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1.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376697

RESUMO

In numerous instances, tracking the biological significance of a nucleic acid sequence can be augmented through the identification of environmental niches in which the sequence of interest is present. Many metagenomic data sets are now available, with deep sequencing of samples from diverse biological niches. While any individual metagenomic data set can be readily queried using web-based tools, meta-searches through all such data sets are less accessible. In this brief communication, we demonstrate such a meta-metagenomic approach, examining close matches to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in all high-throughput sequencing data sets in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive accessible with the "virome" keyword. In addition to the homology to bat coronaviruses observed in descriptions of the SARS-CoV-2 sequence (F. Wu, S. Zhao, B. Yu, Y. M. Chen, et al., Nature 579:265-269, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3; P. Zhou, X. L. Yang, X. G. Wang, B. Hu, et al., Nature 579:270-273, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7), we note a strong homology to numerous sequence reads in metavirome data sets generated from the lungs of deceased pangolins reported by Liu et al. (P. Liu, W. Chen, and J. P. Chen, Viruses 11:979, 2019, https://doi.org/10.3390/v11110979). While analysis of these reads indicates the presence of a similar viral sequence in pangolin lung, the similarity is not sufficient to either confirm or rule out a role for pangolins as an intermediate host in the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2. In addition to the implications for SARS-CoV-2 emergence, this study illustrates the utility and limitations of meta-metagenomic search tools in effective and rapid characterization of potentially significant nucleic acid sequences.IMPORTANCE Meta-metagenomic searches allow for high-speed, low-cost identification of potentially significant biological niches for sequences of interest.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Eutérios/virologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Metagenômica/métodos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pneumopatias/virologia , Alinhamento de Sequência
2.
Arch Virol ; 165(1): 193-199, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701223

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: The presence of PCV3 genome has been detected in pigs affected by different clinical and pathological conditions as well as in healthy animals. Its presence has been reported in many countries of North and South America, Asia and Europe. However, there is no evidence of the presence and genetic characteristics of PCV3 in many European countries and especially the countries of the Balkan Peninsula. PURPOSE: The major objective of this study was to investigate the presence and obtain further genetic characterization of PCV-3 in the pig populations in Serbia. METHODS: To demonstrate the presence of PCV-3 DNA a conventional PCR assay was performed. The samples where no PCR product was observed (n=32), were further tested with a real-time PCR assay. The six PCR samples that were strongly positive for PCV-3 were subjected to amplification and sequencing of their entire cap genes and complete viral genome. RESULTS: We report on the first identification, genetic diversity and potential association in pathogenesis of some systemic and respiratory swine diseases of PCV-3 in Serbia. CONCLUSION: The results imply that PCV-3 circulates widely in the pig population and has a high similarity with previously reported isolates. Detected PCV-3 can be associated with some swine systemic and respiratory diseases but these associations are strongly influenced by the clinical or pathological condition of the animals. Our findings demonstrate that there are certain PCV-3 loads in pigs suffering from active PRRSV infection, Glässer's disease, APP pleuropneumonia, pneumonic pasteurellosis and PRDC; however, the significance of this viral load, as well as the mechanism by which PCV-3 may act as a secondary agent in aggravating the severity during co-infections of these pathogens, requires further research.


Assuntos
Circovirus/classificação , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Animais , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Circovirus/patogenicidade , Fazendas , Variação Genética , Pneumopatias/virologia , Filogenia , Sérvia , Suínos , Carga Viral
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11359-11369, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548072

RESUMO

The primary objective of this randomized controlled challenge study was to investigate the effect of ampicillin on ultrasonographic (US) lung consolidation after experimental challenge with Pasteurella multocida in preweaned dairy calves. The secondary objectives were to determine whether ampicillin affected respiratory score, gross consolidation, or the detection of P. multocida in lung tissue at postmortem exam (PME). Holstein bull calves (n = 39) were transported to the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine isolation facility at the mean (±SD) age of 52 ± 6 d. After a 7-d acclimation period, 30 calves were inoculated intratracheally with 1010 cfu of ampicillin-sensitive P. multocida. Lung US and respiratory scoring were performed 2, 6, 12, and 24 h post-challenge, then US once daily and respiratory scoring twice daily until d 14. Calves were randomized to receive ampicillin [n = 17, treatment (TX), 6.6 mg/kg i.m. once daily for 3 d] or placebo [n = 11, control (CON), saline, equal volume, i.m. once daily for 3 d] when ≥1 cm2 of lung consolidation was observed and ≥6 h had elapsed since challenge. Lung lesions ≥1 cm2 were considered positive for consolidation. Calves were respiratory score positive if ≥2 in 2 or more categories based on the Wisconsin respiratory health score chart. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for US score and respiratory score as a proxy for time with consolidation and clinical respiratory disease, respectively. Gross lung lesions and pathogens were quantified following PME. At the time of first treatment, consolidation had developed in 28/30 calves (TX, n = 17; CON, n = 11) and 6% (1 out of 17) of TX and 9% (1 out of 11) of CON calves had a positive respiratory score. The TX calves had a significantly lower median (interquartile range given in parentheses) AUC for US score [TX: 23 (20, 29), CON: 47 (33, 53)], whereas mean AUC for respiratory score was not different between groups (TX: 93 ± 28, CON: 96 ± 17). On d 14, 70% (12 out of 17) of TX and 100% (11 out of 11) of CON calves had lung consolidation, and 24% (4 out of 17) of TX and 27% (3 out of 11) of CON calves had clinical respiratory disease. On PME, median consolidation was 10% (6, 15) for TX and 10% (2, 28) for CON calves. Lung cultures were positive for P. multocida in 77% (13 out of 17) of TX and 91% (10 out of 11) of CON calves. Lung health benefited from a 3-d ampicillin therapy, but benefits were short-lived. Treatment failures might be due to incomplete resolution of the initial lung infection. Future studies are needed to optimize TX strategies to improve long-term lung health.


Assuntos
Ampicilina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida/fisiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Doenças Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Respiratórias/microbiologia
5.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2319-2326, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public pressure exists in the United States to eliminate race-day furosemide administration despite its efficacy in decreasing the severity of equine exercise pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH). No effective alternative prophylaxis strategies have been identified. OBJECTIVE: To investigate alternative protocols to race-day furosemide that might mitigate EIPH. ANIMALS: Seven fit Thoroughbreds with recent EIPH. METHODS: Double-blinded placebo-controlled Latin square crossover using a treadmill followed by a blinded placebo-controlled crossover study at a racetrack. First, horses exercised supramaximally to fatigue 24 hours after initiating 5 EIPH prophylaxis protocols: 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg furosemide IV 24 hours pre-exercise with and without controlled access to water, and 24 hour controlled access to water. Effects were compared to those measured after giving a placebo 24 hours pre-exercise, and 0.5 mg/kg furosemide IV 4 hours pre-exercise. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) erythrocyte count was determined 45-60 minutes postexercise after endoscopy to assign an EIPH score. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects models. The most promising protocol from the treadmill study was further evaluated in 6 horses using endoscopy and BAL after 1100 m simulated races. RESULTS: Intravenous furosemide (0.5 mg/kg) administered 24 hours pre-exercise combined with controlled access to water decreased the severity of EIPH on the treadmill and at the racetrack. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Administering 0.5 mg/kg furosemide 24 hours pre-racing combined with controlling water intake may be a strategy to replace race-day furosemide administration for the management of EIPH. A larger study is indicated to further evaluate whether this protocol significantly mitigates EIPH severity.


Assuntos
Furosemida/farmacologia , Hemorragia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Diuréticos/farmacologia , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Furosemida/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Cavalos , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Masculino
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 1-4, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442886

RESUMO

Pulmonary endarteritis caused by Dirofilaria immitis and pulmonary hypertension (PH) are closely linked and the determination of PH could be validated to assess the severity and chronicity of the vascular damage, i.e. by the use of the Right Pulmonary Artery Distensibility (RPAD) Index. The aim was to evaluate the RPAD Index in dogs 10 months after the last dose of adulticide. The study included 23 client-owned dogs with heartworm brought for adulticide treatment. Echocardiographic exam was carried out to estimate worm burden, RPAD Index as well as other routine echocardiographic values on day 0 (diagnosis), day 120 (discharge), and 10 months after the last dose of adulticide. No significant differences were observed in the RPAD Index over time, neither when microfilaremic status and parasite burden were evaluated. An RPAD Index <29% was found in 52.2% of the dogs on day 0, day 120, and 10 months after the last dose of adulticide. Regarding other echocardiographic parameters, only significant differences were observed on tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) values between day 0:day 120 (p = 0.008), and day 0:end of the study (p = 0.037). There was not significant improvement in pulmonary damage 10 months after the elimination of the parasites (p = 0.296), suggesting that, once the endarteritis has developed, the vascular changes are chronic and may not be reversible. The modifications of the TAPSE value suggest an improvement in the systolic function of the right ventricle after the disappearance of the worms, independently of the presence of PH. The endarteritis causes a decrease in the elasticity in the pulmonary vasculature and an increase in the resistance that, chronically, and depending on the severity, will cause the development of PH and later right heart failure. This complication of the disease is one of the most damaging and frequent, so it is necessary to adequately monitor PH in dogs undergoing adulticide treatment. Furthermore, knowing the pulmonary status could provide valuable information to help provide an objective prognosis and help assess the need to add additional treatments, once the worms have been eliminated.


Assuntos
Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Endarterite/veterinária , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Dirofilariose/complicações , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Endarterite/complicações , Endarterite/diagnóstico , Endarterite/patologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pneumopatias/complicações , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 499-503, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365717

RESUMO

A juvenile subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) found dead in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, presented with disseminated verminous pneumonia due to Parafilaroides sp. A concomitant infection with two different gammaherpesviruses was identified by PCR in different tissues; one of them possibly a novel species (tentatively named Otariid herpesvirus 7). Sarcocystis sp. DNA was identified molecularly in skeletal muscle samples with intrasarcoplasmic bradyzoites and no apparent tissue response. All analyzed samples (mandibular, laryngeal, tracheal, and mesenteric lymph nodes, and lung) were PCR-negative for Brucella spp. The most likely cause of death was severe pulmonary parafilaroidiasis. The pathogenic role of the gammaherpesviruses in several of the tissues was not evident. This study describes the pathogenicity of Parafilaroides sp. in a subantarctic fur seal, widens the host range of herpesvirus in pinnipeds, and reports the first molecular identification of Sarcocystis sp. in this species.


Assuntos
Otárias/parasitologia , Otárias/virologia , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Sarcocystis/genética , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Coinfecção , Evolução Fatal , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Pneumopatias/parasitologia , Pneumopatias/virologia , Masculino , Sarcocistose/diagnóstico
8.
Vet Surg ; 48(7): 1309-1317, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic utility of bronchoscopy in dogs undergoing computed tomography (CT) and surgery for intrathoracic disease (pyothorax and pneumothorax) secondary to migrating plant awns (MPA) and to report outcomes in dogs that did and did not undergo bronchoscopy in addition to CT and surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Thirty-seven client-owned dogs. METHODS: Medical records from 2008 to 2017 were reviewed for dogs with documented MPA in the thoracic cavity treated with CT and surgery with or without bronchoscopy. Information regarding diagnostics, treatments, complications, and outcomes relating to hospitalization was evaluated. RESULTS: At least one abnormal lung lobe was identified by CT in all dogs. Bronchial abnormalities were identified with bronchoscopy in 21 of 22 dogs (95.4%) with available reports. Agreement between CT and bronchoscopy findings ranged from 50% to 81.8%, depending on lung lobe. Thirty-six dogs had one or more lung lobes surgically removed. Thirty-seven MPA were retrieved via bronchoscopy in 10 of 27 (37%) dogs, and 39 MPA were retrieved at surgery in 26 of 37 (70.3%) dogs. Actinomyces spp. were cultured from surgical samples in 7 of 33 (21.2%) dogs. Thirty-five of 37 (94.6%) dogs survived to discharge. CONCLUSION: Migrating plant awns were successfully retrieved via bronchoscopy. Agreement between CT findings and bronchoscopy was inconsistent, so there may be roles for both modalities. Short- and long-term survival was excellent in this cohort. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Bronchoscopy may allow for diagnostic and therapeutic advantages compared with CT in dogs with endobronchial MPA. Actinomyces spp appear to be variably present in surgically acquired bacterial cultures in dogs with MPA.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Migração de Corpo Estranho/veterinária , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Animais , Broncoscopia , Cães , Empiema Pleural/cirurgia , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Migração de Corpo Estranho/cirurgia , Pneumopatias/complicações , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Masculino , Pneumotórax/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 37, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) and congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) are very rare congenital pulmonary anomalies in veterinary medicine. PH refers to the incomplete pulmonary development due to embryologic imbalance of bronchial development between the lung buds, while CLE is defined as alveolar hyperinflation due to bronchial collapse during expiration caused by bronchial cartilage dysplasia, external bronchial compression, and idiopathic etiology. CLE may develop into pulmonary blebs or bullae that may rupture and induce a spontaneous pneumothorax. There are no reports on concurrent PH and CLE in animals. CASE PRESENTATION: A 7-month-old castrated male Italian Greyhound weighing 5.5 kg presented with vomiting and acute onset of severe dyspnea without any previous history of disease. After emergency treatment including oxygen supplementation and thoracocentesis, plain radiology and computed tomography scanning were performed and lobar emphysema with multiple bullae in the left cranial lung lobe associated with tension pneumothorax was identified. Since the pneumothorax was not resolved despite continuous suction of intrathoracic air for 3 days, a complete lobectomy of the left cranial lung lobe was performed. The excised lobe was not grossly divided into cranial and caudal parts, but a tissue mass less than 1 cm in size was present at the hilum and cranial to the excised lobe. Postoperatively, the dog recovered rapidly without air retention in the thoracic cavity. Histopathologically, the mass was identified as a hypoplastic lung tissue with collapsed alveoli, bronchial dysplasia, and pulmonary arterial hypertrophy. Additionally, the excised lung lobe presented CLE with marked ectasia of alveoli, various blebs and bullae, and general bronchial cartilage dysplasia. According to gross and histopathologic findings, the dog was diagnosed with concurrent PH and CLE in the left cranial lung lobe. During 16 months of follow-up, the dog was well and without any respiratory problems. CONCLUSIONS: This case report confirmed the clinical and histologic features of two different types of rare congenital pulmonary anomalies, PH and CLE, which occurred concurrently in a single lung lobe of a young dog. The condition was successfully managed with lobectomy.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/congênito , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Pulmão/anormalidades , Pneumotórax/veterinária , Enfisema Pulmonar/congênito , Animais , Cães , Pulmão/química , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/cirurgia , Pneumopatias/congênito , Masculino , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Pneumotórax/patologia , Pneumotórax/cirurgia , Enfisema Pulmonar/complicações , Enfisema Pulmonar/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Vet Sci ; 20(3): e21, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161739

RESUMO

This paper compares and describes the tidal volume (Vt) used in mechanically ventilated dogs under a range of clinical conditions. Twenty-eight dogs requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) were classified into 3 groups: healthy dogs mechanically ventilated during surgery (group I, n = 10), dogs requiring MV due to extra-pulmonary reasons (group II, n = 7), and dogs that required MV due to pulmonary pathologies (group III, n = 11). The median Vt used in each group was 16 mL/kg (interquartile range [IQR], 15.14-21) for group I, 12.59 mL/kg (IQR, 9-14.25) for group II, and 12.59 mL/kg (IQR, 10.15-14.96) for group III. The Vt used was significantly lower in group III than in group I (p = 0.016). The thoraco-pulmonary compliance was significantly higher in group I than in groups II and III (p = 0.011 and p = 0.006, respectively). The median driving pressure was similar among the groups with a median of 9, 11, and 10 cmH2O in groups I, II, and III, respectively (p = 0.260). Critically-ill dogs requiring MV due to the primary pulmonary pathology received a significantly lower Vt than healthy dogs but with a range of values that were markedly higher than those recommended by human guidelines.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/veterinária , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Pneumopatias/terapia , Pressão , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
11.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(8): 1074-1079, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155550

RESUMO

The incidence of diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing annually worldwide, including Japan. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hoiminissuis (MAH) is one of the most common NTM species responsible for chronic lung diseases in animals and humans. In the current study, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing was employed to characterize the genetic diversity of swine MAH isolates from Kyushu, Japan. In total, 309 isolates were obtained from the lymph nodes of 107 pigs not displaying any clinical signs of disease, of which 307 were identified as MAH, comprising 173 strains. Based on eight established MIRU-VNTR loci, the MAH strains represented 50 genotypes constituting three lineages, and 29 had not been described in the Mac French National Institute for Agricultural Research Nouzilly MIRU-VNTR (Mac-INMV) database. MAH was the dominant M. avium complex (MAC) in pigs from Kyushu, and there was high genetic diversity among genotype profiles of MAH from Kyushu. We identified three predominant genotype profiles in the tested area sharing high relatedness with genotype profiles of strains isolated in European countries. MAH was the most common NTM in pigs from Kyushu and exhibited high diversity, with new strain-derived genotypes.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/veterinária , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Mycobacterium avium/classificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Japão , Pneumopatias/virologia , Linfonodos/virologia , Repetições Minissatélites , Tipagem Molecular , Infecções por Mycobacterium/virologia , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
12.
Vet J ; 248: 91-94, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113571

RESUMO

Pulmonary haemorrhage occurs in sport horses performing high-intensity exercise, but the factors involved in the occurrence of pulmonary haemorrhage in jumping horses have not been elucidated. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of pulmonary haemorrhage and factors involved in competitive jumping horses. Fifty adult jumping horses competing in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were included. The horses were divided into two groups based on jump height at competition: Low group (LG, n=26), with jump height between 1.00 and 1.20m, and High group (HG, n=24), with jump height between 1.30 and 1.50m. Physical examination was performed before and after competition, and airway endoscopy and tracheal wash (TW) were performed 1h after competition. Heart rate (HR; P<0.010), respiratory rate (RR; P<0.010), rectal temperature (RT; P<0.010), and frequency of endoscopic observations of blood in the tracheal lumen (P<0.013) were significantly higher in HG than in LG. TW cytology was not different between the two groups. Incidence of pulmonary haemorrhage was positively correlated with jump height (r2=0.40, P<0.0001), post-exercise HR (r2=0.31, P<0.0001), and post-exercise RR (r2=0.19, P<0.002). In conclusion, pulmonary haemorrhage in jumping horses was associated with the level of performance. Further studies on the pathophysiology of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in this type of horses are required.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Condicionamento Físico Animal/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Cavalos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Esportes
13.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(2): 339-350, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084976

RESUMO

Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) occurs commonly in horses undergoing strenuous exercise. Reported risk factors include racing in cold temperatures and wearing of bar shoes. In horses with documented moderate to severe EIPH, increasing the interval between races and adopting a negative race pace strategy may reduce the severity of EIPH in subsequent races. EIPH seems to have an impact on performance only when moderate to severe. This occurs in a small number of starters, approximately 6%. EIPH often is erratic in severity from race to race, although across a population it is weakly progressive over increasing race starts.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Condicionamento Físico Animal/efeitos adversos , Animais , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Esforço Físico , Fatores de Risco
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 169, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hemorrhage is a rare cause of death in horses. Hemorrhage within the respiratory tract has many causes, including mycosis of the guttural pouch, invasive procedures causing serious trauma to nasal conchae, or lung biopsy. We report on a rare case of a fatal pulmonary hemorrhage in a horse after a severe cough during bronchoalveolar lavage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous hemorrhage in a horse during bronchoalveolar lavage. CASE PRESENTATION: A 21-year-old mare which belonged to the didactic herd of The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine underwent BAL procedure for training purposes. Clinical examination prior to the procedure did not reveal any abnormalities and the horse had been classified as healthy. The horse was sedated with 0.01 mg/kg of detomidine and 0.01 mg/kg of butorphanol. The silicon BAL catheter was passed through the nasal passage into the trachea and then into the bronchus. Before catheter was wedged, the mare began to cough heavily and massive haemorrhage from mouth and nostrils occurred. Despite fluid therapy, shock occurred within 15 min and the mare was euthanized. Upon necropsy, site of hemorrhage was identified in the left lobar caudal bronchi, from a large blood vessel running directly beneath the bronchial wall. Upon histology, a chronic lympho-plasmocytic inflammatory process in left bronchi was identified. Moreover, Masson's trichrome staining revealed severe, perivascular fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Although BAL is a relatively safe procedure, and such complications should be treated as extremely rare, this case indicates that, in some individuals with specific subclinical problems, even mild physical force such as a cough can lead to rupture of the artery.


Assuntos
Lavagem Broncoalveolar/veterinária , Hemorragia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/mortalidade , Animais , Brônquios/irrigação sanguínea , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/efeitos adversos , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/mortalidade , Tosse/veterinária , Feminino , Fibrose/veterinária , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Cavalos , Inflamação/veterinária , Pneumopatias/veterinária
15.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 209: 78-83, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885310

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether intranasally coadministered four tandem copies of extracellular domains of M2 (M2e) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), a mucosal adjuvant, can protect chickens against H9N2 influenza A virus infection. Groups of chickens were intranasally vaccinated with M2e plus PEI adjuvant, M2e alone or PEI adjuvant, and antibody (serum IgG and mucosal IgA) and cellular (CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ levels) immune responses were measured post-vaccination. We demonstrated that the chickens vaccinated with M2e plus PEI adjuvant showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher M2e-specific systemic IgG and mucosal IgA responses compared to the chickens that received either M2e alone or PEI adjuvant. The IgA responses measured in lungs were almost comparable to that of the serum IgG levels. Upon restimulation of the vaccinated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with M2e antigen, significantly (p < 0.05) higher IFN-γ levels were observed only in M2e plus PEI adjuvant vaccinated group. Lymphoproliferative and CD4+ T cell responses, as measured by MTT-based assay and flow cytometry, respectively, were also observed significantly (p < 0.05) higher in M2e plus PEI adjuvant vaccinated chickens. On challenge with the H9N2 virus (104TCID50) at 28th day post-vaccination, M2e plus PEI adjuvant vaccinated group exhibited lower lung inflammation and viral load compared to the chickens treated with either M2e alone or PEI adjuvant. In summary, we show that intranasally coadministered M2e and PEI adjuvant can elicit humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and can reduce viremia levels in chickens post H9N2 infection in chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/imunologia , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Feminino , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Aviária/patologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Polietilenoimina , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Domínios Proteicos , Distribuição Aleatória , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
16.
Vet Pathol ; 56(4): 576-585, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917748

RESUMO

Postmortem evaluation of racehorses has focused primarily on musculoskeletal injuries; however, horses also die suddenly on the track (sudden death [SD]). Although cardiac conditions are frequently suspected as a cause of death, SD racehorses are often autopsy negative; however, previous studies have been limited due to inconsistent or insufficient cardiac sampling and lack of controls. SD in New York (NY) and Maryland (MD) racehorses was evaluated in an observational case vs control study comparing clinical information, postmortem evaluation including cardiac dissection, and cardiac conduction system histopathology. In the study period, there were 40 cases of SD. In NY, SD occurred in 12% (37/316) of submissions, and 36 (11%) cases of SD were exercise associated (EASD); 3 EASD cases occurred in MD. In NY/MD EASD cases with histologic examination of the heart, 11 of 36 (31%) had significant lesions, including mesenteric artery rupture (1), axial trauma (2), systemic inflammation (2), pulmonary hemorrhage (1), and cardiac disease (5). Mild myocardial fibrosis, mild inflammation, coronary arteriosclerosis, and variation in cardiac nodal connective tissue were present in both SD cases and controls and thus were not considered to be causes of SD. While not excluding a genetic basis for SD, analysis of the genotypes (GGP Equine 70 K Array) of cases and controls did not reveal significant differences in allele frequencies at any locus. Most SD racehorses were autopsy negative; further research using standardized protocols and controls is needed to understand the underlying causes of SD, which is crucial to protecting the viability of racing.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/veterinária , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/veterinária , Hemorragia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/patologia , Feminino , Genômica , Hemorragia/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Pneumopatias/patologia , Masculino , Maryland , Miocárdio/patologia , New York , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Vet J ; 244: 28-33, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825891

RESUMO

Cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from one lung may not predict findings in the contralateral lung of the same horse. The aim of this study was to determine whether a pooled BALF from both lungs was representative of corresponding individual samples. Fifty-one horses referred for poor performance and/or respiratory signs and for which a BALF was collected from both lungs, were included in the study. Cytology of pooled and individual BALF samples were performed using a masked protocol. Based on clinical signs and individual BALF cytologies, horses were classified as control (CTL), mild equine asthma (mEA), severe equine asthma (sEA) and/or exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). No significant difference was observed between pooled and individual BALF samples for all cell types (P>0.05). Correlations between pooled and individual BALF samples were good (r≥0.9) for neutrophil proportions and haemosiderophages/macrophages ratio, and moderate (r≥0.4) for metachromatic cell and eosinophil proportions. Similarly, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were good (ICC≥0.9) for neutrophil proportions and haemosiderophages/macrophages ratio and substantial (ICC≥0.6) for metachromatic cell proportions. Based on threshold values for pooled samples as determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, categorical agreements were good (κ≥0.97) for diagnosis of mEA/sEA, and substantial (κ=0.74) for EIPH. Using a pooled BALF sample, only one horse was incorrectly classified as CTL instead of mEA and three horses were classified as EIPH instead of CTL. In conclusion, BALF cytology from pooled sample is representative of both individual lungs, and constitutes a valid method to diagnose EA.


Assuntos
Asma/veterinária , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Animais , Asma/diagnóstico , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/veterinária , Feminino , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/veterinária , Cavalos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Can Vet J ; 60(1): 60-66, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651652

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess survival to discharge of animals with surgical or postmortem confirmation of a lung lobe torsion (LLT) as well as to evaluate pre-operative effusion, lung lobe affected, and patient size as prognostic indicators. Medical records search identified 35 dogs and 4 cats with a confirmed diagnosis including 17 small-breed dogs, 18 large-breed dogs, 3 domestic shorthair cats, and 1 minskin cat. Lobes affected included right middle (n = 18), left cranial (n = 18), right cranial (n = 2), left caudal (n = 1), and accessory (n = 1). Two animals died before surgery; the remaining 37 animals underwent thoracotomy. All treated small-breed dogs and cats survived; 12/18 large-breed dogs survived, with an overall survival to discharge of 87%. Pre-operative pleural effusion and affected lung lobe did not affect survival to discharge in this population. Small dogs and cats with LLT appear to have an excellent survival to discharge following thoracotomy and the survival is good in larger dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Anormalidade Torcional/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/mortalidade , Doenças do Gato/cirurgia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/mortalidade , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Linhagem , Registros/veterinária , Análise de Sobrevida , Toracotomia , Anormalidade Torcional/epidemiologia
19.
Virology ; 529: 122-134, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685659

RESUMO

Rodents, as the most diverse and widest distributed mammals, are a natural reservoir of many zoonotic viruses. However, little is known about the viral diversity harbored by rodents in China. Here we performed viral metagenomic analyses of 314 wild rodents covering 7 species, sampled in North-western China. We also conducted a systematic virological characterization of a new Wenzhou virus (WENV) isolate, QARn1, from a brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Full genomic and phylogenetic analyses showed that QARn1 is a previously unidentified strain of Wenzhou mammarenavirus and forms a new branch within the Asian clade. Experimental infection of Sprague-Dawley rats with QARn1 did not present overt pathology, but specific humoral immune responses developed and mild hemorrhage and immunocyte infiltration of the lungs and thymus were observed. These observations have expanded the geographic distribution of WENV to Central Asia, and further confirm that brown rats are natural hosts of Wenzhou virus.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Genômica , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Pneumopatias/virologia , Filogenia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Transcriptoma , Vírus/classificação
20.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 60(1): 56-64, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475439

RESUMO

Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly available for veterinary patients, however limited studies describe the use of this method for characterizing intrathoracic mass lesions. The aim of this prospective, observational study was to describe CEUS enhancement patterns for intrathoracic mass lesions in a sample of cats and dogs. Sixty patients (36 dogs, 24 cats) were included. Standardized CEUS examinations were performed for 41 pulmonary masses (68%) and 19 mediastinal masses (32%). Final diagnosis was based on cytology and/or histopathology. Absolute time to enhancement (TTE) values were recorded for the intrathoracic mass lesions and spleen. The spleen was used as a reference parenchymal organ to calculate relative TTE (rTTE) values. Absolute TTE of the spleen and intrathoracic mass lesions differed for dogs and cats (P = 0.001). The rTTE values significantly differed between lesions of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic origin (P = 0.004). The majority of neoplastic pulmonary masses were supplied by bronchial arteries (63%), while most nonneoplastic pulmonary masses were supplied by pulmonary arteries (78%). The sensitivity and specificity for detecting pulmonary neoplastic masses with rTTE were 63% and 78%, respectively. Enhancement patterns for mediastinal thymomas and lymphomas significantly differed (P = 0.002). Thymomas enhanced heterogeneously in a centripetal pattern (86%), whereas lymphomas typically enhanced uniformly in a centrifugal pattern (75%). Findings indicated that CEUS is a feasible method for characterizing intrathoracic mass lesions in dogs and cats, however, the diagnostic sensitivity for detecting neoplastic pulmonary masses was low.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Doenças do Mediastino/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Meios de Contraste , Cães , Feminino , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Doenças do Mediastino/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos
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