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1.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 21(1): 20, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global use of plastic materials has undergone rapid expansion, resulting in the substantial generation of degraded and synthetic microplastics and nanoplastics (MNPs), which have the potential to impose significant environmental burdens and cause harmful effects on living organisms. Despite this, the detrimental impacts of MNPs exposure towards host cells and tissues have not been thoroughly characterized. RESULTS: In the present study, we have elucidated a previously unidentified hepatotoxic effect of 20 nm synthetic polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs), rather than larger PS beads, by selectively inducing necroptosis in macrophages. Mechanistically, 20 nm PSNPs were rapidly internalized by macrophages and accumulated in the mitochondria, where they disrupted mitochondrial integrity, leading to heightened production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS). This elevated mtROS generation essentially triggered necroptosis in macrophages, resulting in enhanced crosstalk with hepatocytes, ultimately leading to hepatocyte damage. Additionally, it was demonstrated that PSNPs induced necroptosis and promoted acute liver injury in mice. This harmful effect was significantly mitigated by the administration of a necroptosis inhibitor or systemic depletion of macrophages prior to PSNPs injection. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our study suggests a profound toxicity of environmental PSNP exposure by triggering macrophage necroptosis, which in turn induces hepatotoxicity via intercellular crosstalk between macrophages and hepatocytes in the hepatic microenvironment.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Poliestirenos , Animais , Camundongos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Necroptose , Plásticos , Hepatócitos , Macrófagos , Mitocôndrias , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Fígado
2.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 25(4): 307-323, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584093

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) have become hazardous materials due to the massive amount of plastic waste and disposable masks, but their specific health effects remain uncertain. In this study, fluorescence-labeled polystyrene NPs (PS-NPs) were injected into the circulatory systems of mice to determine the distribution and potential toxic effects of NPs in vivo. Interestingly, whole-body imaging found that PS-NPs accumulated in the testes of mice. Therefore, the toxic effects of PS-NPs on the reproduction systems and the spermatocytes cell line of male mice, and their mechanisms, were investigated. After oral exposure to PS-NPs, their spermatogenesis was affected and the spermatogenic cells were damaged. The spermatocyte cell line GC-2 was exposed to PS-NPs and analyzed using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to determine the toxic mechanisms; a ferroptosis pathway was found after PS-NP exposure. The phenomena and indicators of ferroptosis were then determined and verified by ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1), and it was also found that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) played an important role in spermatogenic cell ferroptosis induced by PS-NPs. Finally, it was confirmed in vivo that this mechanism of Nrf2 played a protective role in PS-NPs-induced male reproductive toxicity. This study demonstrated that PS-NPs induce male reproductive dysfunction in mice by causing spermatogenic cell ferroptosis dependent on Nrf2.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Microplásticos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Reprodução
3.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 21(1): 13, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With rapid increase in the global use of various plastics, microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) pollution and their adverse health effects have attracted global attention. MPs have been detected out in human body and both MPs and NPs showed female reproductive toxicological effects in animal models. Miscarriage (abnormal early embryo loss), accounting for 15-25% pregnant women worldwide, greatly harms human reproduction. However, the adverse effects of NPs on miscarriage have never been explored. RESULTS: In this study, we identified that polystyrene (PS) plastics particles were present in women villous tissues. Their levels were higher in villous tissues of unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients vs. healthy control (HC) group. Furthermore, mouse assays further confirmed that exposure to polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs, 50 nm in diameter, 50 or 100 mg/kg) indeed induced miscarriage. In mechanism, PS-NPs exposure (50, 100, 150, or 200 µg/mL) increased oxidative stress, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased apoptosis in human trophoblast cells by activating Bcl-2/Cleaved-caspase-2/Cleaved-caspase-3 signaling through mitochondrial pathway. The alteration in this signaling was consistent in placental tissues of PS-NPs-exposed mouse model and in villous tissues of unexplained RM patients. Supplement with Bcl-2 could efficiently suppress apoptosis in PS-NPs-exposed trophoblast cells and reduce apoptosis and alleviate miscarriage in PS-NPs-exposed pregnant mouse model. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PS-NPs activated Bcl-2/Cleaved-caspase-2/Cleaved-caspase-3, leading to excessive apoptosis in human trophoblast cells and in mice placental tissues, further inducing miscarriage.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Nanopartículas , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Aborto Espontâneo/induzido quimicamente , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Caspase 3 , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Caspase 2 , Placenta , Apoptose , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Nanopartículas/toxicidade
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(10): 4510-4521, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426442

RESUMO

Polystyrene (PS) is one of the main synthetic polymers produced around the world, and it is present in the composition of a wide variety of single-use objects. When released into the environment, these materials are degraded by environmental factors, resulting in microplastics. We investigated the ability of Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae) to promote the fragmentation of PS microspheres (24.5 ± 2.9 µm) and the toxic effects associated with exposure to this polymer. C. sancticaroli larvae were exposed to 3 different concentrations of PS (67.5, 135, and 270 particles g-1 of dry sediment) for 144 h. Significant lethality was observed only at the highest concentration. A significant reduction in PS particle size as well as evidence of deterioration on the surface of the spheres, such as grooves and cracks, was observed. In addition, changes in oxidative stress biomarkers (SOD, CAT, MDA, and GST) were also observed. This is the first study to report the ability of Chironomus sp. to promote the biofragmentation of microplastics. The information obtained demonstrates that the macroinvertebrate community can play a key role in the degradation of plastic particles present in the sediment of freshwater environments and can also be threatened by such particle pollution.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Larva , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Chironomidae/metabolismo , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 25(3): 233-243, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453637

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) have attracted growing attention worldwide as an increasingly prevalent environmental pollutant. In addition, chicken meat is currently the most widely consumed kind of poultry in the global market. Consumer demand for chicken is on the rise both at home and abroad. As a result, the safety of chicken raising has also received significant attention. The lungs play an essential role in the physiological activities of chickens, and they are also the most vulnerable organs. Lung injury is difficult to repair after the accumulation of contaminants, and the mortality rate is high, which brings huge economic losses to farmers. The research on the toxicity of MPs has mainly focused on the marine ecosystem, while the mechanisms of toxicity and lung damage in chickens have been poorly studied. Thus, this study explored the effects of exposure to polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) at various concentrations for 42 d on chicken lungs. PS-MPs could cause lung pathologies and ultrastructural abnormalities, such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration, chromatin agglutination, and plasma membrane rupture. Simultaneously, PS-MPs increased the expression of genes related to the heat shock protein family (Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90), ER stress signaling (activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), ATF4, protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit α (eIF2α)), pyroptosis-related genes (NOD-|, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase 1 (Caspase1), and gasdermin-D (GSDMD)), and the inflammatory signaling pathway (nuclear factor-|κB (NF-|κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)). The above results showed that PS-MP exposure could result in lung stress, ER stress, pyroptosis, and inflammation in broilers. Our findings provide new scientific clues for further research on the mechanisms of physical health and toxicology regarding MPs.


Assuntos
Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Pneumonia , Animais , Galinhas , Ecossistema , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Microplásticos/toxicidade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade
6.
Toxicology ; 503: 153769, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437912

RESUMO

Research and regulatory efforts in toxicology are increasingly focused on the development of suitable non-animal methodologies for human health risk assessment. In this work we used human intestinal Caco-2 and HT29/MTX cell lines to address the potential risks of mixtures of the emerging contaminants tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and commercial polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs). We employed different in vitro settings to evaluate basal cytotoxicity through three complementary endpoints (metabolic activity, plasmatic, and lysosomal membrane integrity) and the induction of the oxidative stress and DNA damage responses with specific endpoints. Although no clear pattern was observed, our findings highlight the predominant impact of TBBPA in the combined exposures under subcytotoxic conditions and a differential behavior of the Caco-2 and HT29/MTX co-culture system. Distinctive outcomes detected with the mixture treatments include reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases, disturbances of mitochondrial inner membrane potential, generation of alkali-sensitive sites in DNA, as well as significant changes in the expression levels of relevant DNA and oxidative stress related genes.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Bifenil Polibromatos , Poliestirenos , Humanos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Células CACO-2 , Estresse Oxidativo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , DNA
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 273: 116180, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458071

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs)/nanoplastics (NPs), as a source and vector of pathogenic bacteria, are widely distributed in the natural environments. Here, we investigated the combined effects of polystyrene NPs (PS-NPs) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on testicular function in mice for the first time. 24 male mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups, control, PS-NPs, LPS, and PS-NPs + LPS, respectively. Histological alterations of the testes were observed in mice exposed to PS-NPs, LPS or PS-NPs + LPS. Total sperm count, the levels of testosterone in plasma and testes, the expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) decreased more remarkable in testes of mice treated with PS-NPs and LPS than the treatment with LPS or PS-NPs alone. Compared with PS-NPs treatment, LPS treatment induced more sever inflammatory response in testes of mice. Moreover, PS-NPs combined with LPS treatment increased the expression of these inflammatory factors more significantly than LPS treatment alone. In addition, PS-NPs or LPS treatment induced oxidative stress in testes of mice, but their combined effect is not significantly different from LPS treatment alone. These results suggest that PS-NPs exacerbate LPS-induced testicular dysfunction. Our results provide new evidence for the threats to male reproductive function induced by both NPs and bacterial infection in human health.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Testículo , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Sêmen , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Testosterona
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 273: 116175, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458070

RESUMO

Nanoplastics are recognized as emerging contaminants that can cause severe toxicity to marine fishes. However, limited researches were focusing on the toxic effects of nanoplastics on marine fish, especially the post-exposure resilience. In this study, red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were exposed to 5 mg/L polystyrene nanoplastics (100 nm, PS-NPs) for a 7-day exposure experiment, and a 14-day recovery experiment that followed. The aim was to evaluate the dynamic alterations in hepatic and branchial tissue damage, hepatic antioxidant capacity, as well as hepatic transcriptional and metabolic regulation in the red drum during exposure and post-exposure to PS-NPs. Histopathological observation found that PS-NPs primarily triggered hepatic lipid droplets and branchial epithelial liftings, a phenomenon persistently discernible up to the 14 days of recovery. Although antioxidant capacity partially recovered during recovery periods, PS-NPs resulted in a sustained reduction in hepatic antioxidant activity, causing oxidative damage throughout the entire exposure and recovery phases, as evidenced by decreased total superoxide dismutase activities and increased malondialdehyde content. At the transcriptional and metabolic level, PS-NPs primarily induced lipid metabolism disorders, DNA damage, biofilm disruption, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the gene-metabolite correlation interaction network, numerous CcO (cytochrome c oxidase) family genes and lipid metabolites were identified as key regulatory genes and metabolites in detoxification processes. Among them, the red drum possesses one additional CcO6B in comparison to human and zebrafish, which potentially contributes to its enhanced capacity for maintaining a stable and positive regulatory function in detoxification. This study revealed that nanoplastics cause severe biotoxicity to red drum, which may be detrimental to the survival of wild populations and affect the economics of farmed populations.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Humanos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 275: 116255, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552388

RESUMO

Endogenous immune defenses provide an intrinsic barrier against external entity invasion. Microplastics in the environment, especially those at the nanoscale (nanoplastics or NPs), may pose latent health risks through direct exposure. While links between nanoplastics and inflammatory processes have been established, detailed insights into how they may perturb the innate immune mechanisms remain uncharted. Employing murine and macrophage (RAW264.7) cellular models subjected to polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs), our investigative approach encompassed an array of techniques: Cell Counting Kit-8 assays, flow cytometric analysis, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence staining, cell transfection, cell cycle scrutiny, genetic manipulation, messenger RNA expression profiling via quantitative real-time PCR, and protein expression evaluation through western blotting. The results showed that PS-NPs caused RAW264.7 cell apoptosis, leading to cell cycle arrest, and activated the cGAS-STING pathway. This resulted in NF-κB signaling activation and increased pro-inflammatory mediator expression. Importantly, PS-NPs-induced activation of NF-κB and its downstream inflammatory cascade were markedly diminished after the silencing of the STING gene. Our findings highlight the critical role of the cGAS-STING pathway in the immunotoxic effects induced by PS-NPs. We outline a new mechanism whereby nanoplastics may trigger dysregulated innate immune and inflammatory responses via the cGAS/STING pathway.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , NF-kappa B , Animais , Camundongos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Imunidade Inata , Nucleotidiltransferases
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 142: 259-268, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527891

RESUMO

The environmental behavior of and risks associated with nanoplastics (NPs) have attracted considerable attention. However, compared to pristine NPs, environmental factors such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation that lead to changes in the toxicity of NPs have rarely been studied. We evaluated the changes in morphology and physicochemical properties of polystyrene (PS) NPs before and after UV irradiation, and compared their hepatotoxicity in mice. The results showed that UV irradiation caused particle size reduction and increased the carbonyl index (CI) and negative charge on the particle surface. UV-aged PS NPs (aPS NPs) could induce the generation of hydroxyl radicals (·OH), but also further promoted the generation of ·OH in the Fenton reaction system. Hepatic pathological damage was more severe in mice exposed to aPS NPs, accompanied by a large number of vacuoles and hepatocyte balloon-like changes and more marked perturbations in blood glucose and serum lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. In addition, exposure to PS NPs and aPS NPs, especially aPS NPs, triggered oxidative stress and significantly damaged the antioxidant capacity of mice liver. Compared with PS NPs, exposure to aPS NPs increased the number of altered metabolites in hepatic and corresponding metabolic pathways, especially glutathione metabolism. Our research suggests that UV irradiation can disrupt the redox balance in organisms by promoting the production of ·OH, enhancing PS NPs-induced liver damage and metabolic disorders. This study will help us understand the health risks of NPs and to avoid underestimation of the risks of NPs in nature.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Camundongos , Radical Hidroxila , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Raios Ultravioleta , Fígado , Nanopartículas/toxicidade
11.
Environ Int ; 185: 108543, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452464

RESUMO

Exposure to environmentally hazardous substances is recognized as a significant risk factor for neurological associated disorders. Among these substances, polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs), widely utilized in various consumer products, have been reported to exhibit neurotoxicity. However, the potential association of PS-MPs with abnormal anxiety behaviors, along with the underlying molecular mechanisms and key proteins involved, remains insufficiently explored. Here, we delineated the potential mechanisms of PS-MPs-induced anxiety through proteomics and molecular investigations. We characterized the PS-MPs, observed their accumulation in the brain, leading to anxiety-like behavior in mice, which is correlated with microglia activation and pro-inflammatory response. Consistent with these findings, our studies on BV2 microglia cells showed that PS-MPs activated NF-κB-mediated inflammation resulting in the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-1ß. Of particular significance, HRAS was identified as a key factor in the PS-MPs induced pro-inflammatory response through whole proteomics analysis, and knockdown of H-ras effectively inhibited PS-MPs induced PERK-NF-κB activation and associated pro-inflammatory response in microglia cells. Collectively, our findings highlight that PS-MPs induce anxiety of mice via the activation of the HRAS-derived PERK-NF-κB pathway in microlglia. Our results contribute valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of PS-MPs-induced anxiety, and may offer implications for addressing neurotoxicity and prevention the adverse effects of environmentally hazardous substances, including microplastics.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Animais , Camundongos , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Substâncias Perigosas , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade
12.
Mar Environ Res ; 196: 106434, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460223

RESUMO

The adverse impacts of microplastics (MPs) or ocean acidification (OA) on mollusks have been widely reported, however, little is known about their combined effects on mollusks. The oysters Crassostrea gigas were exposed to two sizes of polystyrene MPs with 1 × 104 particles/L (small polystyrene MPs (SPS-MPs): 6 µm, large polystyrene MPs (LPS-MPs): 50-60 µm) at two pH levels (7.7 and 8.1) for 14 days. The antagonistic effects between MPs and OA on oysters were mainly observed. Single SPS-MPs exposure can induce CAT enzyme activity and LPO level in gills, while LPS-MPs exposure alone can increase PGK and PEPCK gene expression in digestive glands. Ocean acidification can increase clearance rate and inhibit antioxidant enzyme activity, whereas combined exposure of OA and SPS-MPs can affect the metabolomic profile of digestive glands. This study emphasized that the potential toxic effects of MPs under the scene of climate change should be concerned.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Plásticos , Água do Mar , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Acidificação dos Oceanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Antioxidantes , Biomarcadores/metabolismo
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 274: 116202, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479314

RESUMO

Many laboratory studies demonstrated that the exposure to microplastics causes testosterone deficiency and spermatogenic impairment in mammals; however, the mechanism underlying this process remains still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of polystyrene microplastics (PS-MP) on the proliferation and functionality of cultured Leydig (TM3) and Sertoli (TM4) cells, focusing on the mitochondrial compartment and its association with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The in vitro exposure to PS-MP caused a substantial reduction in cellular viability in TM3 and TM4 cells. In TM3 cells PS-MP inhibited the protein levels of StAR and of steroidogenic enzymes 3ß-HSD and 17ß-HSD, and in TM4 cells PS-MP inhibited the protein levels of the androgen receptors other than the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). PS-MP inhibited the functions of TM3 and TM4, as evidenced by the decrease of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt in both cell lines. The oxidative stress caused by PS-MP decreased antioxidant defense in TM3 and TM4 cells, promoting autophagic and apoptotic processes. Furthermore, we found mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of ER stress. It is known that mitochondria are closely associated with ER to form the Mitochondrial-Associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membranes (MAM), the site of calcium ions transfer as well as of lipid biosynthesis-involved enzymes and cholesterol transport from ER to the mitochondria. For the first time, we studied this aspect in PS-MP-treated TM3 and TM4 cells and MAMs dysregulation was observed. This study is the first to elucidate the intracellular mechanism underlying the effects of PS-MPs in somatic testicular cells, corroborating that PS-MP might be one of the causes of an increase in male infertility through the impairment of steroidogenesis in Leydig cells and of the nurse function of Sertoli cells. Thus, our findings contributed with new information to the mechanism underlying the effects of PS-MP on the male reproductive system.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Testículo , Retículo Endoplasmático , Mamíferos
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171633, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471591

RESUMO

Micro and nanoplastics (MPs/NPs) coupled with heavy metals are prevalent in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Their ecological toxicity and combined adverse effects have obtained significant concern. Past studies primarily focused on how MPs/NPs influence the behavior of heavy metals. Yet, the possible effects of heavy metals on MP/NP transport and toxicity within co-contaminated systems are still not well-understood. In this study, we conducted split-root experiments to explore the transport and toxicity of polystyrene (PS) particles of varying sizes in parsley seedlings, both with and without the addition of cadmium (Cd). Both the PS-NPs (100 nm) and PS-MPs (300 nm) traveled from the PS-spiked roots (Roots-1) to the non-PS-spiked roots (Roots-2), with or without Cd, possibly because of phloem transport. Furthermore, the presence of Cd reduced the accumulation and movement of PS-NP/MP in the roots, likely due to the increased positive charge (Cd2+) on the PS surface. PS-NPs/MPs in both Roots-1 and Roots-2 were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When Cd was added to either Roots-1 (PS + Cd|H) or Roots-2 (PS|Cd), there was a minor reduction in the chlorophyll a and carotenoids content in leaves with PS|H. The adverse impacts of MPs|H on both indicators were influenced by the MP concentration. However, chlorophyll b significantly increased in the PS|H, PS + Cd|H, and PS|Cd treatments. Consequently, the chlorophyll a/b ratio declined, indicating inhibition of photosynthesis. The dehydrogenase content showed a minor change in Roots-1 and Roots-2 without Cd stress, whereas it significantly decreased on the Cd-spiked side and subsequently inhibited root growth. In contrast, the marked rise in glutathione (GSH) levels within Cd-spiked roots suggested, based on Gaussian analysis, that GSH and Cd chelation were instrumental in mitigating Cd toxicity. When Cd was introduced to both Roots-1 and Roots-2 simultaneously (PS + Cd|Cd), the aforementioned index showed a notable decline.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Metais Pesados , Cádmio/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Clorofila A , Petroselinum , Ecossistema , Glutationa , Plásticos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171653, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485023

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFAS) are widespread in the global ecosystem. MPs have the ability to adsorb organic contaminants such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), leading to combined effects. The current work aims to explore the individual and combined toxicological effects of polystyrene (PS) and PFOS on the growth and nerves of the freshwater planarian (Dugesia japonica). The results showed that PS particles could adsorb PFOS. PS and PFOS impeded the regeneration of decapitated planarians eyespots, whereas the combined treatment increased the locomotor speed of intact planarians. PS and PFOS caused significant DNA damage, while co-treatment with different PS concentrations aggravated and attenuated DNA damage, respectively. Further studies at the molecular level have shown that PS and PFOS affect the proliferation and differentiation of neoblasts in both intact and regenerating planarians, alter the expression levels of neuronal genes, and impede the development of the nervous system. PS and PFOS not only disrupted the homeostasis of intact planarians, but also inhibited the regeneration of decapitated planarians. This study is the first to assess the multiple toxicity of PS and PFOS to planarians after combined exposure. It provides a basis for the environmental and human health risks of MPs and PFAS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorocarbonos , Planárias , Animais , Humanos , Planárias/fisiologia , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Homeostase , Fluorocarbonos/toxicidade , Fluorocarbonos/metabolismo
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171681, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490422

RESUMO

Nanoplastics, arising from the fragmentation of plastics into environmental pollutants and specialized commercial applications, such as cosmetics, have elicited concerns due to their potential toxicity. Evidence suggests that the oral ingestion of nanoplastics smaller than 100 nm may penetrate the brain and induce neurotoxicity. However, comprehensive research in this area has been hampered by technical challenges associated with the detection and synthesis of nanoplastics. This study aimed to bridge this research gap by successfully synthesizing fluorescent polystyrene nanoplastics (PSNPs, 30-50 nm) through the incorporation of IR-813 and validating them using various analytical techniques. We administered PSNPs orally (10 and 20 mg/kg/day) to mice and observed that they reached brain tissues and induced cognitive dysfunction, as measured by spatial and fear memory tests, while locomotor and social behaviors remained unaffected. In vitro studies (200 µg/mL) demonstrated a predominant uptake of PSNPs by microglia over astrocytes or neurons, leading to microglial activation, as evidenced by immunostaining of cellular markers and morphological analysis. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that PSNPs altered gene expression in microglia, highlighting neuroinflammatory responses that may contribute to cognitive deficits. To further explore the neurotoxic effects of PSNPs mediated by microglial activation, we measured endogenous neuronal activity using a multi-electrode array in cultured hippocampal neurons. The application of conditioned media from microglia exposed to PSNPs suppressed neuronal activity, which was reversed by inhibitors of microglial activation. Our findings offer detailed insights into the mechanisms by which nanoplastics damage the brain, particularly emphasizing the potential environmental risk factors that contribute to cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Microglia , Poliestirenos , Animais , Camundongos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Neurônios
17.
Chemosphere ; 353: 141643, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447901

RESUMO

There is global concern that microplastics may harm aquatic life. Here, we examined the effects of fine polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs, 2-µm diameter, 0.1 mg/L, 2.5 × 107 particles/L) on the behavior and the microbiome (linked to brain-gut interaction) of a fish model using medaka, Oryzias latipes. We found that shoaling behavior was reduced in PS-MP-exposed medaka compared with control fish during the exposure period, but it recovered during a depuration period. There was no difference in swimming speed between the PS-MP-exposed and control groups during the exposure period. Analysis of the dominant bacterial population (those comprising ≥1% of the total bacterial population) in the gut of fish showed that exposure to PS-MPs tended to increase the relative abundance of the phylum Fusobacteria and the genus Vibrio. Furthermore, structural-equation modeling of gut bacteria on the basis of machine-learning data estimated strong relationship involved in the reduction of the functional bacterial species of minority (<1% of the total bacterial population) such as the genera Muribaculum (an undefined role), Aquaspirillum (a candidate for nitrate metabolism and magnetotactics), and Clostridium and Phascolarctobacterium (potential producers of short-chain fatty acids, influencing behavior by affecting levels of neurotransmitters) as a group of gut bacteria in association with PS-MP exposure. Our results suggest that fish exposure to fine microplastics may cause dysbiosis and ultimately cause social behavior disorders linked to brain-gut interactions. This effect could be connected to reduction of fish fitness in the ecosystem and reduced fish survival.


Assuntos
Oryzias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/análise , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Microplásticos/análise , Plásticos , Disbiose , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Environ Pollut ; 347: 123789, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490526

RESUMO

The co-occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms and nano-microplastic pollution in the water is becoming an emerging risk. To assess the combined hepatotoxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and polystyrene microplastics (PSMPs) on zebrafish (Danio rerio), male adult zebrafish were exposed to single MC-LR (0, 1, 5, 25 µg/L) and a mixture of MC-LR and PSMPs (100 µg/L). After 60 d exposure, the results indicated that PSMPs significantly increased the MC-LR bioaccumulation in the livers in contrast to the single 25 µg/L MC-LR treatment group. Moreover, the severity of hepatic pathological lesions was aggravated in the MC-LR + PSMPs treatment groups, which were mainly characterized by cellular vacuolar degeneration, swollen hepatocytes, and pyknotic nucleus. The ultrastructural changes also proved that PSMPs combined with MC-LR could enhance the swollen mitochondria and dilated endoplasmic reticulum. The biochemical results, including increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased glutathione (GSH), indicated that PSMPs intensified the MC-LR-induced oxidative damage in the combined treatment groups. Concurrently, alterations of sod1 and keap1a mRNA levels also confirmed that PSMPs together with MC-LR jointly lead to enhanced oxidative injury. Our findings demonstrated that PSMPs enhanced the MC-LR bioavailability by acting as a vector and exacerbating the hepatic injuries and antioxidant dysfunction in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Toxinas Marinhas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Masculino , Peixe-Zebra , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 134030, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493621

RESUMO

Continuous exposure to plastic pollutants may have serious consequences on human health. However, most toxicity assessments focus on non-environmentally relevant particles and rarely investigate long-term effects such as cancer induction. The present study assessed the carcinogenic potential of two secondary nanoplastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET) particles generated from plastic bottles, and a biodegradable polylactic acid material, as respective examples of environmentally existing particles and new bioplastics. Pristine polystyrene nanoplastics were also included for comparison. A broad concentration range (6.25-200 µg/mL) of each nanoplastic was tested in both the initiation and promotion conditions of the regulatory assessment-accepted in vitro Bhas 42 cell transformation assay. Parallel cultures allowed confirmation of the efficient cellular internalisation of the three nanoplastics. Cell growth was enhanced by polystyrene in the initiation assay, and by PET in both conditions. Moreover, the number of transformed foci was significantly increased only by the highest PET concentration in the promotion assay, which also showed dose-dependency, indicating that nano PET can act as a non-genotoxic tumour promotor. Together, these findings support the carcinogenic risk assessment of nanoplastics and raise concerns regarding whether real-life co-exposure of PET nanoplastics and other environmental pollutants may result in synergistic transformation capacities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poliésteres , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/análise , Polietilenotereftalatos/toxicidade , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Polietileno
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(16): 23680-23696, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427170

RESUMO

Plastics, especially polystyrene nanoplastic particles (PSNPs), are known for their durability and absorption properties, allowing them to interact with environmental pollutants such as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Previous research has highlighted the potential of these particles as carriers for various pollutants, emphasizing the need to understand their environmental impact comprehensively. This study focuses on the subchronic exposure of male Swiss albino mice to PSNP and DBP, aiming to investigate their reproductive toxicity between these pollutants in mammalian models. The primary objective of this study is to examine the reproductive toxicity resulting from simultaneous exposure to PSNP and DBP in male Swiss albino mice. The study aims to analyze sperm parameters, measure antioxidant enzyme activity, and conduct histopathological and morphometric examinations of the testis. By investigating the individual and combined effects of PSNP and DBP, the study seeks to gain insights into their impact on the reproductive profile of male mice, emphasizing potential synergistic interactions between these environmental pollutants. Male Swiss albino mice were subjected to subchronic exposure (60 days) of PSNP (0.2 mg/m, 50 nm size) and DBP (900 mg/kg bw), both individually and in combination. Various parameters, including sperm parameters, antioxidant enzyme activity, histopathological changes, and morphometric characteristics of the testis, were evaluated. The Johnsen scoring system and histomorphometric parameters were employed for a comprehensive assessment of spermatogenesis and testicular structure. The study revealed non-lethal effects within the tested doses of PSNP and DBP alone and in combination, showing reductions in body weight gain and testis weight compared to the control. Individual exposures and the combination group exhibited adverse effects on sperm parameters, with the combination exposure demonstrating more severe outcomes. Structural abnormalities, including vascular congestion, Leydig cell hyperplasia, and the extensive congestion in tunica albuginea along with both ST and Leydig cell damage, were observed in the testis, underscoring the reproductive toxicity potential of PSNP and DBP. The Johnsen scoring system and histomorphometric parameters confirmed these findings, providing interconnected results aligning with observed structural abnormalities. The study concludes that simultaneous exposure to PSNP and DBP induces reproductive toxicity in male Swiss albino mice. The combination of these environmental pollutants leads to more severe disruptions in sperm parameters, testicular structure, and antioxidant defense mechanisms compared to individual exposures. The findings emphasize the importance of understanding the interactive mechanisms between different environmental pollutants and their collective impact on male reproductive health. The use of the Johnsen scoring system and histomorphometric parameters provides a comprehensive evaluation of spermatogenesis and testicular structure, contributing valuable insights to the field of environmental toxicology.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Testículo , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Dibutilftalato/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Microplásticos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Mamíferos
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