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1.
Elife ; 122024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457350

RESUMO

Studies of climate variation commonly rely on chemical and isotopic changes recorded in sequentially produced growth layers, such as in corals, shells, and tree rings, as well as in accretionary deposits-ice and sediment cores, and speleothems. Oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18O) of tooth enamel are a direct method of reconstructing environmental variation experienced by an individual animal. Here, we utilize long-forming orangutan dentitions (Pongo spp.) to probe recent and ancient rainfall trends on a weekly basis over ~3-11 years per individual. We first demonstrate the lack of any consistent isotopic enrichment effect during exclusive nursing, supporting the use of primate first molar teeth as environmental proxies. Comparisons of δ18O values (n=2016) in twelve molars from six modern Bornean and Sumatran orangutans reveal a high degree of overlap, with more consistent annual and bimodal rainfall patterns in the Sumatran individuals. Comparisons with fossil orangutan δ18O values (n=955 measurements from six molars) reveal similarities between modern and late Pleistocene fossil Sumatran individuals, but differences between modern and late Pleistocene/early Holocene Bornean orangutans. These suggest drier and more open environments with reduced monsoon intensity during this earlier period in northern Borneo, consistent with other Niah Caves studies and long-term speleothem δ18O records in the broader region. This approach can be extended to test hypotheses about the paleoenvironments that early humans encountered in southeast Asia.


When an animal drinks water, two naturally occurring variants of oxygen ­ known as oxygen-18 and oxygen-16 ­ are incorporated into its growing teeth. The ratio of these variants in water changes with temperature, rainfall and other environmental conditions and therefore can provide a record of the climate during an animal's life. Teeth tend to be well preserved as fossils, which makes it possible to gain insights into this climate record even millions of years after an animal's death. Orangutans are highly endangered great apes that today live in rainforests on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. During a period of time known as the Pleistocene (around 2.6 million years to 12,000 years ago), these apes were more widely spread across Southeast Asia. Climate records from this area in the time before human-induced climate change are somewhat limited. Therefore, fossilized orangutan teeth offer a possible way to investigate past seasonal rainfall patterns and gain insight into the kind of environments early humans would have encountered. To address this question, Smith et al. measured oxygen-18 and oxygen-16 variants in thin slices of modern-day orangutan teeth using a specialized analytical system. This established that the teeth showed seasonal patterns consistent with recent rainfall trends, and that the ratio of these oxygen variants did not appear to be impacted by milk intake in young orangutans. These findings indicated that the oxygen variants could be a useful proxy for predicting prehistoric weather patterns from orangutan teeth. Further measurements of teeth from fossilized Sumatran orangutans showed broadly similar rainfall patterns to those of teeth from modern-day orangutans. On the other hand, fossilized teeth from Borneo suggested that the environment used to be drier, with less intense wet seasons. The approach developed by Smith et al. provides an opportunity for scientists to leverage new fossil discoveries as well as existing collections to investigate past environments. This could allow future research into how climate variation may have influenced the spread of early humans through the region, as well as the evolution of orangutans and other endangered animals.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pongo abelii , Dente , Animais , Humanos , Pongo pygmaeus , Sudeste Asiático
2.
Behav Processes ; 216: 105011, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417563

RESUMO

Humans and several other species of animals have demonstrated the ability to use familiarity to recognize that they have seen images before. In prior experiments, orangutans failed to show use of familiarity in memory tasks, even when other solutions were not available. We tested for evidence of habituation, a decreased response to repeated stimuli, as a behavioral indicator that repeated images were familiar to subjects. Monkeys and orangutans selected the smallest target out of four while computerized images were presented as distractors. Latency to complete the target-finding task was compared between conditions in which the distractor image was a familiar, repeating image, a novel, never-before-seen image, or no distractor was present. Rhesus macaques showed significant habituation, and significantly more habituation than orangutans, in each of four experiments. Orangutans showed statistically reliable habituation in only one of the four experiments. These results are consistent with previous research in which orangutans failed to demonstrate familiarity. Because we expect that familiarity and habituation are evolutionarily ancient memory processes, we struggle to explain these surprising, but consistent findings. Future research is needed to determine why orangutans respond to computerized images in this peculiar way.


Assuntos
Habituação Psicofisiológica , Pongo , Animais , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Memória , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Pongo pygmaeus
3.
Am J Biol Anthropol ; 184(1): e24902, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reconstruction of fossil hominin manual behaviors often relies on comparative analyses of extant hominid hands to understand the relationship between hand use and skeletal morphology. In this context, the intermediate phalanges remain understudied. Thus, here we investigate cortical bone morphology of the intermediate phalanges of extant hominids and compare it to the cortical structure of the proximal phalanges, to investigate the relationship between cortical bone structure and inferred loading during manual behaviors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using micro-CT data, we analyze cortical bone structure of the intermediate phalangeal shaft of digits 2-5 in Pongo pygmaeus (n = 6 individuals), Gorilla gorilla (n = 22), Pan spp. (n = 23), and Homo sapiens (n = 23). The R package morphomap is used to study cortical bone distribution, cortical thickness and cross-sectional properties within and across taxa. RESULTS: Non-human great apes generally have thick cortical bone on the palmar shaft, with Pongo only having thick cortex on the peaks of the flexor sheath ridges, while African apes have thick cortex along the entire flexor sheath ridge and proximal to the trochlea. Humans are distinct in having thicker dorsal shaft cortex as well as thick cortex at the disto-palmar region of the shaft. DISCUSSION: Variation in cortical bone distribution and properties of the intermediate phalanges is consistent with differences in locomotor and manipulative behaviors in extant great apes. Comparisons between the intermediate and proximal phalanges reveals similar patterns of cortical bone distribution within each taxon but with potentially greater load experienced by the proximal phalanges, even in knuckle-walking African apes. This study provides a comparative context for the reconstruction of habitual hand use in fossil hominins and hominids.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla/anatomia & histologia , Locomoção , Pongo , Pongo pygmaeus/anatomia & histologia , Osso Cortical
4.
Am J Primatol ; 86(5): e23608, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353023

RESUMO

Molar and incisor microwear reflect aspects of food choice and ingestive behaviors in living primates and have both been used to infer the same for fossil samples. Canine microwear, however, has received less attention, perhaps because of the prominent role canines play in social display and because they are used as weapons-while outside of a few specialized cases, their involvement in diet related behaviors has not been obvious. Here, we posit that microwear can also provide glimpses into canine tooth use in ingestion. Canines of Sumatran long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis), lar gibbons (Hylobates lar), Thomas' leaf monkeys (Presbytis thomasi), and orangutans (Pongo abelii), and two African great apes, bonobos (Pan paniscus) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), were considered. The labial tips of maxillary canine replicas were scanned using a white-light confocal profiler, and both feature and texture analyses were used to characterize microwear surface patterning. The taxa exhibited significant differences in canine microwear. In some cases, these were consistent with variation in reported anterior tooth use such that, for example, the orangutans, known to use their front teeth extensively in ingestion, had the highest median number of microwear features on their canines, whereas the gibbons, reported to use their front teeth infrequently in food acquisition, had the lowest.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Hylobates , Animais , Primatas , Pan paniscus , Macaca fascicularis , Pongo pygmaeus , Dieta/veterinária
5.
J Hum Evol ; 188: 103496, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412694

RESUMO

Among extant great apes, orangutans climb most frequently. However, Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) exhibit higher frequencies of terrestrial locomotion than do Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii). Variation in long bone cross-sectional geometry is known to reflect differential loading of the limbs. Thus, Bornean orangutans should show greater relative leg-to-arm strength than their Sumatran counterparts. Using skeletal specimens from museum collections, we measured two cross-sectional geometric measures of bone strength: the polar section modulus (Zpol) and the ratio of maximum to minimum area moments of inertia (Imax/Imin), at the midshaft of long bones in Bornean (n = 19) and Sumatran adult orangutans (n = 12) using medical CT and peripheral quantitative CT scans, and compared results to published data of other great apes. Relative leg-to-arm strength was quantified using ratios of femur and tibia over humerus, radius, and ulna, respectively. Differences between orangutan species and between sexes in median ratios were assessed using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. The tibia of Bornean orangutans was stronger relative to the humerus and the ulna than in Sumatran orangutans (p = 0.008 and 0.025, respectively), consistent with behavioral studies that indicate higher frequencies of terrestrial locomotion in the former. In three Zpol ratios, adult female orangutans showed greater leg-to-arm bone strength compared to flanged males, which may relate to females using their legs more during arboreal locomotion than in adult flanged males. A greater amount of habitat discontinuity on Borneo compared to Sumatra has been posited as a possible explanation for observed interspecific differences in locomotor behaviors, but recent camera trap studies has called this into question. Alternatively, greater frequencies of terrestriality in Pongo pygmaeus may be due to the absence of tigers on Borneo. The results of this study are consistent with the latter explanation given that habitat continuity was greater a century ago when our study sample was collected.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pongo abelii , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Pongo pygmaeus , Ecossistema , Comportamento Animal , Indonésia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296688, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335166

RESUMO

Male orangutans (Pongo spp.) exhibit bimaturism, an alternative reproductive tactic, with flanged and unflanged males displaying two distinct morphological and behavioral phenotypes. Flanged males are larger than unflanged males and display secondary sexual characteristics which unflanged males lack. The evolutionary explanation for alternative reproductive tactics in orangutans remains unclear because orangutan paternity studies to date have been from sites with ex-captive orangutans, provisioning via feeding stations and veterinary care, or that lack data on the identity of mothers. Here we demonstrate, using the first long-term paternity data from a site free of these limitations, that alternative reproductive tactics in orangutans are condition-dependent, not frequency-dependent. We found higher reproductive success by flanged males than by unflanged males, a pattern consistent with other Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) paternity studies. Previous paternity studies disagree on the degree of male reproductive skew, but we found low reproductive skew among flanged males. We compare our findings and previous paternity studies from both Bornean and Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) to understand why these differences exist, examining the possible roles of species differences, ecology, and human intervention. Additionally, we use long-term behavioral data to demonstrate that while flanged males can displace unflanged males in association with females, flanged males are unable to keep other males from associating with a female, and thus they are unable to completely mate guard females. Our results demonstrate that alternative reproductive tactics in Bornean orangutans are condition-dependent, supporting the understanding that the flanged male morph is indicative of good condition. Despite intense male-male competition and direct sexual coercion by males, female mate choice is effective in determining reproductive outcomes in this population of wild orangutans.


Assuntos
Pongo abelii , Pongo pygmaeus , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Reprodução , Ecologia
7.
J Hum Evol ; 189: 103507, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417249

RESUMO

The rarity of Pongo fossils with precise absolute dating from the Middle Pleistocene hampers our understanding of the taxonomy and spatiotemporal distribution of Quaternary orangutans in southern China. Here, we report a newly discovered sample of 113 isolated teeth of fossil Pongo from Zhongshan Cave in the Bubing Basin, Guangxi, southern China. We describe the Pongo specimens from Zhongshan Cave and compare them metrically to other samples of fossil Pongo species (i.e., Pongo weidenreichi, Pongo devosi, Pongo duboisi, Pongo palaeosumatrensis, Pongo javensis, and Pongo sp.) and to extant orangutans (i.e., Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii). The Zhongshan Pongo assemblage is dated using U-series and coupled electron spin resonance/U-series methods. Our results reasonably constrain the Zhongshan Pongo assemblage to 184 ± 16 ka, which is consistent with the biostratigraphic evidence. The Zhongshan Pongo teeth are only 6.5% larger on average than those of extant Pongo. The Zhongshan teeth are smaller overall than those of Pongo from all other cave sites in southern China, and they currently represent the smallest fossil orangutans in southern China. Based on their dental size, and the presence of a well-developed lingual pillar and lingual cingulum on the upper and lower incisors, an intermediate frequency of lingual cingulum remnants on the upper molars, and a higher frequency of moderate to heavy wrinkling on the upper and lower molars, we provisionally assign the Zhongshan fossils to P. devosi. Our results confirm earlier claims that P. weidenreichi is replaced by a smaller species in southern China, P. devosi, by the late Middle Pleistocene. The occurrence of P. devosi in Zhongshan Cave further extends its spatial and temporal distribution. The Pongo specimens from Zhongshan provide important new evidence to demonstrate that the dental morphological features of Pongo in southern China changed substantially during the late Middle Pleistocene.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pongo abelii , Dente , Animais , Pongo/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , China , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Pongo pygmaeus , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 54(4): 837-844, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252010

RESUMO

Shigella flexneri is a nonmotile gram-negative bacillus that affects humans and nonhuman primates. In August 2021, 15 primates at the ABQ BioPark demonstrated clinical signs of Shigella infection: 3 out of 4 Sumatran and hybrid orangutans (Pongo abelii), 6 out of 8 gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), 2 out of 9 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and 4 out of 4 siamangs (Hylobates syndactylus). Three siamangs and one gorilla succumbed to complications of shigellosis during the initial outbreak and a chimpanzee died 10 mon later. Although it is well documented that Shigella may cause morbidity and mortality in nonhuman primates, the rapid and devastating nature of the outbreak, the difference from previous reports in zoological collections (enzootic vs outbreak), and the chronological overlap with the increase in human cases in the region makes discussion of this Shigella outbreak of significance. The cases presented here are significantly different than previous reports, because these were part of an outbreak that arose and subsided, versus other reports where the authors describe an enzootic disease with persistently infected animals. Close communication with the New Mexico Department of Health allowed for the investigation into possible sources of the outbreak, recommendations regarding biosecurity protocols, and staff education.


Assuntos
Hylobatidae , Pongo abelii , Animais , Humanos , Shigella flexneri , Pan troglodytes , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Pongo pygmaeus
9.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 54(4): 879-883, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252015

RESUMO

A 36-yr-old female intact hybrid orangutan (Pongo sp.) presented with evidence of chronic bacterial cystitis with no response to treatment with multiple systemic antibiotics. Abnormalities were identified within the reproductive tract on CT scan, and hysteroscopy was pursued based on the recommendation of an obstetrician-gynecologist. Hysteroscopic examination revealed a large amount of intrauterine foreign material consistent with wood wool from the orangutan's bedding. A hysteroscopic morcellator (MyoSure®) was used to remove the foreign material. Histologic examination of endometrial biopsies showed severe suppurative to pyogranulomatous endometritis with intralesional foreign (wood) fibers and bacteria. The orangutan was treated with antibiotics, but evidence of bacterial cystitis persisted. After 15 wk, additional wood wool was identified within the uterus by hysteroscopic examination and was removed similarly. Five months later, there was no recurrence of foreign material on hysteroscopy or CT. This report describes the first documentation of intrauterine foreign material in a nonhuman primate. Hysteroscopic morcellation is a useful technique for noninvasive removal of intrauterine foreign material in great apes.


Assuntos
Cistite , Corpos Estranhos , Morcelação , Feminino , Animais , Pongo , Morcelação/veterinária , Pongo pygmaeus , Útero , Antibacterianos , Cistite/veterinária , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária
10.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0295221, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232055

RESUMO

We investigated children's and non-human great apes' ability to anticipate others' choices from their evident food preferences-regardless of whether these preferences deviate or align with one's own. We assessed children from three culturally-diverse societies (Namibia, Germany, and Samoa; N = 71; age range = 5-11) and four non-human great ape species (chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo abelii); N = 25; age range = 7-29) regarding their choices in a dyadic food-retrieval task. Across conditions, participants' preferences were either aligned (same preference condition) or opposed (opposite preference condition) to those of their competitors. Children across societies altered their choices based on their competitor's preferences, indicating a cross-culturally recurrent capacity to anticipate others' choices relying on preferences-based inferences. In contrast to human children, all non-human great apes chose according to their own preferences but independent of those of their competitors. In sum, these results suggest that the tendency to anticipate others' choices based on their food preferences is cross-culturally robust and, among the great apes, most likely specific to humans.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pongo abelii , Animais , Humanos , Gorilla gorilla , Pan troglodytes , Pongo pygmaeus , Pan paniscus
11.
Am J Biol Anthropol ; 183(3): e24755, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37171151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the shape differences of the distal ulna in a phylogenetic context among a broad range of primate taxa. Furthermore, we evaluated covariation between ulnar and triquetrum shape and a possible association between ulnar shape and locomotor behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We applied 3D geometric morphometrics on a large dataset comprising the distal ulna of 124 anthropoid primate specimens belonging to 12 different genera. For each species, a mean shape was calculated using 11 Procrustes-aligned surface landmarks on the distal ulna. These mean shapes are used in a bgPCA, pPCA, and PACA and 3D morphs were used to visualize more subtle differences between taxa. A p2B-PLS analysis was performed to test the covariance between distal ulnar and triquetrum shape. RESULTS: The results show that more closely related species exhibit a similar distal ulnar shape. Overall, extant hominid ulnae show a shape shift compared to those of extant monkeys and hylobatids. This includes a shortening of the ulnar styloid process and dorspalmarly widening of the ulnar head, shape characteristics that are independent of phylogeny. Within the hominids, Pongo pygmaeus seem to possess the most plesiomorphic distal ulnar shape, while Gorilla and Homo sapiens display the most derived distal ulna. Cercopithecoids, hylobatids, and P. pygmaeus are characterized by a relatively deep ECU groove, which is a shape trait dependent of phylogeny. Although there was no significant covariation between distal ulnar shape and triquetrum shape, the shape differences of the distal ulna between the different primate taxa reveal a possible link with locomotor behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The comparative analyses of this study reveal different shape trends in a phylogenetic context. Highly arboreal primates, such as hylobatids and Ateles fusciceps, show a distal ulnar morphology that appears to be adapted to tensile and torsional forces. In primates that use their wrist under more compressive conditions, such as quadrupedal cercopithecoids and great apes, the distal ulnar morphology seems to reflect increased compressive forces. In modern humans, the distal ulnar shape can be associated to enhanced manipulative skills and power grips. There was no significant covariation between distal ulnar shape and triquetrum shape, probably due to the variation in the amount of contact between the triquetrum and ulna. In combination with future research on wrist mobility in diverse primate taxa, the results of this study will allow us to establish form-function relationships of the primate wrist and contribute towards an evidence-based interpretation of fossil remains.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Primatas , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Ulna/anatomia & histologia , Punho/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla , Haplorrinos , Pongo pygmaeus
12.
Am J Biol Anthropol ; 183(3): e24788, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37283367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Differences between adult humans and great apes in cervical vertebral morphology are well documented, but the ontogeny of this variation is still largely unexplored. This study examines patterns of growth in functionally relevant features of C1, C2, C4, and C6 in extant humans and apes to understand the development of their disparate morphologies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Linear and angular measurements were taken from 530 cervical vertebrae representing 146 individual humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. Specimens were divided into three age-categories based on dental eruption: juvenile, adolescent, and adult. Inter- and intraspecific comparisons were evaluated using resampling methods. RESULTS: Of the eighteen variables examined here, seven distinguish humans from apes at the adult stage. Human-ape differences in features related to atlantoaxial joint function tend to be established by the juvenile stage, whereas differences in features related to the nuchal musculature and movement of the subaxial elements do not fully emerge until adolescence or later. The orientation of the odontoid process-often cited as a feature that distinguishes humans from apes-is similar in adult humans and adult chimpanzees, but the developmental patterns are distinct, with human adultlike morphology being achieved much earlier. DISCUSSION: The biomechanical consequences of the variation observed here is poorly understood. Whether the differences in growth patterns represent functional links to cranial development or postural changes, or both, requires additional investigation. Determining when humanlike ontogenetic patterns evolved in hominins may provide insight into the functional basis driving the morphological divergence between extant humans and apes.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Humanos , Adolescente , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla , Pongo , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Pongo pygmaeus
13.
Am J Primatol ; 86(2): e23581, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38041590

RESUMO

Oral health is a crucial aspect of overall well-being in both humans and nonhuman primates. Understanding the oral pathologies and dental conditions in apes can provide valuable insights into their evolutionary history, dietary habits, and overall health. The present study evaluates dental findings in wild great apes from museum specimens to gain insights into the influence of natural nutrition on dental health. Complete macerated skulls of wild, adult great apes from the collection of the Museum of Natural History, Berlin, Germany, were examined. We analyzed skulls of 53 gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), 63 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and 41 orangutans (Pongo spp.). For each skull, we recorded wear of dental hard tissues (Lussi and Ganss index), carious lesions, and periodontal bone loss. Incisal and occlusal dental hard tissue defects were found in all skulls, as well as considerable external staining. In all species, incisors and canines showed the greatest loss of tissue, followed by molars. The wear of molars decreased from the first to the third molars, premolars showed the least pronounced defects. Some individuals had apical osteolytic defects along with severe dental hard tissue loss with pulp involvement or after dental trauma, respectively (n = 5). Our study did not observe any carious lesions among the examined great ape skulls. However, we did find evidence for localized or generalized periodontal bone loss in a subset of the specimens (n = 3 chimpanzees, n = 7 orangutans). The natural diet and foraging behavior of great apes induces abrasion and attrition of dental hard tissue but does not yield carious lesions. The occurrence of periodontitis in individual apes indicates that the natural circumstances can induce periodontal bone loss even in the wild, despite physiological nutrition.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Cárie Dentária , Hominidae , Humanos , Animais , Pan troglodytes , Gorilla gorilla , Pongo , Pongo pygmaeus , Crânio
14.
Am J Biol Anthropol ; 183(3): e24800, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37377134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The shape of the trapezium and first metacarpal (Mc1) markedly influence thumb mobility, strength, and the manual abilities of extant hominids. Previous research has typically focused solely on trapezium-Mc1 joint shape. Here we investigate how morphological integration and shape covariation between the entire trapezium (articular and non-articular surfaces) and the entire Mc1 reflect known differences in thumb use in extant hominids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed shape covariation in associated trapezia and Mc1s across a large, diverse sample of Homo sapiens (n = 40 individuals) and other extant hominids (Pan troglodytes, n = 16; Pan paniscus, n = 13; Gorilla gorilla gorilla, n = 27; Gorilla beringei, n = 6; Pongo pygmaeus, n = 14; Pongo abelii, n = 9) using a 3D geometric morphometric approach. We tested for interspecific significant differences in degree of morphological integration and patterns of shape covariation between the entire trapezium and Mc1, as well as within the trapezium-Mc1 joint specifically. RESULTS: Significant morphological integration was only found in the trapezium-Mc1 joint of H. sapiens and G. g. gorilla. Each genus showed a specific pattern of shape covariation between the entire trapezium and Mc1 that was consistent with different intercarpal and carpometacarpal joint postures. DISCUSSION: Our results are consistent with known differences in habitual thumb use, including a more abducted thumb during forceful precision grips in H. sapiens and a more adducted thumb in other hominids used for diverse grips. These results will help to infer thumb use in fossil hominins.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Ossos Metacarpais , Pongo abelii , Animais , Humanos , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Polegar , Ossos Metacarpais/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia , Pan paniscus , Pongo pygmaeus/anatomia & histologia
15.
PLoS One ; 18(12): e0291308, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100471

RESUMO

Pleistocene Pongo teeth show substantial variation in size and morphology, fueling taxonomic debates about the paleodiversity of the genus. We investigated prominent features of the enamel-dentine-junction junction (EDJ)-phylogenetically informative internal structures-of 71 fossil Pongo lower molars from various sites by applying geometric morphometrics and conducted paleoproteomic analyses from enamel proteins to attempt to identify extinct orangutan species. Forty-three orangutan lower molars representing Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii were included for comparison. The shape of the EDJ was analyzed by placing five landmarks on the tip of the main dentine horns, and 142 semilandmarks along the marginal ridges connecting the dentine horns. Paleoproteomic analyses were conducted on 15 teeth of Late Pleistocene Pongo using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The geometric morphometric results show variations in EDJ shape regarding aspects of the height and position of the dentine horns and connecting ridges. Despite the issue of molar position and sample size, modern molars are distinguished from fossil counterparts by their elongated tooth outline and narrowly positioned dentine horns. Proteomic results show that neither a distinction of P. pygmaeus and P. abelii, nor a consistent allocation of fossil specimens to extant species is feasible. Based on the EDJ shape, the (late) Middle to Late Pleistocene Pongo samples from Vietnam share the same morphospace, supporting the previous allocation to P. devosi, although substantial overlap with Chinese fossils could also indicate close affinities with P. weidenreichi. The hypothesis that both species represent one chronospecies cannot be ruled out. Two fossil specimens, one from Tam Hay Marklot (Laos, Late Pleistocene), and another from Sangiran (Java, Early to Middle Pleistocene), along with some specimens within the Punung sample (Java), exhibit affinities with Pongo abelii. The Punung fossils might represent a mix of early Late Pleistocene and later specimens (terminal Pleistocene to Holocene) related to modern Pongo. The taxonomy and phylogeny of the complete Punung sample needs to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Pongo abelii , Dente , Animais , Pongo/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Proteômica , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Pongo pygmaeus , Fósseis
16.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 21138, 2023 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38129443

RESUMO

Africa's paleo-climate change represents an "ecological black-box" along the evolutionary timeline of spoken language; a vocal hominid went in and, millions of years later, out came a verbal human. It is unknown whether or how a shift from forested, dense habitats towards drier, open ones affected hominid vocal communication, potentially setting stage for speech evolution. To recreate how arboreal proto-vowels and proto-consonants would have interacted with a new ecology at ground level, we assessed how a series of orangutan voiceless consonant-like and voiced vowel-like calls travelled across the savannah. Vowel-like calls performed poorly in comparison to their counterparts. Only consonant-like calls afforded effective perceptibility beyond 100 m distance without requiring repetition, as is characteristic of loud calling behaviour in nonhuman primates, typically composed by vowel-like calls. Results show that proto-consonants in human ancestors may have enhanced reliability of distance vocal communication across a canopy-to-ground ecotone. The ecological settings and soundscapes experienced by human ancestors may have had a more profound impact on the emergence and shape of spoken language than previously recognized.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Voz , Animais , Humanos , Fonética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fala , Pongo pygmaeus
17.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 842, 2023 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37612372

RESUMO

Fossil apes from the eastern Mediterranean are central to the debate on African ape and human (hominine) origins. Current research places them either as hominines, as hominins (humans and our fossil relatives) or as stem hominids, no more closely related to hominines than to pongines (orangutans and their fossil relatives). Here we show, based on our analysis of a newly identified genus, Anadoluvius, from the 8.7 Ma site of Çorakyerler in central Anatolia, that Mediterranean fossil apes are diverse, and are part of the first known radiation of early members of the hominines. The members of this radiation are currently only identified in Europe and Anatolia; generally accepted hominins are only found in Africa from the late Miocene until the Pleistocene. Hominines may have originated in Eurasia during the late Miocene, or they may have dispersed into Eurasia from an unknown African ancestor. The diversity of hominines in Eurasia suggests an in situ origin but does not exclude a dispersal hypothesis.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , África , Europa (Continente) , Fósseis , Migração Humana , Pongo pygmaeus , Ásia
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 13184, 2023 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37580333

RESUMO

The readiness to interact with and explore novel stimuli-i.e., curiosity-is the cornerstone of innovation. Great apes show broad and complex innovation repertoires. However, little is known about the factors that affect curiosity in wild apes. To shed light on wild apes' curiosity, we measured the reactions of wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) to an experiment apparatus. Overall, individuals were reluctant to touch the apparatus. However, compared to adults, immatures showed higher tendencies to explore (measured through looking durations and the probability of touching the apparatus) and to approach (measured through approach latencies and approach distances) the apparatus but were more likely to show behavioral signs of agitation. The presence of conspecifics who approached the apparatus increased visual exploration and approach tendencies. Prevailing habitat food availability positively affected visual exploration but had a negative effect on approach tendencies. These findings indicate that intrinsic, social, and ecological factors affect reactions to novelty in wild orangutans and suggest that exploration, neophobia and neophilia are independently regulated. Because reactions to novelty can be an essential pathway to innovation, our results suggest that factors acting on different elements of curiosity must be considered to understand the evolution of innovative tendencies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Pongo abelii , Humanos , Animais , Pongo pygmaeus , Ecossistema , Alimentos
19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 54(2): 406-411, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37428707

RESUMO

A 37-yr-old male vasectomized hybrid orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus × abelii) was diagnosed with left ventricular dysfunction during a preventative health care examination. Treatment was initiated with carvedilol. The following year, this orangutan was evaluated for intermittent lethargy. Following observation of an irregular cardiac rhythm during an echocardiogram, a lead II electrocardiogram revealed atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmia. Additional treatment included amiodarone, furosemide, spironolactone, clopidogrel, and aspirin. An improved activity level was noted, and follow-up testing showed restoration of a sinus rhythm, reduced frequency of ventricular arrhythmia, and improved left ventricular function. The orangutan died 27 mon after initial diagnosis of heart disease, and a complete necropsy was performed. This article describes successful diagnosis and management of structural and arrhythmic heart disease in an orangutan, emphasizing the role of cardiac disease screening and behavioral training in apes, as well as the value of matching thorough antemortem and postmortem cardiac evaluation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Pongo abelii , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Masculino , Animais , Pongo pygmaeus , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Fibrilação Atrial/veterinária , Fibrilação Ventricular/veterinária , Pongo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/veterinária
20.
Am J Primatol ; 85(9): e23535, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37475573

RESUMO

In many slowly developing mammal species, males reach sexual maturity well before they develop secondary sexual characteristics. Sexually mature male orangutans have exceptionally long periods of developmental arrest. The two male morphs have been associated with behavioral alternative reproductive tactics, but this interpretation is based on cross-sectional analyses predominantly of Northwest Sumatran populations. Here we present the first longitudinal analyses of behavioral changes of 10 adult males that have been observed in both unflanged and flanged morph. We also analyzed long-term behavioral data on an additional 143 individually identified males from two study sites, Suaq (Sumatra, Pongo abelii) and Tuanan (Borneo, Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii), to assess male mating tactics cross-sectionally in relation to population, male morph (unflanged and flanged), and other socio-ecological factors. Both our longitudinal and cross-sectional results confirm and refine previous cross-sectional accounts of the differences in mating tactics between the unflanged and the flanged male morphs. In the unflanged morph, males exhibit higher sociability, particularly with females, and higher rates of both copulation and sexual coercion than in the flanged morph. Based on our results and those of previous studies showing that females prefer flanged males, and that flanged males have higher reproductive success, we conclude that unflanged males face a trade-off between avoiding male-male contest competition and gaining mating access to females, and thus follow a "best-of-a-bad-job" mating strategy.


Assuntos
Pongo abelii , Pongo pygmaeus , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Reprodução , Indonésia , Mamíferos
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