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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13616, 2024 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871988

RESUMO

Due to the high solubility of Cd in water, it is considered a potential toxin which can cause cancer in humans. In plants, it is associated with the development of oxidative stress due to the generation of reactive oxygen species. To overcome this issue, the roles of different plant hormones are vital. Strigolactones, one of such natural plant hormones, show promise in alleviating cadmium toxicity by mitigating its harmful effects. Acidified biochar (AB) can also effectively mitigate cadmium toxicity via ion adsorption and pH buffering. However, the combined effects of strigolactone and AB still need in-depth investigations in the context of existing literature. This study aimed to assess the individual and combined impacts of SLs (0 and 25 µM) and AB (0 and 0.75% w/w) on radish growth under Cd toxicity, i.e., 0 and 20 mg Cd/kg soil. Using a fully randomized design (CRD), each treatment was administered in four replicates. In comparison to the control under 20 mg Cd/kg soil contamination, the results showed that 25 µM strigolactone + 0.75% AB significantly improved the following: radish shoot length (~ 17%), root length (~ 47%), plant fresh weight (~ 28%), plant dry weight (~ 96%), chlorophyll a (~ 43%), chlorophyll b (~ 31%), and total chlorophyll (~ 37%). It was also noted that 0.75% AB was more pronounced in decreasing antioxidant activities than 25 µM strigolactone under 20 mg Cd/ kg soil toxicity. However, performing 25 µM strigolactone + 0.75% AB was far better than the sole application of 25 µM strigolactone and 0.75% AB in decreasing antioxidant activities in radish plants. In conclusion, by regulating antioxidant activities, 25 µM strigolactone + 0.75% AB can increase radish growth in cadmium-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Lactonas , Raphanus , Poluentes do Solo , Raphanus/efeitos dos fármacos , Raphanus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raphanus/metabolismo , Lactonas/farmacologia , Lactonas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cádmio/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 473: 134684, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788581

RESUMO

The increase of electronic waste worldwide has resulted in the exacerbation of combined decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and cadmium (Cd) pollution in soil, posing a serious threat to the safety of soil organisms. However, whether combined exposure increases toxicity remains unclear. Therefore, this study primarily investigated the toxic effects of DBDPE and Cd on earthworms at the individual, tissue, and cellular levels under single and combined exposure. The results showed that the combined exposure significantly increased the enrichment of Cd in earthworms by 50.32-90.42 %. The toxicity to earthworms increased with co-exposure, primarily resulting in enhanced oxidative stress, inhibition of growth and reproduction, intensified intestinal and epidermal damage, and amplified coelomocyte apoptosis. PLS-PM analysis revealed a significant and direct relationship between the accumulation of target pollutants in earthworms and oxidative stress, damage, as well as growth and reproduction of earthworms. Furthermore, IBR analysis indicated that SOD and POD were sensitive biomarkers in earthworms. Molecular docking elucidated that DBDPE and Cd induced oxidative stress responses in earthworms through the alteration of the conformation of the two enzymes. This study enhances understanding of the mechanisms behind the toxicity of combined pollution and provides important insights for assessing e-waste contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Bromobenzenos , Cádmio , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oligoquetos , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Bromobenzenos/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 473: 134702, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788589

RESUMO

To reveal the feedbacks and regulating mechanisms of microplastic types and doses on microbial community, a microcosm experiment was carried out with two non-degradable microplastics [polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)] and four biodegradable microplastics [poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), poly(butyleneadipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), and polypropylene carbonate (PPC)] at different levels (1 %, 7 %, and 28 %). As a result, the content of total carbon (TC), soil organic carbon (SOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) (expect MBC in PBS soil) increased with increasing doses of microplastics, and increased at the lowest PE dose rate. Biodegradable microplastics created a more active ecological niche while enriching more pathogens than non-degradable microplastics. Structural equation modeling indicated that microbial diversities were in a type-dependent assembly, whereas microbial compositions were more profoundly affected by the microplastic doses, ultimately. The standardized total effect coefficient of microplastic types on bacterial and fungal diversities was - 0.429 and - 0.282, and that of doses on bacterial and fungal compositions was 0.487 and 0.336, respectively. Both microplastic types and doses significantly impacted pH, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, TC, SOC, and MBC, subsequently inhibiting microbial diversities and stimulating microbial compositions with particular pathways. The results provide a comprehensive understanding for evaluating the potential risk of microplastics.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Polipropilenos , Carbono/química
4.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(6): 189, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695970

RESUMO

The potential effect of microplastics is an increasingly growing environmental issue. However, very little is known regarding the impact of microplastics on the vermicomposting process. The present study explored the effect of non-biodegradable (low density polyethylene; LDPE) and biodegradable (polybutylene succinate-co-adipate; PBSA) microplastics on earthworm Eisenia fetida during vermicomposting of cow dung. For this, earthworms were exposed to different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1 and 2%) of LDPE and PBSA of 2 mm size. The cow dung supported the growth and hatchlings of earthworms, and the toxicity effect of both LDPE and PBSA microplastics on Eisenia fetida was analyzed. Microplastics decreased the body weight of earthworms and there was no impact on hatchlings. The body weight of earthworm decreased from 0 to 60th day by 18.18% in 0.5% of LDPE treatment, 5.42% in 1% of LDPE, 20.58% in 2% of LDPE, 19.99% in 0.5% of PBSA, 15.09% in 1% of PBSA and 16.36% in 2% of PBSA. The physico-chemical parameters [pH (8.55-8.66), electrical conductivity (0.93-1.02 (S/m), organic matter (77.6-75.8%), total nitrogen (3.95-4.25 mg/kg) and total phosphorus (1.16-1.22 mg/kg)] do not show much significant changes with varying microplastics concentrations. Results of SEM and FTIR-ATR analysis observed the surface damage of earthworms, morphological and biochemical changes at higher concentrations of both LDPE and PBSA. The findings of the present study contribute to a better understanding of microplastics in vermicomposting system.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Compostagem , Polietileno/toxicidade , Plásticos Biodegradáveis
5.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(6): 193, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696028

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) and copper (Cu) pollution coexist widely in cultivation environment. In this paper, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were used to simulate the MPs exposure environment, and the combined effects of MPs + Cu on the germination of perilla seeds were analyzed. The results showed that low concentrations of Cu promoted seed germination, while medium to high concentrations exhibited inhibition and deteriorated the morphology of germinated seeds. The germination potential, germination index and vitality index of 8 mg • L-1 Cu treatment group with were 23.08%, 76.32% and 65.65%, respectively, of the control group. The addition of low concentration PVC increased the above indicators by 1.27, 1.15, and 1.35 times, respectively, while high concentration addition led to a decrease of 65.38%, 82.5%, and 66.44%, respectively. The addition of low concentration PVC reduced the amount of PVC attached to radicle. There was no significant change in germination rate. PVC treatment alone had no significant effect on germination. MPs + Cu inhibited seed germination, which was mainly reflected in the deterioration of seed morphology. Cu significantly enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA content. The addition of low concentration PVC enhanced SOD activity, reduced MDA and H2O2 content. The SOD activity of the Cu2+8 + PVC10 group was 4.05 and 1.35 times higher than that of the control group and Cu treatment group at their peak, respectively. At this time, the CAT activity of the Cu2+8 + PVC5000 group increased by 2.66 and 1.42 times, and the H2O2 content was 2.02 times higher than the control. Most of the above indicators reached their peak at 24 h. The activity of α-amylase was inhibited by different treatments, but ß-amylase activity, starch and soluble sugar content did not change regularly. The research results can provide new ideas for evaluating the impact of MPs + Cu combined pollution on perilla and its potential ecological risk.


Assuntos
Cobre , Germinação , Perilla , Cloreto de Polivinila , Sementes , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Perilla/efeitos dos fármacos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
6.
Environ Res ; 252(Pt 4): 119055, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710429

RESUMO

Application of biochar and inoculation with specific microbial strains offer promising approaches for addressing atrazine contamination in agricultural soils. However, determining the optimal method necessitates a comprehensive understanding of their effects under similar conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of biochar and Paenarthrobacter sp. AT5, a bacterial strain known for its ability to degrade atrazine, in reducing atrazine-related risks to soybean crops and influencing bacterial communities. Both biochar and strain AT5 significantly improved atrazine degradation in both planted and unplanted soils, with the most substantial reduction observed in soils treated with strain AT5. Furthermore, bioaugmentation with strain AT5 outperformed biochar in enhancing soybean growth, photosynthetic pigments, and antioxidant defenses. While biochar promoted higher soil bacterial diversity compared to strain AT5, the latter selectively enriched specific bacterial populations. Additionally, soil inoculated with strain AT5 displayed a notable increase in the abundance of key genes associated with atrazine degradation (trzN, atzB, and atzC), surpassing the effects observed with biochar addition, thus highlighting its effectiveness in mitigating atrazine risks in soil.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal , Glycine max , Herbicidas , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Atrazina/toxicidade , Glycine max/microbiologia , Glycine max/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Solo/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo
7.
Environ Res ; 252(Pt 4): 119064, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710427

RESUMO

Soil cadmium (Cd) pollution has emerged as a pressing concern due to its deleterious impacts on both plant physiology and human well-being. Silicon (Si) is renowned for its ability to mitigate excessive Cd accumulation within plant cells and reduce the mobility of Cd in soil, whereas Selenium (Se) augments plant antioxidant capabilities and promotes rhizosphere microbial activity. However, research focusing on the simultaneous utilization of Si and Se to ameliorate plant Cd toxicity through multiple mechanisms within the plant-rhizosphere remains comparatively limited. This study combined hydroponic and pot experiments to investigate the effects of the combined application of Si and Se on Cd absorption and accumulation, as well as the growth and rhizosphere of A. selengensis Turcz under Cd stress. The results revealed that a strong synergistic effect was observed between both Si and Se. The combination of Si and Se significantly increased the activity and content of enzymes and non-enzyme antioxidants within A. selengensis Turcz, reduced Cd accumulation and inhibiting its translocation from roots to shoots. Moreover, Si and Se application improved the levels of reducing sugar, soluble protein, and vitamin C, while reducing nitrite content and Cd bioavailability. Furthermore, the experimental results showed that the combination of Si and Se not only increased the abundance of core rhizosphere microorganisms, but also stimulated the activity of soil enzymes, which effectively limited the migration of Cd in the soil. These findings provided valuable insights into the effective mitigation of soil Cd toxicity to plants and also the potential applications in improving plant quality and safety.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Cádmio , Rizosfera , Selênio , Silício , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Selênio/farmacologia , Silício/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Artemisia/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
8.
Environ Pollut ; 351: 124111, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710360

RESUMO

Pesticides are substances used for controlling, preventing, and repelling pests in agriculture. Among them, neonicotinoids have become the fastest-growing class of insecticides because of their efficiency in targeting pests. They work by strongly binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the central nervous system of insects, leading to receptor blockage, paralysis, and death. Despite their selectivity for insects, these substances may be hazardous to non-target creatures, including earthworms. Although earthworms may be invasive in some regions like north America, they contribute to the development of soil structure, water management, nutrient cycling, pollution remediation, and cultural services, positively impacting the environment, particularly in the soil ecosystem. Thus, this study aimed to develop a novel earthworm behavior assay since behavior is a sensitive marker for toxicity assay, and demonstrated its application in evaluating the toxicity of various neonicotinoids. Here, we exposed Eisenia fetida to 1 and 10 ppb of eight neonicotinoids (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram pestanal, thiacloprid, thiametoxam, and sulfoxaflor) for 3 days to observe their behavior toxicities. Overall, all of the neonicotinoids decreased their locomotion, showed by a reduction of average speed by 24.94-68.63% and increment in freezing time movement ratio by 1.51-4.25 times, and altered their movement orientation and complexity, indicated by the decrement in the fractal dimension value by 24-70%. Moreover, some of the neonicotinoids, which were acetamiprid, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, and sulfoxaflor, could even alter their exploratory behaviors, which was shown by the increment in the time spent in the center area value by 6.94-12.99 times. Furthermore, based on the PCA and heatmap clustering results, thiametoxam was found as the neonicotinoid that possessed the least pronounced behavior toxicity effects among the tested pesticides since these neonicotinoid-treated groups in both concentrations were grouped in the same major cluster with the control group. Finally, molecular docking was also conducted to examine neonicotinoids' possible binding mechanism to Acetylcholine Binding Protein (AChBP), which is responsible for neurotransmission. The molecular docking result confirmed that each of the neonicotinoids has a relatively high binding energy with AChBP, with the lowest binding energy was possessed by thiametoxam, which consistent with its relatively low behavior toxicities. Thus, these molecular docking results might hint at the possible mechanism behind the observed behavior alterations. To sum up, the present study demonstrated that all of the neonicotinoids altered the earthworm behaviors which might be due to their ability to bind with some specific neurotransmitters and the current findings give insights into the toxicities of neonicotinoids to the environment, especially animals in a soil ecosystem.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Locomoção , Neonicotinoides , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Tiazinas , Tiazóis
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 472: 134518, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749244

RESUMO

Nowadays, numerous environmental risk substances in soil worldwide have exhibited serious germination inhibition of crop seeds, posing a threat to food supply and security. This review provides a comprehensive summary and discussion of the inhibitory effects of environmental risk substances on seed germination, encompassing heavy metals, microplastics, petroleum hydrocarbons, salinity, phenols, essential oil, agricultural waste, antibiotics, etc. The impacts of species, concentrations, and particle sizes of various environmental risk substances are critically investigated. Furthermore, three primary inhibition mechanisms of environmental risk substances are elucidated: hindering water absorption, inducing oxidative damage, and damaging seed cells/organelles/cell membranes. To address these negative impacts, diverse effective coping measures such as biochar/compost addition, biological remediation, seed priming, coating, and genetic modification are proposed. In brief, this study systematically analyzes the negative effects of environmental risk substances on seed germination, and provides a basis for the comprehensive understanding and future implementation of efficient treatments to address this significant challenge and ensure food security and human survival.


Assuntos
Germinação , Sementes , Poluentes do Solo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 472: 134568, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749246

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that significantly impacts human health and the environment. Microorganisms play a crucial role in reducing heavy metal stress in plants; however, the mechanisms by which microorganisms enhance plant tolerance to Cd stress and the interplay between plants and microorganisms under such stress remain unclear. In this study, Oceanobacillus picturae (O. picturae) was isolated for interaction with soybean seedlings under Cd stress. Results indicated that Cd treatment alone markedly inhibited soybean seedling growth. Conversely, inoculation with O. picturae significantly improved growth indices such as plant height, root length, and fresh weight, while also promoting recovery in soil physiological indicators and pH. Metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses identified 157 genes related to aspartic acid, cysteine, and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. Sixty-three microbial species were significantly associated with metabolites in these pathways, including pathogenic, adversity-resistant, and bioconductive bacteria. This research experimentally demonstrates, for the first time, the growth-promoting effect of the O. picturae strain on soybean seedlings under non-stress conditions. It also highlights its role in enhancing root growth and reducing Cd accumulation in the roots under Cd stress. Additionally, through the utilization of untargeted metabolomics, metagenomics, and transcriptomics for a multi-omics analysis, we investigated the impact of O. picturae on the soil microbiome and its correlation with differential gene expression in plants. This innovative approach unveils the molecular mechanisms underlying O. picturae's promotion of root growth and adaptation to Cd stress.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Glycine max , Plântula , Estresse Fisiológico , Glycine max/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glycine max/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycine max/microbiologia , Glycine max/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cádmio/toxicidade , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Bacillaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillaceae/metabolismo , Bacillaceae/genética , Bacillaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 472: 134593, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749249

RESUMO

Due to the lack of research on the co-effects of microplastics and trace metals in the environment on nitrogen cycling-related functional microorganisms, the occurrence of microplastics and one of their plasticisers, phthalate esters, as well as trace metals, were determined in soils and river sediments in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Relationship between microplastics and phthalate esters in the area was determined; the co-effects of these potentially toxic materials, and key factors and pathways affecting nitrogen functions were further explored. Significant correlations between fibre- and film-shaped microplastics and phthalate esters were detected in the soils from the plateau. Copper, lead, cadmium and di-n-octyl phthalate detected significantly affected nitrogen cycling-related functional microorganisms. The co-existence of di-n-octyl phthalate and copper in soils synergistically stimulated the expression of denitrification microorganisms nirS gene and "nitrate_reduction". Additionally, di-n-octyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate more significantly affected the variation of nitrogen cycling-related functional genes than the number of microplastics. In a dimethyl phthalate- and cadmium-polluted area, nitrogen cycling-related functional genes, especially nirK gene, were more sensitive and stressed. Overall, phthalate esters originated from microplastics play a key role in nitrogen cycling-related functions than microplastics themselves, moreover, the synergy between di-n-octyl phthalate and copper strengthen the expression of denitrification functions.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Microplásticos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Desnitrificação/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Tibet , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Plastificantes/metabolismo , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 278: 116407, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691884

RESUMO

Fluoride (F) can be absorbed from the environment and hyperaccumulate in leaves of Camellia sinensis without exhibiting any toxic symptoms. Fluoride exporter in C. sinensis (CsFEX) could transport F to extracellular environment to alleviate F accumulation and F toxicity, but its functional mechanism remains unclear. Here, combining with pH condition of C. sinensis growth, the characteristics of CsFEX and mechanism of F detoxification were further explored. The results showed that F accumulation was influenced by various pH, and pH 4.5 and 6.5 had a greater impact on the F accumulation of C. sinensis. Through Non-invasive Micro-test Technology (NMT) detection, it was found that F uptake/accumulation of C. sinensis and Arabidopsis thaliana might be affected by pH through changing the transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient of roots. Furthermore, diverse expression patterns of CsFEX were induced by F treatment under different pH, which was basically up-regulated in response to high F accumulation, indicating that CsFEX was likely to participate in the process of F accumulation in C. sinensis and this process might be regulated by pH. Additionally, CsFEX functioned in the mitigation of F sensitivity and accumulation strengthened by lower pH in Escherichia coli and A. thaliana. Moreover, the changes of H+ flux and potential gradient caused by F were relieved as well in transgenic lines, also suggesting that CsFEX might play an important role in the process of F accumulation. Above all, F uptake/accumulation were alleviated in E. coli and A. thaliana by CsFEX through exporting F-, especially at lower pH, implying that CsFEX might regulate F accumulation in C. sinensis.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Fluoretos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Biológico , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
13.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 144: 15-25, 2024 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802227

RESUMO

Zeolite imidazole frameworks (ZIFs), a class of the metal organic framework, have been extensively studied in environmental applications. However, their environmental fate and potential ecological impact on plants remain unknown. Here, we investigated the phytotoxicity, transformation, and bioaccumulation processes of two typical ZIFs (ZIF-8 and ZIF-67) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under hydroponic conditions. ZIF-8 and ZIF-67 in the concentration of 50 mg/L decreased root and shoot dry weight maximally by 55.2% and 27.5%, 53.5% and 37.5%, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed that ZIFs on the root surface gradually collapsed and transformed into nanosheets with increasing cultivation time. The fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled ZIFs were applied to trace the uptake and translocation of ZIFs in rice. The results demonstrated that the transformed ZIFs were mainly distributed in the intercellular spaces of rice root, while they cannot be transported to culms and leaves. Even so, the Co and Zn contents of rice roots and shoots in the ZIFs treated groups were increased by 1145% and 1259%, 145% and 259%, respectively, compared with the control groups. These findings suggested that the phytotoxicity of ZIFs are primarily attributed to the transformed ZIFs and to a less extent, the metal ions and their ligands, and they were internalized by rice root and increased the Co and Zn contents of shoots. This study reported the transformation of ZIFs and their biological effectiveness in rice, highlighting the potential environmental hazards and risks of ZIFs to crop plants.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Imidazóis , Oryza , Plântula , Poluentes do Solo , Zeolitas , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/metabolismo , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Estruturas Metalorgânicas
14.
Molecules ; 29(10)2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792197

RESUMO

The impact of fluorine on plants remains poorly understood. We examined duckweed growth in extracts of soil contaminated with fluorine leached from chicken manure. Additionally, fluorine levels were analyzed in fresh manure, outdoor-stored manure, and soil samples at varying distances from the manure pile. Fresh manure contained 37-48 mg F- × kg-1, while soil extracts contained 2.1 to 4.9 mg F- × kg-1. We evaluated the physiological effects of fluorine on duckweed cultured on soil extracts or in 50% Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with fluorine concentrations matching those in soil samples (2.1 to 4.9 mg F- × L-1), as well as at 0, 4, and 210 mg × L-1. Duckweed exposed to fluorine displayed similar toxicity symptoms whether in soil extracts or supplemented medium. Fluoride at concentrations of 2.1 to 4.9 mg F- × L-1 reduced the intact chlorophyll content, binding the porphyrin ring at position 32 without affecting Mg2+. This reaction resulted in chlorophyll a absorption peak shifted towards shorter wavelengths and formation of a new band of the F--chlorophyll a complex at λ = 421 nm. Moreover, plants exposed to low concentrations of fluorine exhibited increased activities of aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and chlorophyllase, whereas the activities of both enzymes sharply declined when the fluoride concentration exceeded 4.9 mg × L-1. Consequently, fluorine damages chlorophyll a, disrupts the activity of chlorophyll-metabolizing enzymes, and diminishes the plant growth rate, even when the effects of these disruptions are too subtle to be discerned by the naked human eye.


Assuntos
Araceae , Clorofila , Fluoretos , Araceae/metabolismo , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Araceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fluoretos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Esterco/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11952, 2024 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796501

RESUMO

Heavy metal accumulation is one of the major agronomic challenges that has seriously threatened food safety. As a result, metal-induced phytotoxicity concerns require quick and urgent action to retain and maintain the physiological activities of microorganisms, the nitrogen pool of soils, and the continuous yields of wheat in a constantly worsening environment. The current study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth-promoting endophytic Aspergillus flavus AUMC 16,068 and its EPS for improvement of plant growth, phytoremediation capacity, and physiological consequences on wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) under lead stress. After 60 days of planting, the heading stage of wheat plants, data on growth metrics, physiological properties, minerals content, and lead content in wheat root, shoot, and grains were recorded. Results evoked that lead pollution reduced wheat plants' physiological traits as well as growth at all lead stress concentrations; however, inoculation with lead tolerant endophytic A. flavus AUMC 16,068 and its respective EPS alleviated the detrimental impact of lead on the plants and promoted the growth and physiological characteristics of wheat in lead-contaminated conditions and also lowering oxidative stress through decreasing (CAT, POD, and MDA), in contrast to plants growing in the un-inoculated lead polluted dealings. In conclusion, endophytic A. flavus AUMC 16,068 spores and its EPS are regarded as eco-friendly, safe, and powerful inducers of wheat plants versus contamination with heavy metals, with a view of protecting plant, soil, and human health.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus , Endófitos , Chumbo , Triticum , Triticum/microbiologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chumbo/toxicidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Endófitos/fisiologia , Endófitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Environ Manage ; 361: 121289, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820797

RESUMO

In recent years, copper-based nanomaterials (Cu-based NMs) have shown great potential in promoting agriculture development due to their special physicochemical characteristics. With the mass production and overuse of Cu-based NMs, there are potential effects on the soil-plant environment. Soil organisms, especially soil microorganisms, play a significant part in terrestrial or soil ecosystems; plants, as indirect organisms with soil-related Cu-based NMs, may affect human health through plant agricultural products. Understanding the accumulation and transformation of Cu-based NMs in soil-plant systems, as well as their ecotoxicological effects and potential mechanisms, is a prerequisite for the scientific assessment of environmental risks and safe application. Therefore, based on the current literature, this review: (i) introduces the accumulation and transformation behaviors of Cu-based NMs in soil and plant systems; (ii) focuses on the ecotoxicological effects of Cu-based NMs on a variety of organisms (microorganisms, invertebrates, and plants); (iii) reveals their corresponding toxicity mechanisms. It appears from studies hitherto made that both Cu-based NMs and released Cu2+ may be the main reasons for toxicity. When Cu-based NMs enter the soil-plant environment, their intrinsic physicochemical properties, along with various environmental factors, could also affect their transport, transformation, and biotoxicity. Therefore, we should push for intensifying the multi-approach research that focuses on the behaviors of Cu-based NMs in terrestrial exposure environments, and mitigates their toxicity to ensure the promotion of Cu-based NMs.


Assuntos
Cobre , Nanoestruturas , Plantas , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/química , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Microbiologia do Solo , Agricultura
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 279: 116518, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820874

RESUMO

Microplastics (MP) can influence a plethora of fungal species within the rhizosphere. Nevertheless, there are few studies on the direct impacts of MPs on soil fungi and their intricate interplay with plants. Here, we investigated the impact of polyethylene microspheres (PEMS) on the ecological interactions between Fusarium solani, a plant pathogenic fungus, and Trichoderma viride, a fungal plant growth promotor, within the rhizosphere of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Spores of F. solani and T. viride were pre-incubated with PEMS at two concentrations, 100 and 1000 mg L-1. Mycelium growth, sporulation, spore germination, and elongation were evaluated. Tomato seeds were exposed to fungal spore suspensions treated with PEMS, and plant development was subsequently assessed after 4 days. The results showed that PEMS significantly enhanced the sporulation (106.0 % and 70.1 %) but compromised the spore germination (up to 27.3 % and 32.2 %) and radial growth (up to -5.2% and -21.7 %) of F. solani and T. viride, respectively. Furthermore, the 100 and 1000 mg L-1 concentrations of PEMS significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the mycelium density of T. viride (9.74 % and 22.30 %, respectively), and impaired the germ-tube elongation of F. solani after 4 h (16.16 % and 11.85 %, respectively) and 8 h (4 % and 17.10 %, respectively). In addition, PEMS amplified the pathogenicity of F. solani and boosted the bio-enhancement effect of T. viride on tomato root growth. Further, PEMS enhanced the bio-fungicidal effect of T. viride toward F. solani (p<0.05). In summary, PEMS had varying effects on F. solani and T. viride, impacting their interactions and influencing their relationship with tomato plants. It intensified the beneficial effects of T. viride and increased the aggressiveness of F. solani. This study highlights concerns regarding the effects of MPs on fungal interactions in the rhizosphere, which are essential for crop soil colonization and resource utilization.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Microplásticos , Solanum lycopersicum , Esporos Fúngicos , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiologia , Solanum lycopersicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum lycopersicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/fisiologia , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Polietileno , Hypocreales/efeitos dos fármacos , Hypocreales/fisiologia , Microesferas , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 934: 172806, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772795

RESUMO

In response to the plastic waste crisis, teabag producers have substituted the petrochemical-plastic content of their products with bio-based, biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA). Despite widespread use, the degradation rate of PLA/PLA-blended materials in natural soil and their effects on soil biota are poorly understood. This study examined the percentage mass deterioration of teabags with differing cellulose:PLA compositions following burial (-10 cm depth) in an arable field margin for 7-months, using a suite of analytical techniques, such as size exclusion chromatography, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of 28-d exposure to teabag discs at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02 %, 0.04 % and 0.07 % w/w) on the survival, growth and reproduction (OECD TG 222 protocol) of the key soil detritivore Eisenia fetida was assessed in laboratory trials. After 7-month burial, Tbag-A (2.4:1 blend) and Tbag-B (3.5:1 cellulose:PLA blend) lost 66 ± 5 % and 78 ± 4 % of their total mass, primarily attributed to degradation of cellulose as identified by FTIR spectroscopy and a reduction in the cellulose:PLA mass ratio, while Tbag-C (PLA) remained unchanged. There were clear treatment and dose-specific effects on the growth and reproductive output of E. fetida. At 0.07 % w/w of Tbag-A adult mortality marginally increased (15 %) and both the quantity of egg cocoons and the average mass of juveniles also increased, while at concentrations ≥0.04 % w/w of Tbag-C, the quantity of cocoons was suppressed. Adverse effects are comparable to those reported for non-biodegradable petrochemical-based plastic, demonstrating that bio-based PLA does not offer a more 'environmentally friendly' alternative. Our study emphasises the necessity to better understand the environmental fate and ecotoxicity of PLA/PLA-blends to ensure interventions developed through the UN Plastic Pollution Treaty to use alternatives and substitutes to conventional plastics do not result in unintended negative consequences.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poliésteres , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Plásticos , Solo/química
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 936: 173451, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782266

RESUMO

Hydroponic experiment was conducted to explore the effects of two nitrogen (N) levels with five nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) ratios on the growth status and Cd migration patterns of wheat seedlings under Cd5 and Cd30 level. Results showed that higher Cd were detrimental to the growth, absorption of K and Ca, expression of genes mediating NO3--N and NH4+-N transport, which also increased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in shoots and roots of wheat seedlings. Higher N treatment alleviated the inhibitory effects of Cd stress on the biomass, root development, photosynthesis and increased the tolerance index of wheat seedlings. The ratio of NO3--N and NH4+-N was the main factor driving Cd accumulation in wheat seedlings, the combined application of NH4+-N and NO3--N was more conducive for the growth, nitrogen assimilation and Cd tolerance to the Cd stressed wheat seedlings. Increased NO3--N application rates significantly up-regulated the expression levels of TaNPF2.12, TaNRT2.2, increased NH4+-N application rates significantly up-regulated the expression levels of TaAMT1.1. The high proportion of NO3--N promoted the absorption of K, Ca and Cd in the shoots and roots of wheat seedlings, while NH4+-N was the opposite. Under low Cd conditions, the NO3--N to NH4+-N ratio of 1:1 was more conducive to the growth of wheat seedlings, under high Cd stress, the optimal of NO3--N to NH4+-N was 1:2 for inhibiting the accumulation of Cd in wheat seedlings. The results indicated that increasing NH4+-N ratio appropriately could inhibit wheat Cd uptake by increasing NH4+, K+ and Ca2+ for K and Ca channels, and promote wheat growth by promoting N assimilation process.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Nitrogênio , Plântula , Triticum , Triticum/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Plântula/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 936: 173472, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788947

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is detrimental to grape growth, development, and fruit quality. Grafting is considered to be a useful method to improve plant adaptability to Cd stress in grape production. However, little information is available on how Cd stress affects grafted grapes. In this study, the effects of Cd on Shine Muscat grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Shine Muscat') were studied under different "Cd treatments" concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 mg kg-1) and "rootstock treatments" (SO4, 5BB, and 3309C). The results showed that low levels of Cd had hormesis effect and activated the grape antioxidant system to eliminate the ROS induced by Cd stress. The antioxidant capacity of the SM/3309C rootstock combination was stronger than that of the other two groups under low-concentration Cd stress. Moreover, the rootstock effectively sequestered a substantial amount of Cd, consequently mitigating the upward translocation of Cd to the aboveground portions. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis revealed several important pathways enriched in ABC transporters, flavonoid biosynthesis, Plant hormone signal transduction, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and glutathione metabolism under Cd stress. WGCNA analysis identified a hub gene, R2R3-MYB15, which could promote the expression of several genes (PAL, 4CL, CYP73A, ST, CHS, and COMT), and alleviate the damage caused by Cd toxicity. These findings might shed light on the mechanism of hormesis triggered by low Cd stress in grapes at the transcriptional and metabolic levels.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Vitis , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/fisiologia , Vitis/genética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
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