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1.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(4): 1789-1799, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction might contribute to the development of leptospiral pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome (LPHS). HYPOTHESIS: Serum concentrations of markers of endothelial activation and dysfunction are higher in dogs with leptospirosis and correlate with the occurrence of LPHS and a higher case fatality rate. ANIMALS: Clinically healthy dogs (n = 31; 10/31 dogs confirmed healthy based on no detected abnormalities on blood work), dogs with leptospirosis with LPHS (n = 17) and without LPHS (n = 15), dogs with acute kidney injury not due to leptospirosis (AKI-nL, n = 34). METHODS: Observational study. Serum concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) at admission were compared between groups. Correlations with outcome and the accuracy to predict LPHS were examined. RESULTS: Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1), VEGF, and Ang-2 concentrations were higher in dogs with AKI-nL (sICAM-1 34.7 ng/mL, interquartile range [IQR] = 24.4-75.5; VEGF 43.1 pg/mL, IQR = 12.3-79.2; Ang-2 8.5 ng/mL, IQR = 6.2-12.3), leptospirosis without LPHS (sICAM-1 45.1 ng/mL, IQR = 30.6-59.0; VEGF 32.4 pg/mL, IQR = 12.5-62.6; Ang-2 9.6 ng/mL, IQR = 6.9-19.3), and LPHS (sICAM-1 69.7 ng/mL, IQR = 42.1-89.1; VEGF 51.8 pg/mL, IQR = 26.3-96.7; Ang-2 8.0 ng/mL, IQR = 5.6-12.2) compared to controls (P < .001). In dogs with leptospirosis, VEGF and sICAM-1 were higher in nonsurvivors (sICAM-1 89.4 ng/mL, IQR = 76.5-101.0; VEGF 117.0 pg/mL, IQR = 90.3-232.4) than survivors (P = .004) and sICAM-1 predicted the development of LPHS. CONCLUSIONS: Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, VEGF, and Ang-2 do not discriminate leptospirosis from AKI-nL. In dogs with leptospirosis, sICAM-1 and VEGF predict outcome and sICAM-1 might identify dogs at risk for LPHS.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Pneumopatias , Animais , Biomarcadores , Cães , Hemorragia/veterinária , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/veterinária , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
2.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(11): 1229-1235, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe surgical management and associated outcomes for dogs with primary spontaneous pneumothorax. ANIMALS: 110 client-owned dogs with primary spontaneous pneumothorax that underwent surgical management. PROCEDURES: Medical records at 7 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, history, clinical signs, radiographic and CT findings, surgical methods, intraoperative and postoperative complications, outcomes, and histopathologic findings. Follow-up information was obtained by contacting the referring veterinarian or owner. RESULTS: 110 dogs were included, with a median follow-up time of 508 days (range, 3 to 2,377 days). Ninety-nine (90%) dogs underwent median sternotomy, 9 (8%) underwent intercostal thoracotomy, and 2 (2%) underwent thoracoscopy as the sole intervention. Bullous lesions were most commonly found in the left cranial lung lobe (51/156 [33%] lesions) and right cranial lung lobe (37/156 [24%] lesions). Of the 100 dogs followed up for > 30 days, 13 (13%) had a recurrence of pneumothorax, with median time between surgery and recurrence of 9 days. Recurrence was significantly more likely to occur ≤ 30 days after surgery, compared with > 30 days after surgery. Recurrence > 30 days after surgery was rare (3 [3%]). No risk factors for recurrence were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Lung lobectomy via median sternotomy resulted in resolution of pneumothorax in most dogs with primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Recurrence of pneumothorax was most common in the immediate postoperative period, which may have reflected failure to identify lesions during the initial thoracic exploration, rather than development of additional bullae.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Pneumopatias , Pneumotórax , Animais , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Pneumotórax/cirurgia , Pneumotórax/veterinária , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Toracotomia/veterinária
3.
Vet J ; 271: 105649, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840489

RESUMO

The nematode, Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode that lives in the pulmonary arteries of canids and has an obligate gastropod intermediate host. It can cause various clinical signs. with the two most common clinical scenarios consisting of acute respiratory distress and haemorrhagic diathesis, either separately or together. Younger dogs (< 2 years) are overrepresented, and dogs often show pulmonary granulomata (radiographically and pathologically). Thoracic ultrasonography offers a safe, rapid, commonly available, non-invasive means of assessing the lungs. We prospectively examined the utility of thoracic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of angiostrongylosis in 26 client-owned dogs <2 years old, presenting with respiratory distress. We identified small hypoechoic subpleural nodules in 15/26 dogs; 14 of these were subsequently confirmed to have angiostrongylosis by faecal Baermann concentration test, A. vasorum antigen testing or both. The remaining 11 dogs without subpleural nodules had negative faecal analysis and A. vasorum antigen testing and diagnosed with other respiratory diseases. This resulted in a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 92% for the detection of angiostrongylosis by thoracic ultrasonography in young dogs presenting with respiratory distress. Our results suggest that thoracic ultrasonography might offer a safe, rapid, relatively accurate diagnostic test for diagnosis of angiostrongylosis in young adult dogs with respiratory distress living in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Itália , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/parasitologia , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar/parasitologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(4): 4929-4935, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663827

RESUMO

This study estimates the accuracy of the focused lung ultrasound (FLUS) compared with systematic thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) as the reference test for diagnosing pneumonia in pre- and postweaned dairy calves. One hundred thirty-five Holstein Friesian calves, aged between 1 to 6 mo were enrolled and were kept in the same pen with one or more animals showing signs of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). One operator performed FLUS on each calf, and then a second, blinded operator performed TUS on the same calf. For the FLUS, we only scanned the lung lobes that are most frequently affected during BRDC and are thus easier to detect, such as the caudal aspect of the cranial lobe of the left lung (fifth and fourth left intercostal spaces; ICS), the middle lobe of the right lung (fifth right ICS), and the caudal aspect of the cranial lobe of the right lung (fourth right ICS). Pneumonia was diagnosed when a calf had a minimum of one small lobular lung lesion that was at least 1 cm deep within a normally aerated lobe (TUS score of ≥2). Diagnostic accuracy indexes of the FLUS were calculated using TUS as the gold standard. The McNemar test was performed to evaluate the differences between the 2 techniques. In addition, an intertest agreement was assessed using the weighted kappa test. A total of 76 out of 135 calves had a TUS score of ≥2 and were therefore considered to be affected by BRDC. The FLUS had a sensitivity of 81.6% (95% CI = 71.0-89.5%), specificity = 100% (95% CI = 93.9-100%), positive predictive value was 100%, negative predictive value was 96.6% (95% CI = 94.7---97.9%), and accuracy was 97% (95% CI = 92.6-99.2%). The McNemar test highlighted a difference of 10.3% between the FLUS and TUS. The agreement between the TUS and FLUS was substantial (weighted kappa test 0.78). Although FLUS shows some limitations in diagnosing lung lesions associated with BRDC compared with the systematic approach, this study shows that the focused method could be used as an additional tool for evaluating consolidation, especially when examining a large number of postweaned dairy calves.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino , Pneumopatias , Doenças Respiratórias , Animais , Bovinos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
5.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(2): 345-347, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446090

RESUMO

A 1-mo-old reticulated giraffe had progressive anorexia and died at the Ordos Zoo. Autopsy revealed necrotic stomatitis with severe bilateral necroulcerative lesions at the base of the tongue and of the cheeks near the commissures of the mouth. There was also severe bilateral confluent bronchopneumonia with a pronounced bronchial pattern and multifocal fibrinous pleuritis. Histologically, there was serofibrinous-suppurative bronchopneumonia with necrosuppurative bronchiolitis and necrotic arteritis. Filamentous bacteria with morphology consistent with Fusobacterium necrophorum were observed at the advancing edge of the necrotic tissue in the tongue and cheeks, as well as in the affected alveolar spaces and bronchioles. Aggregates of slender, gram-negative, rod-like or filamentous bacteria were identified in the lung impression smear. PCR results of 16S rDNA of the tongue and lung lesions had 100% homology to the F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme B35 sequence (EF447425.1). The gross, histologic, Gram stain, and PCR product sequencing features in our case were consistent with oral and pulmonary necrobacillosis in ruminants, a rare disease of giraffes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Fusobacterium/veterinária , Fusobacterium necrophorum/isolamento & purificação , Girafas , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Doenças da Boca/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , China , Infecções por Fusobacterium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Fusobacterium/microbiologia , Fusobacterium necrophorum/genética , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Boca/patologia , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Doenças da Boca/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
6.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 233: 110192, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476924

RESUMO

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection alone or in combination with other pathogens have brought huge economic losses to the poultry industry. The intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in host defence against respiratory infection. To explore the role of intestinal microbiota in MG-induced inflammation-mediated lung injury and secondary Escherichia coli infection, MG infection model and fecal microbiota transplantation model were developed. The results showed that MG infection changed gut microbiota composition along with lung inflammation injury. Fecal microbiota transplantation from chickens infected with MG to antibiotics cocktail treated chickens decreased host defense against Escherichia coli due to impaired intestinal mucosal barrier, downregulated the mRNA expression levels of host defense enzymes and blocked autophagic flux. Lactobacillus salivarius intake alleviated lung inflammation injury caused by MG infection and increased host defense against Escherichia coli by improved gut microbiota composition. These results highlighted the role of gut microbiota in MG-infection induced lung inflammation injury and secondary infection that offered a new strategy for preventive intervention against MG infection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus salivarius/fisiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma gallisepticum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Infecções por Escherichia coli/etiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/veterinária , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/complicações , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/terapia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
7.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 62(3): E30-E34, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317591

RESUMO

A 10-year-old, neutered female, Australian Shepherd was referred for acute respiratory distress and a history of chronic exogenous steroid administration. On thoracic radiographs, a severe increase in mineral opacity characterized as a generalized unstructured interstitial pulmonary pattern, diffuse calcinosis cutis, and moderate hepatomegaly were noted. Cor pulmonale was identified on echocardiography. The patient developed a pneumothorax following sampling and had a cardiac arrest. Postmortem histopathology of the lungs revealed pulmonary interstitial mineralization and alveolar microlithiasis. This report supports including generalized pulmonary mineralization due to chronic exogenous steroid administration as a differential diagnosis for dogs with these clinical and imaging findings.


Assuntos
Calcinose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/veterinária , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/veterinária , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/patologia , Cães , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Pneumotórax/patologia , Pneumotórax/veterinária , Radiografia Torácica/veterinária
8.
Can J Vet Res ; 84(4): 272-282, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012976

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of commercially available porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines. A total of 80 pigs was randomly divided into 6 treatment groups; 4 of the groups each received a different vaccine as well as a dual challenge. The remaining 2 groups were used as controls, 1 of which also received a dual challenge. Two of the 4 groups of pigs were administered 2 monovalent vaccines (designated as either monovalent vaccine A or B) of PCV2 at 7 days old and of M. hyopneumoniae at 21 days old. The remaining 2 vaccinated groups of pigs received a bivalent vaccine (designated as either bivalent vaccine A or B) of PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae at 21 days old. All 4 vaccinated groups were challenged with M. hyopneumoniae at 42 days old [-14 d post-challenge (dpc)], followed by a PCV2d challenge at 56 days old (0 dpc). All 4 vaccinated/challenged groups displayed a reduction in clinical signs, PCV2d viremia, nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae, and lung lesions compared with pigs in the unvaccinated and challenged groups. Vaccination and challenge improved growth performance and increased the immunologic responses (M. hyopneumoniae- and PCV2-specific antibodies and interferon-γ-secreting cells) when compared to pigs in the unvaccinated/challenged groups. Pigs in groups vaccinated with either a monovalent or bivalent vaccine A treatment and challenge produced a larger amount of M. hyopneumoniae- and PCV2d-specific interferon-γ-secreting cells within the pigs and simultaneously reduced the nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and PCV2d viremia compared with groups vaccinated with either a monovalent or bivalent vaccine B treatment and challenge. Both the bivalent vaccines and the respective monovalent vaccines were efficacious against a dual challenge of M. hyopneumoniae and PCV2d.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/imunologia , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/imunologia , Vacinas Combinadas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Circoviridae/prevenção & controle , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Nariz/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 376, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aetiology of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) in animals is still unknown. In humans, this pulmonary disorder is a rare autosomal recessive disorder triggered by a mutation in the gene SLC34A2, which causes deposition and aggregation of calcium and phosphate in the pulmonary parenchyma with formation of microliths. Although histopathological examination is required for a definite diagnosis, in humans, imaging modalities such as computed tomography can demonstrate typical patterns of the disease. This is the first description of the computed tomographic (CT) features of a histologically confirmed PAM in dogs. CASE PRESENTATION: The following report describes a case of a 7-year-old female Boxer dog evaluated for paroxysmal loss of muscle tone and consciousness with excitement. The main differential diagnoses considered were syncope, seizures, and narcolepsy-cataplexy. The results of the complete blood count, serum biochemistry panel, urinalysis, arterial blood pressure, echocardiography, abdominal ultrasound, Holter monitoring, and ECG were all within normal limits. Additional exams included thoracic radiographs, head and thorax CT, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and CT-guided cytology. Thoracic radiographs revealed micronodular calcifications in the lungs, with sandstorm appearance. Computed tomography of the thorax showed the presence of numerous mineralized high-density agglomerates of multiple sizes throughout the pulmonary parenchyma, a reticular pattern with ground glass opacity and intense mineralized fibrosis of the pleural lining. Head CT was unremarkable. BAL and CT-guided cytology were inconclusive, but imaging features strongly suggest the diagnosis of PAM, which was histologically confirmed after necropsy. CONCLUSIONS: This case report contributes to the clinicopathological and imaging characterization of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in dogs. In this species, the diagnosis of PAM should be considered when CT features evidence a reticular pattern with ground glass opacity and the presence of an elevated number and size of calcifications.


Assuntos
Calcinose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/veterinária , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Animais , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/veterinária , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/patologia , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/patologia , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(6): 641-648, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898319

RESUMO

Spontaneous pneumothorax presents a unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in veterinary medicine, specifically with regard to accurate identification of bullous lesions. Positioning of dogs with spontaneous pneumothorax during CT has not previously been evaluated. This retrospective, diagnostic accuracy study was performed to evaluate the sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and interobserver variability for detection of pulmonary bullae with dogs positioned in multiple recumbencies. Dogs underwent CT in sternal and dorsal recumbency followed by thoracic exploration via median sternotomy. Three American College of Veterinary Radiology-certified veterinary radiologists blinded to surgical findings reviewed dorsal and sternal images simultaneously. Severity of pneumothorax, degree of atelectasis, lesion location and size, and view in which lesions were most confidently identified were compared to surgical and histologic findings. Sensitivities and PPVs for bulla detection ranged from 57.7% to 69.2% and 62.1% to 78.9%, respectively. For two of the 3 radiologists, the location of bullae in the thorax was significantly associated with the recumbency in which the lesion was best identified. Degree of atelectasis was found to be associated with the ability to identify lesions (P ≤ .02). The interobserver variability for identification was good (κ = 0.670). The sensitivity of CT when performed in both sternal and dorsal recumbency is similar to that previously reported. Because the distribution of bullae is unknown prior to advanced imaging and bulla location affects which recumbency is most useful for identification, acquisition of CT images in both sternal and dorsal recumbency may improve detection of bullous lesions and aid surgical planning.


Assuntos
Vesícula/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Pneumotórax/veterinária , Animais , Vesícula/complicações , Vesícula/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Pneumopatias/complicações , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Pneumotórax/complicações , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Decúbito Dorsal , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
11.
Res Vet Sci ; 132: 338-341, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738730

RESUMO

Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) and asthma in barrel racing horses is a common disease across the United States. Limited information is available on non-infectious respiratory diseases in this population, the interaction between these two diseases, and the occurrence of both EIPH and asthma in the horse. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytological results of barrel racing horses with EIPH, asthma, or both. A retrospective study was conducted using the medical records of horses that presented with cough and decreased athletic performance and BAL results that met the criteria for inclusion. Data from 95 horses were included from a private practice referral hospital in Texas. No statistical difference was found in the frequency of neutrophilia, eosinophilia, or mastocytosis between diagnoses of EIPH, asthma, or concurrent diagnoses of EIPH and asthma. Bronchoalveolar lavage of horses suspected of EIPH is warranted to fully characterize the noninfectious respiratory disease of barrel racing horses.


Assuntos
Asma/veterinária , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Hemorragia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Animais , Asma/diagnóstico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Texas
12.
Can Vet J ; 61(8): 875-879, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741995

RESUMO

A wolf hybrid dog was presented for dyspnea and tachypnea. Thoracic radiographs revealed a pneumothorax. A median sternotomy was performed, and multiple pulmonary blebs were identified on several lung lobes. Multiple partial lung lobectomies were performed using a vessel sealing system. The dog was discharged 4 days after surgery free of clinical signs related to surgery or pneumothorax. This case represents a novel utilization of a vessel sealing system to remove the apex of the lung when there are numerous pulmonary lesions present. Key clinical message: A vessel sealing system simplified multiple partial lung lobectomies in an open thoracotomy. The system reduced tissue trauma as well as the amount of normal pulmonary tissue removed while efficiently creating a seal.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Pneumopatias , Pneumotórax , Animais , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Pulmão/cirurgia , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Pneumotórax/cirurgia , Pneumotórax/veterinária , Toracotomia/veterinária
13.
Prev Vet Med ; 181: 105056, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540718

RESUMO

Barn climate is believed to play a major role in the bovine respiratory disease complex. However, the exact air quality parameters associated with (sub)clinical pneumonia or airway inflammation in calves are currently unknown. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations of air quality parameters with clinical signs, lung consolidation, pulmonary inflammation and infection in group-housed calves. In total, 60 beef and dairy farms were visited from January to April 2017 and 428 calves sampled. Measured air quality parameters included continuous 24-h measurements of ammonia concentration, relative humidity and temperature and punctual measurements of air velocity, ammonia, CO2 and bacterial air load. Calf sampling consisted of clinical examination, thoracic ultrasonography and broncho-alveolar lavage sampling for bacteriological and cytological analysis of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALf). Average air temperature was 14.2 °C (standard deviation (SD) 4.4, range 5.5-23.9) and relative humidity 68.8 % (SD 8.9, range 52.2-91.6). Average ammonia concentration was 1.7 ppm (SD 0.9, range 0-10.0). Lung consolidations of ≥1 cm, ≥3 cm and ≥6 cm in depth were present in 41.1 % (176/428), 27.1 % (116/428) and 16.1 % (69/428) of the calves, respectively. Average pen temperature was positively associated with consolidations of ≥1 cm (P = 0.005), ≥3 cm (P = 0.002) and ≥6 cm (P < 0.01). Ammonia exposure, in hours>4 ppm, was associated with lung consolidation ≥1 cm (odds ratio (OR) = 1.73; confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-3.07; P = 0.04). Ammonia concentration was positively associated with BALf epithelial cell percentage (P = 0.01). Air velocity >0.8 m/s was associated with increased odds of lung consolidation of ≥3 cm (OR = 6.8; CI = 1.2-38.5; P = 0.04) and ≥6 cm (OR = 15.9; CI = 1.2-200.0; P = 0.03). The prevalence of lung consolidations ≥1 cm was higher in the draught (81.8 %; P = 0.0092) and warm, dry and ammonia accumulation clusters (54.2 %; P = 0.02) compared to the presumably normal cluster (31.6 %). In addition, in the warm, dry and ammonia cluster the prevalence of lung consolidations ≥3 cm (38.1 %; P = 0.04) and ≥6 cm (31.4 %; P = 0.01) in depth were higher compared to the presumably normal climate cluster (18.2 % and 9.1 %, respectively). Of all frequently measured indoor air quality parameters, only average temperature, ammonia concentration and air velocity were associated with pneumonia and might therefore be preferable for cost-effective evaluation of calf barn climate.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/patologia , Abrigo para Animais , Inflamação/veterinária , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Bélgica , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/etiologia , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/patologia
15.
Theriogenology ; 153: 19-26, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417607

RESUMO

Among prematurity complications, the most important disorder is structural immaturity and inadequate production of pulmonary surfactant. Betamethasone is the drug of choice to artificially improve pulmonary capacity, thus we aimed to verify the effect of prenatal maternal treatment on lung development of premature puppies. Pregnant bitches were allocated in Term Group (n = 7), Preterm-Treated Group (interrupted pregnancies with maternal administration of betamethasone; n = 7), Preterm-Control Group (untreated interrupted pregnancies; n = 7), Extremely-Preterm Group (interrupted pregnancies at 55d; n = 6). Puppies were subjected to chest radiographic at birth, morphometric description of pulmonary structures and immunohistochemical analysis of surfactant protein B, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cytokeratin were performed. In Preterm-Treated Group it was possible to more clearly identify cardiac silhouette and lung parenchyma by X-Ray. Saccular formation was higher in Preterm Groups, while Term Group had higher subsaccular development. Lung septation was higher in Treated and Term Groups. Term Group had higher number of cells marked for SP-B, whereas higher proliferation was observed in Extreme-Preterm and Preterm-Control Groups. Preterm Treated and Term Groups had higher tissue differentiation. In conclusion, antenatal maternal corticotherapy in dogs acted by increasing lung morphology and development of areas of gas exchange, regulate metabolism of pulmonary fluids rather than stimulate surfactant production.


Assuntos
Betametasona/uso terapêutico , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cães , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Radiografia Torácica/veterinária
16.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 61(4): 385-393, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400045

RESUMO

The ability to differentiate thoracic masses of mediastinal and pulmonary origins is often confounded by their complex spatial relationship. The objectives of this retrospective, observational cross-sectional study were to assess radiographic differentiation of mediastinal versus pulmonary masses, and to determine if there are any correlations with specific radiographic findings. Thoracic radiographs of 75 dogs and cats with mediastinal and/or pulmonary masses identified on CT were reviewed. Radiographic studies were anonymized, randomized, and reviewed twice by three reviewers. Reviewers categorized the origin of each mass(es) as mediastinal, pulmonary, or both. On the second review, the presence or absence of 21 different radiographic findings was recorded for each mass. Agreement between the radiographic and CT categorization of mass origin, as well as inter- and intraobserver agreement, was calculated. Overall agreement between radiographs and CT was moderate for both mediastinal (68.6%) and pulmonary masses (63%). Overall, interobserver agreement was moderate (κ = 0.50-0.74), with moderate to strong intraobserver agreement (κ = 0.58-0.93). Masses within the mediastinum were significantly more likely to displace other mediastinal structures. Alternatively, masses lateral to midline and in the caudal thorax were found to be significantly positively correlated with a pulmonary origin. The results of this study highlight the limitations of radiography for differentiation of mediastinal and pulmonary masses, with mass location and displacement of other mediastinal structures potentially useful for radiographic findings that may help improve accuracy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Doenças do Mediastino/veterinária , Neoplasias/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Mediastino/diagnóstico por imagem , Mediastino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
17.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(7): 436-441, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report the clinical characteristics and recurrence rate of spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to pulmonary blebs and bullae following surgical management in a large cohort of dogs. To explore potential risk factors for recurrence and describe outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for cases with spontaneous pneumothorax managed surgically between 2000 and 2017. Signalment, clinical presentation, diagnostic imaging, surgery, histopathology findings and patient outcomes were recorded. Follow-up was performed via patient records and telephone contact. RESULTS: Records of 120 dogs with surgically treated pneumothorax were identified and reviewed, with 99 cases appropriate for exploratory statistical analysis. Median follow-up was 850 days (range: 9-5105 days). Two- and 5-year survival rates were 88.4% and 83.5%, respectively. There was recurrence in 14 of 99 dogs (14.1%) with adequate follow-up, with a median time to recurrence of 25 days (1-1719 days). Univariable Cox regression analysis suggested increased risk for recurrence in giant breeds (hazard ratio = 11.05, 95% confidence interval: 2.82-43.35) and with increasing bodyweight (HR = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.09). Of 14 dogs with recurrence, six were euthanased, two died of causes related to pneumothorax and six underwent further treatment, of which five were resolved. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term survival for dogs with surgically managed spontaneous pneumothorax was good and associated with a low risk of recurrence. Giant breed dogs and increased bodyweight were the only variables identified as possible risk factors for recurrence. The outcome for dogs with recurrence undergoing a second intervention was also favourable.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Pneumotórax/veterinária , Animais , Vesícula/veterinária , Cães , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/veterinária
18.
J Feline Med Surg ; 22(8): 774-790, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study aimed to describe clinical manifestations, diagnostic options, radiological features, therapeutic plans and outcomes for cats infected with Rhodococcus equi. METHODS: Forty cats aged between 2 months and 11 years old (median 6 months) that were definitively diagnosed with rhodococcosis between 2012 and 2018 were recruited in this study. Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, history, clinical presentation, diagnostic testing, treatment plans and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 40 cats, 36 showed the pulmonary form of the disease, with 35 (87.5%) presenting with dyspnoea, while four cats presented with only cutaneous lesions. Mean body temperature was 38.7 ± 0.2°C. Dyspnoea was noted in 87.5% of the cats. Leukocytosis (58.3%) with band neutrophilia (83.3%), monocytosis (58.3%) and thrombocytopenia (55.5%) were prominent findings in the haematology reports. Hyperproteinaemia (61.1%) with hypoalbuminaemia (22.2%) and hyperglobulinaemia (63.8%) with a low albumin:globulin ratio (38.9%) were prominent features of blood biochemistry reports. An alveolar-interstitial pattern was noted in 75% of pre-thoracocentesis radiographs. Pleural effusion, hepatomegaly, thoracic lymphadenopathy and atelectasis of any lung lobe were seen in 88.9%, 75%, 41.7% and 36.1% of cats, respectively. Overall, the mortality rate was 67.5% in both forms. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Clinicians should be aware that feline rhodococcosis manifests as a pulmonary disease at a much higher rate than previously reported. Further studies are required to address the epidemiology, pathophysiology, disease management and prognosis of feline rhodococcosis. The role of immunosuppression as a predisposing factor in feline rhodococcosis requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Actinomycetales/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Rhodococcus equi/fisiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/veterinária , Infecções por Actinomycetales/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Actinomycetales/microbiologia , Infecções por Actinomycetales/patologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Feminino , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Malásia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/patologia
19.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376697

RESUMO

In numerous instances, tracking the biological significance of a nucleic acid sequence can be augmented through the identification of environmental niches in which the sequence of interest is present. Many metagenomic data sets are now available, with deep sequencing of samples from diverse biological niches. While any individual metagenomic data set can be readily queried using web-based tools, meta-searches through all such data sets are less accessible. In this brief communication, we demonstrate such a meta-metagenomic approach, examining close matches to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in all high-throughput sequencing data sets in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive accessible with the "virome" keyword. In addition to the homology to bat coronaviruses observed in descriptions of the SARS-CoV-2 sequence (F. Wu, S. Zhao, B. Yu, Y. M. Chen, et al., Nature 579:265-269, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3; P. Zhou, X. L. Yang, X. G. Wang, B. Hu, et al., Nature 579:270-273, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7), we note a strong homology to numerous sequence reads in metavirome data sets generated from the lungs of deceased pangolins reported by Liu et al. (P. Liu, W. Chen, and J. P. Chen, Viruses 11:979, 2019, https://doi.org/10.3390/v11110979). While analysis of these reads indicates the presence of a similar viral sequence in pangolin lung, the similarity is not sufficient to either confirm or rule out a role for pangolins as an intermediate host in the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2. In addition to the implications for SARS-CoV-2 emergence, this study illustrates the utility and limitations of meta-metagenomic search tools in effective and rapid characterization of potentially significant nucleic acid sequences.IMPORTANCE Meta-metagenomic searches allow for high-speed, low-cost identification of potentially significant biological niches for sequences of interest.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Eutérios/virologia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Metagenômica/métodos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pneumopatias/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Alinhamento de Sequência
20.
Vet Surg ; 49(4): 659-667, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report outcomes of dogs treated for lung lobe torsion (LLT) and to determine prognostic factors for survival. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective multicenter study from four veterinary teaching hospitals. ANIMALS: Dogs (n = 80) with LLT. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for clinical and histopathological findings. Long-term outcome was assessed with an owner questionnaire. Lung lobe torsion was classified as idiopathic or secondary on the basis of the etiology. RESULTS: The most represented breeds were pugs (47.5%) and sighthounds (16.2%). The cause of the LLT was considered primary in 77%, secondary in 21%, and unknown in 2% of dogs. Postoperative complications were recorded in 14% of dogs. Overall, 95% of dogs survived to discharge, and median follow-up was 1095 days (range, 7-3809). Owners assessed outcomes and quality of life as excellent in 93% and 89% of dogs, respectively. Primary LLT was associated with a longer survival (median not reached in the study) compared with secondary LLT (921 days; range, 7-2073; P = .001). CONCLUSION: Overall long-term survival after lung lobectomy for LLT was excellent. Primary LLT was associated with longer survival compared with secondary LLT. Long-term owner evaluation of clinical outcome for dogs undergoing lung lobectomy for LLT was considered excellent. CLINICAL IMPACT: Dogs with primary LLT undergoing lung lobectomy have a longer survival time compared with dogs with secondary LLT and have an excellent postoperative outcome.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária , Anormalidade Torcional/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Longevidade , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Anormalidade Torcional/etiologia , Anormalidade Torcional/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
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