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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(9): 658, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941291

RESUMO

The effects of toxic substance in soil matrices are evaluated by assessing adult worm survival and reproduction. Throughout the test, hundreds of juvenile potworms can be found. The current method for Enchytraeus crypticus quantification in soil samples is a laborious and time-consuming procedure that involves manual counting. The present work proposes a method for quick and reliable counting of E. crypticus by using an automated image analysis algorithm applied to soil images. Comparisons between automated and manual methods conducted in double-blind trials involving a large, routine batch of tropical artificial soil samples revealed no statistically significant differences for a wide range of worm densities. The proposed method overcomes time-consuming counts in manual methods and is suited to be deployed routinely for soil toxicity studies involving large batches of samples.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Reprodução , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(8): 1241-1252, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793970

RESUMO

Heavy metals contamination in the soil is a major threat to wildlife, the environment, and human health. Microbial remediation is an emerging and promising technology to reduce heavy metals toxicity. Therefore, the present research aimed to isolate and to identify the heavy metals tolerated bacteria from the Eisenia fetida for the first time, and to screen the bacto-remediation capabilities and plant growth promoting traits of vermi-bacterial isolates. Vermi-bacteria was isolated from the gut of E. fetida, identified through staining, culturing, biochemical tests, and ribotyping. Plant growth-promoting traits were also evaluated. Phylogenetic results revealed that isolated Vermi-bacterial strains showed resemblance with Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus aryabhattai, Staphylococcus hominis, Bacillus toyonensis, Bacillus cabrialesii, Bacillus tequilensis, Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus toyonensis, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus paranthracis. All identified Vermi-bacterial species are Gram-positive (rod and cocci) in nature, not only indicated the efficient biosorption of lead, cadmium, and chromium but also produce all plant growth stimulating traits such as indole acetic acid (IAA), amylase, protease, lipase, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, and siderophore production, and also act as a phosphate solubilizers. Bacillus anthracis showed significant production of siderophore (33.0±0.0 mm), phosphate solubilizing (33.0±0.0 mm), proteolytic (15.0±0.0 mm), and lipolytic activities (20.0±0.0 mm) compared to other vermi-bacterial isolates. Bioaccumulation factor results revealed that Bacillus anthracis showed more accumulation of Cd (12.00±0.01 ppm), Cr (5.38±0.01 ppm), and Pb (4.38±0.01 ppm). Therefore, the current findings showed that all identified vermi-bacteria could be used as potential bactoremediation agents in heavy metals polluted environments and could be used as microbial biofertilizers to enhance crop production in a polluted area.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Bacillus , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Fosfatos , Filogenia , Sideróforos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(7): 3773-3780, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791560

RESUMO

Coal gangue releases heavy metals and other pollutants through weathering and rain conditions during the natural accumulation process, which causes serious ecological risks to the surrounding soil environment. This study aimed to analyze the content of heavy metals in the soil around a coal gangue dump and to explore the phytotoxic effects induced by the exposure of soil samples to comprehensively assess the ecological risks of the soil around the coal gangue accumulation area. The results showed that the average contents of Cd, Pb, and Zn in the soil around the coal gangue accumulation area exceeded the background values of soil elements in Shanxi Province, and the content of heavy metals in the soil first increased and then decreased with the distance from the coal gangue dump. The enrichment factor results also showed that the pollution of Cd, Pb, and Zn in the soil was serious. The growth of barley seedlings was inhibited after exposure to the soil at different distances from the gangue dump, and some soils could induce the decrease in chlorophyll and the increase in MDA content; the increase in SOD, POD, and GSH activities; the significant decrease in CAT activities; and the decrease in mitotic index (MI) and significant increase in micronucleus rate (MN) in root tip cells. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed that Cr, As, and Zn were significantly positively correlated with the shoot weight, root weight, and micronucleus rate of barley, whereas Cu and Pb were significantly negatively correlated with the chlorophyll and micronucleus rate, respectively.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio , Clorofila , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697281

RESUMO

The present study utilized a biomarker response method to evaluate the effect of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in artificial and natural soils on Eisenia fetida after 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days exposure. Results indicated that TCP induced excessive reactive oxygen species, caused oxidative stress and DNA damage to Eisenia fetida. Biomarker responses were standardized to calculate the Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR) index. The IBR index of three enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase) activities showed that TCP induced the oxidative stress to E. fetida in red clay was stronger than in the other three soils. Specifically, chlorpyrifos exposure group showed a lower toxicity than TCP exposure group after 28 days exposure but a higher toxicity than TCP exposure group after 56 days exposure. Despite the deficiencies of this study, the above information is of great significance for assessing the risk of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite TCP pollution in soil ecosystems.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Piridonas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 437: 129325, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716561

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the major toxic constituents of crude oil and therefore, an understanding on PAHs associated risks and their relationship with soil biological parameters are necessary for adopting effective risk-based and site specific remediation strategies in the contaminated soil. Here, risks evaluation of eight detected PAHs in terms of toxic equivalent concentration (TEQC), benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI), toxic unit for individual PAHs (TU) and PAHs mixture (TUm) have been evaluated. Besides, the effect of PAHs contamination on soil biological properties has also been investigated and correlated with PAHs concentrations. The TEQc of eight PAHs was recorded in the range of 0.06-5.0 mg kg-1 soil, whereas the BaPeq value was 25.3 mg kg-1 soil which exceed the permissible limit. Similarly, CF (85.5-1668.2), PLI (322.8), HQ (311.7-8340.9), HI (26,443.8), TU (227.9-3821.6) and TUm(7916.2) also exceed the permissible values for non-toxic conditions indicating carcinogenic risk for humans. Besides, activities of soil dehydrogenase, urease, alkaline-phosphatase, catalase, amylase and cellulase were decreased by 1.5-2.3 folds in the contaminated soil than control. The results of Pearson's correlation matrix also established negative impact of PAHs on the soil's biological properties.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 437: 129330, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716571

RESUMO

A novel composite of hydroxyapatite tailored hierarchical porous biochar (HA-HPB) was synthesized and used for the adsorptive immobilization of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water and soil. The hierarchical porous biochar (HPB) was prepared from rice husk through a molten-salt-assisted pyrolysis approach; then, a series of HA-HPB (with 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 g of HPB) was prepared with co-precipitation procedure. All HA-HPBs, particularly HA-3HPB, revealed significantly higher removal efficiency of Cd(II) and Pb(II) (≥99.5%) in water than pristine biochar (5.79 - 24.12%). The immobilization efficiency of HA-3HPB for Cd(II) and Pb(II) was slightly inhibited by the ionic strength and co-existing cations. The Langmuir adsorption capacities of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 88.1 and 110.2 mg/g, respectively. Ion exchange, complexation, cation-π interaction, and precipitation were the key mechanisms involved in the immobilization of Cd(II) and Pb(II) using HA-3HPB. The HA-3HPB reduced the availability of soil Cd (63.5 - 87.8%) and Pb (64.6 - 92.9%) compared to the unamended soil, and thus reduced their content in the Chinese cabbage shoots by 69.3 -95.4% for Cd and 66.5 -97.2% for Pb. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of HA-HPB for remediation of Cd(II) and Pb(II) contaminated water and soil and mitigating the potential risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Carvão Vegetal , Durapatita , Chumbo/toxicidade , Porosidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Água
7.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 109(2): 241-265, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752996

RESUMO

Microplastics pose great risks to terrestrial systems owing to their large quantity and strong persistence. Higher plants, an irreplaceable part of the terrestrial ecosystem, are inevitably exposed to microplastics. This review highlights the effects of microplastics on higher plant growth and performance. The tested microplastics, plant species, and cultural methods used in existing studies were summarized. We discussed the reasons why these microplastics, plants, and methods were selected. The various responses of higher plants to microplastics in both soils and waters were critically reviewed. We also highlighted the influencing mechanisms of microplastics on higher plants. Conclusively, more than 13 types of common microplastics and more than 30 species of higher plants have been selected and studied by the published literatures. Soil culture tests and hydroponic experiments are almost equally divided. The effects of microplastics on higher plants varied among microplastic properties, plant species, and environmental factors. Microplastics had no or positive effects on higher plants under certain experimental conditions. However, more studies showed that microplastics can inhibit higher plant growth and performance. We reduced the inhibitory mechanisms into direct and indirect mechanisms. The direct mechanisms include blocking pores or light, causing mechanical damage to roots, hindering genes expression, and releasing additives. The indirect mechanisms contain changing soil properties, affecting soil microbes or soil animals, and affecting bioavailability of other pollutants. This review improves the understanding of effects and influencing mechanisms of microplastics on higher plants.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Ecossistema , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plantas , Plásticos/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113766, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709671

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a widely distributed heavy metal that is toxic to plants and humans. Although silicon (Si) has been reported to reduce Cd accumulation and toxicity in plants, evidence on the functions of Si and its mechanisms in the possible alleviation of soybean are limited. Therefore, a controlled experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts and mechanisms of Si on Cd retention in soybean. Here, we determined the growth index, Cd distribution, and antioxidant activity systems of Si, as well as expression levels of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Si under Cd stress, and conducted RNA-seq analysis. We not only found that Si can significantly promote soybean plant growth, increase plant antioxidant activities, and reduce the Cd translocation factor, but also revealed that a total of 636 DEGs were shared between CK and Cd, CK and Cd + Si, and Cd and Cd + Si. Moreover, several genes were significantly enriched in antioxidant systems and Cd distribution and transport systems. Therefore, the expression status of Si-mediated Cd stress response genes is likely involved in improving oxidative stress and changing Cd uptake and transport, as well as improving plant growth that contributes to Si alleviating Cd toxicity in plants. Moreover, numerous potential target genes were identified for the engineering of Cd-tolerant cultivars in soybean breeding programs.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Melhoramento Vegetal , Silício , Soja , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Humanos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Silício/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113796, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751932

RESUMO

As a flame retardant, triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is commonly added to various daily products. Due to its easy diffusion, TPHP pollution has become a global concern. Despite the wide focus on environmental risk, the sub-chronic ecotoxicity of TPHP in soil organisms remains unclear. In this study, the artificial soil exposure method was used to analyze the oxidative stress and DNA damage in earthworms with 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg TPHP treatments through the response of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA) and olive tail moment (OTM) at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Throughout the experimental period, the results showed that the ROS content in earthworms treated with 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg TPHP treatments increased by 9.43-18.37 %, 6.07-25.73 %, 7.71-42.61 % and 8.22-46.70 %, respectively, compared to the control treatment. Meanwhile, the activities of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes in earthworms with all TPHP treatments were significantly activated after exposure for 7 and 14 days, and then inhibited at 21 and 28 days. Despite the protection of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification enzymes, MDA content in earthworms with the 20 mg/kg treatment still significantly increased at 7 and 14 days of exposure, as well as in the other three treatments. Compared to the control treatment, the obviously higher OTM values in earthworms with TPHP treatments possibly indicated a genotoxicity of TPHP in earthworms. Furthermore, the integrated biomarker response index (IBRv2) revealed that earthworms showed an obvious biochemical response TPHP-contaminated soil, which was strongly correlated with TPHP concentrations and exposure time. This study provides insights into the TPHP hazard in the soil environment and offers a reference to assess its environmental risk to soil ecosystems.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Ecossistema , Malondialdeído , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Organofosfatos , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
Environ Res ; 213: 113576, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710022

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution affected the stability and function of soil ecosystem. The impact of heavy metals on soil microbial community and the interaction of microbial community has been widely studied, but little was known about the response of community assembly to the heavy metal pollution. In this study, we collected 30 soil samples from non (CON), moderately (CL) and severely (CH) contaminated fields. The prokaryotic community was studied using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of 16s rRNA gene amplicons, and community assembly were quantified using phylogenetic-bin-based null approach (iCAMP). Results showed that diversity and composition of both bacterial and archaeal community changed significantly in response to heavy metal pollution. The microbial community assembly tended to be more deterministic with the increase of heavy metal concentration. Among the assembly processes, the relative importance of homogeneous selection (deterministic process) increased significantly (increased by 16.2%), and the relative importance of drift and dispersal limitation (stochastic process) decreased significantly (decreased by 11.4% and 5.4%, respectively). The determinacy of bacterial and archaeal community assembly also increased with heavy metal stress, but the assembly models were different. The deterministic proportion of microorganisms tolerant to heavy metals, such as Thiobacillus, Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota (clustered in bin 32, bin59 and bin60, respectively) increased, while the stochastic proportion of microorganisms sensitive to heavy metals, such as Koribacteraceae (clustered in bin23) increased. Therefore, the heavy metal stress made the prokaryotic community be deterministic, however, the effects on the assembly process of different microbial groups differed obviously.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias/genética , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
11.
Environ Res ; 213: 113689, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718163

RESUMO

A preponderance of recent evidence indicates that oxybenzone and other personal-care product chemicals threaten the biota inhabiting various ecological niches. What is understudied is the ecotoxicological impact of oxybenzone, a UV filter in sunscreens and anti-aging products, to terrestrial/soil organisms that are keystone species in these habitats. In the present study, acute exposure (14-day) to oxybenzone resulted in earthworm mortality (LC50 of 364 mg/kg) and growth rate inhibition. Environmentally relevant concentration of oxybenzone (3.64, 7.28 and 36.4 mg/kg) at exposures of 7-day, 14-day, 28-day induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity followed by perturbations in reproduction processes and changes in vital organs. Decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity were statistically lower than controls (p < 0.05) on day 14 for all three concentrations, while glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activity was significantly elevated from controls on days 7 and 14. On day 28, SOD and CAT activities were either not significantly different from the control or were higher, demonstrating a temporal multiphasic response of anti-oxidant enzymes. GST activity on day 28 was significantly reduced compared to controls. Acetylcholinesterase levels across the three-time points exhibited a complicated behaviour, with every exposure concentration being significantly different from the control. Chronic exposure negatively influences earthworm health status with elevated biomarker values analysed using IBRv2 index. This, in turn, impacted higher levels of hierarchical organization, significantly impairing reproduction and organismal homeostasis at the histological level and manifesting as decreasing cocoon formation and successful hatching events. Thus, the overall findings demonstrate that oxybenzone is toxic to Eisenia fetida at low-level, long-term exposure. Based on the concentration verification analysis and application of the EPA PestDF tool, oxybenzone undergoes single first-order kinetics degradation in OECD soil with DT50 and DT90 as 8.7-28.9 days, respectively.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Benzofenonas , Catalase/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129238, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739757

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) redox-induced mobilisation and speciation in polluted gold mine sites in tropical climates largely remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of changes in soil redox potential (EH) (-54 mV to +429 mV) on mobilisation of As and its dominant species in an abandoned spoil (total As = 4283 mg/kg) using an automated biogeochemical microcosm set-up. Arsenic mobilisation increased (85-137 mg/L) at moderately reducing conditions (-54 mV to + 200 mV)), while its reduced (6-35 mg/L) under oxic conditions (+200 to +400 mV). This indicates the high risk of As potential loss under reducing conditions. The mobilisation of As was governed by the redox chemistry of Fe. XANES and EXAFS analyses showed that sorbed-As(V)-goethite, sorbed-As(III)-ferrihydrite, scorodite and arsenopyrite were the predominant As species in the mine spoil. As(V) dominated at oxic conditions and As(III) predominated at moderately reducing conditions, which may be attributed to either inability of arsenate bacteria to reduce As or incomplete reduction. Lower Fe/As molar ratios during moderately reducing conditions show that the mine spoil may migrate As to watercourses during flooding, which may increase the hazardous effects of this toxic element. Therefore, encouraging aerobic conditions may mitigate As release and potential loss from the mine field.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes do Solo , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Ouro/análise , Ouro/toxicidade , Mineração , Oxirredução , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129242, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739761

RESUMO

Biochar (BC) is a biomass material that has a wide range of applications on the remediating heavy metals. In this experiment, we prepared BC (300 ºC, 500 ºC, and 700 ºC) and applied them to adsorb lead ions (Pb2+) to simulate BC treatment of Pb2+-contaminated soil. The retention capacity of BC for heavy metals was altered by means of bacterial culture, and the heavy metals released by BC can have toxicological effects on bacteria. This approach was used to assess the effects of long-term application of BC in heavily contaminated land with heavy metals on soil microorganisms. The results show that Escherichia coli survived in the medium containing lower doses of Pb2+-aged BC prepared at 300 ºC and 500 ºC (25 mg/L and 50 mg/L), depending on its ability of tolerating a certain amount of Pb2+. The addition of 100 mg/L Pb2+-aged BC prepared at 700 ºC not only significantly inhibited the growth of E. coli, but also promoted the release of citric acid from E. coli, which in turn triggered BC releasing more Pb2+. It is hoped that this will provide foundation to support the long-term application of BC in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 435: 129057, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650727

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs), especially biodegradable MPs (BMPs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, the effects of MPs with different biodegradability on the soil-plant systems are not well explored. In this study, the effects of polyethylene MPs (PEMPs) and polylactic acid MPs (PLAMPs) on physio-biochemical performance and metabolomic profile of soybean (Glycine max), as well as the bacterial communities in soil were investigated. Our results showed that PEMPs had no noticeable toxicity on the plant growth, while 0.1% PLAMPs significantly decreased the root length by 27.53% when compared with the control. The peroxidase (POD) activity was reduced and catalase (CAT) activity was increased by MPs in plant leaves. The metabolomics study suggested that the significantly affected metabolic pathway is amino acid metabolism. Additionally, Shannon and Simpson indices of rhizosphere soil were changed only under 0.1% PLAMPs. The key bacteria involved in the dinitrogen fixation were also altered. This study provides a novel insight into the potential effects of MPs with different biodegradability on soil-plant systems and highlights that BMPs might have stronger negative effects for terrestrial ecosystem, which needs to be further explored in future research.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Bactérias , Ecossistema , Microplásticos , Plantas , Plásticos , Poliésteres , Polietileno/toxicidade , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
15.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268615, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771809

RESUMO

Beijing and Tianjin are two of the largest cities in northern China with high population densities and highly developed manufacturing industries. In the past decade, some authors have reported their PAH concentrations in surface soils, identified their sources and quantitatively reported their health risks. However, the contributions of different PAH sources to their toxicity have not been reported thus far. In this study, we reviewed the PAH concentrations, contributions of different sources to the toxicity, and cancer risks in soils from different land use types found within Beijing and Tianjin from data gathered by 41 studies. The total PAH concentration varied in the range of 175.7-1989.0 ng g-1 with a higher median PAH concentration detected in urban soils (789.7 ng g-1), followed by suburban soils (647.3 ng g-1) and rural soils (390.8 ng g-1). Source identification using diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that the PAHs in all three land use types mainly originated from biomass and coal combustion, vehicular emissions, and petrogenic processes with contributions varying from 13% to 62%. Furthermore, results from a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model suggested that vehicular emissions and coal combustion in urban soils, and the vehicular emissions, coal combustion and biomass combustion in suburban and rural soils dominated the total PAH concentrations (>85%). These results were consistent with those of the PCA model. Results of the additional toxicity apportionment performed using the PMF model suggested that vehicular emissions and coal combustion contributed the most to the toxic equivalent quantity for Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaPTEQ) and, by extension, to the carcinogenic potencies. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values suggested a low risk level for adults exposed to PAHs in the different land use types found within Beijing and Tianjin.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , Pequim , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10033, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705609

RESUMO

Soil contamination pattern due to industrial activities often leads to high concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) decreasing with depth. This spatial heterogeneity of the soil contamination may have significant consequences on the soil properties and soil living communities. We evaluated the effects of both surface and solum soil contamination heterogeneity on Coronilla juncea L. (Fabaceae) functional traits in field conditions and the phytostabilization potential of this species. Plant and soil samples were collected on 3 sites along a PTE contamination gradient. The correlations between PTE concentration in plant and soil samples at 2 depths, physico-chemical properties of soil, plant biomass and soil microbial activity were tested. Field measurements highlight a decreasing PTE concentration with soil depth in addition to an important surface heterogeneity of As, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn soil concentrations. Root PTE concentrations in C. juncea did not follow soil PTE concentrations. Concentrations of PTE in the root parts were higher than those of the aerial parts. Low PTE translocation and root symbioses with microorganisms suggest that this native plant species may play a role as engineer species with positive implications for the phytostabilization of Mediterranean PTE contaminated soils and their ecological restoration.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742602

RESUMO

Given their common use for disease treatment in humans, and particularly in animals, antibiotics pose an exceptionally serious threat to the soil environment. This study aimed to determine the response of soil bacteria and oxidoreductases to a tetracycline (Tc) contamination, and to establish the usability of grass compost (G) and Zea mays (Zm) in mitigating adverse Tc effects on selected microbial properties of the soil. The scope of microbiological analyses included determinations of bacteria with the conventional culture method and new-generation sequencing method (NGS). Activities of soil dehydrogenases and catalase were determined as well. Tc was found to reduce counts of organotrophic bacteria and actinobacteria in the soils as well as the activity of soil oxidoreductases. Soil fertilization with grass compost (G) and Zea mays (Zm) cultivation was found to alleviate the adverse effects of tetracycline on the mentioned group of bacteria and activity of oxidoreductases. The metagenomic analysis demonstrated that the bacteria belonging to Acidiobacteria and Proteobacteria phyla were found to prevail in the soil samples. The study results recommend soil fertilization with G and Zm cultivation as successful measures in the bioremediation of tetracycline-contaminated soils and indicate the usability of the so-called core bacteria in the bioaugmentation of such soils.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Bactérias/genética , Oxirredutases , Poaceae , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Tetraciclina/toxicidade , Zea mays
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682588

RESUMO

Microbial populations associated to poplar are well described in non-contaminated and metal-contaminated environments but more poorly in the context of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination. This study aimed to understand how a gradient of phenanthrene (PHE) contamination affects poplar growth and the fungal microbiome in both soil and plant endosphere (roots, stems and leaves). Plant growth and fitness parameters indicated that the growth of Populus canadensis was impaired when PHE concentration increased above 400 mg kg-1. Values of alpha-diversity indicators of fungal diversity and richness were not affected by the PHE gradient. The PHE contamination had a stronger impact on the fungal community composition in the soil and root compartments compared to that of the aboveground organs. Most of the indicator species whose relative abundance was correlated with PHE contamination decreased along the gradient indicating a toxic effect of PHE on these fungal OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units). However, the relative abundance of some OTUs such as Cadophora, Alternaria and Aspergillus, potentially linked to PHE degradation or being plant-beneficial taxa, increased along the gradient. Finally, this study allowed a deeper understanding of the dual response of plant and fungal communities in the case of a soil PAH contamination gradient leading to new perspectives on fungal assisted phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Populus , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Populus/metabolismo , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682625

RESUMO

The research objective was established by taking into account common sources of soil contamination with bisphenol A (B) and zinc (Zn2+), as well as the scarcity of data on the effect of metabolic pathways involved in the degradation of organic compounds on the complexation of zinc in soil. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the spectrum of soil homeostasis disorders arising under the pressure of both the separate and combined toxicity of bisphenol A and Zn2+. With a broad pool of indicators, such as indices of the effect of xenobiotics (IFX), humic acid (IFH), plants (IFP), colony development (CD), ecophysiological diversity (EP), the Shannon-Weaver and the Simpson indices, as well as the index of soil biological fertility (BA21), the extent of disturbances was verified on the basis of enzymatic activity, microbiological activity, and structural diversity of the soil microbiome. A holistic character of the study was achieved, having determined the indicators of tolerance (IT) of Sorghum Moench (S) and Panicum virgatum (P), the ratio of the mass of their aerial parts to roots (PR), and the SPAD leaf greenness index. Bisphenol A not only failed to perform a complexing role towards Zn2+, but in combination with this heavy metal, had a particularly negative effect on the soil microbiome and enzymatic activity. The NGS analysis distinguished certain unique genera of bacteria in all objects, representing the phyla Actinobacteriota and Proteobacteria, as well as fungi classified as members of the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Sorghum Moench (S) proved to be more sensitive to the xenobiotics than Panicum virgatum (P).


Assuntos
Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Fenóis , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Xenobióticos/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 238: 113603, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551046

RESUMO

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is one of the most effective chelating agents for enhancing lead (Pb) accumulation in various plant organs. However, it has a higher risk of causing secondary pollution than other chelating agents. To reduce such environmental risks and increase remediation efficiency, EDTA can be combined with degradable chelating agents for use in phytoremediation, but there are few reports on the combination of EDTA and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). This study evaluated the effects of combined EDTA and NTA application at different concentrations (900, 1200, or 1500 mg/kg) and with different methods (1 application or 3 applications) on dwarf bamboo (Sasa argenteostriata (Regel) E.G. Camus) growth and phytoremediation efficiency and on the soil environment in pot experiments with Pb-contaminated soil. Applying EDTA and NTA together resulted in lower soil water-soluble Pb concentrations than applying EDTA alone and therefore resulted in lower environmental risk. The increased availability of soil Pb produced a stress response in the dwarf bamboo plants, which increased their biomass significantly. Moreover, under the chelating treatments, the soil Pb availability increased, which promoted Pb translocation in plants. The Pb content in the aerial parts of the dwarf bamboo increased significantly in all treatments (translocation factors increased by 300~1500% compared with that in CK). The Pb content increase in the aerial parts caused high proline accumulation in dwarf bamboo leaves, to alleviate Pb toxicity. Maximum Pb accumulation was observed in the EN1500 treatment, which was significantly higher than that in the other treatments except the EN900 treatment. This study elucidates the choice of remediation techniques and the physiological characteristics of the plants used in such studies. In conclusion, the EN900 treatment resulted in the lowest environmental risk, greatest biomass production, and highest phytoremediation efficiency of all treatments, indicating that it has great potential for application in phytoremediation with dwarf bamboo in Pb-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Sasa , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Quelantes/farmacologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Ácido Nitrilotriacético , Plantas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
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