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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148465, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465052

RESUMO

The principal by-product from the two-phase olive oil production process is olive mill solid waste (OMSW). It is a highly-pollutant by-product, not only because of its characteristics, but also because of the considerable volume of OMSW which is generated, amounting to 2 to 4 million tons per year in Spain. The anaerobic digestion of this by-product is a well-studied process, and results in the generation of biogas, methane and carbon dioxide mainly of high calorific values (20-25 MJ m-3), and an effluent or digestate. The digestate of this by-product has never been characterized. This study presents an informative view on how the composition of OMSW digestate shows promising implications as a soil amendment or fertilizer due to the quality of the biomass from Lolium rigidum, a useful grass specie for the production of forage. Three OMSW digestate alternative applications or treatments were investigated: the digestate and the solid fraction of the digestate for a nutrient-poor soil amendment and the liquid fraction of the digestate as fertilizer. The results confirm that all the OMSW digestate treatments studied presented suitable characteristics for agricultural use, and showed an optimal Carbon/Nitrogen ratio with adequate values for heavy metals which are below the limits established by the Spanish and European legislation in the absence of pathogens. However, fertirrigation was the treatment that provided Lolium rigidum with the best characteristics, improving its shoot biomass, photosynthetic rate and nutritional content.


Assuntos
Lolium , Olea , Anaerobiose , Fertilizantes , Poaceae , Solo , Resíduos Sólidos
2.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 638, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LncRNAs are extensively involved in plant biological processes. However, the lack of a comprehensive lncRNA landscape in moso bamboo has hindered the molecular study of lncRNAs. Moreover, the role of lncRNAs in secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis of moso bamboo is elusive. RESULTS: For comprehensively identifying lncRNA throughout moso bamboo genome, we collected 231 RNA-Seq datasets, 1 Iso-Seq dataset, and 1 full-length cDNA dataset. We used a machine learning approach to improve the pipeline of lncRNA identification and functional annotation based on previous studies and identified 37,009 lncRNAs in moso bamboo. Then, we established a network of potential lncRNA-coding gene for SCW biosynthesis and identified SCW-related lncRNAs. We also proposed that a mechanism exists in bamboo to direct phenylpropanoid intermediates to lignin or flavonoids biosynthesis through the PAL/4CL/C4H genes. In addition, we identified 4 flavonoids and 1 lignin-preferred genes in the PAL/4CL/C4H gene families, which gained implications in molecular breeding. CONCLUSIONS: We provided a comprehensive landscape of lncRNAs in moso bamboo. Through analyses, we identified SCW-related lncRNAs and improved our understanding of lignin and flavonoids biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Parede Celular , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Poaceae , RNA Longo não Codificante , Parede Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Poaceae/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 436, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen, as a limiting factor for net primary productivity in grassland ecosystems, is an important link in material cycles in grassland ecosystems. However, the nitrogen assimilation efficiency and mechanisms of grassland plants under grazing disturbance are still unclear. This study investigated Stipa breviflora desert steppe which had been grazed for 17 years and sampled the root system and leaf of the constructive species Stipa breviflora during the peak growing season under no grazing, light grazing, moderate grazing and heavy grazing treatments. The activities of enzymes related to nitrogen assimilation in roots and leaves were measured. RESULTS: Compared with no grazing, light grazing and moderate grazing significantly increased the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in leaves, and GS, GOT and GPT in roots of Stipa breviflora, while heavy grazing significantly decreased the activities of GS in leaves and NR in roots of Stipa breviflora. NR, GOT and GPT activities in leaves and roots of Stipa breviflora were positively correlated with nitrogen content, soluble protein, free amino acid and nitrate content. CONCLUSIONS: Grazing disturbance changed the activities of nitrogen assimilation related enzymes of grassland plants, and emphasized that light grazing and moderate grazing were beneficial for nitrogen assimilation by grassland plants. Therefore, establishing appropriate stocking rates is of great significance for material flows in this grassland ecosystem and for the stability and sustainable utilization of grassland resources.


Assuntos
Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Pradaria , Herbivoria , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , China , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Nitrato Redutase/metabolismo
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 10952-10961, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495670

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes encode enzymes that catalyze various growth-, development-, and stress-related reactions. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a type of C4 plant and an important cash crop. However, systematic identification and analysis of functional differentiation and evolution of CYP genes have not been carried out in this species. In the present study, we revealed that the sorghum genome contains 351 CYP genes, which can be divided into nine classes. These genes are from ancestors and repeated segments, rather than tandem repeats. Based on collinearity results, a large number of CYPs were extended before cotyledon differentiation, during the emergence of Gramineae, suggesting that genomewide duplication events and stress adaptation processes were important for the expansion of CYP genes. Their gene structure and motifs contain conserved regions and include various changes and loci. The expression characteristics and functional annotation of CYP genes indicated tissue specificity and selective expression. Overall, we identified all CYP genes in the sorghum genome and preliminarily explored their naming, structure, evolution, expression, and functional differentiation. The results advanced our understanding of plant gene family evolution and functional differentiation.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Cotilédone , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Genes de Plantas , Poaceae , Sorghum/genética
5.
Water Res ; 204: 117604, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517265

RESUMO

With the transformation of lake ecosystem from "clear water" to "turbid water", the residual phosphorus (P) accumulated in sediments may slow down the process of aquatic ecological restoration, and the related mechanisms are complex and need to be better understood. In this study, high-resolution systematic investigation and analysis of P-binding forms in the sediments showed that Lake Dianchi, the largest plateau lake in Southwest China, was enriched with NaOH-rP, HCl-P and Res-P, but depleted in NH4Cl-P, BD-P and NaOH-nrP. The BD-P, NaOH-nrP and NaOH-rP were the main contributors to potential P release from sediments, while the release potential of NH4Cl-P was relatively weak (<1%). When the external P loading gradually decreased, the internal P loading of Lake Dianchi was estimated to be 522 mg P/(m2•a) in the past 30 years. The succession of "grass-algae" type in Lake Dianchi coincided with reduced absorption and transformation of potential mobile P and decreased accumulation of stable P, especially the Res-P. Meanwhile, the temporal variation of potential mobile P was a good predictor of ecological degradation and reduced ecosystem sustainability in Lake Dianchi.


Assuntos
Lagos , Poaceae , Ecossistema , Fósforo , Água
6.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 690, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Miscanthus sinensis Andersson is a perennial grass that exhibits remarkable lignocellulose characteristics suitable for sustainable bioenergy production. However, knowledge of the genetic resources of this species is relatively limited, which considerably hampers further work on its biology and genetic improvement. RESULTS: In this study, through analyzing the transcriptome of mixed samples of leaves and stems using the latest PacBio Iso-Seq sequencing technology combined with Illumina HiSeq, we report the first full-length transcriptome dataset of M. sinensis with a total of 58.21 Gb clean data. An average of 15.75 Gb clean reads of each sample were obtained from the PacBio Iso-Seq system, which doubled the data size (6.68 Gb) obtained from the Illumina HiSeq platform. The integrated analyses of PacBio- and Illumina-based transcriptomic data uncovered 408,801 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 1,685 bp. Of those, 189,406 transcripts were commonly identified by both methods, 169,149 transcripts with an average length of 619 bp were uniquely identified by Illumina HiSeq, and 51,246 transcripts with an average length of 2,535 bp were uniquely identified by PacBio Iso-Seq. Approximately 96 % of the final combined transcripts were mapped back to the Miscanthus genome, reflecting the high quality and coverage of our sequencing results. When comparing our data with genomes of four species of Andropogoneae, M. sinensis showed the closest relationship with sugarcane with up to 93 % mapping ratios, followed by sorghum with up to 80 % mapping ratios, indicating a high conservation of orthologs in these three genomes. Furthermore, 306,228 transcripts were successfully annotated against public databases including cell wall related genes and transcript factor families, thus providing many new insights into gene functions. The PacBio Iso-Seq data also helped identify 3,898 alternative splicing events and 2,963 annotated AS isoforms within 10 function categories. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the present study provides a rich data set of full-length transcripts that greatly enriches our understanding of M. sinensis transcriptomic resources, thus facilitating further genetic improvement and molecular studies of the Miscanthus species.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Transcriptoma , Processamento Alternativo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Poaceae/genética
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(10): 4998-5009, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581144

RESUMO

The composition of the rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria Phragmites australis in spring and summer around the Qiananling iron tailings reservoir in the Huairou District of Beijing was studied using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. Sequencing identified 40 phyla, and Proteobateria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the sequences in all samples. At the genus level, Pseudoarthrobacter was dominant. α-diversity analysis showed that species richness(Sobs, Chao) and species diversity indexes(Shannon, PD) of the rhizosphere soil microorganisms were significantly higher than those of endophytes. The maximum and minimum differences of the Sobs, Chao, Shannon, PD indexes were 1336, 1582.24, 6.48, and 81.18, respectively. ß-diversity analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the community compositions of rhizosphere soil microorganisms and root endophytes, while now notable differences were observed between samples in different seasons. In addition, the dominant strains in each sample(such as Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Streptomyces) were highly resistant to heavy metals. Among the 774 genera, a total of 250 genera coexisted in four types of samples, indicating that the microbial community composition of different samples had some degree of similarity. Correlation analysis between soil physical and chemical properties showed that Ni, Fe, available phosphorus, effective sulphur, and organic matter were significantly related to the microbial communities. Through the prediction of COG function, it was found that the microbial metabolic functions(i.e., energy production and conversion, amino acid transport and metabolism, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, inorganic ion transport, and metabolism) were abundant.


Assuntos
Ferro , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/genética , Poaceae , Rizosfera , Solo
8.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113759, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543963

RESUMO

Fire is an important disturbance in many wetlands, which are key carbon reservoirs at both regional and global scales. However, the effects of fire on wetland vegetation biomass and plant carbon dynamics are poorly understood. We carried out a burn experiment in a Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in Sanjiang Plain (Northeast China), which is widespread wetland type in China and frequently exposed to fire. Using a series of replicated experimental annual burns over a three-year period (spring and autumn burns carried out one, two or three times over three consecutive years), together with a control unburned treatment, we assessed the effect of burn seasonality and frequency on aboveground biomass, stem density, and carbon content of aboveground plant parts and ground litter. We found that burning promoted plant growth and hence plant biomass in burned sites compared to the unburned control, with this effect being greatest after three consecutive burn years. Autumn burns promoted higher stem density and more total aboveground biomass than spring burns after three consecutive burn years. Burning increased stem density significantly, especially in twice and thrice burned plots, with stem densities in September over 2000 N/m2, which was much higher than in the control plots (987 ± 190 N/m2). Autumn burns had a larger effect than spring burns on total plant biomass and litter accumulated (e.g. 1236 ± 295 g/m2 after thrice autumn burns compared 796.2 ± 66.6 g/m2 after thrice spring burns), except after two burn treatments. With time since burning, total biomass loads increased in spring-burned plots, while autumn-burned plots showed the opposite trend, declining towards values found at unburned plots in year three. Our results suggest that, at short fire return intervals, autumn burns lead to a more pronounced increase in aboveground biomass and carbon accumulation than spring burns; however, the effects of spring burns on biomass and carbon accumulation are longer lasting than those observed for autumn burns.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Incêndios , Biomassa , China , Poaceae , Áreas Alagadas
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148264, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380248

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) deposition often promotes aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), but has adverse effects on terrestrial ecosystem biodiversity. It is unclear, however, whether biomass production and biodiversity are equally altered by seasonal N enrichment, as there is a temporal pattern to atmospheric N deposition. By adding N in autumn, winter, or growing season from October 2014 to May 2019 in a temperate grassland in China, we found that N addition promoted peak plant community ANPP, but tended to decrease plant richness. Regardless of seasonal N additions, precipitation was positively correlated with plant community ANPP, confirming that precipitation is the primary limiting factor in this semiarid grassland. Unexpectedly, N addition in autumn or growing season, but not in winter, increased the sensitivity of plant communities to precipitation (i.e., the slope of the positive relationship between community ANPP and precipitation), indicating that precipitation determines the influence of seasonal N enrichment on plant community biomass production. These findings suggest that previous studies in which N was added in a single season, e.g., the growing season, have likely overestimated the effects of N deposition on ecosystem primary productivity, especially during wet years. This study illustrates that multi-season N addition in agreement with predicted seasonal patterns of N deposition needs to be evaluated to precisely assess ecosystem responses.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Nitrogênio , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Plantas , Poaceae , Estações do Ano
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20191123, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378755

RESUMO

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) have received great interest in recent decades. However, PGPB mechanisms remain poorly understood in forage species. We aimed to evaluate roots endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria strains from Brachiaria humidicola and Brachiaria decumbens. The strains were evaluated for biological nitrogen-fixing in saline stress (0 to 10.0 g L-1 of NaCl), N-acyl homoserine lactones and indole-like compounds (ILC) production, the activity of hydrolytic enzymes, and inorganic phosphate solubilization (IPS) under different C sources. The diversity of strains was assessed by BOX-PCR. About 58% of strains were positive for BNF. High salinity levels reduced the growth and BNF. About 58% produced N-acyl homoserine lactones. The ILC was present in 39% of strains. Cellulase, polygalacturonase, pectate lyase, and amylase production were observed in 77, 14, 22, and 25% of strains, respectively. The IPS was observed in 44, 81, and 87% of isolates when glucose, mannitol and sucrose were used, respectively. Comparing two plant species and niches, the strains associated with B. humidicola and root endophytic presented more PGPB mechanisms than others. We found high strain diversity, of which 64% showed similarity lower than 70%. These results can be supporting the bioproducts development to increase forage grasses production in tropical soils.


Assuntos
Brachiaria , Bactérias/genética , Brachiaria/genética , Variação Genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Poaceae
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445464

RESUMO

The GLABROUS1 enhancer-binding protein (GeBP) gene family encodes a typical transcription factor containing a noncanonical Leucine (Leu-)-zipper motif that plays an essential role in regulating plant growth and development, as well as responding to various stresses. However, limited information on the GeBP gene family is available in the case of the Gramineae crops. Here, 125 GeBP genes from nine Gramineae crops species were phylogenetically classified into four clades using bioinformatics analysis. Evolutionary analyses showed that whole genome duplication (WGD) and segmental duplication play important roles in the expansion of the GeBP gene family. The various gene structures and protein motifs revealed that the GeBP genes play diverse functions in plants. In addition, the expression profile analysis of the GeBP genes showed that 13 genes expressed in all tested organs and stages of development in rice, with especially high levels of expression in the leaf, palea, and lemma. Furthermore, the hormone- and metal-induced expression patterns showed that the expression levels of most genes were affected by various biotic stresses, implying that the GeBP genes had an important function in response to various biotic stresses. Furthermore, we confirmed that OsGeBP11 and OsGeBP12 were localized to the nucleus through transient expression in the rice protoplast, indicating that GeBPs function as transcription factors to regulate the expression of downstream genes. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of the GeBP genes family in Gramineae, and will be helpful in a further functional characterization of the GeBP genes.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas , Poaceae , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo
12.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117663, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435565

RESUMO

Miscanthus has good tolerance to heavy metals (HMs) and has received increasing attention in studies of HM-contaminated soil remediation. In this study, four Miscanthus cultivars (M. lutarioriparius Xiangnadi NO4, M. sinensis Xiangmang NO1, M. lutarioriparius × M. sinensis hybrid Xiangzamang NO1, and M. floridulus Wujiemang NO1) that grow in China were studied. Their tolerance and enrichment abilities in soils containing 50 mg kg-1 cadmium (Cd) and the structure and function of their rhizosphere bacterial communities during the remediation process were analyzed. The results exhibiting a tolerance index (TI) higher than 75 in roots and the aboveground parts (TI > 60, indicating highly tolerant plants) indicated that all four Miscanthus cultivars were tolerant to high Cd concentrations. Moreover, Cd was mainly enriched in roots, the translocation ability from roots to aboveground parts was weak, and the four cultivars exhibited phytostabilization ability in Cd-contaminated soils. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) analysis showed that the Miscanthus rhizosphere bacterial community comprised 33 phyla and 446 genera, including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), such as Bacillus, Sphingomonas, and Mesorhizobium. The addition of Cd affected the Miscanthus rhizosphere bacterial community and reduced community diversity. Phylogenetic molecular ecological networks (pMENs) indicated that Cd addition reduced interactions between Miscanthus rhizosphere bacteria and thereby led to a simpler network structure, increased the number of negative-correlation links, enhanced the competition between rhizosphere bacterial species, reduced the number of key bacteria, and changed the composition of those bacteria. PICRUSt functional predictive analysis indicated that Cd stress reduced soil bacterial functions in the Miscanthus rhizosphere. The results of this study provide a basis for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils by Miscanthus and provide a reference for the subsequent regulation of Miscanthus remediation efficiency by PGPRs or key bacteria.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Filogenia , Poaceae , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 427, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341838

RESUMO

The present study assessed the influence of the type of the tropical pastures on lamb body weight (BW) gain and meat quality. Fifty-four lambs were allocated to three grazing pastures: (1) AG - Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5); (2) PP - pigeon pea legume (Cajanus cajan cv. Anão); and (3) CS - contiguous swards, half of the paddock with AG and half with PP. After 92 days of grazing, the lambs were slaughtered. Carcasses were evaluated and the longissimus muscle was collected to determine color, lipid profile, tocopherol concentrations, and lipid oxidation. Although the pastures present differences in the characteristics of nutritional quality, the animals did not show difference in BW gain. The results show that all forage presented similar concentration of alpha-tocopherol (137 ± 14.37 mg kg-1 of fresh matter), whereas total and condensed tannin contents were greater in PP, intermediate in CS, and the lowest in AG treatment (P = 0.0001). Meat α-tocopherol content was similar among treatments (P = 0.1392), with an average concentration close to the optimal level to reduce the meat oxidation. Meat from AG treatment had 45 and 25% lower n-6/n-3 ratio than meat from PP and CS treatments, respectively. The legume increases the unsaturated fatty acids and the grass can reduce the n6/n3 ratio. The level of condensed tannin concentration did show to have important effect on meat characteristics. Both tropical pastures studied can provide a high amount of alpha-tocopherol, generating a great potential to increase the concentration of this antioxidant in lamb's meat.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Carne Vermelha , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Carne/análise , Poaceae , Ovinos
14.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117582, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438500

RESUMO

Limitations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) potentially contributed to the inconsistent findings of greenspace exposure and childhood asthma. The aim of this study was to use a novel greenness exposure assessment method, capable of overcoming the limitation of NDVI to determine the extent to which it was associated with asthma prevalence in Chinese children. During 2009-2013, a cross-sectional study of 59,754 children aged 2-17 years was conducted in northeast China. Tencent street view images surrounding participants' schools were segmented by a deep learning model, and streetscape greenness was extracted. The green view index (GVI) was used to assign exposure and higher value indicates more green coverage. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds of asthma per interquartile range (IQR) increase of GVI for trees and grass. Participants were further stratified to investigate whether particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) was a modifier. An IQR increase in GVI800m for trees was associated with lower adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 0.76; 95%CI: 0.72-0.80) and current asthma (OR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.75-0.89). An IQR increase in GVI800m for grass was associated with higher adjusted odds of doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.00-1.08) and current asthma (OR: 1.08; 95%CI: 1.02-1.14). After stratification by PM2.5 exposure level, the negative association between trees and asthma, and the positive association between grass and asthma were observed only in low PM2.5 exposure levels (≤median: 56.23 µg/m3). Our results suggest that types of vegetation may play a role in the association between greenness exposure and childhood asthma. Exposure to trees may reduce the odds of childhood asthma, whereas exposure to grass may increase the odds. Additionally, PM2.5 may modify the associations of trees and grass with childhood asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Aprendizado Profundo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Poaceae , Prevalência , Árvores
15.
J Environ Qual ; 50(5): 1135-1144, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342364

RESUMO

There has been a recent push to conduct spatially explicit landscape planning at finer hydrologic unit scales to mitigate diffuse pollution. The Agricultural Conservation and Planning Framework (ACPF) helps identify potential locations for agricultural conservation practices by using high-resolution soils and elevation data. This spatially explicit approach attempts to identify runoff and nutrient pathways, but output may be influenced by user-specified parameters and the properties of the digital elevation model (DEM) being used. Here we assess differences in the density and location of conservation practices sited by the ACPF toolbox across three DEM resolutions in three agricultural catchments, each in distinct physiographies (Ridge and Valley, Piedmont, Coastal Plain) of the United States mid-Atlantic region. Output frequency did not vary much for contour buffer strips or water and sediment control basins (WASCOBs) across DEM resolution, particularly compared with landscape type. The DEM resolution was crucial for the density of grassed waterways but of little consequence for contour buffer strips. Placement density of WASCOBs and contour buffer strips varied by region. Grassed waterways are sited based on either discrete values or statistical distributions of stream power index (SPI). A higher density of grassed waterways was placed in lower relief landscapes when a single standard deviation threshold was applied. Using discrete SPI values for the grassed waterway tool generated more consistent output across watersheds than output based on statistical distributions. These and other reported findings can help guide user decisions in future applications of the ACPF toolbox, particularly across different areas of study.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Poaceae , Rios , Solo
16.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443305

RESUMO

The local botanical Imperata cylindrica in Cameroon was investigated for its antibacterial potency. The methanol extract afforded a total of seven compounds, including five hitherto unreported compounds comprising three flavonoids (1-3) and two C-15 isoprenoid analogues (4 and 5) together with known derivatives (6 and 7). The novelty of the flavonoids was related to the presence of both methyl and prenyl groups. The potential origin of the methyl in the flavonoids is discussed, as well as the chemophenetic significance of our findings. Isolation was performed over repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and the structures were elucidated by (NMR and MS). The crude methanol extract and isolated compounds showed considerable antibacterial potency against a panel of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. The best MIC values were obtained with compound (2) against S. aureus ATCC 25923 (32 µg/mL) and MRSA1 (16 µg/mL).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Poaceae/química , Prenilação , Terpenos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4223-4243, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383327

RESUMO

Bamboo(Phyllostachys edulis) shoot was reported to be rich in phenolics. In the present study, free phenolics, conjugated phenolics, and insoluble-bound phenolics of oven-drying and freeze-drying bamboo shoot tips were extracted and separated, of which total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and their antioxidant activities were determined. Phenolics of different binding forms were qualitatively analyzed using HPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS. A total of 22, 41, and 28 compounds were confirmed or tentatively identified in free, conjugated, and insoluble-bound phenolic extraction, respectively. The majority of the identified compounds were organic acids and phenolic acids. Oven-drying samples exhibited higher TPC (10.53-24.92 mg GAE/100 g DW) and TFC (5.80-33.27 mg CE/100 g DW) values, and stronger antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) than freeze-drying (TPC: 1.67-15.28 mg GAE/100 g DW, TFC: 1.43-29.05 mg CE/100 g DW). Insoluble-bound phenolics were the major contributor to the total antioxidant activity. The present study investigated the phenolics composition and antioxidant activities of different binding forms in bamboo shoot tip comprehensively, and provided available information for their high-value deep-processing.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Manipulação de Alimentos , Liofilização , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais , Poaceae , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Poaceae/química
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 595, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426857

RESUMO

In addition to soil losses on hillslopes, unpaved rural roads, especially when poorly designed and maintained, can be a significant contributor to the erosive processes seen at the catchment scale. In areas with deep soils, the solutions primarily focus on channeling excess surface runoff into settling ponds or terraces. However, few studies have addressed runoff control from roads on steep slopes in areas of shallow soil. Modeling hydrological processes at the catchment scale is a useful strategy for choosing the most effective and least costly conservation practices to control surface runoff. This study applies a mathematical model to a monitored catchment in southern Brazil to better understand the effects of conservation practices on unpaved roads and their impact on the hydrological and erosive dynamics of a small rural catchment. We calibrated the LISEM model using data from eight stormwater events and evaluated how three different road conservation scenarios-low (LI), medium (MI), and high intensity (HI)-contributed to sediment yield (SY), surface runoff volume (Qe), and peak flow (Qp) reduction. The LI and MI scenarios involved installation of hydraulic structures to control the road surface runoff (i.e. road ditch graveling, diversion weirs and grass waterways) while the HI scenario added surface runoff control practices (grass strips) to surrounding crop fields, in addition to the practices included in the MI scenario. Based on these scenarios, the results showed a Qe reduction at the catchment outlet from - 3.5% (LI) to - 22.5% (HI). The Qp and SY varied from + 6.0% (LI) to - 292.5% (HI) and from + 20.0% (LI) to - 963.9% (HI), respectively. These results show that the low- and medium-intensity practices were not effective in controlling surface runoff from roads, based on the Qe, Qb, and SY observed at the catchment's outlet. On the other hand, when MI scenarios were complemented with practices to control surface runoff in the cultivated areas, a significant reduction in surface runoff (Qe and Qp) and SY was verified.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Solo , Hidrologia , Modelos Teóricos , Poaceae
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1654: 462463, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438299

RESUMO

The toxic alkaloids in forage grass present a serious health hazard to humans and livestock, especially ergot alkaloids (EAs), pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and tropane alkaloids (TAs). Hence, there is a need for a simultaneous method that allows these dangerous plant toxins to be determined. A simple and effective method was developed to determine fifteen toxic alkaloids (EAs, PAs and TAs) in forage grass using the QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The developed method was validated with average recoveries ranging from 63.10 to 102.10%, and relative standard deviations lower than or equal to 6.39% were obtained. Good linearity over the concentration range of 10-600 µg/kg dry matter (DM) was observed for the target alkaloids. The determination coefficients R2 calculated for each of the matrix calibration curves were greater than 0.99. The limits of detection and quantification were 5 µg/kg DM and 10 µg/kg DM, respectively. The reproducibility of the method was verified in three laboratories: all of the mean recoveries of 15 alkaloids were higher than 60%, and the relative standard deviations in alkaloids between laboratories were all less than 14.24%. The proposed method was applied to analyse 134 forage grass samples from the meadow steppe of Inner Mongolia to monitor toxic alkaloids. A significant difference in the frequency of contamination was found between different herbage species and different regions.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Alimentos , Poaceae , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Alcaloides/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Poaceae/química , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/análise , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/toxicidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299235

RESUMO

The allergenic and inflammatory potential of proteins can be enhanced by chemical modification upon exposure to atmospheric or physiological oxidants. The molecular mechanisms and kinetics of such modifications, however, have not yet been fully resolved. We investigated the oligomerization and nitration of the grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 by ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and peroxynitrite (ONOO-). Within several hours of exposure to atmospherically relevant concentration levels of O3 and NO2, up to 50% of Phl p 5 were converted into protein oligomers, likely by formation of dityrosine cross-links. Assuming that tyrosine residues are the preferential site of nitration, up to 10% of the 12 tyrosine residues per protein monomer were nitrated. For the reaction with peroxynitrite, the largest oligomer mass fractions (up to 50%) were found for equimolar concentrations of peroxynitrite over tyrosine residues. With excess peroxynitrite, the nitration degrees increased up to 40% whereas the oligomer mass fractions decreased to 20%. Our results suggest that protein oligomerization and nitration are competing processes, which is consistent with a two-step mechanism involving a reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI), as observed for other proteins. The modified proteins can promote pro-inflammatory cellular signaling that may contribute to chronic inflammation and allergies in response to air pollution.


Assuntos
Phleum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/metabolismo , Alérgenos/química , Cinética , Nitratos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Oxidantes , Ozônio/química , Ácido Peroxinitroso/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Poaceae/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Proteínas/química , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/fisiopatologia
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