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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2762: 293-308, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315373

RESUMO

Although membrane proteins are abundant in nature, their investigation is limited due to bottlenecks in heterologous overexpression and consequently restricted accessibility for downstream applications. In this chapter, we address these challenges by presenting a fast and straightforward synthesis platform based on eukaryotic cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) and an efficient solubilization strategy using styrene-maleic acid (SMA) copolymers. We demonstrate CFPS of TWIK-1, a dimeric ion channel, based on Sf21 (Spodoptera frugiperda) insect lysate showing homooligomerization and N-glycosylation enabled by endoplasmic reticulum-derived microsomes. Furthermore, we employ SMA copolymers for protein solubilization, which preserves the native-like microsomal environment. This approach not only retains the solubilized protein's suitability for downstream applications but also maintains the oligomerization and glycosylation of TWIK-1 post-solubilization. We validate the solubilization procedure using autoradiography, particle size analysis, and biomolecular fluorescence assay and confirm the very efficient, structurally intact solubilization of cell-free synthesized TWIK-1.


Assuntos
Maleatos , Poliestirenos , Proteínas de Membrana
2.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 21(1): 4, 2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Micro- and nanoplastics (MNPs) represent one of the most widespread environmental pollutants of the twenty-first century to which all humans are orally exposed. Upon ingestion, MNPs pass harsh biochemical conditions within the gastrointestinal tract, causing a unique protein corona on the MNP surface. Little is known about the digestion-associated protein corona and its impact on the cellular uptake of MNPs. Here, we systematically studied the influence of gastrointestinal digestion on the cellular uptake of neutral and charged polystyrene MNPs using THP-1-derived macrophages. RESULTS: The protein corona composition was quantified using LC‒MS-MS-based proteomics, and the cellular uptake of MNPs was determined using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Gastrointestinal digestion resulted in a distinct protein corona on MNPs that was retained in serum-containing cell culture medium. Digestion increased the uptake of uncharged MNPs below 500 nm by 4.0-6.1-fold but did not affect the uptake of larger sized or charged MNPs. Forty proteins showed a good correlation between protein abundance and MNP uptake, including coagulation factors, apolipoproteins and vitronectin. CONCLUSION: This study provides quantitative data on the presence of gastrointestinal proteins on MNPs and relates this to cellular uptake, underpinning the need to include the protein corona in hazard assessment of MNPs.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Coroa de Proteína , Humanos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Coroa de Proteína/química , Coroa de Proteína/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Plásticos , Digestão
3.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 112(2): 37, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353759

RESUMO

The adsorption/desorption of Rhodamine B (RhB) on Polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microplastics (MPs) was investigated in this study. The results showed that RhB adsorption on the selected MPs was fast. The adsorption coefficients (Kd) of RhB were 2036 ± 129, 1557 ± 91, and 63 ± 8.5 L kg- 1 for PS, PP, and PVC, respectively. RhB adsorption on PS and PP increased with increasing temperature and decreasing ionic strength, whereas RhB adsorption on PVC showed a completely opposite trend. The binding strength of RhB on the three types of MPs was weak as demonstrated by the high total desorption percentage, which ranged from 79.59 ~ 89.39%. This study shows that PP and PS MPs can accumulate RhB in the aquatic environment and their potential combined toxic risks should be taken seriously.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Água , Adsorção , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos , Polipropilenos , Poliestirenos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338826

RESUMO

This study delves into the thermodynamics of liquid-phase adsorption on hypercrosslinked polystyrene networks (HPSNs), widely recognized for their distinct structure and properties. Despite the considerable progress in HPSN synthesis and characterization, gaps persist regarding the chromatographic retention mechanism, thermodynamics of adsorption, and their impact on the adsorption selectivity, especially in the case of networks with ultra-high crosslinking densities (up to 500%). Utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we have explored, for the first time, the thermodynamic intricacies of liquid-phase adsorption onto HPSNs crosslinked in the entire range of the crosslinking degree from 100 to 500%. Our findings reveal the dependences of thermodynamic characteristics and selectivity of adsorption on the crosslinking degree, textural features, and liquid-phase composition in the region of extremely low adsorbent surface coverages (Henry's range). We have detected that, in the case of HPSNs, the dependence of the thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption on the liquid-phase composition is different than for classical HPLC stationary phases. Moreover, we scrutinize the impact of the molecular structure of the studied aromatic compounds on the thermodynamic characteristics and selectivity of the liquid-phase adsorption on HPSNs. Investigating liquid-phase adsorption selectivity, we demonstrate the pivotal role of π-π interactions in separating aromatic compounds on HPSNs. Eventually, we unveil that the thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption peculiarly depend on the crosslinking degree due to the profound impact of the crosslinking on the electronic density in benzene rings in HPSNs, whereas the separation throughput peaks for the polymer with a 500% crosslinking degree, attributed to its exceptionally rigid network structure, moderate swelling and micropore volume, and minimum specific surface area.


Assuntos
Poliestirenos , Adsorção , Poliestirenos/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Termodinâmica
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338857

RESUMO

Galleria mellonella is a lepidopteran whose larval stage has shown the ability to degrade polystyrene (PS), one of the most recalcitrant plastics to biodegradation. In the present study, we fed G. mellonella larvae with PS for 54 days and determined candidate enzymes for its degradation. We first confirmed the biodegradation of PS by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy- Attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and then identified candidate enzymes in the larval gut by proteomic analysis using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Two of these proteins have structural similarities to the styrene-degrading enzymes described so far. In addition, potential hydrolases, isomerases, dehydrogenases, and oxidases were identified that show little similarity to the bacterial enzymes that degrade styrene. However, their response to a diet based solely on polystyrene makes them interesting candidates as a potential new group of polystyrene-metabolizing enzymes in eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Poliestirenos , Animais , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Mariposas/microbiologia , Larva/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 466: 133583, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306833

RESUMO

Nanoplastics (NPs) exposure is usually linked with abnormal inflammation and oxidative stress, which are high-risk triggers of atherosclerosis; however, whether this exposure causes the development of atherosclerosis is vague. Here, we found that PS NPs co-exposure with ox-LDL induces significant accumulation of lipid, as well as oxidative stress and inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Using an ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM), we observed the emergence of atherosclerotic plaques at the aortic arch of apolipoprotein knockout (ApoE-/-) mice after being exposed to PS NPs for three months. Oil-red O and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining at the mice's aortic root also observed the deposition of lipids with plaque formation. Moreover, the development of atherosclerotic disease is associated with disturbances in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress damage in the mice liver. In conclusion, this study provides additional evidence to further understand the possible cardiovascular damage caused by NPs exposure.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Microplásticos , Animais , Camundongos , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Fígado/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
7.
Biofabrication ; 16(2)2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331416

RESUMO

Fabrication of a biohybrid actuator requires muscle cells anisotropically aligned in a line, curve, or combination of lines and curves (similar to the microstructure of living muscle tissue) to replicate lifelike movements, in addition to considering the arrangement of skeletal structure or muscular structure with anisotropic straight patterns. Here, we report a UV laser-processed microstructure for freely directing cellular alignment to engineer a biohybrid actuator composed of poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene triblock copolymer) (SBS) thin film with tailor-made microgrooves (MGs) and skeletal myotubes aligned along these MGs. Specifically, straight, circular, or curved MGs were transferred to SBS thin films from a UV laser-processed template, allowing for the successful alignment of myotubes along MGs. The biohybrid actuator, composed of anisotropically aligned myotubes on a curved microgrooved SBS thin film, was contracted by electrical stimulation. Contraction of biohybrid actuators with curved aligned myotubes permits twisted-like behavior, unlike straight microgrooved films. Therefore, the UV laser-ablation system is a unique maskless and rapid microfabrication technique that provides intriguing opportunities for omni-directional microgrooved structures to achieve the complex motion of living organisms.


Assuntos
Butadienos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Poliestirenos , Anisotropia , Lasers
8.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1296: 342344, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401923

RESUMO

Nanoplastics released from consumer plastic food containers are emerging environmental pollutants and directly ingested as part of the diet. However, quantification methods for nanoplastics are still lacking. Herein, a rapid identification and mass quantification approach was developed for nanoplastics analysis by combining electromagnetic heating with pyrolysis mass spectrometry (Eh-Py-MS). The pyrolysis products directly entered into the MS, which omits the gas phase separation process and shortens the detection time. A compact pyrolysis chamber was used and this increased the sample transfer efficiency and lowered power requirement. The operational parameters were systematically examined. The influence of nanoplastic size, additive, humic acid, and aging on detection was investigated, and it was concluded that environmental factors (humic acid, aging) and plastic properties (size, additives) did not influence the detection. The developed chamber showed that the limit of detection of polystyrene (PS) nanoplastics was 15.72 ng. Several typical food packages were demonstrated with satisfactory recovery rates (87.5-110%) and precision (RSD ≤11.36%). These results suggested that the consumer plastic food containers are a significant source of direct exposure to nanoplastics in humans from the environment.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Microplásticos/análise , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Pirólise , Calefação , Poliestirenos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Plásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Molecules ; 29(4)2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38398513

RESUMO

The intensive development of extraction methods based on µ-SPE extraction contributes to the increased interest in the synthesis of new sorption materials. This work presents the characterization of polystyrene fibers and polystyrene fibers blended with ZrO2 particles or polyaniline obtained by electrospinning and their use in the extraction of selected psychoactive drugs from biological samples. The characteristic of produced fibers is made by performing SEM images, measuring average fiber diameter, and examining their sorption abilities. Among the fibers based on pure polystyrene, tested in the first stage, the best sorption properties are demonstrated for the fibers obtained from a polystyrene solution in DMF with a concentration of 17.5 wt%. In the next stage, this material was modified with synthesized ZrO2 particles and polyaniline. Among the tested materials, the sorbent based on polystyrene with polyaniline shows the best sorption properties of the tested substances. The use of this material in the µ-SPE in a needle enables the extraction of selected compounds from aqueous and biological samples such as urine and human plasma.


Assuntos
Poliestirenos , Extração em Fase Sólida , Humanos , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos de Anilina , Psicotrópicos
10.
J Biomater Appl ; 38(8): 905-914, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358702

RESUMO

Complications of transcutaneous osseointegrated prosthetic systems (TOPS) focus on the metal-cutaneous interface at the stoma. Besides pain due to scare tissue as well as undefined neuropathic disorders, there is high evidence that the stoma presents the main risk causing hypergranulation and ascending infection. To restore the cutaneous barrier function in this functional area, soft-tissue on- or in-growth providing a vital and mechanically stable bio-artificial conjunction is considered a promising approach. In this study we assessed viability and proliferation of adult human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) on modifications of a standard prosthetic titanium surface. Un-coated (TiAl6V4) as well as a titanium-nitrite (TiN) coated additive manufactured porous three-dimensional surface structures (EPORE®) were seeded with HDFa and compared to plain TiAl6V4 and polystyrene surfaces as control. Cell viability and proliferation were assessed at 24 h and 7 days after seeding with a fluorescence-based live-dead assay. Adhesion and cell morphology were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy at the respective measurements. Both EPORE® surface specifications revealed a homogenous cell distribution with flat and spread cell morphology forming filopodia at both measurements. Proliferation and trend to confluence was seen on un-coated EPORE® surfaces with ongoing incubation but appeared substantially lower on the TiN-coated EPORE® specification. While cell viability on both EPORE® specifications was comparable to plain TiAL6V4 and polystyrene controls, cell proliferation and confluence were less pronounced when compared to controls. The EPORE® topography allows for fibroblast adhesion and viability in both standard TiAl6V4 and - to a minor degree - TiN-coated specifications as a proof of principle.


Assuntos
Nitritos , Titânio , Adulto , Humanos , Titânio/química , Nitritos/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície , Poliestirenos , Fibroblastos , Proliferação de Células , Adesão Celular , Células Cultivadas
11.
J Chromatogr A ; 1717: 464622, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309189

RESUMO

Microplastic is ubiquitous in the environment. Recently it was discovered that microplastic (MP, 1 µm-5 mm) contamination is present in the atmosphere where it can be transported over long distances and introduced to remote pristine environments. Sources, concentration levels, and transportation pathways of MP are still associated with large uncertainties. The abundance of atmospheric MP increases with decreasing particle size, suggesting that nanoplastics (NP, <1µm) could be of considerable atmospheric relevance. Only few analytical methods are available for detection of nanosized plastic particles. Thermoanalytical techniques are independent of particle size and are thus a powerful tool for MP and NP analysis. Here we develop a method for analysis of polystyrene on the nanogram scale using pyrolysis gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Pyrolysis was performed using a slow temperature ramp, and analytes were cryofocused prior to injection. The mass spectrometer was operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. A lower limit of detection of 1±1 ng and a lower limit of quantification of 2±2 ng were obtained (for the trimer peak). The method was validated with urban matrices of low (7 µg per sample) and high (53 µg per sample) aerosol mass loadings. The method performs well for low loadings, whereas high loadings seem to cause a matrix effect reducing the signal of polystyrene. This effect can be minimized by introducing a thermal desorption step prior to pyrolysis. The study provides a novel analysis method for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of PS on the nanogram scale in an aerosol matrix. Application of the method can be used to obtain concentration levels of polystyrene in atmospheric MP and NP. This is important in order to improve the understanding of the sources and sinks of MP and NP in the environment and thereby identify routes of exposure and uptake of this emerging contaminant.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poliestirenos/análise , Plásticos/química , Microplásticos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Pirólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Aerossóis/análise
12.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(2): 27011, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Micro- and nanoplastics (MNPs) and homosalate (HMS) are ubiquitous emerging environmental contaminants detected in human samples. Despite the well-established endocrine-disrupting effects (EDEs) of HMS, the interaction between MNPs and HMS and its impact on HMS-induced EDEs remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the influence of MNPs on HMS-induced estrogenic effects and elucidate the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: We assessed the impact of polystyrene nanospheres (PNSs; 50 nm, 1.0mg/L) on HMS-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation (HMS: 0.01-1µM, equivalent to 2.62-262µg/L) using the E-SCREEN assay and explored potential mechanisms through transcriptomics. Adult zebrafish were exposed to HMS (0.0262-262µg/L) with or without PNSs (50 nm, 1.0mg/L) for 21 d. EDEs were evaluated through gonadal histopathology, fertility tests, steroid hormone synthesis, and gene expression changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad-liver (HPGL) axis. RESULTS: Coexposure of HMS and PNSs resulted in higher expression of estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and the mRNAs of target genes (pS2, AREG, and PGR), a greater estrogen-responsive element transactivation activity, and synergistic stimulation on MCF-7 cell proliferation. Knockdown of serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) rescued the MCF-7 cell proliferation induced by PNSs alone or in combination with HMS. In zebrafish, coexposure showed higher expression of SGK1 and promoted ovary development but inhibited spermatogenesis. In addition, coexposure led to lower egg hatchability, higher embryonic mortality, and greater larval malformation. Coexposure also modulated steroid hormone synthesis genes (cyp17a2, hsd17[Formula: see text]1, esr2b, vtg1, and vtg2), and resulted in higher 17ß-estradiol (E2) release in females. Conversely, males showed lower testosterone, E2, and gene expressions of cyp11a1, cyp11a2, cyp17a1, cyp17a2, and hsd17[Formula: see text]1. DISCUSSION: PNS exposure exacerbated HMS-induced estrogenic effects via SGK1 up-regulation in MCF-7 cells and disrupting the HPGL axis in zebrafish, with gender-specific patterns. This offers new mechanistic insights and health implications of MNP and contaminant coexposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP13696.


Assuntos
Nanosferas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Peixe-Zebra , Células MCF-7 , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Estrogênios , Glucocorticoides , Esteroides
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 272: 116086, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354433

RESUMO

Anthropogenic influences such as plastic pollution are causing serious environmental problems. While effects of microplastics on marine organisms are well studied, less is known about effects of plastic particles on terrestrial organisms such as plants. We investigated the effects of microplastic particles on different growth and metabolic traits of savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. sabauda). Sections of seedlings exposed to polystyrene particles were analysed by coherent Raman scattering microscopy. These analyses revealed an uptake of particles in a size range of 0.5 µm to 2.0 µm into cells of the hypocotyl. Furthermore, plants were grown in substrate amended with polyethylene and polystyrene particles of different sizes (s1: 200-500 µm; s2: 100-200 µm; s3: 20-100 µm; s4: < 100 µm, with most particles < 20 µm; s5: < 20 µm) and in different concentrations (c1 = 0.1%, c2 = 0.01%, c3 = 0.001%). After several weeks, shoot and root biomass were harvested. Leaves were analysed for their carbon to nitrogen ratio, while amino acid and glucosinolate composition were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Plastic type, particle size and concentration showed distinct effects on certain plant traits. Shoot biomass was interactively influenced by size and concentration of polyethylene, while root biomass was not modified by any of the plastic exposure treatments. Likewise, the composition and total concentrations of leaf amino acids were not affected, but the leucine concentration was significantly increased in several of the plastic-exposed plants. Glucosinolates were also slightly altered, depending on the particle size. Some of the observed effects may be independent of plastic uptake, as larger particles were not taken up but still could affect plant traits. For example, in the rhizosphere plastic particles may increase the water holding capacity of the soil, impacting some of the plant traits. In summary, this study shows how important the plastic type, particle size and concentration are for the uptake of microplastics and their effects on plant traits, which may have important implications for crops, but also for ecosystems.


Assuntos
Brassica , Microplásticos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/análise , Ecossistema , Poliestirenos/análise , Brassica/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Polietileno/toxicidade , Polietileno/análise
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170664, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311080

RESUMO

The problem of microplastics (MPs) contamination in food has gradually come to the fore. MPs can be transmitted through the food chain and accumulate within various organisms, ultimately posing a threat to human health. The concentration of nanoplastics (NPs) exposed to humans may be higher than that of MPs. For the first time, we studied the differences in toxicity, and potential toxic effects of different polymer types of NPs, namely, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polystyrene (PS) on HepG2 cells. In this study, PET-NPs, PVC-NPs, and PS-NPs, which had similar particle size, surface charge, and shape, were prepared using nanoprecipitation and emulsion polymerization. The results of the CCK-8 assay showed that the PET-NPs and PVC-NPs induced a decrease in cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, and their lowest concentrations causing significant cytotoxicity were 100 and 150 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the major cytotoxic effects of PET-NPs and PVC-NPs at high concentrations may be to induce an increase in intracellular ROS, which in turn induces cellular damage and other toxic effects. Notably, our study suggested that PET-NPs and PVC-NPs may induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. However, no relevant cytotoxicity, oxidative damage, and apoptotic toxic effects were detected in HepG2 cells with exposure to PS-NPs. Furthermore, the analysis of transcriptomics data suggested that PET-NPs and PVC-NPs could significantly inhibit the expression of DNA repair-related genes in the p53 signaling pathway. Compared to PS-NPs, the expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes were down-regulated to a greater extent by PET-NPs and PVC-NPs. In conclusion, PET-NPs and PVC-NPs were able to induce higher cytotoxic effects than PS-NPs, in which the density and chemical structure of NPs of different polymer types may be the key factors causing the differences in toxicity.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Células Hep G2 , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Apoptose , Polietilenotereftalatos , Polímeros/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170626, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325482

RESUMO

Nanoplastics are widely used across various fields, yet their uptake can potentially exert adverse effects on plant growth and development, ultimately reducing yields. While there is growing awareness of the phytotoxicity caused by nanoplastics, our understanding of effective strategies to prevent nanoplastic accumulation in plants remains limited. This study explores the role of strigolactones (SLs) in mitigating the toxicity of polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs) in Zea mays L. (maize). SLs application markedly inhibited PS-NPs accumulation in maize roots, thus enhancing the root weight, shoot weight and shoot length of maize. Physiological analysis showed that SLs application activated the activities of antioxidant defence enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, to decrease the malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage and alleviate the accumulation of H2O2 and O2.- induced by PS-NPs in maize plants. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that SLs application induced transcriptional reprogramming by regulating the expression of genes related to MAPK, plant hormones and plant-pathogen interaction signal pathways in maize treated with PS-NPs. Notably, the expression of genes, such as ZmAUX/IAA and ZmGID1, associated with phytohormones in maize treated with PS-NPs underwent significant changes. In addition, SLs induced metabolic dynamics changes related to amino acid biosynthesis, ABC transporters, cysteine and methionine metabolism in maize treated with PS-NPs. In summary, these results strongly reveal that SLs could serve as a strategy to mitigate the accumulation and alleviate the stress of PS-NPs in maize, which appears to be a potential approach for mitigating the phytotoxicity induced by PS-NPs in maize.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Lactonas , Microplásticos , Zea mays , Zea mays/metabolismo , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170760, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331287

RESUMO

The exposure risk of 6-PPD quinone (6-PPDQ) has aroused increasing concern. In the natural environment, 6-PPDQ could interact with other pollutants, posing more severe environmental problems and toxicity to organisms. We here examined the effect of polyethylene nanoplastic (PE-NP) on 6-PPDQ neurotoxicity and the underling mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans. In nematodes, PE-NP (1 and 10 µg/L) decreased locomotion behavior, but did not affect development of D-type neurons. Exposure to PE-NP (1 and 10 µg/L) strengthened neurotoxicity of 6-PPDQ (10 µg/L) on the aspect of locomotion and neurodegeneration induction of D-type motor neurons. Exposure to PE-NPs (10 µg/L) caused increase in expressions of mec-4, asp-3, and asp-4 governing neurodegeneration in 10 µg/L 6-PPDQ exposed nematodes. Moreover, exposure to PE-NP (10 µg/L) increased expression of some neuronal genes (daf-7, dbl-1, jnk-1, and mpk-1) in 6-PPDQ exposed nematodes, and RNAi of these genes resulted in susceptibility to neurotoxicity of PE-NP and 6-PPDQ. 6-PPDQ could be adsorbed by PE-NPs, and resuspension of PE-NP and 6-PPDQ after adsorption equilibrium exhibited similar neurotoxicity to co-exposure of PE-NP and 6-PPDQ. In addition, exposure to PE-NP (1 and 10 µg/L) increased 6-PPDQ accumulation in body of nematodes and increased defecation cycle length in 6-PPDQ exposed nematodes. Therefore, 6-PPDQ could be adsorbed on nanoplastics (such as PE-NPs) and enhance both neurotoxicity and accumulation of 6-PPDQ in organisms.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas , Caenorhabditis elegans , Nanopartículas , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Polietileno , Quinonas , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170700, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331288

RESUMO

Global health concerns about micro- and nanoplastics are increasing. The newly discovered beige adipocytes play a vital role in energy homeostasis through their high thermogenic capacity upon activation. However, the effects of micro- and nanoplastics on beige adipocytes have not yet been studied. We investigated whether the effects of oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) on systemic metabolic performance can be induced by disrupting beige adipocyte function, and the potential mechanism. In the present study, C57BL/6J male mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without PS-NPs exposure for 12 weeks to investigate the differences in metabolic performance. We also isolated stromal vascular fraction from C57BL/6J male mice to differentiate and prepare primary beige adipocyte cultures. Primary beige adipocytes were treated with PS-NPs on the sixth day of differentiation. The results showed that oral intake of PS-NPs exacerbated metabolic disorders of mice under HFD, including suppressed energy expenditure, increased fat mass and liver steatosis, decreased insulin sensitivity, disrupted glucose homeostasis, and decreased cold-tolerance capability compared with the control group. Intriguingly, we observed that, after a 12-week exposure, PS-NPs accumulated in the inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), a fat depot rich in beige adipocytes, further suppressing thermogenic gene programs, particularly the level of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a master regulator in the browning process of beige adipocytes. These effects ultimately led to decreased energy expenditure and subsequent disorders of glucolipid metabolism. Mechanistically, we revealed that PS-NPs disrupt mitochondrial function and induce oxidative damage and inflammation in beige adipocytes to inhibit their function. These negative metabolic effects of PS-NPs were ameliorated by antioxidant supplementation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that PS-NPs exposure exacerbates metabolic disorder in HFD-fed mice by disrupting beige adipocyte function.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Obesidade/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Microplásticos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Tecido Adiposo Bege/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 272: 116056, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301579

RESUMO

Using Caenorhabditis elegans as animal model, we investigated the effect of exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) in the range of µg/L on high glucose toxicity induction. With lifespan and locomotion behavior as endpoints, we observed that PS-NP (10 and 100 µg/L) enhanced toxicity in 50 mM glucose treated animals. In insulin signaling pathway, expressions of genes encoding insulin receptor (daf-2), kinases (age-1 and akt-1/2), and insulin peptides (ins-9, ins-6, and daf-28) were increased, and expressions of daf-16 and its target of sod-3 were decreased in high glucose treated nematodes followed by PS-NP exposure. Toxicity enhancement in high glucose treated nematodes by PS-NP exposure was inhibited by RNAi of daf-2, age-1, akt-2, akt-1, and 3 insulin peptides genes, but increased by RNAi of daf-16 and sod-3. The resistance of animals with RNAi of daf-2 to toxicity in high glucose treated nematodes followed by PS-NP exposure could be suppressed by RNAi of daf-16. Moreover, in high glucose treated animals followed by PS-NP exposure, daf-2 expression was inhibited by RNAi of ins-6, ins-9, and daf-28. Our data demonstrated the risk of PS-NP exposure in enhancing the high glucose toxicity. More importantly, alteration in expression of genes in insulin signaling pathway was associated with the toxicity enhancement in high glucose treated nematodes followed by PS-NP exposure.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Nanopartículas , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Insulina/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Longevidade
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 272: 116046, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309231

RESUMO

The potential of invertebrates in the biodegradation of plastic polymers such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is receiving increasing attention. The present study is aimed to identify the gut microbiome involved in this degradation in yellow mealworms, i.e., the larvae of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus. The egested PVC polymer experienced a dramatic reduction in both number average molecular weight (Mn) and weight average molecular weight (Mw) of 99.3% and 99.6%, respectively, whereas FTIR analysis revealed chemical alterations. Mass spectrometry analysis identified two potential degradation products: phthalic acid, di(2-propylpentyl) ester and 2-Propenoic acid, tridecyl ester. Further, we used metagenomic sequencing to elucidate the response of the gut microbiome when transitioning from bran to PVC as a food source, identifying four microorganisms actively involved in PVC degradation. Additionally, metagenomic functional analysis of the gut microbiome identified 111 key gene modules that were significantly enriched. In summary, our findings suggest that yellow mealworms adapt to PVC degradation by modifying their gut microbiome both structurally and functionally.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Tenebrio , Animais , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Plásticos/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ésteres
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 272: 116057, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335574

RESUMO

A surge in the number of anthropogenic pollutants has been caused by increasing industrial activities. Nanoplastics are spotlighted as a new aquatic pollutant that are a threat to microbes and larger organisms. Our previous study showed that the subinhibitory concentrations of aquatic pollutants such as phenol and formalin act as signaling molecules and modulate global gene expression and metabolism. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of a new type of anthropogenic contaminant, polystyrene (PS) nanoplastics, on the expression of key virulence factors in zoonotic pathogen Edwardsiella piscicida and the assessment of potential changes in the susceptibility of zebrafish as a model host. The TEM data indicated a noticeable change in the cell membrane indicating that PS particles were possibly entering the bacterial cells. Transcriptome analyses performed to identify the differentially expressed genes upon PS exposure revealed that the genes involved in major virulence factor type VI secretion system (T6SS) were down-regulated. However, the expression of T6SS-related genes was recovered from the PS adapted E. piscicida when nanoplastics are free. This demonstrated the hypervirulence of pathogen in infection assays with both cell lines and in vivo zebrafish model. Therefore, this study provides experimental evidence elucidating the direct regulatory impact of nanoplastics influx into aquatic ecosystems on fish pathogenic bacteria, notably influencing the expression of virulence factors.


Assuntos
Edwardsiella , Poluentes Ambientais , Doenças dos Peixes , Animais , Virulência/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
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