially in the early phase of the pandemic, when the delta variant was prevailling, a huge number of viral pneumonias were observed, which worsened pre-existing, triggered de novo occurence or discovery of previously subclincal interstitial lung diseases. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection - without or with accompanying viral pneumonia - on the further development of pre-existing ILD as well of new pulmonary inflitrates and consolidiations is difficult to predict and poses a daily challenge to interdisciplinary ILD boards. This position paper of the German Respiratory Society (DGP e.V.) provides answers to the most pressing questions based on current knowledge.

COVID-19 , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Pulmão , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 47(3): 131-139, mar. 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-216668


Objective Few studies have reported the implications and adverse events of performing endotracheal intubation for critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units. The aim of the present study was to determine the adverse events related to tracheal intubation in COVID-19 patients, defined as the onset of hemodynamic instability, severe hypoxemia, and cardiac arrest. Setting Tertiary care medical hospitals, dual-centre study performed in Northern Italy from November 2020 to May 2021. Patients Adult patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, admitted for respiratory failure and need of advanced invasive airways management. Interventions Endotracheal Intubation Adverse Events. Main variables of interests The primary endpoint was to determine the occurrence of at least 1 of the following events within 30 minutes from the start of the intubation procedure and to describe the types of major adverse peri-intubation events: severe hypoxemia defined as an oxygen saturation as measured by pulse-oximetry <80%; hemodynamic instability defined as a SBP 65 mmHg recoded at least once or SBP < 90 mmHg for 30 minutes, a new requirement or increase of vasopressors, fluid bolus >15 mL/kg to maintain the target blood pressure; cardiac arrest. Results Among 142 patients, 73.94% experienced at least one major adverse peri-intubation event. The predominant event was cardiovascular instability, observed in 65.49% of all patients undergoing emergency intubation, followed by severe hypoxemia (43.54%). 2.82% of the patients had a cardiac arrest. Conclusion In this study of intubation practices in critically ill patients with COVID-19, major adverse peri-intubation events were frequent (AU)

Objetivo Pocos estudios han informado las implicaciones y los eventos adversos de realizar una intubación endotraqueal para pacientes críticos con COVID-19 ingresados ​​en unidades de cuidados intensivos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar los eventos adversos relacionados con la intubación traqueal en pacientes con COVID-19, definidos como la aparición de inestabilidad hemodinámica, hipoxemia severa y paro cardíaco. Ámbito Hospitales médicos de atención terciaria, estudio de doble centro realizado en el norte de Italia desde noviembre de 2020 hasta mayo de 2021. Pacientes Pacientes adultos con prueba PCR SARS-CoV-2 positiva, ingresados por insuficiencia respiratoria y necesidad de manejo avanzado de vías aéreas invasivas. Intervenciones Eventos adversos de la intubación endotraqueal. Principales variables de interés El punto final primario fue determinar la ocurrencia de al menos 1 de los siguientes eventos dentro de los 30 minutos posteriores al inicio del procedimiento de intubación y describir los tipos de eventos adversos periintubación mayores. : hipoxemia severa definida como una saturación de oxígeno medida por pulsioximetría <80%; inestabilidad hemodinámica definida como PAS 65 mmHg registrada al menos una vez o PAS < 90 mmHg durante 30 minutos, nuevo requerimiento o aumento de vasopresores, bolo de líquidos > 15 mL/kg para mantener la presión arterial objetivo; paro cardiaco. Resultados Entre 142 pacientes, el 73,94% experimentó al menos un evento periintubación adverso importante. El evento predominante fue la inestabilidad cardiovascular, observada en el 65,49% de todos los pacientes sometidos a intubación de urgencia, seguido de la hipoxemia severa (43,54%). El 2,82% de los pacientes tuvo un paro cardíaco. Conclusión En este estudio de prácticas de intubación en pacientes críticos con COVID-19, los eventos adversos periintubación mayores fueron frecuentes (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pandemias , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 25(97)ene.- mar. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-218374


Introducción: desde el inicio de la pandemia por el virus SARS-CoV-2 una de las grandes cuestiones que se ha formulado es qué papel desempeñan los niños en el control y manejo de la pandemia y cómo esta les ha afectado. Hay mucha bibliografía acerca de los síntomas y complicaciones que puede presentar esta población, pero poca de cómo ha sido el curso clínico de la infección en los niños ingresados en hospitales de tercer nivel y su impacto asistencial. Material y métodos: se han analizado descriptivamente las historias clínicas de los niños ingresados en el Hospital General Doctor Balmis de Alicante (España) desde enero de 2020 hasta julio de 2022. Se han analizado paralelamente los datos microbiológicos del SARS-CoV-2, variantes y linajes, desde agosto de 2021 hasta agosto de 2022. Resultados: se analizaron un total de 114 niños ingresados con diagnóstico de infección por SARS-CoV-2, de los cuales la mayoría tenían menos de 12 meses y eran de procedencia española. Los ingresos se distribuyeron de forma cronológica siguiendo un modelo de “olas”, siendo el motivo más frecuente la constatación del virus SARS-CoV-2 en las pruebas realizadas. El tratamiento que más frecuentemente recibieron durante el ingreso fueron los antibióticos orales. La mayor parte de los niños no tenían comorbilidades y no desarrollaron complicaciones. La variante mayoritaria fue ómicron y el linaje el BA.1. Discusión: los lactantes parecen ser más vulnerables a la infección por SARS-CoV-2 y las manifestaciones clínicas en este grupo de edad conllevan mayor probabilidad de ingreso. El desarrollo de complicaciones, necesidad de oxigenoterapia, ventilación mecánica e ingreso en UCI es mínimo en población pediátrica. El manejo de la infección difiere sustancialmente con el de los adultos, lo que se corresponde con tratamientos menos agresivos (AU)

Introduction: since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, one of the main questions that has been asked is what role children play in the control and management of the pandemic and how it has affected them. There is much literature on the symptoms and complications that this population may have, but little on the clinical course of the infection in children admitted to tertiary hospitals and its impact on health care.Material and methods: the clinical histories of children admitted to the Hospital General Doctor Balmis (Alicante, Spain) from January 2020 to July 2022 were analyzed descriptively. At the same time, microbiological data on SARS-CoV-2, variants and lineages were analyzed from August 2021 to August 2022.Results: a total of 114 children admitted were analyzed, most of whom were younger than 12 months and from Spain. Admissions were distributed chronologically following a 'wave' pattern, the most frequent reason being the finding of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the tests performed. The most common treatment received during admission was oral antibiotics. Most of the children had no comorbidities and did not develop complications.Discussion: infants seem to be more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and clinical manifestations in this age group are more likely to lead to admission. The development of complications, need for oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation and admission to the ICU is minimal in the pediatric population. The management of infection differs substantially from that of adults, which corresponds to less aggressive treatment. (AU)

Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estações do Ano , Comorbidade
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 81, 2023 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36797693


BACKGROUND: Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) is the most common sequelae in children with adenovirus pneumonia (ADVP). However, there are few studies on the risk factors for PIBO occurrence. This study aims to investigate the risk factors for PIBO in pediatric patients with severe ADVP, especially after invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), as well as to build a nomogram prediction model. METHODS: The clinical data, laboratory and imaging features, and treatment of 863 children with ADVP under 3 years old who were admitted to our hospital from January to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 66 children with severe ADVP received IMV treatment. The situation and the influencing factors of PIBO in children with severe ADVP were explored, and a nomogram prediction model was constructed. RESULTS: Among the 863 cases of ADVP, 46 cases (5.33%) developed PIBO. Duration of fever, IMV, complications, and neutrophil percentage were independent risk factors for PIBO in children with ADVP. Among the 66 patients with ADVP who underwent IMV, 33 patients (50.0%) developed PIBO. Gender, duration of fever, adenovirus (ADV) load, and mixed fungal coinfections were independent risk factors for PIBO. In the nomogram prediction model analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.857; in addition, Hosmer‒Lemeshow (H-L) detection reflected good alignment (χ2 = 68.75, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A nomogram prediction model, which can be utilized to predict PIBO occurrence in pediatric patients with ADVP after IMV at an early time period, was successfully built.

Infecções por Adenoviridae , Bronquiolite Obliterante , Pneumonia Viral , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nomogramas , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Bronquiolite Obliterante/diagnóstico , Bronquiolite Obliterante/etiologia , Bronquiolite Obliterante/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/complicações , Infecções por Adenoviridae/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adenoviridae
J Med Case Rep ; 17(1): 12, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635758


BACKGROUND: A radiological finding of a cavitary pulmonary lesion in a patient acutely infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 early during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic created a diagnostic and treatment dilemma, as invasive procedures with bronchoscopy and percutaneous needle lung biopsy posed an infection hazard to healthcare workers due to the associated risk of viral aerosolization. Available guidelines recommended delay of non-emergent procedures, but timely proceeding with those deemed urgent provided appropriate personal protective equipment and negative pressure isolation were available and exposure risk was not excessive. Thoughtful consideration by clinicians was required to avoid delay in diagnosis of a potential new malignancy and prevent unnecessary healthcare worker exposure to the virus. Additionally, acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection in patients with malignancy complicated timing of oncologic treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old otherwise healthy Caucasian male initially presented with an enlarging right upper lobe cavitary pulmonary lesion despite antimicrobial therapy. During his hospitalization and evaluation, the patient was found to be acutely infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 without hypoxia or viral pneumonia. Bronchoscopy was deemed too high risk for viral aerosolization and healthcare worker infection. He underwent computed-tomography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the lesion by interventional radiology while on mechanical ventilation after elective intubation by anesthesiology. Biopsy revealed classic Hodgkin lymphoma consistent with primary pulmonary Hodgkin lymphoma. After collaboration with oncology, his treatment with combined chemotherapy and immunotherapy was delayed for 3 weeks following diagnosis to allow for viral clearance. CONCLUSION: A careful multidisciplinary strategy is required to expeditiously diagnose and treat aggressive cancers of the respiratory tract in patients acutely infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 while observing practices to prevent healthcare worker infection during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Doença de Hodgkin , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Teste para COVID-19