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1.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 76-84, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229029

RESUMO

Los estilos de crianza (autoritario, democrático, permisivo y negligente) juegan un papel clave en el desarrollo personal y pueden estar relacionados con creencias y afectos agresivos en el individuo. Para examinar esta relación, 769 sujetos (359 hombres; 46.68%), con una edad promedio de 21.89 años, DT= 2.65, fueron evaluados en términos de estilos de crianza, creencias agresivas y afectos; También se exploró el papel mediador de los afectos en la relación entre creencias agresivas y estilos de crianza. El estudio reveló que estos constructos están interrelacionados. Se encontró que el estilo de crianza democrático era el más extendido. En términos de género, los estilos autoritativos se utilizaron con mayor frecuencia en hombres que en mujeres, entre los cuales el estilo permisivo fue el más común. No se encontraron diferencias de género significativas en cuanto a los estilos de crianza democráticos y negligentes. Se reveló que las mujeres estaban más expuestas a los afectos negativos y que las creencias agresivas eran más prevalentes en los hombres. Los niños educados según un estilo democrático obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas en afectos positivos y más bajas en creencias agresivas. Los estilos autoritativos tienden a conducir a puntuaciones superiores a la media en afectos positivos y creencias agresivas. Además, una de cada cinco personas educadas según un estilo permisivo obtiene una puntuación alta en afecto negativo, y una de cada cuatro personas educadas según un estilo negligente obtiene puntuaciones altas en creencias agresivas. Finalmente, se descubrió que los estilos de crianza tienen un efecto directo sobre las creencias agresivas, efecto potenciado por el papel mediador que desempeñan los afectos. En conclusión, el estudio sugiere que los estilos de crianza están relacionados con creencias y afectos agresivos. Además, se demostró que los afectos desempeñan un papel mediador en la relación entre los estilos de crianza y las creencias agresivas. Finalmente, vale la pena enfatizar que, debido a las implicaciones de gran alcance que los estilos de crianza tienen en el desarrollo psicológico, social y personal del individuo, es necesario realizar más investigaciones, no sólo para examinar su relación con los afectos y las creencias agresivas, sino también también con otras variables psicológicas implicadas en el desarrollo personal.(AU)


Parenting stiles (authoritative, democratic, permissive and ne-glectful) play a key role in personal development and can be related to ag-gressive beliefs and affects in the individual. In order to examine this rela-tionship, 769 subjects (359 men; 46.68%), with an average age of 21.89 years, SD= 2.65, were assessed in terms of parenting styles, aggressive be-liefs and affects; the mediating role of affects in the relationship between aggressive beliefs and parenting styles was also explored. The study re-vealed that these constructs are interrelated. The democratic parenting style was found to be the most widespread. In terms of gender, authorita-tive styles were used more often on men than on women, among which the permissive style was the most common. No significant gender differ-ences were found concerning democratic and neglectful parenting styles. Women were revealed to be more exposed to negative affects, and aggres-sive beliefs were found to be more prevalent in men. Children educated according to a democratic style scored higher in positive affects and lower in aggressive beliefs. Authoritative styles tend to lead to above-average scores in positive affects and aggressive beliefs. In addition, one in five people educated according to a permissive style returns a high negative af-fect score, and one in four people educated according to a neglectful style yields high scores in aggressive beliefs. Finally, parenting styles were found to have a direct effect on aggressive beliefs, an effect enhanced by the me-diating role played by affects. In conclusion, the study suggests that parent-ing styles are related to aggressive beliefs and affects. In addition, affects were shown to play a mediating role in the relationship between parenting styles and aggressive beliefs. Finally, it is worth emphasising that, owing to the far-reaching implications of parenting styles on the psychological, so-cial and personal development of the individual, more research needs to be undertaken, not only to examine their relationship with affects and aggres-sive beliefs, but also with other psychological variables involved in person-al development.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Educação Infantil , Poder Familiar , Violência , Psicologia da Criança , Psicologia Educacional
2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 376, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parenting is both a complex and stressful endeavor, so parents sometimes experience parenting burnout. The main objective of this study was to provide an overview of factors related to general parental burnout (PB) among parents with at least one child based on the Ecological Systems Theory (EST). METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, CNKI and WanFang were systematically searched for studies published from 2010 to July 2023 for peer-reviewed articles using keywords extracted from Medical Subject Headings such as "parenting", "parental", "burnout", "psychological burnout", "burn-out syndrome". Studies were included if they described associations between factors and PB among parents of children aged 0-18 years old in the general population, and published in an English or Chinese language peer-reviewed journal. The Quality Assessment Tool for Studies with Diverse Designs (QATSDD) was employed to assess the risk of bias of included studies. RESULTS: Of 2037 articles, 26 articles met the inclusion criteria. Based on the Ecological Systems Theory (EST), we found that microsystem-individual factors such as gender, educational level, income, parental personality, internalization of maternal parental motivation, unmitigated communion, self-compassion and concern for others, alexithymia, anxiety and depressive symptoms, parental perfectionism, resilience, low self-esteem and high need for control, mother's attachment style were identified as being associated with parenting burnout. Mesosystem-interpersonal factors involve parent-child relationship and marital satisfaction. The exosystem-organizational or community factors include the number of children in the household, neighborhood and the number of hours spent with children, child's illness, child's behavior problems and social support. The macrosystem-society/policy or culture factors are mainly personal values and cultural values. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review found several factors that have been investigated in relation to PB. However, the majority of the factors were reported by one or two studies often implementing a cross-sectional design. Nevertheless, we still recommend that health policymakers and administrators relieve parenting burnout among parents with children by adjusting these modifiable factors.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Pais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Pais/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Esgotamento Psicológico
3.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0287142, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324521

RESUMO

We examined how maternal and paternal parental control (helicopter parenting, behavioral control, and psychological control) among college students are related to their depressive symptoms. We collected data from college students who attended a private university in Upstate New York (n = 455) and analyzed it using three-step latent class analysis. Latent class analysis identified four parental control latent classes: weak parental control, strong psychological control, strong helicopter parenting, and strong parental control. College students in the weak parental control class reported lower depressive symptoms than those in strong psychological control and strong parental control classes. In addition, college students in the strong helicopter parenting class reported lower depressive symptoms than those in strong psychological control and strong parental control classes. College students' depressive symptoms were not significantly different between weak parental control and strong helicopter parenting classes. Future researchers are encouraged to continue to acknowledge the characteristics of different forms of parental control and their influence on college students' quality of life in the transition to adulthood, considering the unique approaches of both parents.


Assuntos
Depressão , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudantes/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia
5.
Psychosoc Interv ; 33(1): 15-27, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38298214

RESUMO

Objective: This study analyzes whether parental strictness, which is shared by authoritative parenting (strictness and warmth) and authoritarian parenting (strictness without warmth) styles, always acts as a main protective factor against drug use and psychosocial maladjustment in children. This conclusion has already been stated in numerous classic studies, though emergent research suggests that there are benefits to parental warmth regardless of whether strictness is present or not. Method: Sample were 2,095 Spanish participants (1,227 females, 58.6%), 581 adolescent children (aged 12-18 years, 27.7%) and 1,514 adult children (72.3%). The measures were the main parenting style dimensions (warmth and strictness), drug use, and a set of indicators of psychosocial adjustment. A 4 × 2 × 4 MANOVA was applied for all outcomes with parenting style, sex, and age as independent variables. Results: Indulgent parenting (warmth without strictness) was related to less drug use than parenting without warmth (authoritarian and neglectful). Additionally, indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were related to better scores on psychosocial adjustment than authoritarian and neglectful styles, although the indulgent parenting was the only style related to the optimal scores being equal or even more effective than the authoritative style. Conclusion: Contrary to classical studies, present findings suggest that it is the parental warmth instead of the parental strictness that seems to be effective in protecting against drug use and psychosocial maladjustment.


Objetivo: En este estudio se analiza si, como asumen numerosos estudios clásicos, el componente de severidad que comparte el estilo parental autorizativo (severidad y afecto) con el estilo autoritario (severidad sin afecto) actúan siempre como el principal factor protector del consumo de drogas y el desajuste psicosocial de los hijos. Sin embargo, la investigación emergente sugiere los beneficios del afecto parental independientemente de la severidad. Método: Los participantes fueron 2,095 hijos españoles (1,227 mujeres, 58.6%), 581 adolescentes (de 12 a 18 años, 27.7%) y 1,514 adultos (72.3%). Las medidas fueron de las principales dimensiones del estilo parental (afecto y severidad), del consumo de drogas y un conjunto de indicadores del ajuste psicosocial. Se aplicó un MANOVA 4 × 2 × 4 con todos los criterios evaluados analizando el estilo parental, el sexo y la edad como variables independientes. Resultados: El estilo indulgente (afecto sin severidad) se relacionó con un menor consumo de drogas que los estilos sin afecto (autoritario y negligente). Además, los estilos indulgente y autorizativo se relacionaron con mejores puntuaciones en ajuste psicosocial, aunque el indulgente fue el único estilo relacionado con las puntuaciones óptimas siendo igual o incluso más eficaz que el estilo autorizativo. Conclusión: A diferencia de los estudios clásicos, los presentes resultados sugieren que el afecto parental, en vez de la severidad, parece ser eficaz como protección frente al consumo de drogas y el desajuste psicosocial.


Assuntos
Longevidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle
6.
J Addict Med ; 18(1): 6-8, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315616

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Pregnant and parenting people with substance use disorders are a highly stigmatized group. Structural and interpersonal bias contribute to reluctance to engage in prenatal, postpartum, and well-child care for this population. Two studies described in this issue of the Journal of Addiction Medicine explore the implications of health care provider-family relationships on experience of care for birthing people with substance use disorders and their infants. Patient voices describe how intensive monitoring of infants for sequelae of substance exposure and that being scrutinized as caregivers undermined their confidence as parents, contributed to self-blame, and damaged their trust in health care teams. Data from these studies suggest that the voices of pregnant and parenting individuals need to be present at local, regional, and national levels to mitigate harm when redesigning programs for this population.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Gravidez , Feminino , Lactente , Humanos , Período Pós-Parto
7.
Psychosoc Interv ; 33(1): 1-14, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38313691

RESUMO

OBJETIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct an exhaustive synthesis to determine which instruments and variables are most appropriate to evaluate foster care programs (foster, kinship, and professional families). This evaluation includes the children, their foster families, their families of origin, professionals, and foster care technicians. METHOD: The systematic review included randomized, quasi-randomized, longitudinal, and control group studies aimed at evaluating foster care interventions. RESULTS: A total of 86 studies, 138 assessment instruments, 18 constructs, and 73 independent research teams were identified. CONCLUSIONS: (1) although the object of the evaluations was the children, the informants were usually the people in charge of their care; therefore, effort should be made to involve the children in a more participatory way; (2) psychosocial functioning, behavior, and parenting are transversal elements in most evaluations, while quality of life and coping are not sufficiently well incorporated; (3) practical instruments (brief and easy to apply and correct) that are widely used and carry scientific guarantees should be prioritized to ensure the comparability and reliability of the conclusions; and (4) progress should be made in the study of evaluation models for all forms of foster care, including foster, extended, and specialized families.


OBJETIVO: El objetivo es realizar una síntesis exhaustiva que contribuya a determinar qué instrumentos y variables son las más adecuadas para evaluar programas de acogimiento familiar (familias extensas, ajenas y profesionalizadas), incluyendo en esta evaluación a los niños, sus familias acogedoras, sus familias de origen y a los profesionales y técnicos del acogimiento familiar. Método: La revisión sistemática incluyó estudios aleatorizados, cuasialeatorizados, longitudinales y con grupo control dirigidos a evaluar intervenciones de acogimiento familiar. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 86 estudios, 138 instrumentos de evaluación, 18 constructos y 73 equipos de investigación independientes. CONCLUSIONES: (1) aunque el objeto de las evaluaciones sean los niños, habitualmente los informantes son las personas a cargo de sus cuidados, con lo que se debe hacer un esfuerzo por involucrarlos de forma más participativa; (2) el funcionamiento psicosocial, el comportamiento o la parentalidad son elementos transversales en la mayor parte de evaluaciones, sin embargo la calidad de vida y el afrontamiento no están suficientemente bien incorporados; (3) deben priorizarse instrumentos prácticos (breves y fáciles de aplicar y corregir), de amplio uso y con garantías científicas para asegurar la comparabilidad y fiabilidad de las conclusiones; (4) debe avanzarse en la investigación de modelos de evaluación en todas las modalidades de acogimiento familiar, ya sea en familias ajenas, extensas o especializadas.


Assuntos
Cuidados no Lar de Adoção , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia
8.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 68: 102505, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309255

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Parental cancer significantly impacts both parents and children, necessitating psychosocial interventions to enhance family well-being. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions targeting parents with cancer on their mental health, quality of life, their children's well-being, and family functioning. METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for relevant articles published from 2006 to 2023. The methodological aspects of eleven studies from diverse countries were critically evaluated. RESULTS: The review included 496 parents, primarily female breast cancer patients, and their children. Narrative synthesis highlighted interventions that aimed to strengthen parent-child connection (Enhancing Connection (EC)), enhance family communication, improve psychological well-being of parents (Struggle for Life Intervention), and address children's mental health (Wonders and Worries (W&W)). Additionally, interventions like Cancer PEPSONE Program (CPP) aimed to expand social networks and support systems. These interventions demonstrated success in reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms, parenting stress, and mitigating children's externalizing and internalizing problems. However, they were not exempt from methodological limitations such as participant selection bias, lack of blinding, and low follow-up rates. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the review, psychological support for parents with cancer is an emerging field, predominantly explored in Western countries with a significant emphasis on maternal experiences. The early stage of this field and inherent methodological limitations warrant cautious interpretation of these findings and further research for comprehensive understanding and application.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Neoplasias , Humanos , Feminino , Intervenção Psicossocial , Qualidade de Vida , Pais/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Neoplasias/terapia
9.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(2)2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The scale-up of parenting programmes to support early childhood development (ECD) is poorly understood. Little is known about how and when early interventions are most effective. Sustainability of ECD programming requires a better understanding of the mechanisms of real-world interventions. We examined the effects on caregiving practices of Primeira Infância Melhor (PIM), a state-wide home-visiting programme in Brazil. METHODS: This propensity score matched, longitudinal, quasiexperimental study uses data from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort. We matched children who received PIM at any age with other cohort children on 25 key covariates. Sensitivity, guidance and responsiveness were assessed using video-recorded play tasks. Coerciveness and the parent-child relationship were assessed using the Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales. All parenting outcomes were examined at age 4 years. Separate moderation analyses were conducted for each effect modifier: family income, child age and duration of participation. RESULTS: Out of 4275 children in the cohort, 797 were enrolled in PIM up to age 4 years. 3018 children (70.6%) were included in the analytic sample, of whom 587 received PIM and 2431 were potential controls. We found a positive effect of PIM on responsiveness (ß=0.08, 95% CIs 0.002 to 0.16) and sensitivity (ß=0.10, 95% CIs 0.02 to 0.19). No effect was found for any secondary outcomes. Moderation analyses revealed a stronger positive effect on sensitivity for low-income parents (ß=0.18, 95% CIs 0.03 to 0.34). CONCLUSION: A state-wide, home-visiting programme in Brazil improved aspects of responsive caregiving. Effects were more pronounced for low-income families, suggesting benefits of purposeful targeting.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Poder Familiar , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Brasil , Pobreza
10.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 37(2): e13188, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome (RTT) causes multiple disabilities with a lifelong need for substantial care, placing a tremendous lifelong responsibility on the parents. Parenting an individual with RTT can therefore be challenging. Research on the psychological aspects of parenting individuals with RTT is limited and unclear. We aimed to identify and map the existing literature on this subject. METHOD: A scoping review was conducted with systematic searches in PubMed, PsycINFO and CINAHL. RESULTS: Eighteen studies were included. Negative and positive psychological aspects were described with the majority focusing on the negative. Three factors seemed to especially affect the parents: severity of the diagnosis, time (increasing age of parents or individual with RTT; years of caretaking), work-status of the mother. CONCLUSIONS: Seemingly, parents are highly affected; however, the literature is scarce and has several gaps. Future research should include older parents, fathers, parents of individuals living in group homes, and positive aspects.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Síndrome de Rett , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Rett/diagnóstico , Pais , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar
11.
Fam Community Health ; 47(2): 95-107, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Various interventions aim to reduce obesity and promote healthy lifestyles among different cultural groups. METHODS: We have conducted a systematic literature review, following PRISMA guidelines (registered at https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/HB9AX), to explore profiles of cultural adaptation and parenting approach of lifestyle interventions for families with young children (1-4 years). RESULTS: Our search (in CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SSCI) yielded 41 studies reporting 31 interventions. Drawing on Intervention Mapping, we applied a newly developed framework with various indicators of cultural adaptation and a parenting approach to analyze interventions. Our review shows clear differences in the level of cultural adaptation. A categorical principal component analysis revealed 6 different empirical profiles of cultural adaptation. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our profiles, we discuss how cultural adaptation can be strengthened in the design of future early interventions aimed at promoting a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Estilo de Vida Saudável
12.
Trials ; 25(1): 119, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based parenting programmes have strong evidence in preventing and mitigating violence, but in-person programmes are challenging to deliver at scale. ParentApp is an open-source, offline-first app-based adaptation of the Parenting for Lifelong Health for Parents and Teens programme to promote playful and positive parenting, reduce risks for sexual violence victimisation, and prevent violence against adolescents. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ParentApp compared to an attention-control group. METHODS: This study is a two-arm pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial to test whether ParentApp reduces adolescent physical abuse, emotional abuse, and sexual violence risks and victimisation at 1 month and 12 months post-intervention. Caregivers of adolescents aged 10-17 years and their adolescent children (N = 2400 caregiver-adolescent dyads) will be recruited in urban and peri-urban communities in the Mwanza region of Tanzania. A total of 80 study clusters will be stratified and randomised (1:1) to the intervention group, who will receive ParentApp with support through a WhatsApp group, or to an attention-control group, who will receive a water, sanitation, and hygiene app. Quantitative data will be collected through outcomes questionnaires with caregivers and adolescents, administered at baseline, 4 months post-baseline, and 16 months post-baseline, as well as through routine implementation data and ParentApp engagement data. Qualitative data will be collected through individual interviews and focus groups with caregivers, adolescents, and implementing partner staff. DISCUSSION: App-based interventions have the potential to expand access to evidence-based parenting support, but currently lack rigorous evidence in low- and middle-income countries. This is the first known randomised control trial of a hybrid digital parenting programme to prevent the abuse of adolescents in low- and middle-income settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on the Open Science Framework on 14 March 2023, registration: OSF.IO/T9FXZ .


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Poder Familiar , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Tanzânia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Violência/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e077024, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Australian early parenting residential services provide interventions for families experiencing complex early parenting issues. Many services have recently shifted to virtual care models but the clinical effectiveness of such programmes is currently unknown. This study sought to test outcomes of a 'virtual' early parenting residential programme and to compare these with those of an in-person programme. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study; self-report questionnaires on admission, at discharge and 6-week follow-up. SETTING: An early parenting residential unit in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive series of parent-child dyads admitted to the unit virtually (n=56) or in person (n=44) between August 2021 and January 2022. INTERVENTIONS: Participants in both groups received a 4-night/5-day intervention programme involving access to 24-hour support from a multidisciplinary team of health professionals. The in-person programme was delivered at a residential unit; the virtual programme involved provision of support via video calls, phone calls, SMS and emails. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Infant sleep, parenting self-efficacy (primary outcomes); parenting empathy, emotion, hostility, helplessness, mentalisation and stress (secondary outcomes). RESULTS: Parents who received the virtual programme reported improvements from admission to discharge, and from admission to 6-week follow-up, in a range of areas including parenting self-efficacy, empathy, mentalisation, hostility, helplessness, stress and infant sleep resistance (ps<0.05). At 6 weeks, they also reported improvements in emotion and understanding related to their child (p<0.05). In contrast to expectation, outcomes at discharge and 6 weeks were not superior in the in-person group. In fact, at 6 weeks, parents who attended the virtual residential group reported significantly lower levels of parenting hostility and parenting stress, and greater levels of parenting confidence compared with those in the in-person group (ps<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Virtual early parenting residential interventions may be effective in bringing positive changes for families, and there is no evidence to suggest that outcomes are inferior to those of in-person programmes.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Pais , Lactente , Humanos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Austrália , Pais/psicologia , Aconselhamento
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 176, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether a relatively newly developed Parent and Infant (PIN) parenting support programme was cost-effective when compared to services as usual (SAU). METHODS: The cost-effectiveness of the PIN programme versus SAU was assessed from an Irish health and social care perspective over a 24-month timeframe and within the context of a non-randomised, controlled before-and-after trial. In total, 163 parent-infant dyads were included in the study (86 intervention, 77 control). The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC). RESULTS: The average cost of the PIN programme was €647 per dyad. The mean (SE) cost (including programme costs) was €7,027 (SE €1,345) compared to €4,811 (SE €593) in the control arm, generating a (non-significant) mean cost difference of €2,216 (bootstrap 95% CI -€665 to €5,096; p = 0.14). The mean incremental cost-effectiveness of the PIN service was €614 per PSOC unit gained (bootstrap 95% CI €54 to €1,481). The probability that the PIN programme was cost-effective, was 87% at a willingness-to-pay of €1,000 per one unit change in the PSOC. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the PIN programme was cost-effective at a relatively low willingness-to-pay threshold when compared to SAU. This study addresses a significant knowledge gap in the field of early intervention by providing important real world evidence on the implementation costs and cost-effectiveness of a universal early years parenting programme. The challenges involved in assessing the cost-effectiveness of preventative interventions for very young children and their parents are also discussed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN17488830 (Date of registration: 27/11/15). This trial was retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Análise de Custo-Efetividade , Pais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Análise Custo-Benefício , Poder Familiar , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2016): 20240054, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351799

RESUMO

In males, large testes size signifies high sperm production and is commonly linked to heightened sperm competition levels. It may also evolve as a response to an elevated risk of sperm depletion due to multiple mating or large clutch sizes. Conversely, weapons, mate or clutch guarding may allow individuals to monopolize mating events and preclude sperm competition, thereby reducing the selection of large testes. Herein, we examined how paternal care, sexual size dimorphism (SSD), weaponry and female fecundity are linked to testes size in glassfrogs. We found that paternal care was associated with a reduction in relative testes size, suggesting an evolutionary trade-off between testes size and parenting. Although females were slightly larger than males and species with paternal care tended to have larger clutches, there was no significant relationship between SSD, clutch size and relative testes size. These findings suggest that the evolution of testes size in glassfrogs is influenced by sperm competition risk, rather than sperm depletion risk. We infer that clutch guarding precludes the risk of fertilization by other males and consequently diminishes selective pressure for larger testes. Our study highlights the prominent role of paternal care in the evolution of testes size in species with external fertilization.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Testículo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Sêmen , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
16.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 37(2): e13207, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many parents with intellectual disability (ID) demonstrate good parenting practices, some parents experience difficulties in managing challenging behaviours. One potential solution to this issue involves using The Family Game, a program designed to teach parents with ID how to manage challenging behaviours in their child. AIMS: The purpose of our study was to conduct an independent replication of an investigation that had been performed by the developer of the program. MATERIALS & METHODS: We used a multiple baseline design to examine the effects of The Family Game on the behaviour of two parents with ID who had a 3-year-old child. RESULTS: Similarly to the original study, our results indicate that The Family Game improved the use of effective parenting strategies during role play, but that these gains failed to generalise to real-life settings. CONCLUSION: The study further supports the necessity of adding novel strategies to the game to better promote generalisation.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Deficiência Intelectual , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pais , Poder Familiar , Educação Infantil
17.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 45(1): e2-e3, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347670
18.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 78, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360823

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Researchers have shown various variables' role in forming personality disorders (PD). This study aimed to assess the role of early maladaptive schema (EMS), attachment style (AS), and parenting style (PS) in discriminating between personality disorders and normal individuals. METHODS: In this study, 78 personality disorder patients and 360 healthy volunteers aged 18-84 were selected using convenience sampling. They completed the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF), Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS), and Baumrind's Parenting Styles Questionnaire (PSI). Data were analyzed using discriminant analysis with IBM SPSS 25. RESULTS: The results showed higher mean scores in all early maladaptive schema domains, insecure attachment styles, and authoritarian parenting in the personality disorder group than in the normal group. Also, discriminant analyses revealed that the function was statistically significant and could distinguish between the two groups and a compound of essential variables, disconnection, impaired autonomy, and secure attachment, respectively, discriminating two groups. Given that all components were able to distinguish between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Therefore, intervention based on these factors early in life may help reduce the characteristics of personality disorders. Also, considering the role of these factors, treatment protocols can be prepared.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Transtornos da Personalidade , Adulto , Humanos , Análise Discriminante , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 20: 17455057231224181, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women face unique barriers when seeking treatment for substance use disorders, often related to pregnancy and parenting. OBJECTIVES: This study adds to the extant literature by elucidating the pregnancy- and parenting-related barriers women face when initiating or continuing medication for opioid use disorder, specifically. DESIGN: This study is based on qualitative semi-structured interviews. METHODS: Three subgroups participated in semi-structured interviews regarding their experiences (N = 42): women with current or past opioid use disorders who have used or were presently using medication for opioid use disorder, professionals working in substance use disorder treatment programs, and criminal justice professionals. RESULTS: Three parenting-related subthemes were identified: (1) insufficient access to childcare to navigate appointments and meetings, (2) fear of losing custody of, or access to, one's children, and (3) prioritizing one's children's needs before one's own. Three subthemes were identified with regard to pregnancy as a barrier: (1) hesitancy among physicians to prescribe medication for opioid use disorder for pregnant patients, (2) limited access to resources in rural areas, and (3) difficulty navigating a complex, decentralized health system. CONCLUSION: Systemic changes are needed to reduce pregnant and parenting women's barriers to seeking medication for opioid use disorder. These include improved childcare support at both in-patient and outpatient treatment programs, which would assuage women's barriers related to childcare, as well as their fears of losing access to their children if they spend time away from their children for treatment. An additional systemic improvement that may reduce barriers for these women is access to comprehensive, integrated care for their prenatal care, postpartum care, pediatric appointments, and appropriate substance use disorder treatment.


Pregnancy and parenting-related barriers to receiving medication for opioid use disorder: Interview themes from multiple perspectivesWomen face unique barriers when seeking treatment for substance use disorders, often related to pregnancy and parenting. This study used one-on-one interviews to learn more about the pregnancy- and parenting-related barriers women face when initiating or continuing medication for opioid use disorder, specifically. Three different groups were interviewed: women with current or past opioid use disorders who have used or were presently using medication for opioid use disorder, professionals working in substance use disorder treatment programs, and criminal justice professionals (N = 42). Three parenting-related themes emerged from the interviews: (1) insufficient access to childcare to navigate appointments and meetings, (2) fear of losing custody of, or access to, one's children, and (3) prioritizing one's children's needs before one's own. Three pregnancy-related themes emerged from the interviews: (1) hesitancy among physicians to prescribe medication for opioid use disorder for pregnant patients, (2) limited access to resources in rural areas, and (3) difficulty navigating a complex health system. Systemic changes are needed to reduce pregnant and parenting women's barriers to seeking medication for opioid use disorder. These include improved childcare support at treatment programs, which would assuage women's barriers related to childcare, as well as their fears of losing access to their children if they spend time away from their children for treatment. An additional systemic improvement that may reduce barriers for these women is access to comprehensive, integrated care for their prenatal care, postpartum care, pediatric appointments, and appropriate substance use disorder treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Poder Familiar , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 142, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378503

RESUMO

ΒACKGROUND: Children of parents with a mental illness have up to 50% chance of developing a mental illness themselves. Numerous studies have shown that preventive family-oriented interventions can decrease the risk by 40% and that professionals are a decisive factor influencing family-oriented practice. There are also substantial differences between professions in terms of their family-oriented practices. This study examines the level of family-oriented practice for different professional groups in Germany. METHODS: Data were used from the baseline assessment of the two-group randomized controlled multicenter trial ci-chimps as a subproject of CHIMPS-NET, which took place from January 2020 to May 2021 in 18 clinical centers in Germany. Child and adolescent mental health systems as well as adult mental health systems took part and every professional involved in the treatment was invited to participate. Data was used from 475 mental health professionals including physicians, psychologists, psychotherapists for adults and for children and adolescents, occupational/ music/ physio/ art therapists/ (social) education workers and nursing/ education service. Family-oriented mental health practice was examined using the translated version of the Family-Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire (FFMHPQ) with means and standard deviations calculated for each of the 18 FFMHPQ-GV subscales. ANOVAs were computed to compare professions and significant differences were examined via post hoc analyses (Scheffé). Additionally, effect sizes were calculated (Omega squared). RESULTS: Differences were seen between the professions in all aspects of family-oriented practice: Both regarding organizational policy and support aspects, issues concerning working with parent-clients, as well as professional skills and knowledge aspects. Psychotherapists for children and adolescents scored the highest family-oriented practices compared to all other professional groups on almost all subscales. CONCLUSION: This study examines the level of family-oriented practice for different professional groups in Germany. Apart from skills and knowledge about the impact of mental illness and parenting, psychotherapists for children and adolescents had the highest scores and engaged most in family-oriented practice. Psychotherapists for adults got the least workplace support for family-oriented practice but were competent providing resources and referral information to the concerned families and feel confidence working with them. Due to these results, a training need exists to improve skills and knowledge about the impact of mental illness and parenting. Additionally, there is still potential for institutional support in promoting family-oriented work. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The CHIMPS-NET-study was registered with the German Clinical Trials Register on 2019-12-19 (DRKS00020380) and with Clinical Trials on 2020-4-30 (NCT04369625), the ci-chimps-study was registered with the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00026217) on 2021-08-27 and with Clinical Trials on 2021-11-04 (NCT05106673).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Adulto , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Poder Familiar/psicologia
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