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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 689919, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222187

RESUMO

Background: In response to rapid global spread of the newly emerged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), universities transitioned to online learning and telework to decrease risks of inter-person contact. To help administrators respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and better understand its impacts, we surveyed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among NOVA University employees and assessed community mental health. Methods: Data were collected from voluntary participants at six NOVA University locations, in the Lisbon metropolitan area, from June 15-30, 2020. All subjects provided written informed consent. Of 1,627 recruited participants (mean age 42.0 ± 12.3 years), 1,624 were tested. Prior to blood collection, participants completed a questionnaire that assessed: COVID-19 symptoms during the previous 14 days, chronic non-communicable diseases, chronic medication, anxiety, and depression symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 serology tests were then performed, and results communicated approximately 4 days after blood draw. Participants with positive serology tests were contacted to assess COVID-19 symptoms since February. Results: Estimated prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was 3.1% (n = 50), of which 43.5% reported symptoms in the previous 4 months. The Medical School had the highest seroprevalence (6.2%). Participants reported having at least one chronic disease (63.7%), depression-like symptoms (2.1%), and anxiety symptoms (8.1%). Rates of depression and anxiety symptoms were significantly higher in women, with sleep hours and occasional alcohol consumption negatively associated with depression. Male gender, older age, and sleep hours negatively associated with anxiety symptoms. School of employment and presence of comorbidities positively associated with anxiety. Conclusion: By measuring seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among NOVA employees and assessing subjects' mental health, we aim to help administrators at European public universities in urban areas, such as Lisbon, Portugal, better understand the needs of their communities. This study resulted in implementation of a stricter contingency plan in the Medical School, while other schools continued to follow Government mitigation guidelines. These findings may also guide the development of tailored strategies to ensure physical and mental health of the academic community during this pandemic crisis. We conclude that, together with COVID-19 contingency plans, psychological support services and facilities to help people effectively face pandemic-associated challenges and minimise anxiety and depression should be implemented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Universidades
2.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200621

RESUMO

Field epidemiology and viral sequencing provide a comprehensive characterization of transmission chains and allow a better identification of superspreading events. However, very few examples have been presented to date during the COVID-19 pandemic. We studied the first COVID-19 cluster detected in Portugal (59 individuals involved amongst extended family and work environments), following the return of four related individuals from work trips to Italy. The first patient to introduce the virus would be misidentified following the traditional field inquiry alone, as shown by the viral sequencing in isolates from 23 individuals. The results also pointed out family, and not work environment, as the primary mode of transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Família , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Portugal/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
Acta Reumatol Port ; 46(2): 126-133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-reported impact of mandatory confinement occurring in the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Portuguese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as a means to improve care during this and in future pandemics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The web-based survey COVIDRA was developed to assess 5 domains including RA symptoms, attitudes towards medication, employment status, physical exercise and mental health. The questionnaire was sent to RA patients through e-mail and social media of the Portuguese Society of Rheumatology and two patient associations; and it was filled locally at two rheumatology centers in Lisbon. Recruitment took place during June and July 2020. RESULTS: We obtained 441 valid questionnaires. Most respondents were female (88.4%), caucasian (93.6%) with a mean age of 58 years. The majority had disease lasting >10 years and were treated with csDMARDs (63.2%) and/or bDMARDs/tsDMARDS (23.7%). Over 40% experienced symptom worsening during confinement, almost half considered moderate or severe. Mobility restriction and increased stress, anxiety or depression were responsible for this worsening. Only 2.5% reduced or withheld their immunosuppressive medication due to fear of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2. After confinement, 16.2% of those previously employed were in a lay-off regime and 3% lost their jobs. Most employed RA patients practiced telework during confinement. The majority of patients decreased or did not practice any physical exercise (80.5%). Symptoms of anxiety and depression developed or worsened in 67.3% and 51.9% respectively, approximately one third were considered moderate or severe. CONCLUSIONS: Portuguese RA patients experienced significant symptom worsening, anxiety and depression during the first wave confinement. Only a minority changed their immunosuppressive treatment for fear of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Published literature on these matters shows results very similar to ours.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Idoso , Ansiedade/etiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Autorrelato
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283108

RESUMO

Emerging and recurrent outbreaks caused by zoonotic agents pose a public health risk. They result in morbidity and mortality in humans and significant losses in the livestock and food industries. This highlights the need for rapid surveillance methods. Despite the high reliability of conventional pathogen detection methods, they have high detection limits and are time-consuming and not suitable for on-site analysis. Furthermore, the unpredictable spread of zoonotic infections due to a complex combination of risk factors urges the development of innovative technologies to overcome current limitations in early warning and detection. Biosensing, in particular, is highlighted here, as it offers rapid and cost-effective devices for use at the site of infection while increasing the sensitivity of detection. Portuguese research in biosensors for zoonotic pathogens is the focus of this review. This branch of research produces exciting and innovative devices for the study of the most widespread pathogenic bacteria. The studies presented here relate to the different classes of pathogens whose characteristics and routes of infection are also described. Many advances have been made in recent years, and Portuguese research teams have increased publications in this field. However, biosensing still needs to be extended to other pathogens, including potentially pandemic viruses. In addition, the use of biosensors as part of routine diagnostics in hospitals for humans, in animal infections for veterinary medicine, and food control has not yet been achieved. Therefore, a convergence of Portuguese efforts with global studies on biosensors to control emerging zoonotic diseases is foreseen for the future.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Vírus , Animais , Humanos , Portugal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Zoonoses/diagnóstico
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207424

RESUMO

Environmental factors play an important role in obesity-related behaviors. Evidence indicates significant associations between weight and urban green spaces in adults, but it is not clear whether this relationship applies to adolescents. Therefore, our aim was to determine the associations between urban green spaces, greenness exposure and species richness in residential environments with physical activity and body mass index. Sixty-two adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age answered a self-administered questionnaire, providing information on height, weight, age, sex and home address. Data on socioeconomic deprivation were obtained from the European Index of Deprivation for Small Portuguese Areas. Physical activity levels were assessed using accelerometers. Urban green space counts and the normalized difference vegetation index values were measured using buffers along the roads with distances of 300, 500, 1000 and 1500 m from each participant's residence. To quantify the species richness, the species richness index was used. Linear regression models were fitted to analyze whether urban green spaces, exposure to green spaces and species richness counts for each distance were associated with physical activity and self-reported body mass index. We did not find significant associations between the independent variables and the probability of overweight or obesity. The relationship between environmental variables, adolescents' physical activity and body weight seems to be complex and further studies may contribute to better understanding of the topic.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Portugal/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208515

RESUMO

Since coaches play an important role in the development of athletes, the process and mechanisms used by Special Olympics Portugal to develop coaches' skills are worthy of research. In this context, the study aims to identify the training paths and profiles of the Special Olympics Portugal coach. It also aims to analyze the relationship between formal and non-formal learning in the profile and training of this type of coach. The research is descriptive and transversal regarding Special Olympics Portugal coaches, with the participation of 50 subjects. Two questionnaires were used, the Coaches' Training Profile Questionnaire to determine the training routes, and the Coaches' Orientation Questionnaire. The results show that the Special Olympics Portugal coaches have an academic background and a somewhat critical profile. It is imperative to build formal and non-formal learning contexts that focus on the theme of adapted sports, in order to allow the training of more qualified coaches, who are consequently more effective in their interventions with this type of athlete.


Assuntos
Esportes , Atletas , Humanos , Portugal , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198495

RESUMO

Studies related to the work environment in primary health care are scarce in the literature. The present study aimed to validate the psychometric properties of the Practice Environment Scale of Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) in primary health care (PHC) and to evaluate its construct validity through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of Portuguese nurses. A quantitative, cross-sectional, and validation study design was implemented. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1059 nurses from the PHC units of all 55 health center groups (HCGs) in mainland Portugal, 15 health centers in the Autonomous Region of Madeira, and 6 health centers in the Autonomous Region of the Azores. The study tested different structural models using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis techniques. The reliability of the scale was tested by determining Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the PES-NWI was 0.91. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the PES-NWI model in PHC with five factors: NPOA, NFQC, NMALSN, SRA, and CNPR. The results show that the scale presents acceptable fit quality indexes in the final factorial solution and adequate convergent validity. CONCLUSION: The PES-NWI in PHC has an adequate, robust, and reliable five-factor structure. The scale is valid and can be used in clinical practice, nursing management, and PHC research.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Portugal , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Adv Mind Body Med ; 35(3): 10-19, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237025

RESUMO

Context: Students are vulnerable to developing anxiety, a psychiatric disorder closely related to emotional stress, when systematically stressed by classes, homework, and evaluations. Qigong integrates physical, respiratory, and mental exercises, inducing vegetative biofeedback with significant effects on physiological regulation. Objective: The current study aimed to assess the potential effects of specific Qigong exercises on students' anxiety levels and evaluate the feasibility of practical integration in a daily school context. Design: The research team developed a randomized controlled trial. Setting: This study was performed in Cedros and Horizonte private schools located in Vila Nova de Gaia in Portugal. Participants: Participants were 104 high-school students at the schools. Intervention: Participants were randomly divided into three groups: (1) an intervention group, the Qigong (QG) group (n = 34), which performed Qigong exercises; (2) a control group, the TV documentary (TVD) group (n = 34), which watched a TV documentary; and (3) a second control group, the typical school duties (TSD) group (n = 36), which performed regular school duties. Outcome Measures: Anxiety levels were assessed through a psychological test, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and salivary cortisol tests. Results: Psychological and biochemical variables assessed at baseline and postintervention showed a greater decrease in anxiety levels in the QG group than in the other two groups. Conclusions: Qigong seems to be an efficient tool to reduce anxiety and control the stress of high-school students.


Assuntos
Qigong , Ansiedade/terapia , Humanos , Portugal , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204141

RESUMO

Home-based models represent one of the solutions to respond to the poor accessibility of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) services in patients with chronic respiratory disease (CRD). The main goal of this protocol is to present the implementation of the first nationwide home-based PR program-reabilitAR-in Portugal and the strategies to assess its benefits in patients with CRD. The program consists of 2 phases: a 12-week intensive phase and a 40-week maintenance phase (total: 52 weeks, 1 year). The intervention in both phases is composed of presential home visits and phone-call follow ups, including exercise training and the self-management educational program Living Well with COPD. Dyspnea, impact of the disease, emotional status, and level of dyspnea during activities of daily living are used as patient-reported outcomes measures. A one-minute sit-to-stand test is used as a functional outcome, and the number of steps as a measure of physical activity. To ensure safety, fall risk and the cognitive function are assessed. Data are collected at baseline, at 12 weeks, at 26 weeks and at 52 weeks. This is the first nationwide protocol on enhancing access to PR, providing appropriate responses to CRD patients' needs through a structured and personalized home-based program in Portugal.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Dispneia , Terapia por Exercício , Tolerância ao Exercício , Humanos , Portugal , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3422, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the vulnerabilities of children in the access to primary health care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and Portugal. METHOD: documentary study based on Brazilian and Portuguese governmental guidelines issued between March and August 2020 regarding access of children to primary health care. Thematic analysis was based on the precepts of health vulnerability. RESULTS: 13 documents were issued in both countries addressing access to vaccination and childcare. Due to the SARS-CoV-2, restrictions were imposed on the circulation of people in social environments, health services, and social protection, decreasing the demand for health services. Both countries continued programs to promote the health of breastfeeding infants. In-person childcare consultations were suspended for low-risk children in both countries. Portugal maintained routine vaccination while Brazil interrupted vaccination in the first 15 days of the pandemic. The countries adopted remote care strategies - telemonitoring, teleconsultation, and mobile applications - to maintain the bond between children and health services. CONCLUSION: longitudinality was affected due to restricted access of children to health promotion actions, determining greater programmatic vulnerability. Individual vulnerabilities are related to exposure to preventable and primary health care-sensitive diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281029

RESUMO

Currently, the main public health concern worldwide is the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, which was recently discovered and described. Due to its high pathogenicity and infectiousness, it is necessary to determine the risk healthcare professionals face every day while dealing with infected patients and contaminated biological samples. The purpose of this study was to assess Portuguese Biomedical Scientists' risk of COVID-19 exposure and related stress appraisals. One hundred and forty participants completed online versions of the WHO's Risk Assessment and Management of Exposure Survey and the Stress Appraisal Measure. Participants worked mainly in outpatient settings (45%), and in emergency services (28%). Twenty three percent of participants were exposed to COVID-19 through community exposure, and 39% through occupational exposure. Although 95% reported using personal protective equipment (PPE), 83.6% were at high risk of infection. However, the use of some types of PPE was related to the risk of exposure. Participants reported moderate perceptions of stress and threat, but also moderate perceptions of control over the situation. These results may contribute to a more efficient risk management of these professionals and prevent disease transmission in hospitals and communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3448, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze nurses' attitudes toward death in a hospital context after the critical period of the COVID-19 pandemic in Portugal. METHOD: this quantitative, descriptive, exploratory study was conducted in a university hospital and addressed 995 nurses. Revised Death Attitude Profile (DAP-R) was used to collect data, which were analyzed using analytical and inferential statistics. RESULTS: the nurses most frequently agreed with the statements concerning the Neutral/Neutrality Acceptance and Fear. Age, marital status, profession, and unit of work influenced the nurses' attitudes toward death. During the critical pandemic period, the nurses providing care to patients with COVID-19 presented the following means: Fear (28.89/±8.521) and Avoidance Acceptance (18.35/±7.116), which were higher than the mean obtained in the Escape Acceptance dimension, with significant differences (p=0.004). CONCLUSION: the nurses held Fear and Avoidance attitudes, revealing the need to qualify and support Nursing workers to cope with the death of those they provide care and manage pandemics and catastrophes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Morte , Humanos , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Acta Med Port ; 34(4): 305-311, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214423

RESUMO

This document was prepared by the College of Orthopedics of the Portuguese Medical Association with the aim of developing the guidelines on the resumption of elective surgical activity in Orthopedics during the COVID-19 pandemic. It sets the criteria that allow the prioritization of surgeries according to the severity of the clinical situation, based on existing and published classifications. Moreover, it provides an organizational model for patient preparation and describes the patient pathways in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative periods. It also describes safety rules for elective surgery and a model for monitoring patients after discharge according to scientific evidence.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Ortopedia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Segurança do Paciente , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociedades Médicas
14.
Acta Med Port ; 34(5): 347-354, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253282

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Screening for autoantibodies in HEp-2 cells by indirect immunofluorescence is currently accepted as the gold-standard test for the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune diseases. The main objective of the International Consensus on ANA Patterns is to achieve a consensus on the nomenclature and description of antinuclear antibody morphological patterns. This work aims to build on the International Consensus on ANA Patterns project to establish a nomenclature consensus in Portugal, thus contributing to harmonization in autoimmune diagnosis and promoting diagnostic quality in autoimmune systemic rheumatic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participating laboratories identified all the nuclear and cytoplasmic pattern designations in the International Consensus on ANA Patterns (including the anti-cell pattern code), and matched them with the corresponding Portuguese nomenclature in use. The results were aggregated and used as a foundation for nomenclature harmonization work. Consensus meetings followed an iterative process, until a final consensual proposal was drafted. RESULTS: Prior agreement between laboratories was over 75% for 23 of the total 29 anti-cell patterns. The degree to which each laboratory is aligned with the International Consensus on ANA Patterns international reference ranges from 22.1% to 100%. It was possible to write a consensual version of the International Consensus on ANA Patterns nomenclature for Portugal. DISCUSSION: There was a good consensus basis for the nomenclature in the International Consensus on ANA Patterns, despite relevant differences with some translations. The study highlights the need for collaboration among laboratories towards an unambiguous description of laboratory results. CONCLUSION: This study shows that there is good potential for collaboration between laboratories in order to produce the consensus needed to improve diagnosis and patient follow-up.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/métodos , Autoanticorpos , Consenso , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Portugal
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203784

RESUMO

In advanced dementia, individuals usually develop feeding difficulties. The Feeding Skills Checklist (FSC) is an instrument to assess caregivers' skills when assisting people with dementia (PwD) at mealtimes. This study aimed to adapt and culturally validate a European Portuguese version of the FSC (FSC-PT) and test its reliability. Initially, translation and cultural validation of the FSC, with estimation of the content validity index (CVI), was conducted. Then, the FSC was applied to 23 female nursing assistants (mean age 44.73 ± 10.42 years) while offering lunch (n = 41 meals) to institutionalized PwD. Inter-rater reliability was determining using Cohen's Kappa. FSC-PT showed excellent content validity, with item-content validity index ranging from 0.85 to 1, scale level average CVI = 0.94 and universal agreement CVI = 0.54. It also showed very satisfactory inter-observer reliability, with Cohen's Kappa = 0.844. Of the 41 meals analyzed, only 37.7% of the actions/good practices in feeding PwD were observed. A positive and moderate correlation was found between the length of time working as nursing assistance and the FSC environment dimension (rs = 0.435; p = 0.038). The results supported the content validity of the FSC-PT, which shows considerable potential to be an instrument for verifying caregivers' skills when helping PWD to eat and should be increasingly studied.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Demência , Adulto , Lista de Checagem , Feminino , Humanos , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 700279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277558

RESUMO

The population aging in Europe imposes challenges to societies that require adaptations and responses at various levels to minimize impacts and figuring out opportunities. Portugal has been committed to the World Health Organization and European Union's values and policy frameworks concerning active and healthy aging. In 2017, an inter-ministerial working group developed the National Strategy for Active and Healthy Aging. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic that exposed the vulnerabilities of older populations, the launch of the Decade of Healthy Aging 2021-2030 and its baseline report and the 2018 Active Aging Index Analytical Report may constitute an opportunity to strategically think about the aging of the population as a national purpose in Portugal and in the other European countries that face similar challenges.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Envelhecimento Saudável , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 5582589, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194512

RESUMO

FluMOMO is a universal formula to forecast mortality in 27 European countries and was developed on EuroMOMO context, http://www.euromomo.eu. The model has a trigonometric baseline and considers any upwards deviation from that to come from flu or extreme temperatures. To measure it, the model considers two variables: influenza activity and extreme temperatures. With the former, the model gives the number of deaths because of flu and with the latter the number of deaths because of extreme temperatures. In this article, we show that FluMOMO lacks important variables to be an accurate measure of all-cause mortality and flu mortality. Indeed, we found, as expected, that population ageing and exposure to the risk of death cannot be excluded from the linear predictor. We model weekly deaths as an autoregressive process (lag of one together with a lead of one week). This step allowed us to avoid FluMOMO trigonometric baseline and have a fit to weekly deaths through demographic variables. Our model uses data from Portugal between 2009 and 2020, on ISO-week basis. We use negative binomial-generalized linear models to estimate the weekly number of deaths as an alternative to traditional overdispersion Poisson. As explanatory variables were found to be statistically significant, we registered the number of deaths from the previous week, the influenza activity index, the population average age, the heat waves, the flu season, the number of deaths with COVID-19, and the population exposed to the risk of dying. Considering as excess mortality the number of deaths above the best estimate of deaths from our model, we conclude that excess mortality in 2020 (net of COVID-19 deaths, heat wave of July, and ageing) is low or inexistent. The model also allows us to have the number of deaths arising from flu and we conclude that FluMOMO is overestimating deaths from flu by 78%. Averages from the probability of dying are obtained as well as the probability of dying from flu. The latter is shown to be decreasing over time, probably due to the increase of flu vaccination. Higher mortality detected with the start of COVID-19, in March-April 2020, was probably due to COVID-19 deaths not recognized as COVID-19 deaths.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Mortalidade/tendências , População , COVID-19 , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano , Vacinação
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e048818, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244275

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies which focus on the process of acculturation in the lifestyles, nutritional status and health of immigrants from the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP) in the Iberian Peninsula are still scarce. This study aims to explore the influence of the acculturation process and dietary acculturation on the lifestyle and nutritional and health status of CPLP immigrants in Portugal and Spain, focusing on two Iberian contexts: Lisbon Metropolitan Area and the Basque Country. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A mixed methods sequential explanatory design, combining cross-sectional studies and semistructured interviews. Official data will also be analysed. Primary data will be collected through a questionnaire and assessment of nutritional status and body composition. The estimated samples sizes are 1061 adults (≥18 years old) in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area and 573 in the Basque Country. Time-location sampling will be used for the quantitative component and non-probabilistic sampling for the qualitative component. If safety conditions are not guaranteed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, online studies will be conducted. The semistructured interviews will complement the questionnaire data and extend knowledge about the process of acculturation of CPLP immigrants and their relationship with eating habits and physical activity. Thematic analysis will be used for qualitative data. Triangulation of data derived from different methods will be carried out. An integrative approach will be used to address potential discrepancies in findings and limitations inherent to the study design. As inter-method discrepancies may occur, triangulation protocol will be used, elaborating a 'convergence coding matrix' to display findings emerging from each component of the study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained through the IHMT Ethics Council (Doc No 20/2020), Portugal, and it was submitted to the Ethics Committee of the UPV/EHU (Doc No under revision), Spain.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Aculturação , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198739

RESUMO

Relative age is a phenomenon broadly studied in sport sciences. Youth sports participants born earlier in the selection year tend to present a maturational advantage over their peers. As it is also dependent on physical performance, older physical education students may also benefit from this effect in this school subject. The main goal of this manuscript was to determine whether the relative age effect is present within physical fitness outcomes of Portuguese children and adolescents. The physical-aerobic fitness, strength, flexibility and body composition of 885 students (490 females and 395 males) were collected and compared by quarters of birth, segmented by gender and age groups (10-12; 12-14; 14-16 and 16-18 years). The results reveal a moderate to small effect in physical fitness outcomes, with a trend for children and adolescents born in the early part of the year to present higher performance levels. These differences were more evident in ages closer to the physical maturational onset (12-14 y) and more apparent in male students. This physical fitness advantage may lead to a biased assessment and development of students born earlier in the year.


Assuntos
Aptidão Física , Esportes , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
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