Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 35.567
Filtrar
1.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 35(1): 14, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353746

RESUMO

In this study, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles loaded with cannabidiol (CBD) were synthesized (PLGA@CBD microparticles) and embedded up to 10 wt% in a chondroitin sulfate/polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel matrix. In vitro chemical, physical, and biological assays were carried out to validate the potential use of the modified hydrogels as biomaterials. The microparticles had spherical morphology and a narrow range of size distribution. CBD encapsulation efficiency was around 52%, loading was approximately 50%. Microparticle addition to the hydrogels caused minor changes in their morphology, FTIR and thermal analyses confirmed these changes. Swelling degree and total porosity were reduced in the presence of microparticles, but similar hydrophilic and degradation in phosphate buffer solution behaviors were observed by all hydrogels. Rupture force and maximum strain at rupture were higher in the modified hydrogels, whereas modulus of elasticity was similar across all materials. Viability of primary human dental pulp cells up to 21 days was generally not influenced by the addition of PLGA@CBD microparticles. The control hydrogel showed no antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas hydrogels with 5% and 10% PLGA@CBD microparticles showed inhibition zones. In conclusion, the PLGA@CBD microparticles were fabricated and successfully embedded in a hydrogel matrix. Despite the hydrophobic nature of CBD, the physicochemical and morphological properties were generally similar for the hydrogels with and without the CBD-loaded microparticles. The data reported in this study suggested that this original biomaterial loaded with CBD oil has characteristics that could enable it to be used as a scaffold for tissue/cellular regeneration.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Humanos , Porosidade , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Bioensaio , Hidrogéis
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1377, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355941

RESUMO

Injectable biomaterials have garnered increasing attention for their potential and beneficial applications in minimally invasive surgical procedures and tissue regeneration. Extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels and porous synthetic polymer microspheres can be prepared for injectable administration to achieve in situ tissue regeneration. However, the rapid degradation of ECM hydrogels and the poor injectability and biological inertness of most polymeric microspheres limit their pro-regenerative capabilities. Here, we develop a biomaterial system consisting of elastic porous poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) microspheres mixed with ECM hydrogels as injectable composites with interleukin-4 (IL-4) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) dual-release functionality. The developed multifunctional composites have favorable injectability and biocompatibility, and regulate the behavior of macrophages and myogenic cells following injection into muscle tissue. The elicited promotive effects on tissue regeneration are evidenced by enhanced neomusle formation, vascularization, and neuralization at 2-months post-implantation in a male rat model of volumetric muscle loss. Our developed system provides a promising strategy for engineering bioactive injectable composites that demonstrates desirable properties for clinical use and holds translational potential for application as a minimally invasive and pro-regenerative implant material in multiple types of surgical procedures.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Matriz Extracelular , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Porosidade , Microesferas , Hidrogéis , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
3.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338311

RESUMO

The prevalence of facial nerve injury is substantial, and the restoration of its structure and function remains a significant challenge. Autologous nerve transplantation is a common treatment for severed facial nerve injury; however, it has great limitations. Therefore, there is an urgent need for clinical repair methods that can rival it. Tissue engineering nerve conduits are usually composed of scaffolds, cells and neurofactors. Tissue engineering is regarded as a promising method for facial nerve regeneration. Among different factors, the porous nerve conduit made of organic materials, which has high porosity and biocompatibility, plays an indispensable role. This review introduces facial nerve injury and the existing treatment methods and discusses the necessity of the application of porous nerve conduit. We focus on the application of porous organic polymer materials from production technology and material classification and summarize the necessity and research progress of these in repairing severed facial nerve injury, which is relatively rare in the existing articles. This review provides a theoretical basis for further research into and clinical interventions on facial nerve injury and has certain guiding significance for the development of new materials.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Nervo Facial , Engenharia Tecidual , Humanos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Traumatismos do Nervo Facial/terapia , Porosidade , Próteses e Implantes , Polímeros , Regeneração Nervosa , Tecidos Suporte
4.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338458

RESUMO

Porous materials are widely used as an effective strategy for the solubilization of insoluble drugs. In order to improve the solubility and bioavailability of low water-solubility drugs, it is necessary to prepare porous materials. Mannitol is one of the most popular excipients in food and drug formulations. In this study, porous mannitol was investigated as a drug carrier for low water solubility drugs. Its fabrication, drug loading, and drug release mechanisms were investigated. Porous mannitol was fabricated using the co-spray-antisolvent process and utilizing polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) as the template agent. Porous mannitol particles were prepared by changing the proportion of the template agent, spraying the particles with mannitol, and eluting with ethanol in order to regulate their pore structure. In subsequent studies, porous mannitol morphology and characteristics were determined systematically. Furthermore, curcumin and ibuprofen, two poorly water-soluble drugs, were loaded into porous mannitol, and their release profiles were analyzed. The results of the study indicated that porous mannitol can be prepared using PVP K30 as a template and that the amount of template agent can be adjusted in order to control the structure of the porous mannitol. When the template agent was added in amounts of 1%, 3%, and 5%, the mannitol pore size increased by 167.80%, 95.16%, and 163.98%, respectively, compared to raw mannitol. Molecular docking revealed that mannitol and drugs are adsorbents and adhere to each other by force interaction. The cumulative dissolution of curcumin and ibuprofen-loaded porous mannitol reached 69% and 70%, respectively. The release mechanism of curcumin and ibuprofen from drug-loaded mannitol was suitable for the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model. In summary, the co-spray-antisolvent method proved effective in fabricating porous materials rapidly, and porous mannitol had a remarkable effect on drug solubilization. The results obtained are conducive to the development of porous materials.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Ibuprofeno , Porosidade , Curcumina/química , Manitol/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Solubilidade , Povidona/química , Água/química , Portadores de Fármacos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338940

RESUMO

Porous starch can be applied as an adsorbent and encapsulant for bioactive substances in the food and pharmaceutical industries. By using appropriate modification methods (chemical, physical, enzymatic, or mixed), it is possible to create pores on the surface of the starch granules without disturbing their integrity. This paper aimed to analyze the possibility of obtaining a porous structure for native corn, potato, and pea starches using a combination of ultrasound, enzymatic digestion, and freeze-drying methods. The starch suspensions (30%, w/w) were treated with ultrasound (20 kHz, 30 min, 20 °C), then dried and hydrolyzed with amyloglucosidase (1000 U/g starch, 50 °C, 24 h, 2% starch suspension). After enzyme digestion, the granules were freeze-dried for 72 h. The structure of the native and modified starches were examined using VIS spectroscopy, SEM, ATR-FTIR, and LTNA (low-temperature nitrogen adsorption). Based on the electrophoretic mobility measurements of the starch granules using a laser Doppler velocimeter, zeta potentials were calculated to determine the surface charge level. Additionally, the selected properties such as the water and oil holding capacities, least gelling concentration (LGC), and paste clarity were determined. The results showed that the corn starch was the most susceptible to the combined modification methods and was therefore best suited for the production of porous starch.


Assuntos
Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase , Amido , Amido/química , Adsorção , Porosidade
6.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1293: 342285, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331554

RESUMO

In this paper, we present a gradient porous hollow fiber structure integrated the signal transduction within a microspace, serving as a platform for cellular metabolism monitoring. We developed a nonenzymatic electrochemical electrode by coupling carbon nanotubes (CNT) and metal organic frameworks (MOF) nanozyme on three-dimensional (3D) gradient porous hollow fiber membrane (GPF) for in-situ detection of cell released hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The GPF was used as a substrate for cell culture as well as the supporting matrix of the working electrode. The ultrasonically coupled CNT@MOF composite was immobilized on the outer surface of the GPF by means of pressure filtration. Notably, the MOF, acting as a peroxidase mimic, exhibits superior stability compared to traditional horseradish peroxidase. The incorporation of CNT not only provided sufficient specific surface area to improve the uniform distribution of MOF nanozyme, but also formed 3D conductive network. This network efficiently facilitates the electrons transfer during the catalytic process of the MOF, addressing the inherent poor conductivity of MOFs. The GPF-CNT@MOF nonenzymatic bioelectrode demonstrated excellent electrocatalytic performance including rapid response, satisfactory sensing selectivity, and attractive stability, which enabled the development of a robust in-situ cellular metabolic monitoring platform.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Nanotubos de Carbono , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Porosidade , Peroxidase , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 711, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331881

RESUMO

Development of coating technologies for electrochemical sensors that consistently exhibit antifouling activities in diverse and complex biological environments over extended time is vital for effective medical devices and diagnostics. Here, we describe a micrometer-thick, porous nanocomposite coating with both antifouling and electroconducting properties that enhances the sensitivity of electrochemical sensors. Nozzle printing of oil-in-water emulsion is used to create a 1 micrometer thick coating composed of cross-linked albumin with interconnected pores and gold nanowires. The layer resists biofouling and maintains rapid electron transfer kinetics for over one month when exposed directly to complex biological fluids, including serum and nasopharyngeal secretions. Compared to a thinner (nanometer thick) antifouling coating made with drop casting or a spin coating of the same thickness, the thick porous nanocomposite sensor exhibits sensitivities that are enhanced by 3.75- to 17-fold when three different target biomolecules are tested. As a result, emulsion-coated, multiplexed electrochemical sensors can carry out simultaneous detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid, antigen, and host antibody in clinical specimens with high sensitivity and specificity. This thick porous emulsion coating technology holds promise in addressing hurdles currently restricting the application of electrochemical sensors for point-of-care diagnostics, implantable devices, and other healthcare monitoring systems.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanocompostos , Porosidade , Emulsões , Anticorpos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(3): 98, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353843

RESUMO

Microbiologically-influenced corrosion (MIC) is a common operational hazard to many industrial processes. The focus of this review lies on microbial corrosion in the maritime industry. Microbial metal attachment and colonization are the critical steps in MIC initiation. We have outlined the crucial factors influencing corrosion caused by microorganism sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), where its adherence on the metal surface leads to Direct Electron Transfer (DET)-MIC. This review thus aims to summarize the recent progress and the lacunae in mitigation of MIC. We further highlight the susceptibility of stainless steel grades to SRB pitting corrosion and have included recent developments in understanding the quorum sensing mechanisms in SRB, which governs the proliferation process of the microbial community. There is a paucity of literature on the utilization of anti-quorum sensing molecules against SRB, indicating that the area of study is in its nascent stage of development. Furthermore, microbial adherence to metal is significantly impacted by surface chemistry and topography. Thus, we have reviewed the application of super wettable surfaces such as superhydrophobic, superhydrophilic, and slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces as "anti-corrosion coatings" in preventing adhesion of SRB, providing a potential avenue for the development of practical and feasible solutions in the prevention of MIC. The emerging field of super wettable surfaces holds significant potential for advancing efficient and practical MIC prevention techniques.


Assuntos
Desulfovibrio , Microbiota , Corrosão , Transporte de Elétrons , Porosidade
9.
Mol Med ; 30(1): 24, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid peroxidation is a characteristic metabolic manifestation of diabetic retinopathy (DR) that causes inflammation, eventually leading to severe retinal vascular abnormalities. Selenium (Se) can directly or indirectly scavenge intracellular free radicals. Due to the narrow distinction between Se's effective and toxic doses, porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres have been developed to control the release of Se. They exert strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. METHODS: The effect of anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory effects of porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres on diabetic mice were assessed by detecting the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), decreased reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL) -1ß of the retina. To further examine the protective effect of porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres on the retinal vasculopathy of diabetic mice, retinal acellular capillary, the expression of tight junction proteins, and blood-retinal barrier destruction was observed. Finally, we validated the GPX4 as the target of porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres via decreased expression of GPX4 and detected the level of MDA, GSH/GSSG, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL -1ß, wound healing assay, and tube formation in high glucose (HG) cultured Human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs). RESULTS: The porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres reduced the level of MDA, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL -1ß, while increasing the level of GPX4 and GSH/GSSG in diabetic mice. Therefore, porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres reduced the number of retinal acellular capillaries, depletion of tight junction proteins, and vascular leakage in diabetic mice. Further, we identified GPX4 as the target of porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres as GPX4 inhibition reduced the repression effect of anti-lipid peroxidation, anti-inflammatory, and protective effects of endothelial cell dysfunction of porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres in HG-cultured HRMECs. CONCLUSION: Porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres effectively attenuated retinal vasculopathy in diabetic mice via inhibiting excess lipid peroxidation and inflammation by target GPX4, suggesting their potential as therapeutic agents for DR.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Retinopatia Diabética , Nanosferas , Selênio , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Dióxido de Silício/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia , Dióxido de Silício/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Porosidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/metabolismo , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/farmacologia , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
10.
J Biotechnol ; 382: 78-87, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307299

RESUMO

This study aimed to integrate experimental and computational methods to systematically investigate cell infiltration and colonization within porous scaffolds. Poly(lactic acid) discs (Diameter: 6 mm; Thickness: 500 µm) with open pores (Diameter: 400-1100 µm), corners (Angle: 30-120°) and gaps (Distance: 100-500 µm), and cellulosic scaffolds with irregular pores (Diameter: 50-300 µm) were situated in tissue culture plates and cultured with human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Both phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy revealed that HDFs initially proliferated on scaffold surfaces, then infiltrated into the porous structures via cell bridging and stacking strategies, which was affected by the initial cell seeding densities, porous structures and culture times. Based on the density-dependent cell growths in two-dimensional cell cultures, power law models were developed to quantitatively simulate cell growths on scaffold surfaces. Model analysis predicted the effect of cell seeding efficiency on cell infiltrations into the porous scaffolds, which was further validated via series cell seeding experiments. The novelty of this research lies in the incorporation of multiple experimental and computational strategies, which enables the mechanistic insights of cell invasion and colonization in porous scaffolds, also facilitates the development of suitable bioprocesses for cell seeding and tissue manufacturing in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.


Assuntos
Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte , Humanos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Porosidade , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Pele
11.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296390, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315701

RESUMO

Estradiol is an important regulator of bone accumulation and maintenance. Circulating estrogens are primarily produced by the gonads. Aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogen, is expressed by bone marrow cells (BMCs) of both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic origin. While the significance of gonad-derived estradiol to bone health has been investigated, there is limited understanding regarding the relative contribution of BMC derived estrogens to bone metabolism. To elucidate the role of BMC derived estrogens in male bone, irradiated wild-type C57BL/6J mice received bone marrow cells transplanted from either WT (WT(WT)) or aromatase-deficient (WT(ArKO)) mice. MicroCT was acquired on lumbar vertebra to assess bone quantity and quality. WT(ArKO) animals had greater trabecular bone volume (BV/TV p = 0.002), with a higher trabecular number (p = 0.008), connectivity density (p = 0.017), and bone mineral content (p = 0.004). In cortical bone, WT(ArKO) animals exhibited smaller cortical pores and lower cortical porosity (p = 0.02). Static histomorphometry revealed fewer osteoclasts per bone surface (Oc.S/BS%), osteoclasts on the erosion surface (ES(Oc+)/BS, p = 0.04) and low number of osteoclasts per bone perimeter (N.Oc/B.Pm, p = 0.01) in WT(ArKO). Osteoblast-associated parameters in WT(ArKO) were lower but not statistically different from WT(WT). Dynamic histomorphometry suggested similar bone formation indices' patterns with lower mean values in mineral apposition rate, label separation, and BFR/BS in WT(ArKO) animals. Ex vivo bone cell differentiation assays demonstrated relative decreased osteoblast differentiation and ability to form mineralized nodules. This study demonstrates a role of local 17ß-estradiol production by BMCs for regulating the quantity and quality of bone in male mice. Underlying in vivo cellular and molecular mechanisms require further study.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual , Aromatase , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Ginecomastia , Infertilidade Masculina , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo , Camundongos , Animais , Masculino , Aromatase/genética , Aromatase/metabolismo , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/metabolismo , Porosidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrogênios , Estradiol , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout
12.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 56(1): 17-24, 2024 Feb 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318891

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of different polymers on in vitro biomimetic mineralization of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) scaffolds, and to evaluate the physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of the SIS scaffolds. METHODS: The SIS scaffolds prepared by freeze-drying method were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF), mineralized liquid containing polyacrylic acid (PAA) and mine-ralized liquid containing PAA and polyaspartic acid (PASP). After two weeks in the mineralized solution, the liquid was changed every other day. SBF@SIS, PAA@SIS, PAA/PASP@SIS scaffolds were obtained. The SIS scaffolds were used as control group to evaluate their physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. We observed the bulk morphology of the scaffolds in each group, analyzed the microscopic morphology by environment scanning electron microscopy and determined the porosity and pore size. We also analyzed the surface elements by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), analyzed the structure of functional groups by Flourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), detected the water absorption rate by using specific gravity method, and evaluated the compression strength by universal mechanical testing machine. The pro-cell proliferation effect of each group of scaffolds were evaluated by CCK-8 cell proliferation method. RESULTS: Under scanning electron microscopy, the scaffolds of each group showed a three-dimensional porous structure with suitable pore size and porosity, and crystal was observed in all the mineralized scaffolds of each group, in which the crystal deposition of PAA/PASP@SIS scaffolds was more regular. At the same time, the collagen fibers could be seen to thicken. EDX analysis showed that the characteristic peaks of Ca and P were found in the three groups of mineralized scaffolds, and the highest peaks were found in the PAA/PASP@SIS scaffolds. FTIR analysis proved that all the three groups of mineralized scaffolds were able to combine hydroxyapatite with SIS. All the scaffolds had good hydrophilicity. The compressive strength of the mineralized scaffold in the three groups was higher than that in the control group, and the best compressive strength was found in PAA/PASP@SIS scaffold. The scaffolds of all the groups could effectively adsorb proteins, and PAA/PASP@SIS group had the best adsorption capacity. In the CCK-8 cell proliferation experiment, the PAA/PASP@SIS scaffold showed the best ability to promote cell proliferation with the largest number of living cells observed. CONCLUSION: Compared with other mineralized scaffolds, PAA/PASP@SIS scaffolds prepared by mineralized solution containing both PAA and PASP have better physicochemical properties and biocompatibility and have potential applications in bone tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Tecidos Suporte , Tecidos Suporte/química , Polímeros/química , Biomimética , Sincalida , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Intestino Delgado , Porosidade
13.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 112(2): e35346, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359175

RESUMO

Improvement of mechanical properties of injectable tissue engineering scaffolds is a current challenge. The objective of the current study is to produce a highly porous injectable scaffold with improved mechanical properties. For this aim, cellulose nanocrystals-reinforced dual crosslinked porous nanocomposite cryogels were prepared using chemically crosslinked methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) and ionically crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) through the cryogelation process. The resulting nanocomposites showed highly porous structures with interconnected porosity (>90%) and mean pore size in the range of 130-296 µm. The prepared nanocomposite containing 3%w/v of GelMA, 20 w/w% of HA, and 1%w/v of CNC showed the highest Young's modulus (10 kPa) and excellent reversibility after 90% compression and could regain its initial shape after injection by a 16-gauge needle in the aqueous media. The in vitro results demonstrated acceptable viability (>90%) and migration of the human chondrocyte cell line (C28/I2), and chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells. A two-month in vivo assay on a rabbit's ear model confirmed that the regeneration potential of the prepared cryogel is comparable to the natural autologous cartilage graft, suggesting it is a promising alternative for autografts in the treatment of cartilage defects.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Nanopartículas , Animais , Coelhos , Humanos , Criogéis/farmacologia , Criogéis/química , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Gelatina/farmacologia , Gelatina/química , Celulose/farmacologia , Celulose/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Cartilagem , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Porosidade
14.
J Vis Exp ; (203)2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314825

RESUMO

Bacteria are ubiquitous in complex three-dimensional (3D) porous environments, such as biological tissues and gels, and subsurface soils and sediments. However, the majority of previous work has focused on studies of cells in bulk liquids or at flat surfaces, which do not fully recapitulate the complexity of many natural bacterial habitats. Here, this gap in knowledge is addressed by describing the development of a method to 3D-print dense colonies of bacteria into jammed granular hydrogel matrices. These matrices have tunable pore sizes and mechanical properties; they physically confine the cells, thus supporting them in 3D. They are optically transparent, allowing for direct visualization of bacterial spreading through their surroundings using imaging. As a proof of this principle, here, the capability of this protocol is demonstrated by 3D printing and imaging non-motile and motile Vibro cholerae, as well as non-motile Escherichia coli, in jammed granular hydrogel matrices with varying interstitial pore sizes.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Hidrogéis , Porosidade , Impressão Tridimensional , Escherichia coli
15.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 119, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38168072

RESUMO

The sophisticated hierarchical structure that precisely combines contradictory mechanical and biological characteristics is ideal for biomaterials, but it is challenging to achieve. Herein, we engineer a spatiotemporally hierarchical guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane by rational bilayer integration of densely porous N-halamine functionalized bacterial cellulose nanonetwork facing the gingiva and loosely porous chitosan-hydroxyapatite composite micronetwork facing the alveolar bone. Our GBR membrane asymmetrically combine stiffness and flexibility, ingrowth barrier and ingrowth guiding, as well as anti-bacteria and cell-activation. The dense layer has a mechanically matched space maintenance capacity toward gingiva, continuously blocks fibroblasts, and prevents bacterial invasion with multiple mechanisms including release-killing, contact-killing, anti-adhesion, and nanopore-blocking; the loose layer is ultra-soft to conformally cover bone surfaces and defect cavity edges, enables ingrowth of osteogenesis-associated cells, and creates a favorable osteogenic microenvironment. As a result, our all-in-one porous membrane possesses full protective abilities in GBR.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Membranas Artificiais , Porosidade , Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Osteogênese , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 172, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172616

RESUMO

Several African mammals exhibit a phylogeographic pattern where closely related taxa are split between West/Central and East/Southern Africa, but their evolutionary relationships and histories remain controversial. Bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus) and red river hogs (P. porcus) are recognised as separate species due to morphological distinctions, a perceived lack of interbreeding at contact, and putatively old divergence times, but historically, they were considered conspecific. Moreover, the presence of Malagasy bushpigs as the sole large terrestrial mammal shared with the African mainland raises intriguing questions about its origin and arrival in Madagascar. Analyses of 67 whole genomes revealed a genetic continuum between the two species, with putative signatures of historical gene flow, variable FST values, and a recent divergence time (<500,000 years). Thus, our study challenges key arguments for splitting Potamochoerus into two species and suggests their speciation might be incomplete. Our findings also indicate that Malagasy bushpigs diverged from southern African populations and underwent a limited bottleneck 1000-5000 years ago, concurrent with human arrival in Madagascar. These results shed light on the evolutionary history of an iconic and widespread African mammal and provide insight into the longstanding biogeographic puzzle surrounding the bushpig's presence in Madagascar.


Assuntos
Mamíferos , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Madagáscar , Filogenia , Porosidade , Filogeografia , Mamíferos/genética
17.
J Biomater Appl ; 38(7): 797-807, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278524

RESUMO

In tissue engineering, the development of an appropriate scaffold is crucial to provide a framework for new tissue growth. The use of cryogels as scaffolds shows promise due to their macroporous structure, but the pore size, distribution, and interconnectivity is highly variable depending on the fabrication process. The objective of the current research is to provide a technique for controlled anisotropy in chitosan-gelatin cryogels to develop scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application. A mold was developed using additive manufacturing to be used during the freezing process in order to fabricate cryogels with a more interconnected pore structure. The scaffolds were tested to evaluate their porosity, mechanical strength, and to observe cell infiltration through the cryogel. It was found that the use of the mold allowed for the creation of designated pores within the cryogel structure which facilitated cell infiltration to the center of the scaffold without sacrificing mechanical integrity of the structure.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Engenharia Tecidual , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Criogéis/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Quitosana/química , Gelatina/química , Anisotropia , Porosidade
18.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 72(1): 86-92, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233136

RESUMO

For powder compaction, the Kawakita equation has been used to estimate the powder behavior inside the die. The compression pressure exerted on powders is not homogeneous because of the friction on the die wall. However, the yield pressure and porosity estimated using the Kawakita equation are defined based on the assumption that homogeneous voids and compression pressure are distributed throughout the powder bed. In this study, an extended Kawakita equation was derived by considering the variation in the compression pressure as it corresponds to the distance from the loading punch surface. The yield time section estimated from the extended Kawakita equation was wider than that which was estimated via the classical equation. This result is consistent with the assumptions used to derive the extended Kawakita equation. Furthermore, a comparison of the porosity changes before and after the yield pressure was applied indicate that the direct cause of the yield is the spatial constraints of the powder particles. Equivalent stresses were defined to clarify the critical factor that constitutes the extended Kawakita equation. As a result, "taking into account the die wall friction" was considered to be the critical factor in the extended Kawakita equation. As these findings were theoretically determined by the extended Kawakita equation, a useful model was derived for a better understanding of powder compaction in die.


Assuntos
Pós , Pressão , Porosidade , Comprimidos , Composição de Medicamentos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(1)2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38203772

RESUMO

Fluorinated proton-exchange membranes (PEMs) based on graft copolymers of dehydrofluorinated polyvinylidene fluoride (D-PVDF), 3-sulfopropyl acrylate (SPA), and 1H, 1H, 2H-perfluoro-1-hexene (PFH) were prepared via free radical copolymerization and characterized for fuel cell application. The membrane morphology and physical properties were studied via small-(SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), SEM, and DSC. It was found that the crystallinity degree is 17% for PEM-RCF (co-polymer with SPA) and 16% for PEM-RCF-2 (copolymer with SPA and PFH). The designed membranes possess crystallite grains of 5-6 nm in diameter. SEM images reveal a structure with open pores on the surface of diameters from 20 to 140 nm. Their transport and electrochemical characterization shows that the lowest membrane area resistance (0.9 Ωcm2) is comparable to perfluorosulfonic acid PEMs (such as Nafion®) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based CJMC cation-exchange membranes (ChemJoy Polymer Materials, China). Key transport and physicochemical properties of new and commercial membranes were compared. The PEM-RCF permeability to NaCl diffusion is rather high, which is due to a relatively low concentration of fixed sulfonate groups. Voltammetry confers that the electrochemical behavior of new PEM correlates to that of commercial cation-exchange membranes, while the ionic conductivity reveals an impact of the extended pores, as in track-etched membranes.


Assuntos
Alcenos , Polímeros de Fluorcarboneto , Polímeros , Polivinil , Prótons , Porosidade , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X , Acrilatos
20.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1288: 342183, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38220310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the interaction mechanisms and the relevant binding constants between humic acids and emerging or regulated pollutants is of utmost importance in predicting their geochemical mobility, bioavailability, and degradation. Fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, equilibrium dialysis, and solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry have been employed to elucidate interactions of humic acids with organic micropollutants, especially pharmaceutical drugs. These methods demand large sample volumes, long equilibration times, and laborious extraction steps which may imply analytical errors. Monolithic high-performance affinity chromatography is an alternative and simpler method to investigate these interactions and determine the binding constants. RESULTS: Polymer monoliths based on aminated glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate served to immobilize Cu(II) and then humic acid to produce monolithic affinity chromatography columns with humic acid as the active interaction phase. About 86.5 mg of humic acid was immobilized per gram of polymer. The columns enabled a comparison of the binding strength of humic acid with herbicides and emerging pollutants at 25 °C and pH 6.0 ± 0.1. Paracetamol, acetylsalicylic acid, and salicylic acid did not retain. Among the compounds that interacted with humic acid, the order of increasing affinity, estimated by the global affinity constant (nKa) or partition coefficient (KD) was: caffeine < simazine < atrazine âˆ¼ propazine < benzophenone. The nKa (L mol-1) values ranged from (4.9 ± 0.3) × 102 for caffeine to (1.9 ± 0.3) × 103 for benzophenone, whereas KD (L kg-1) varied from 14 ± 1 to 56 ± 8 for the same compounds. SIGNIFICANCE AND NOVELTY: To our knowledge, this is the first paper demonstrating the use of a monolithic platform to immobilize supramolecular structures of humic acids exploiting immobilized metal affinity to comparatively evaluate their affinity towards emerging pollutants exploiting the concepts of high-performance affinity chromatography. The proposed approach needs only small amounts of humic acid, which is a relevant feature in preparing columns with humic substances isolated and purified from remote areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Herbicidas , Substâncias Húmicas , Cafeína , Porosidade , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Benzofenonas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...