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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444432

RESUMO

Postmenopausal women represent a vulnerable population towards endocrine disruptors due to hormonal deficit. We previously demonstrated that chronic exposure of ovariectomized C57Bl6/J mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet to a low-dose mixture of chemicals with one dioxin, one polychlorobiphenyl, one phthalate, and bisphenol A triggered metabolic alterations in the liver but the intestine was not explored. Yet, the gastrointestinal tract is the main route by which pollutants enter the body. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic consequences of ovarian withdrawal and E2 replacement on the various gut segments along with investigating the impact of the mixture of pollutants. We showed that genes encoding estrogen receptors (Esr1, Gper1 not Esr2), xenobiotic processing genes (e.g., Cyp3a11, Cyp2b10), and genes related to gut homeostasis in the jejunum (e.g., Cd36, Got2, Mmp7) and to bile acid biosynthesis in the gut (e.g., Fgf15, Slc10a2) and liver (e.g., Abcb11, Slc10a1) were under estrogen regulation. Exposure to pollutants mimicked some of the effects of E2 replacement, particularly in the ileum (e.g., Esr1, Nr1c1) suggesting that the mixture had estrogen-mimetic activities. The present findings have important implications for the understanding of estrogen-dependent metabolic alterations with regards to situations of loss of estrogens as observed after menopause.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Estradiol , Estrogênios , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovariectomia
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371868

RESUMO

Infants and toddlers are highly sensitive to contaminants in food. Chronic exposure can lead to developmental delays, disorders of the nervous, urinary and immune systems, and to cardiovascular disease. A literature review was conducted mainly in PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus databases, and took into consideration papers published from October 2020 to March 2021. We focused on contaminant content, intake estimates, and exposure to contaminants most commonly found in foods consumed by infants and children aged 0.5-3 years. In the review, we included 83 publications with full access. Contaminants that pose a high health risk are toxic elements, acrylamide, bisphenol, and pesticide residues. Minor pollutants include: dioxins, mycotoxins, nitrates and nitrites, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In order to reduce the negative health effects of food contamination, it seems reasonable to educate parents to limit foods that are potentially dangerous for infants and young children. An appropriate varied diet, selected cooking techniques, and proper food preparation can increase the likelihood that the foods children consume are safe for their health. It is necessary to monitor food contamination, adhere to high standards at every stage of production, and improve the quality of food for children.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Lactente
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148160, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380288

RESUMO

Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), one of the short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), is considered as a substitute of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). This emerging organic pollutant is persistent and highly bioavailable to humans, raising concerns about its potential health risks. There are currently few researches on the toxicity of PFHxA. Liver has been suggested to be the main target of PFHxA toxicity, and the mechanism remains unclear. Herein, we investigated the transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic landscape in PFHxA-exposed mice. Using these approaches, we identified several valuable biological processes involved in the process of liver injury, comprising fatty acid biosynthesis and degradation pathways, which might be induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. These processes further promoted oxidative stress and induced liver injury. Meanwhile, abnormalities in purine metabolism and glutathione metabolism were observed during the liver injury induced by PFHxA, indicating the production of oxidative stress. Finally, our present multi-omics studies provided new insights into the mechanisms involved in PFHxA-induced liver injury.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Animais , Caproatos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Proteômica
4.
Environ Int ; 156: 106747, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxicology studies have identified pregnancy as a window of susceptibility for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and cardiometabolic indices in women. No study in humans, however, has examined EDC mixtures and cardiometabolic indices during pregnancy. METHODS: We used the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study to examine whether bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and phthalates are associated with blood pressure, glucose, and lipids in 388 pregnant women. We measured PBDEs and PFAS in serum at 16 weeks gestation, while BPA and phthalate metabolites were quantified in urine at 16 and 26 weeks gestation. We used linear regression and Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) to estimate covariate-adjusted associations of individual EDCs and their mixtures with cardiometabolic indices during pregnancy. RESULTS: A 10-fold increase in BDE-28 was associated with a 13.1 mg/dL increase in glucose (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.9, 23.2) in linear regression. The BKMR model also identified BDE-28 as having a positive association with glucose. BDE-28, BDE-47, and BDE-99 were positively associated with total cholesterol in both single- and multi-pollutant models, whereas a suggestive negative association was noted with BDE-153. Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) (ß = -7.9 mg/dL, 95% CI -12.9, -3.0) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) (ß = -6.3 mg/dL, 95% CI -10.6, -2.0) were both associated with significant decreases in cholesterol in linear regression, but only MBzP was identified as an important contributor in the BKMR model. CONCLUSION: Overall, we observed positive associations between PBDEs with glucose and cholesterol levels during pregnancy, while negative associations were found between some phthalate biomarkers and cholesterol. No relationship was noted for BPA or PFAS with cardiometabolic indices during pregnancy across both models.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Teorema de Bayes , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez
5.
Environ Int ; 156: 106743, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243036

RESUMO

Exposure to alternative phthalates and related health effects in pregnant women are rarely reported. Nineteen phthalate metabolites and a DNA oxidative damage biomarker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were determined in urine samples of pregnant women recruited in South China. The detection frequencies and concentration of selected alternative phthalates, i.e., diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP) and di-(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP) were lower than those of conventional phthalates. However, mono-(6-hydroxy-2-propylheptyl) phthalate, a metabolite of DPHP, was detected in 70% of urine samples (median: 0.13 ng/mL). The estimated daily intakes of conventional plasticizers, including dimethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (median range: 1.0-3.0 µg/kg_bw/day) were significantly higher than those of DiNP (0.08 µg/kg_bw/day) and DPHP (0.03 µg/kg_bw/day) (p < 0.05). Approximately 24% of pregnant women were at high risk when cumulative risk from exposure to several phthalates was considered. The concentrations of phthalate metabolites and urinary 8-OHdG were significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.206-0.772, p < 0.01), which were further conformed by multiple linear regression analysis (ß = 0.168-0.639, p < 0.01). In addition, conventional phthalates were more strongly correlated with 8-OHdG than alternative phthalates (i.e., DiNP, DPHP), partly suggesting the relatively smaller health effects of alternatives due to their low exposure doses and toxicities. These findings suggested that alternative phthalates have entered the human body from consumer products in the study area, and exposure-related risk of DNA oxidative stress was comparatively lower.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Plastificantes , Gravidez , Gestantes
6.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 426: 115651, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies in animal models and humans suggest that exposure to lead is associated with hearing loss. Lead can reach the inner ear through the blood circulation; evidence suggests that lead could accumulate in the inner ear, causing inner ear damage. AIM: To evaluate prestin and otolin-1 protein levels and their relationship with an increased hearing threshold in participants exposed to lead. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 315 participants from Tlaxcala, Mexico. Blood lead levels (BPb) were evaluated by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum prestin and otolin-1 were quantified using ELISA. Auditory function at frequencies of 0.125 to 8 kHz was evaluated in a soundproof chamber. RESULTS: Participants were classified according to BPb: group I (<10 µg/dL) had a median BPb of 6 µg/dL and prestin levels of 11.06 ng/mL. While participants in group II (≥10 µg/dL) had a median of BPb 20.7 µg/dL (p < 0.05) and prestin levels of 0.15 ng/mL (p < 0.001). Participants in both groups showed a normal hearing. Otolin-1 levels were higher for participants with normal hearing and lower for participants with hearing loss in both groups, p > 0.05. Multiple linear regression models predict an average decrease of 0.17 to 0.26 ng/mL in prestin levels per decibel increase for the frequencies evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Participants with high BPb showed an increase in hearing threshold, and prestin levels decreased proportionally to the hearing threshold increase. This is the first study to evaluate prestin as a potential biomarker for hearing damage, evaluated by audiometry, in participants with lead exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/sangue , Perda Auditiva/induzido quimicamente , Chumbo/toxicidade , Transportadores de Sulfato/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/sangue , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 76, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are endocrine disrupting chemicals with widespread exposures across the U.S. given their abundance in consumer products. PFAS and PBDEs are associated with reproductive toxicity and adverse health outcomes, including certain cancers. PFAS and PBDEs may affect health through alternations in telomere length. In this study, we examined joint associations between prenatal exposure to PFAS, PBDEs, and maternal and newborn telomere length using mixture analyses, to characterize effects of cumulative environmental chemical exposures. METHODS: Study participants were enrolled in the Chemicals in Our Bodies (CIOB) study, a demographically diverse cohort of pregnant people and children in San Francisco, CA. Seven PFAS (ng/mL) and four PBDEs (ng/g lipid) were measured in second trimester maternal serum samples. Telomere length (T/S ratio) was measured in delivery cord blood of 292 newborns and 110 second trimester maternal whole blood samples. Quantile g-computation was used to assess the joint associations between groups of PFAS and PBDEs and newborn and maternal telomere length. Groups considered were: (1) all PFAS and PBDEs combined, (2) PFAS, and (3) PBDEs. Maternal and newborn telomere length were modeled as separate outcomes. RESULTS: T/S ratios in newborn cord and maternal whole blood were moderately correlated (Spearman ρ = 0.31). In mixtures analyses, a simultaneous one quartile increase in all PFAS and PBDEs was associated with a small increase in newborn (mean change per quartile increase = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.03, 0.08) and maternal telomere length (mean change per quartile increase = 0.03 (95% CI = -0.03, 0.09). When restricted to maternal-fetal paired samples (N = 76), increasing all PFAS and PBDEs combined was associated with a strong, positive increase in newborn telomere length (mean change per quartile increase = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.28). These associations were primarily driven by PFAS (mean change per quartile increase = 0.11 [95% CI = 0.01, 0.22]). No associations were observed with maternal telomere length among paired samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PFAS and PBDEs may be positively associated with newborn telomere length.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/toxicidade , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Troca Materno-Fetal , Gravidez , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Ácidos Sulfônicos/toxicidade
8.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 75, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is a common heavy metal that mainly causes renal damage. There is a lack of research on the large-scale and systematic evaluation of the association between urinary Cd (U-Cd) and various effect biomarkers among Chinese residents. METHODS: Based on the establishment process of dietary Cd limit standards by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the dose-response relationships between U-Cd and four biomarkers, ß2-microglobulin (ß2-MG), N-acetyl-ß-glucosidase (NAG), microalbumin (mALB), and retinol binding Protein (RBP) were explored, respectively. Toxicokinetic model was used to derive the dietary Cd exposure limit for Chinese residents after critical U-Cd concentration was calculated. RESULTS: As the sensitive biomarkers of renal injury, ß2-MG and NAG were selected to estimate the 95% confidence interval lower limit of the U-Cd benchmark dose (BMDL5) to be 3.07 and 2.98 µg/g Cr, respectively. Dietary Cd exposure limit was calculated to be 0.28 µg/kg bw/day (16.8 µg/day, based on the body weight of 60 kg), which was lower than the average Chinese Cd exposure (30.6 µg/day) by the China National Nutrient and Health Survey. CONCLUSION: This study established an overall association between U-Cd and renal injury biomarkers, and explored the Chinese dietary Cd exposure limits, which helps improve Chinese Cd exposure risk assessment and provides a reference basis for formulating reasonable exposure standards.


Assuntos
Cádmio/urina , Exposição Dietética , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Nefropatias/urina , Modelos Biológicos , Adulto , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Monitoramento Biológico , Biomarcadores/urina , Cádmio/toxicidade , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Dietética/análise , Exposição Dietética/normas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Glucosidases/urina , Humanos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Proteínas de Ligação ao Retinol/urina , Microglobulina beta-2/urina
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112381, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091184

RESUMO

Developing monolithic carbon-based catalyst with low cost, easy separation and high performance to degrade pollutants via PMS activation is crucial. In this work, a series of novel monolithic Me-CA catalysts based on biomass derived carbon aerogel were prepared by hydrothermal method using waste watermelon peel as raw material. Co-CA catalyst showed excellent performance to activate PMS for 2, 4-DCP degradation in different temperature and different water matrices. Different pollutants, such as ciprofloxacin (CIP), bisphenol A (BPA), and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) could also be removed in the Co-CA/PMS system. As expected, Co-CA could be easily separated from degraded solution, and show high stability and reusability for PMS activation with a lower cobalt leaching. Based on the results of the quenching tests, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, Chronoamperometric test (i-t curves) and electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the PMS activation mechanism was proposed. The phytotoxicity assessment determined by germination situation of mung bean indicated that PMS activation could eliminate the hazards of 2, 4-D. Therefore, this study provides a low cost, efficient and environmental-friendly monolithic biomass carbon aerogel catalyst for different pollutants degradation, which further advances monolithic catalyst for practical wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Cobalto/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Peróxidos/química , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/química , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/toxicidade , Biomassa , Catálise , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Eliminação de Resíduos , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Environ Int ; 155: 106683, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144479

RESUMO

The early-life exposome influences future health and accelerated biological aging has been proposed as one of the underlying biological mechanisms. We investigated the association between more than 100 exposures assessed during pregnancy and in childhood (including indoor and outdoor air pollutants, built environment, green environments, tobacco smoking, lifestyle exposures, and biomarkers of chemical pollutants), and epigenetic age acceleration in 1,173 children aged 7 years old from the Human Early-Life Exposome project. Age acceleration was calculated based on Horvath's Skin and Blood clock using child blood DNA methylation measured by Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. We performed an exposure-wide association study between prenatal and childhood exposome and age acceleration. Maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy was nominally associated with increased age acceleration. For childhood exposures, indoor particulate matter absorbance (PMabs) and parental smoking were nominally associated with an increase in age acceleration. Exposure to the organic pesticide dimethyl dithiophosphate and the persistent pollutant polychlorinated biphenyl-138 (inversely associated with child body mass index) were protective for age acceleration. None of the associations remained significant after multiple-testing correction. Pregnancy and childhood exposure to tobacco smoke and childhood exposure to indoor PMabs may accelerate epigenetic aging from an early age.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Expossoma , Aceleração , Criança , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
11.
Environ Int ; 155: 106701, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146765

RESUMO

Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE)-based epoxy resin is one of the most widely used epoxy resins with an annual production amount of several million tons. Compared with all other legacy or emerging organic compounds, BADGE is special due to its toxicity and high reactivity in the environment. More and more studies are available on its analytical methods, occurrence, transformation and toxicity. Here, we provided a comprehensive review of the current BADGE-related studies, with focus on its production, application, available analytical methods, occurrences in the environment and human specimen, abiotic and biotic transformation, as well as the in vitro and in vivo toxicities. The available data show that BADGE and its derivatives are ubiquitous environmental chemicals and often well detected in human specimens. For their analysis, a water-free sample pretreatment should be considered to avoid hydrolysis. Additionally, their complex reactions with endogenous metabolites are areas of great interest. To date, the monitoring and further understanding of their transport and fate in the environment are still quite lacking, comparing with its analogues bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS). In terms of toxicity, the summary of its current studies and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast toxicity database suggests BADGE might be an endocrine disruptor, though more detailed evidence is still needed to confirm this hypothesis in in vivo animal models. Future study of BADGE should focus on its metabolic transformation, reaction with protein and validation of its role as an endocrine disruptor. We believe that the elucidation of BADGEs can greatly enhance our understandings of those reactive compounds in the environment and human.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Compostos de Epóxi , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
12.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(5): 1057-1070, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117523

RESUMO

The heavy metals lead and cadmium have become important pollutants in the environment, which exert negative effects on plant morphology, growth and photosynthesis. It is particularly significant to uncover the genetic loci and the causal genes for lead and cadmium tolerance in plants. This study used an IBM Syn10 DH population to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling maize seedling tolerance to lead and cadmium by linkage mapping. The broad-sense heritability of these seedling traits ranged from 65.8-97.3% and 32.0-98.8% under control (CK) and treatment (T) conditions, respectively. A total of 53 and 64 QTL were detected under CK and T conditions, respectively. Moreover, 42 QTL were identified using lead and cadmium tolerance coefficient (LCTC). Among these QTL, five and two major QTL that explained > 10% of phenotypic variation were identified under T condition and using LCTC, respectively. Furthermore, eight QTL were simultaneously identified by T and LCTC, explaining 5.23% to 9.21% of the phenotypic variations. Within these major and common QTL responsible for the combined heavy metal tolerance, four candidate genes (Zm00001d048759, Zm00001d004689, Zm00001d004843, Zm00001d033527) were previously reported to correlate with heavy metal transport and tolerance. These findings will contribute to functional gene identification and molecular marker-assisted breeding for improving heavy metal tolerance in maize.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Plântula/genética , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Fenótipo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2326: 3-18, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097257

RESUMO

Crude oil disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon accident, have caused severe environmental contamination and damage, affecting the health of marine and terrestrial organisms. Some previous studies have demonstrated cleanup efforts using chemical dispersant induced more potent toxicities than oil alone due to an increase in bioavailability of crude oil components, such as PAHs. However, there still lacks a systematic procedure that provides methods to determine genotypic and phenotypic changes following exposure to environmental toxicants or toxicant mixture, such as dispersed crude oil. Here, we describe methods for identifying a mechanism of dispersed crude oil-induced reproductive toxicity in the model organisms, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Due to the genetic malleability of C. elegans, two mutant strains outlined in this chapter were used to identify a pathway responsible for inducing apoptosis: MD701 bcIs39 [lim-7p::ced-1::GFP + lin-15(+)], a mutant strain that allows visualization of apoptotic bodies via a green fluorescent protein fused to CED-1; and TJ1 (cep-1(gk138) I.), a p53/CEP-1 defective strain that is unable to activate apoptosis via the p53/CEP-1 pathway. In addition, qRT-PCR was utilized to demonstrate the aberrant expression of apoptosis (ced-13, ced-3, ced-4, ced-9, cep-1, dpl-1, efl-1, efl-2, egl-1, egl-38, lin-35, pax-2, and sir-2.1) and cytochrome P450 (cyp14a3, cyp35a1, cyp35a2, cyp35a5, and cyp35c1) protein-coding genes following exposure to dispersed crude oil. The procedure outlined here can be applicable to determine whether environmental contaminants, most of time contaminant mixture, cause reproductive toxicity by activation of the proapoptotic, p53/CEP-1 pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Células Germinativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Germinativas/citologia , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Petróleo/análise , Petróleo/toxicidade
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2326: 33-46, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097259

RESUMO

Environmental pollutants inevitably exert adverse effects on humans and other species. Quick identification and in-depth characterization of the pollutants are requisite objectives for clinicians and environmental health scientists. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been utilized as a model organism for toxicity evaluation of environmental pollutants, due to its transparency, short lifespan, entire genome sequencing, and economical characteristics. However, few researchers have systematically addressed mitochondrial toxicity in response to toxicants, despite the critical role mitochondria play in energy production and respiration, as well as the generation of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondria are vulnerable to environmental pollutants, and their dysfunction contributes to cellular damage and toxicity in plethora of diseases. Here, we describe methods in step-by-step for mitochondrial toxicity evaluation in response to pollutants, including exposure of C. elegans to toxicants, mitochondrial ROS detection, mitochondrial morphology analysis, mitochondrial function analysis, such as ATP production and oxygen consumption, and gene expression studies, with the application of corresponding genetically modified strains.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2326: 95-103, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097263

RESUMO

Semi-quantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (sqRT-PCR) is a simple and specific method for quantitative RNA in recent years. The relative quantity of a specific mRNA in the samples can be inferred by reverse transcription of mRNA into cDNA, and PCR amplification and determination of the quantity of PCR products. The semi-quantitative analysis is carried out under a fixed number of PCR cycles, and the total RNA concentration is kept in the exponential phase of the PCR. The method is to use a housekeeping gene (usually actin, GAPDH, and EF1α) as a reference standard in treated and control organisms to observe the expression of the interested genes (upregulated or downregulated) in toxicology. In this chapter, we describe a step-by-step method for determining the differential regulation of target genes in organisms exposed to environmental pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , RNA/genética , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2326: 105-122, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097264

RESUMO

The emergence of advanced and powerful neuroscientific technologies has greatly pushed forward the development of neurobiology in the last decade. Although neurotoxicology is an interdisciplinary subject sharing a mass of technologies with neurobiology, the implementation of these advanced technologies in neurotoxicology is merely seen. Here we describe the detailed methods and materials of some emerging neuroscientific technologies, including optogenetics, fiber photometry, in vivo two-photon Imaging, in vivo calcium imaging, and in vivo electrophysiological recording, hoping that the integration of technologies from neurotoxicology and neuroscience can lend weight to the development of neurotoxicology.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/análise , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurobiologia/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Fotometria/métodos , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2326: 123-141, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097265

RESUMO

Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in biology, which plays important roles in environmental pollutant-induced neurotoxicity. Analyses of epigenetic modification is of great significance in providing more accurate information for the risk assessment and management of harmful factors. However, few studies have systematically summarized the analysis and detection methods for epigenetic modification. In this chapter, we summarized several popular methods for analyses of epigenetic modifications, including Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation Sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) for genome-wide DNA methylation analyses, Quantitative Methylation Specific PCR (qMSP) for genome-specific DNA methylation analyses, methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) for genome-wide RNA methylation analyses, MeRIP-qPCR for genome-specific RNA methylation analyses, qRT-PCR for the non-coding RNA, and western blot for the histone modification analyses. It could be helpful to the research about environmental epigenetic toxicology.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigenômica/métodos , Código das Histonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
18.
Environ Res ; 200: 111393, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarker measures of contaminant exposure and nutrient status can help increase understanding of the risks and benefits associated with the consumption of traditional foods by Inuit. While gene-environment and gene-nutrient interactions may help explain variations in biomarker measures, the role of genetic polymorphisms is largely understudied especially for vulnerable sub-populations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key genes and blood concentrations of environmental chemicals and nutrients among Inuit. METHODS: Blood samples from 665 individuals who participated in the Qanuippitaa Survey (Nunavik, Canada) in 2004 were analyzed for toxicants and nutrients. DNA was extracted and 140 SNPs in classes relevant to the toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of the target contaminants and nutrients, and/or are involved in cardiovascular health and lipid metabolism were genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX Gold platform. RESULTS: Geometric means (µg/L) of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), DDE, PCB-153, and selenium (Se) were 11.1, 2.8, 39.9, 2.9, 1.1 and 301.2, respectively. Red blood cell membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were 5.1%/total fatty acid (TFA) and 1.3%/TFA respectively. Out of 106 SNPs which met our inclusion criteria, biomarker levels for Hg, Cd, Pb, DDE, PCB-153, DHA, and EPA differed (p < 0.05) by genotype for 20, 13, 12, 19, 21, 9 and 8 SNPs, respectively. Following Bonferroni correction (p < 0.0005), only 9 SNPs remained significant (rs2274976 in MTHFR, rs174602 in FADS2, rs7115739 and rs74771917 in FADS3, rs713041 in GPX4, rs2306283 and rs4149056 in SLCO1B1, rs1885301 in ABCC2/MRP2, and rs4244285 in CYP2C19; 5 associated with Hg, 2 with Pb, 2 with DDE, 4 with PCB-153, 1 with DHA). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that polymorphisms in environmentally-responsive genes can influence biomarker levels of key toxicants and nutrients. While there are no immediate clinical or public health implications of these findings, we believe that such gene-environment and gene-nutrient studies provide a foundation that will inform and provide direction to future studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Biomarcadores , Canadá , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Inuítes/genética , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Polimorfismo Genético
19.
Environ Res ; 200: 111432, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062204

RESUMO

The occurrence of neurotoxicity caused by xenobiotics such as pesticides (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, organophosphates, pyrethroids, etc.) or metals (mercury, lead, aluminum, arsenic, etc.) is a growing concern around the world, particularly in vulnerable populations with difficulties on both detection and symptoms treatment, due to low economic status, remote access, poor infrastructure, and low educational level, among others features. Despite the numerous molecular markers and questionnaires/clinical evaluations, studying neurotoxicity and its effects on cognition in these populations faces problems with samples collection and processing, and information accuracy. Assessing cognitive changes caused by neurotoxicity, especially those that are subtle in the initial stages, is fundamentally challenging. Finding accurate, non-invasive, and low-cost strategies to detect the first signals of brain injury has the potential to support an accelerated development of the research with these populations. Saliva emerges as an ideal pool of biomarkers (with interleukins and neural damage-related proteins, among others) and potential alternative diagnostic fluid to molecularly investigate neurotoxicity. As a source of numerous neurological biomarkers, saliva has several advantages compared to blood, such as easier storage, requires less manipulation, and the procedure is cheaper, safer and well accepted by patients compared with drawing blood. Regarding cognitive dysfunction, neuropsychological batteries represent, with their friendly interface, a feasible and accurate method to evaluate the eventual cognitive deficits associated with neurotoxicity in people from diverse cultural and educational backgrounds. The association of these two tools, saliva and neuropsychological batteries, to cover the molecular and cognitive aspects of neurotoxicity in vulnerable populations, could potentially increase the prevalence of early intervention and successful treatment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Biomarcadores , Cognição , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Saliva , Populações Vulneráveis
20.
Environ Res ; 200: 111345, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087190

RESUMO

Everyday use chemicals have been demonstrated to be endocrine disruptors. Since normal thyroid function during pregnancy is transcendental for the neurodevelopment of the offspring, knowledge of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) is of main importance. The aim of our study is to recognize and describe EDC actions in pregnant women and focus on neurodevelopmental processes that can lead to neurotransmitter imbalance and cognitive impairment, and the possible clinical outcomes in the newborn and child. We searched PubMed databases for animal studies and clinical trials evaluating chemicals recognized as thyroid disruptors -perchlorate, phthalates, bisphenol A-, as well as chemicals with potential thyroid disruption activity -parabens, pesticides and persistent organic pollutants, on thyroid hormones (THs) levels and their bioavailability during pregnancy, and the outcome in newborns, infants and children. We also exhibit evidence from worldwide cohort studies to this regard. The publications reviewed show: 1) known endocrine disruptors have an association with hormonal thyroid levels, where an effect of increase or decrease in TH concentrations has been reported depending on the chemical exposed 2) associations between TH, EDCs and neurocognitive disorders have been addressed, such as ADHD, though no conclusive impact on potential related disorders as autism has been established, 3) perchlorate has demonstrated effects on thyroid levels on iodine uptake. In conclusion, detrimental risks and long-term consequences after in-utero exposure to EDCs are being reported in several cohort studies and further research must be conducted to establish a well-known cause-effect association.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Praguicidas , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Parabenos , Gravidez , Hormônios Tireóideos
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