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1.
Phytochemistry ; 198: 113143, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240135

RESUMO

Five undescribed bis(lauric acid-12-yl)lignanoates, liglaurates A-E, along with the known methyl and glyceryl 12-caffeoyloxylaurates were isolated from the rhizomes of Drynaria roosii Nakaike. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined by HRESIMS, NMR techniques, and ECD calculation. Liglaurates A-D were isolated as the racemates, among which (±)-liglaurate A and (±)-liglaurate B were synthesized by a metal-mediated oxidative coupling reaction and further resolved as the enantiomerically pure compounds. Liglaurates (+)-A, (-)-A, (+)-B, (-)-B, (±)-C and (±)-D exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activities against HeLa cell line, with the IC50 values of 0.11 ± 0.02, 0.24 ± 0.01, 0.02 ± 0.00, 0.13 ± 0.02, 0.34 ± 0.07 and 0.17 ± 0.01 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Polypodiaceae , Células HeLa , Humanos , Ácidos Láuricos/análise , Estrutura Molecular , Polypodiaceae/química , Rizoma/química
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 817146, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35282447

RESUMO

Our previous study demonstrated that the bone protective actions of herbal medicine Rhizoma Drynariae (Gusuibu, RD) were mainly mediated by flavonoid phytoestrogens via estrogen receptors, raising concerns about the safety of using RD as it may induce estrogen-like risk-benefit profile and interact with other ER ligands, such as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), when coadministered. The present study evaluated the estrogenic activities of RD and its potential interaction with tamoxifen, a SERM, in estrogen-sensitive tissues by using mature ovariectomized (OVX) rats and ER-positive cells. Similar to but weaker than tamoxifen, RD at its clinical dose dramatically ameliorated OVX-induced changes in bone and dopamine metabolism-related markers in OVX rats. However, tamoxifen, but not RD, induced uterotrophic effects. No significant alteration in mammary gland was observed in OVX rats treated with RD, which was different from the inhibitory actions of tamoxifen. The two-way ANOVA results indicated the interactions between RD and tamoxifen in the bone, brain, and uterus of OVX rats while RD did not alter their responses to tamoxifen. Our results demonstrate that RD selectively exerts estrogenic actions in a different manner from tamoxifen. Moreover, RD interacts with tamoxifen without altering its effects in OVX rats.


Assuntos
Polypodiaceae , Receptores de Estrogênio , Animais , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Ratos , Moduladores Seletivos de Receptor Estrogênico/farmacologia , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Água
3.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(2): 110-119, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065586

RESUMO

Paracetamol is a popular and safe drug preferred by victims of pain or pyrexia; however, its overdose or abuse is a growing concern worldwide. Here the hepatoprotective effect of an ethnomedicinal plant Drynaria quercifolia against paracetamol­induced toxicity in murine model is demonstrated. This fern, native to tropical countries including the Northeast India, is used by local tribes to treat inflammatory conditions. Paracetamol 500 mg/kg body weight was orally administered on alternate days for a period of 21days to mimic a chronic overdose. Drynaria quercifolia acetone extract (DQA) treatment interspaced with paracetamol significantly decreased serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity (ALT, AST and ALP) renal toxicity (urea, creatinine), lipid peroxidation level, histological damage in liver and kidney. The protein and mRNA expressions of the transcription factor, Nrf2, and its target antioxidant genes (SOD1, CAT and GST) as well as activities of these antioxidant enzymes were downregulated by paracetamol administration but significantly recovered following the DQA treatment (Tab. 3, Fig. 5, Ref. 31). Keywords: acetaminophen/paracetamol, Drynaria quercifolia, renal toxicity, hepatotoxicity, Nrf-2.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Polypodiaceae , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fígado , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 147: 112640, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033946

RESUMO

Pyrrosia lingua (Thunb.) Farw is a common plant that has been widely used as a traditional herbal medicine in China and Korea to treat patients suffering from pain, vaginal bleeding and urolithiasis. However, the pharmacological effects of P. lingua on bone remain unknown. We investigated the anti-osteoporotic effects of an ethanolic extract of P. lingua (EEPL). We found that EEPL suppressed osteoclast differentiation by directly acting on osteoclast precursor cells. EEPL suppressed the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced nuclear factor of activated T cells 1, a major transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis, by inhibiting RANKL-induced expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor/c-Fos, and activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Moreover, administration of EEPL inhibited trabecular bone loss and weight gain in ovariectomized mice. Furthermore, we identified phytochemicals in EEPL that are known to exert anti-osteoclastogenic or anti-osteoporotic effects using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry analysis. Overall, the results of this study suggest that EEPL is effective therapeutic candidate that can be used to prevent or treat postmenopausal osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polypodiaceae , Ligante RANK/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/patologia , Ovariectomia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 38(2): 176-180, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is a common comorbidity in elderly patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP). Drynaria fortunei (Rhizoma drynariae) is well-known in traditional Chinese medicine for its ability to improve bone mineral density (BMD). However, whether and how Drynaria fortunei improves plasma lipid profiles in elderly PMOP patients remains unclear. METHODS: Eighty elderly female patients with concurrent PMOP and hyperlipemia were randomly assigned to Drynaria fortunei 2(n = 40) or control (n = 40) groups. The clinical efficacies of Drynaria fortunei were evaluated. At 0, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month of follow-up, plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-18, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were measured using ELISA, whereas PBMC levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, NF-κB, SIRT1, and Notch1 were measured using RT-qPCR. PBMC isolated from PMOP patients were cultured and treated with Drynaria fortunei to determine its influence on NLRP3 inflammasome and associated cytokines. RESULTS: Drynaria fortunei effectively improved patients' BMD and lipid profiles. IL-1ß, IL-18, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 levels, as well as inflammasome-molecules of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and NF-κB increased over time in the control group, but were significantly attenuated with Drynaria fortunei administration. In vitro, Drynaria fortunei suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome and associated cytokines by increasing SIRT1 or decreasing Notch1. Drynaria fortunei had inhibitory effects on NLRP3 inflammasome and Notch1 even when SIRT1 expression was suppressed. CONCLUSIONS: Drynaria fortunei has been demonstrated to significantly improve lipid profiles for elderly PMOP patients. Drynaria fortunei may down-regulate Notch1 independently of SIRT1 to suppress NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation, thus improving plasma lipid profile.


Assuntos
Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Polypodiaceae , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Lipídeos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Polypodiaceae/metabolismo , Receptor Notch1
6.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 702, 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhizoma drynariae, a traditional Chinese herb, is commonly used in treatment of bone healing in osteoporotic fractures. However, whether the Rhizoma drynariae total flavonoids (RDTF) can promote the absorption of calcium and enhance the bone formation is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effects of RDTF combined with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. METHODS: Three-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and then treated with CaCO3, RDTF, and their admixtures for ten weeks, respectively. The bone trabecular microstructure, bone histopathological examination, and serum biomarkers of bone formation and resorption were determined in the rat femur tissue. The contents of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of the NF-κB (RANK), and its ligand (RANKL) in marrow were analyzed by ELISA, and the protein expressions of Wnt3a, ß-catenin, and phosphorylated ß-catenin (p-ß-catenin) were analyzed by Western blot. Statistical analysis was conducted by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by LSD post hoc analysis or independent samples t test using the scientific statistic software SPSS version 20.0 RESULTS: RDTF combined with CaCO3 could promote osteosis and ameliorate bone loss to improve the repair of cracked bone trabeculae of OVX rats. Furthermore, RDTF combined with CaCO3 also could prevent OVX-induced decrease in collagen fibers in the femoral tissue of ovariectomized rats and promote the regeneration of new bone or cartilage tissue, while CaCO3 supplementation promoted the increase in bone mineral content. Nevertheless, there was no difference in the expression of Wnt3a, ß-catenin and p-ß-catenin between osteopenic rats and RDTF treated rats, but RDTF combined with CaCO3 could activate the Wnt3a/ß-catenin pathway. CONCLUSIONS: RDTF combined with CaCO3 could ameliorate estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss via the regulation of Wnt3a/ß-catenin pathway.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Polypodiaceae , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Carbonato de Cálcio/farmacologia , Estrogênios , Feminino , Flavonoides , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia , Ligante RANK , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína Wnt3A , beta Catenina
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(22): 5922-5929, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951183

RESUMO

This study intended to explore the effect and mechanism of total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma in improving scopola-mine-induced learning and memory impairments in model mice. Ninety four-month-old Kunming(KM) mice were randomly divided into six groups. The ones in the model group and blank group were treated with intragastric administration of normal saline, while those in the medication groups separately received the total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma, Kangnaoshuai Capsules, donepezil, as well as total flavonoids of Rhizoma Drynariae plus estrogen receptor(ER) blocker by gavage. The mouse model of learning and memory impairments was established via intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine. Following the measurement of mouse learning and memory abilities in Morris water maze test, the hippocampal ERß expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of ERß and phosphorylated p38(p-p38) in the hippocampus and B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated death promoter(Bad), and cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-3(caspase-3) in the apoptotic system were assayed by Western blot. The contents of malondia-ldehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and nitric oxide(NO) in the hippocampus were then determined using corresponding kits. Compared with the control group, the model group exhibited significantly prolonged incubation period, reduced frequency of cros-sing the platform, shortened residence time in the target quadrant, lowered ERß, Bcl-2 and SOD activity in the hippocampus, and increased p-p38/p38, Bad, caspase-3, MDA, and NO. Compared with the model group, the total flavonoids of Rhizoma Drynariae increased the expression of ERß and SOD in the hippocampus, down-regulated the expression of neuronal pro-apoptotic proteins, up-re-gulated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, and reduced p-p38/p38, MDA, and NO. The effects of total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma on the above indexes were reversed by ER blocker. It has been proved that the total flavonoids of Drynariae Rhizoma obviously alleviate scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in mice, which may be achieved by regulating the neuronal apoptotic system and oxidative stress via the ER-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(ER-p38 MAPK) signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Polypodiaceae , Animais , Flavonoides , Hipocampo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Receptores de Estrogênio , Escopolamina/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética
8.
Cladistics ; 37(6): 717-727, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841589

RESUMO

The polygrammoids (Polypodiaceae) are the most species-rich and diversified epiphytic fern lineages, and hold an important role to understand the deep diverging events and rapid adaptation to changing environments in the plant tree of life. Despite progress in the phylogeny of this group of ferns in previous multilocus phylogenetic studies, uncertainty remains especially in backbone relationships among closely related clades, and the phylogenetic placement of recalcitrant species or lineages. Here, we investigated the deep phylogenetic relationships within Polypodiaceae by sampling all major lineages and using 81 plastid genomes (plastomes), of which 70 plastomes were newly sequenced with high-throughput sequencing technology. Based on parsimony, maximum-likelihood, Bayesian and multispecies coalescent analyses of genome skimming data, we achieved a better resolution of the backbone phylogeny of Polypodiaceae. Using simulated data matrices, we detected that potential phylogenetic artefacts, such as long-branch attraction and insufficient taxonomic sampling, may have a confounding impact on the incongruence of phylogenetic inferences. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analyses offer greater resolution than previous multilocus studies, providing a robust framework for future phylogenetic implications on the subfamilial taxonomy of Polypodiaceae. Our phylogenomic study not only demonstrates the advantage of a character-rich plastome dataset for resolving the recalcitrant lineages that have undergone rapid radiation, but also sheds new light on integrative explorations understanding the evolutionary history of large fern groups in the genomic era.


Assuntos
Plastídeos/genética , Polypodiaceae/genética , Genomas de Plastídeos , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Plastídeos/classificação , Polypodiaceae/classificação
9.
Plant Physiol ; 187(3): 1501-1518, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618062

RESUMO

The epiphytic resurrection-or desiccation-tolerant (DT)-fern Pleopeltis polypodioides can survive extreme desiccation and recover physiological activity within hours of rehydration. Yet, how epiphytic DT ferns coordinate between deterioration and recovery of their hydraulic and photosynthetic systems remains poorly understood. We examined the functional status of the leaf vascular system, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic rate during desiccation and rehydration of P. polypodioides. Xylem tracheids in the stipe embolized within 3-4 h during dehydration. When the leaf and rhizome received water, tracheids refilled after ∼24 h, which occurred along with dramatic structural changes in the stele. Photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll fluorescence recovered to predesiccation values within 12 h of rehydration, regardless of whether fronds were connected to their rhizome. Our data show that the epiphytic DT fern P. polypodioides can utilize foliar water uptake to rehydrate the leaf mesophyll and recover photosynthesis despite a broken hydraulic connection to the rhizome.


Assuntos
Dessecação , Polypodiaceae/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
10.
Plant Signal Behav ; 16(11): 1961063, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338155

RESUMO

The staghorn fern (Platycerium bifurcatum, Polypodiaceae) is an epiphyte from Australasia that displays many life history characteristics commonly associated with eusocial animals. Here, I hypothesize about the selective advantage of living in cooperative groups by comparing the morphological characteristics of colonies to their solitary congeners.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Evolução Molecular , Polypodiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Polypodiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polypodiaceae/genética , Seleção Genética , Filogenia
11.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(2): 493-498, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275821

RESUMO

P. petiolosa as a typical Chinese herbal medicine has been generally utilized as Chinese native medicine formulation for treatment of chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma and pneumoconiosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities of P. petiolosa ethyl acetate extract (PPEAE) against S. aureusin mice. In our study, mice were infected pneumonia by S. aureus, colonization of S. aureus in lung tissue was calculated and the number of white blood cells (WBC) in blood was measured. Meanwhile, the hematoxylin-eosin staining (H&E) was observed and the Real-time PCR was employed to determine the relative mRNA expression. The results showed that, after treated with PPEAE the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio and the number of WBC decreased dramatically, the number of S. aureus was significantly reduced. Furthermore, H&E staining showed that PPEAE obviously relieved the inflammation of infected mice and real-time PCR results indicated that PPEAE significantly down regulated the inflammatory iNOS, TNF-α and up regulated the anti-inflammatory HO-1 mRNA. In summary, our study revealed that application of crude product PPEAE had prominent antibacterial activity against S. aureus. PPEAE significantly reduced the biomass of S. aureus and effectively relieved the inflammation of S. aureus-induced pneumonia.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/genética , Polypodiaceae , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Heme Oxigenase-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/microbiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1584141, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222467

RESUMO

Microbial infections are increasing worldwide, and the widespread emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens poses a severe threat to public health. Medicinal plants are well-known sources of bioactive ingredients. This study was designed to determine the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of extracts from Platycerium stemaria. The serial exhaustive extraction method using a solvent of increasing polarity from nonpolar (hexane) to polar (water) was designed to prepare crude extracts; liquid-liquid partition was used to fractionate of active extracts. The extracts and fractions were screened for antimicrobial activity on bacteria and yeasts using the microdilution method. The antioxidant activity was done using DPPH and FRAP assays. Out of the sixteen extracts screened, four (PsHex, PsH2O(H), PsMeOH(EA), and PsMeOH) exhibited potency with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 31.25 to 500 µg/mL. Out of the four extracts, two, including PsMeOH and PsMeOH(EA), exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activity with the antiradical power of 8.94 × 10-5 and 47.96 × 10-5, respectively, and ferric reducing antioxidant power values ranging from 0.34 to 61.53 µg equivalent Vit C/g of extract. The phytochemical screening of the promising crude extracts revealed flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, and anthraquinones. This study reports the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of P. stemaria for the first time. The results showed that the serial exhaustive extraction approach used in this study allowed capturing the antimicrobial and antioxidant metabolites beyond the single extraction, indicating the need for a rigorous choice of an appropriate solvent and method for extracting P. stemaria. Further investigation is needed to characterize the active ingredients present in the promising extracts.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polypodiaceae/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo , Candida albicans , Hexanos/química , Técnicas In Vitro , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Picratos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais , Shigella flexneri , Solventes/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Staphylococcus aureus , Água/química
13.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(2): 621-627, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275838

RESUMO

Rhizoma Drynariae, the dried rhizome of Drynaria fortunei (Kunze), is rich in flavonoids and has varieties of pharmacological activities. To optimize the extract conditions for bioactive flavonoids, a response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to assess the effects of three independent variables (liquid-to-solid ratio (mL/g), extract temperature (°C) and ethanol concentration (%) on the total flavonoids content (TFC). To test the chelation with metal ion, the UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to detect metal ion chelation of extracted flavonoids. Regression analysis displayed a good fit of the experimental data. The optimal condition was liquid-to-solid ratio with 50:1, extract temperature with 80 °C and ethanol concentration with 40.22%. The total flavonoids had a better chelation with metal ions Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+ than Zn2+. These results suggested that the model employed is suitable and the application of RSM in optimizing the extract conditions is successful. The experimental values were in fine agreement (the yield 24.05±0.69mg/g) with predicted values. The total flavonoids from the extract presented good chelation against four metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+), which provided a good evidence for Alzheimer's disease treatments.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Flavonoides/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polypodiaceae , Rizoma , Quelantes/farmacologia , Química Farmacêutica , Cobre , Etanol , Compostos Férricos , Compostos Ferrosos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas , Solventes , Temperatura , Zinco
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(11): 2737-2745, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296570

RESUMO

Drynariae Rhizoma is warm in nature and bitter in taste, mainly acting on liver and kidney systems. It is a common Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of fracture and bone injury. The chemical compositions of Drynariae Rhizoma mainly include flavonoids, triterpenoids, phenylpropanoids and lignans. At present, modern pharmacological and clinical studies have shown that Drynariae Rhizoma has the effects of anti osteoporosis, promoting fracture healing, kidney protection, anti-inflammatory, promoting tooth growth, preventing and treating aminoglycoside ototoxicity and lowering blood lipid. In addition, the toxicity evaluation experiment of Drynariae Rhizoma has also shown that it has no obvious toxic and side effects. Naringin is a kind of dihydroflavone in Drynariae Rhizoma. Many studies have shown that naringin and other total flavonoids play an important role in anti-osteoporosis, promoting fracture healing, anti-inflammation, promoting tooth growth and lowering blood lipid. In this study, the research progresses on chemical consti-tuents and pharmacological activities of Drynariae Rhizoma in recent years were reviewed, and some mechanisms of action were summarized, to provide references for the further research and development of Drynariae Rhizoma.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Osteoporose , Polypodiaceae , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Humanos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Rizoma
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 124-133, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077788

RESUMO

Aquaculture is one of the important globally growing industries. It serves as an important food source of protein for human beings. With the expanding demand for the fish and their products it has become extremely important to improve the aquaculture practices. Aquaculture in India has witnessed huge mortalities caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes etc. Aquatic weeds plants are harmful for aquaculture in many ways. Present study is aimed to overcome the disease caused by Aeromonas hydrophila (fish pathogenic bacteria) through feed supplementation of two aquatic weed plants (Azolla pinnata and Ceratophyllum demersum). The fish were divided into 6 groups: experimental groups (fish fed on supplementary feed at 5% and 2.5% concentration for individual plant and challenged with bacteria), positive control (fish fed on non-supplemented feed and challenged with bacteria) and negative control (fish fed on non-supplementary feed and not challenged with bacteria). It was observed that supplemented feed enhanced both cell mediated and humoral immunity in fish. Therefore, we advocate that feed formulated with incorporation of Azolla pinnata and Ceratophyllum demersum leaf powder at 5% and 2.5% could be used to prevent disease caused by A. hydrophila or can be used to enhance fish health by boosting its immune system. The results of this study also showed an improved digestibility in fish fed on supplemented feed.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Gleiquênias/química , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Magnoliopsida/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peixes-Gato/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Polypodiaceae
16.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 76(9-10): 367-373, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823097

RESUMO

This study reports the effects of aqueous extracts obtained from three fern species of Bulgarian origin: Asplenium ceterach L., Asplenium scolopendrium L., and Asplenium trichomanes L. on the contractility and bioelectrogenesis of rat gastric smooth muscle tissues. In the concentration range 0.015-0.150 mg/mL the three extracts contracted smooth muscle tissues in a concentration-dependent manner. The contractions caused by A. ceterach L. and A. scolopendrium L. extracts (0.150 mg/mL) were reduced by ketanserin (5 × 10-7 and 5 × 10-6 mol/L), an antagonist of serotonin 5-HT2 receptor. The contraction evoked by A. trichomanes L. (0.150 mg/mL) was significantly reduced by 1 × 10-6 mol/L atropine, an antagonist of muscarinic receptors, and turned into relaxation against the background of 3 × 10-7 mol/L galantamine. After combined pretreatment with galantamine and l-arginine (5 × 10-4 mol/L), this relaxation become more pronounced. The study demonstrates that constituents of A. ceterach L. and A. scolopendrium L. extracts act as agonists of 5-HT2 receptors and cause contraction by activating serotonergic signaling system. A. trichomanes L.-induced reaction is an additive result of two opposite-in-character effects. The dominant contraction is initiated by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. The relaxation develops with pre-inhibited acetylcholinesterase, it is significantly potentiated by l-arginine, and therefore associated with nitrergic signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polypodiaceae/química , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Polypodiaceae/classificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores 5-HT2 de Serotonina/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 161: 107176, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866009

RESUMO

The establishment of a segregate lepisoroid fern genus Ellipinema was mainly to accommodate the isolated position of Lepisorus jakonensis (Polypodiaceae) recovered in plastid gene tree. Using newly obtained nuclear data, we recovered that Ellipinema and allied genera, such as Lepidomicrosorium, Lemmaphyllum, Neolepisorus, Paragramma, Tricholepidium and Weatherbya are deeply nested within Lepisorus. The nuclear phylogeny showing incongruent phylogenetic placement in comparison with plastid results perhaps indicated ancient hybridization events. The diagnostic morphology characterizing Ellipinema - elliptic scale-like paraphyses, which is shared by all the taxa of sect. Lepisorus and sect. Hymenophyton - falls within the range of continuous variation in the type species Ellipinema jakonense (=Lepisorus jakonensis). Our study, which integrated molecular and morphological data, demonstrates that the segregation of Ellipinema and ×Ellipisorus (= ×Lepinema Li Bing Zhang & Liang Zhang, nom. illeg.) from Lepisorus should be rejected.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Polypodiaceae/classificação , Polypodiaceae/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Polypodiaceae/citologia
18.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760114

RESUMO

Steroid­induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (SANFH) is a common orthopaedic disease that is difficult to treat. The present study investigated the effects of total flavonoids of Rhizoma drynariae (TFRD) on SANFH and explored its underlying mechanisms. The SANFH rat model was induced by intramuscular injection of lipopolysaccharides and methylprednisolone. Osteoblasts were isolated from the calvariae of neonatal rats and then cultured with dexamethasone (Dex). TFRD was used in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was used to assess the pathological changes in the femoral head. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase­mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling assay and flow cytometry were conducted to detect apoptosis of osteoblasts. The 2',7'­dichlorofluorescein­diacetate staining method was used to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in osteoblasts and the 3­(4,5­dimethylthiazol­2­yl)­2,5­diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to detect osteoblast proliferation. The expression of caspase­3, Bax, Bcl­2, VEGF, runt­related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OCN), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and phosphoinositide 3­kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway related­proteins were detected via western blotting. It was found that TFRD reduced the pathological changes, inhibited apoptosis, increased the expression of VEGF, RUNX2, OPG and OCN, decreased RANKL expression and activated the PI3K/AKT pathway in SANFH rats. TFRD promoted proliferation, inhibited apoptosis and reduced ROS levels by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway in osteoblasts. In conclusion, TFRD protected against SANFH in a rat model. In addition, TFRD protected osteoblasts from Dex­induced damage through the PI3K/AKT pathway. The findings of the present study may contribute to find an effective treatment for the management of SANFH.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Osteonecrose/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polypodiaceae/química , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cabeça do Fêmur/patologia , Flavonoides/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese por Distração/métodos , Osteonecrose/induzido quimicamente , Osteonecrose/patologia , Osteoprotegerina/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Ligante RANK/genética , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/efeitos adversos
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111466, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740525

RESUMO

Rhizoma drynariae total flavonoids (RDTF) are extracted from Drynaria fortunei J. Sm (D. fortunei), which was a Chinese herb commonly used to treat fractures and bruises. Modern pharmacological studies indicate flavonoids have anti-inflammatory effect in clinical practice. However, its active ingredients and the mechanisms of action are far from clear. The present study aims to determine whether RDTF can protect against intervertebral disc degeneration in a rat cervical intervertebral disc model and investigate the associated molecular mechanisms. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into five groups: control group (CG, n = 8), intervertebral disc degeneration group (NG, n = 8), low-dose RDTF-treated group (LG, n = 8), medium-dose RDTF-treated group (MG, n = 8), and high-dose RDTF-treated group (HG, n = 8). Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence, ELISA, Western blot and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays were used to investigate inflammatory, catabolic factors and the latent regulatory mechanism of the effects of RDTF on intervertebral disc cells. HE staining showed disc degeneration in all groups except CG, and the function was restored after RDTF treatment. IHC, Western blot, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and ELISA results showed that RDTF prevented intervertebral disc degeneration by suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which reduced expression of intracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such MMP3, MMP13, and inflammatory factors including interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Notably RDTF inhibited extracellular matrix (ECM) degeneration by increasing expression of aggrecan and collagen type II and preventing the upregulation of collagen type I and III. It suggests that RDTF has a potential therapeutic effect on cervical spondylosis.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Polypodiaceae , Rizoma , Animais , Vértebras Cervicais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111480, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774316

RESUMO

Osteogenesis and angiogenesis acts as an essential role in repairing large tibial defects (LTDs). Total flavonoids of rhizoma drynariae (TFRD), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is reported to show anabolic effects on fracture healing. However, whether TFRD could improve the bone formation and angiogenesis in LTDs remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of TFRD on bone formation and angiogenesis in LTDs in distraction osteogenesis (DO). Using a previously established fracture model, LTD rats was established with circular external fixator (CEF). All rats then randomly divided into TFRD low dosage group (with DO), TFRD medium dosage group (with DO), TFRD high dosage group (with DO), model group (with DO) and blank group (without DO). Twelve weeks after treatment, according to X-ray and Micro-CT, TFRD groups (especially in medium dosage group) can significantly promote the formation of a large number of epiphyses and improve new bone mineralization compared with model group, and the results of HE and Masson staining and in vitro ALP level of BMSC also demonstrated the formation of bone matrix and mineralization in the TFRD groups. Also, angiographic imaging suggested that total flavonoids of TFRD was able to promote angiogenesis in the defect area. Consistently, TFRD significantly increased the levels of BMP-2, SMAD1, SMAD4, RUNX-2, OSX and VEGF in LTD rats based on ELISA and Real-Time PCR. In addition, we found that ALP activity of TFRD medium dosage group reached a peak after 10 days of induction through BMSC cell culture in vitro experiment. TFRD promoted bone formation in LTD through activation of BMP-Smad signaling pathway, which provides a promising new strategy for repairing bone defects in DO surgeries.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Polypodiaceae , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Tíbia/metabolismo , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rizoma , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
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