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1.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297290, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349917

RESUMO

Animals navigate landscapes based on perceived risks vs. rewards, as inferred from features of the landscape. In the wild, knowing how strongly animal movement is directed by landscape features is difficult to ascertain but widespread disturbances such as wildfires can serve as natural experiments. We tested the hypothesis that wildfires homogenize the risk/reward landscape, causing movement to become less directed, given that fires reduce landscape complexity as habitat structures (e.g., tree cover, dense brush) are burned. We used satellite imagery of a research reserve in Northern California to count and categorize paths made primarily by mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in grasslands. Specifically, we compared pre-wildfire (August 2014) and post-wildfire (September 2018) image history layers among locations that were or were not impacted by wildfire (i.e., a Before/After Control/Impact design). Wildfire significantly altered spatial patterns of deer movement: more new paths were gained and more old paths were lost in areas of the reserve that were impacted by wildfire; movement patterns became less directed in response to fire, suggesting that the risk/reward landscape became more homogenous, as hypothesized. We found evidence to suggest that wildfire affects deer populations at spatial scales beyond their scale of direct impact and raises the interesting possibility that deer perceive risks and rewards at different spatial scales. In conclusion, our study provides an example of how animals integrate spatial information from the environment to make movement decisions, setting the stage for future work on the broader ecological implications for populations, communities, and ecosystems, an emerging interest in ecology.


Assuntos
Cervos , Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Animais , Ecossistema , Pradaria
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(3)2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339552

RESUMO

Grasslands cover a substantial portion of the earth's surface and agricultural land and is crucial for human well-being and livestock farming. Ranchers and grassland management authorities face challenges in effectively controlling herders' grazing behavior and grassland utilization due to underdeveloped infrastructure and poor communication in pastoral areas. Cloud-based grazing management and decision support systems (DSS) are needed to address this issue, promote sustainable grassland use, and preserve their ecosystem services. These systems should enable rapid and large-scale grassland growth and utilization monitoring, providing a basis for decision-making in managing grazing and grassland areas. In this context, this study contributes to the objectives of the EU LIFE IMAGINE project, aiming to develop a Web-GIS app for conserving and monitoring Umbria's grasslands and promoting more informed decisions for more sustainable livestock management. The app, called "Praterie" and developed in Google Earth Engine, utilizes historical Sentinel-2 satellite data and harmonic modeling of the EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) to estimate vegetation growth curves and maturity periods for the forthcoming vegetation cycle. The app is updated in quasi-real time and enables users to visualize estimates for the upcoming vegetation cycle, including the maximum greenness, the days remaining to the subsequent maturity period, the accuracy of the harmonic models, and the grassland greenness status in the previous 10 days. Even though future additional developments can improve the informative value of the Praterie app, this platform can contribute to optimizing livestock management and biodiversity conservation by providing timely and accurate data about grassland status and growth curves.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Animais , Humanos , Ferramenta de Busca , Biodiversidade , Agricultura , Gado
3.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 181, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341473

RESUMO

Mapping grazing intensity (GI) using satellites is crucial for developing adaptive utilization strategies according to grassland conditions. Here we developed a monitoring framework based on a paired sampling strategy and the classification probability of random forest algorithm to produce annual grazing probability (GP) and GI maps at 10-m spatial resolution from 2015 to 2021 for the largest temperate meadow in China (Hulun Buir grasslands), by harmonized Landsat 7/8 and Sentinel-2 images. The GP maps used values of 0-1 to present detailed grazing gradient information. To match widely used grazing gradients, annual GI maps with ungrazed, moderately grazed, and heavily grazed levels were generated from the GP dataset with a decision tree. The GI maps for 2015-2021 had an overall accuracy of more than 0.97 having significant correlations with the statistical data at city (r = 0.51) and county (r = 0.75) scales. They also effectively captured the GI gradients at site scale (r = 0.94). Our study proposed a monitoring approach and presented annual 10-m grazing information maps for sustainable grassland management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , China , Solo
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1178, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331994

RESUMO

Unravelling biosphere feedback mechanisms is crucial for predicting the impacts of global warming. Soil priming, an effect of fresh plant-derived carbon (C) on native soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition, is a key feedback mechanism that could release large amounts of soil C into the atmosphere. However, the impacts of climate warming on soil priming remain elusive. Here, we show that experimental warming accelerates soil priming by 12.7% in a temperate grassland. Warming alters bacterial communities, with 38% of unique active phylotypes detected under warming. The functional genes essential for soil C decomposition are also stimulated, which could be linked to priming effects. We incorporate lab-derived information into an ecosystem model showing that model parameter uncertainty can be reduced by 32-37%. Model simulations from 2010 to 2016 indicate an increase in soil C decomposition under warming, with a 9.1% rise in priming-induced CO2 emissions. If our findings can be generalized to other ecosystems over an extended period of time, soil priming could play an important role in terrestrial C cycle feedbacks and climate change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Solo , Carbono , Mudança Climática
5.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 62, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the effects of alpine meadow in different phenological periods on ruminal fermentation, serum biochemical indices, and gastrointestinal tract microbes in grazing yak on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. A total of eighteen female freely grazing yaks with an average age of 3 years old and a body weight of 130 ± 19 kg were selected. According to the plant phenological periods, yaks were randomly allocated to one of three treatments: (1) regreen periods group (RP, n = 6); (2) grassy periods group (GP, n = 6); and (3) hay periods group (HP, n = 6). At the end of the experiment, the blood, rumen fluids, and rectal contents were collected to perform further analysis. RESULTS: The concentrations of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), acetate, glucose (GLU), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHO), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were higher in the GP group than in the HP group (P < 0.05). However, compared with the RP and GP groups, the HP group had higher concentrations of isobutyrate, isovalerate, valerate, and creatinine (CREA) (P < 0.05). The abundance of Prevotella in the rumen, and the abundances of Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group, and Prevotellaceae_UCG-004 in the gut were higher in the GP group compared with the HP group (P < 0.05). The HP had higher abundance of Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group in the rumen as well as the abundances of Romboutsia and Arthrobacter in the gut compared with the RP and GP groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of rumen fermentation, serum biochemical, differential biomarkers, and function prediction, the carbohydrate digestion of grazing yak would be higher with the alpine meadow regreen and grassy due to the gastrointestinal tract microbes. However, the risk of microbe disorders and host inflammation in grazing yak were higher with the alpine meadow wither.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Rúmen , Animais , Bovinos , Bactérias/genética , Bacteroidetes , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal , Rúmen/microbiologia , Tibet
6.
Elife ; 122024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381037

RESUMO

Sexual bonds are central to the social lives of many species, including humans, and monogamous prairie voles have become the predominant model for investigating such attachments. We developed an automated whole-brain mapping pipeline to identify brain circuits underlying pair-bonding behavior. We identified bonding-related c-Fos induction in 68 brain regions clustered in seven major brain-wide neuronal circuits. These circuits include known regulators of bonding, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular hypothalamus, ventral pallidum, and prefrontal cortex. They also include brain regions previously unknown to shape bonding, such as ventromedial hypothalamus, medial preoptic area, and the medial amygdala, but that play essential roles in bonding-relevant processes, such as sexual behavior, social reward, and territorial aggression. Contrary to some hypotheses, we found that circuits active during mating and bonding were largely sexually monomorphic. Moreover, c-Fos induction across regions was strikingly consistent between members of a pair, with activity best predicted by rates of ejaculation. A novel cluster of regions centered in the amygdala remained coordinated after bonds had formed, suggesting novel substrates for bond maintenance. Our tools and results provide an unprecedented resource for elucidating the networks that translate sexual experience into an enduring bond.


Assuntos
Prosencéfalo Basal , Pradaria , Masculino , Humanos , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Arvicolinae , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos
7.
J Exp Biol ; 227(4)2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299309

RESUMO

In nature, many organisms experience a daily range of body temperatures. Thermal performance at stable temperatures is often extrapolated to predict function in cyclical environments. However, temperature order and cyclicity may influence physiological processes. The current study compared energy intake, digestive passage time and energy budgets at a stable temperature (33°C) and two temperature cycles in lizards (Sceloporus consobrinus), to determine (1) whether stable treatments adequately project performance in a cycling environment and (2) whether temperature order influences performance. Cycles had a mean temperature of 33°C, and rotated through 30°C, 33°C and 36°C daily, with equal durations of time at each temperature but differing temperature order, with warm days and cool nights in cycle 1 and cool days and warm nights in cycle 2. For analyses, performance in the stable treatment was compared with that during cycles. If temperature is the primary factor regulating performance, then performance from the stable treatment and cycles should compare favorably. However, physiological performance varied based on temperature treatment. Energy intake and budgets were similar between the stable trial and cycle 1 but not cycle 2. However, passage time did not differ. Notably, the two cycling regimes consistently varied in performance, indicating that temperature order plays a primary role in regulating performance. Physiological data collection requires careful consideration of effects of cycling versus stable temperature treatments. Stable temperatures do not consistently represent performance in cycling regimes and consideration should be paid not only to which temperatures animals experience but also to how temperature is experienced in nature.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Temperatura , Lagartos/fisiologia , Pradaria , Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Baixa
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170623, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320706

RESUMO

Agricultural practices enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) show potential to buffer negative effects of climate change on forage grass performance. We tested this by subjecting five forage grass varieties differing in fodder quality and drought/flooding resistance to increased persistence in summer precipitation regimes (PR) across sandy and sandy-loam soils from either permanent (high SOC) or temporary grasslands (low SOC) in adjacent parcels. Over the course of two consecutive summers, monoculture mesocosms were subjected to rainy/dry weather alternation either every 3 days or every 30 days, whilst keeping total precipitation equal. Increased PR persistence induced species-specific drought damage and productivity declines. Soils from permanent grasslands with elevated SOC buffered plant quality, but buffering effects of SOC on drought damage, nutrient availability and yield differed between texture classes. In the more persistent PR, Festuca arundinacea FERMINA was the most productive species but had the lowest quality under both ample water supply and mild soil drought, whilst under the most intense soil droughts, Festulolium FESTILO maintained the highest yields. The hybrid Lolium × boucheanum kunth MELCOMBI had intermediate productivity and both Lolium perenne varieties showed the lowest yields under soil drought, but the highest forage quality (especially the tetraploid variety MELFORCE). Performance varied with plant maturity stage and across seasons/years and was driven by altered water and nutrient availability and related nitrogen nutrition among species during drought and upon rewetting. Moreover, whilst permanent grassland soils showed the most consistent positive effects on plant performance, their available water capacity also declined under increased PR persistence. We conclude that permanent grassland soils with historically elevated SOC likely buffer negative effects of increasing summer weather persistence on forage grass performance, but may also be more sensitive to degradation under climate change.


Assuntos
Carbono , Lolium , Poaceae , Pradaria , Solo , Secas , Água
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170602, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325448

RESUMO

Aboveground Biomass (AGB) in the grassland senescence period is a key indicator for assessing grassland fire risk and autumnal pasture carrying capacity. Despite the advancement of remote sensing in rapid monitoring of AGB on a regional scale, accurately monitoring AGB during the senescence period in vast arid areas remains a major challenge. Using remote sensing, environmental data, and 356 samples of grassland senescence period AGB data, this study utilizes the Gram-Schmidt Pan Sharpening (GS) method, multivariate selection methods, and machine learning algorithms (RF, SVM, and BP_ANN) to construct a model for AGB during senescence grassland, and applies the optimal model to analyze spatio-temporal pattern changes in AGB from 2000 to 2021 in arid regions. The results indicate that the GS method effectively enhances the correlation between measured AGB and vegetation indices, reducing model error to some extent; The accuracy of grassland AGB inversion models based on a single vegetation index is low (0.03 ≤ |R| ≤ 0.63), while the RF model constructed with multiple variables selected by the Boruta algorithm is the optimal model for estimating AGB in arid regions during the senescence period (R2 = 0.71, RMSE = 519.74 kg/ha); In the span of 22 years, the annual average AGB in the senescence period of arid regions was 1413.85 kg/ha, with regions of higher AGB primarily located in the northeast and southwest of the study area. The area experiencing an increase in AGB during the senescence period (79.97 %) was significantly larger than that with decreased AGB (20.03 %).


Assuntos
Pradaria , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Biomassa , Clima Desértico , China
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170607, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336057

RESUMO

Plant overcompensatory growth (OCG) is an important mechanism by which plant communities adapt to environmental disturbance. However, it is not clear whether plant OCG can occur in degraded alpine meadows. Here, we conducted a mowing experiment in an alpine meadow at three degradation levels (i.e., severe degradation, SD; moderate degradation, MD; and light degradation, LD) on the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 2018 to 2020 to investigate plant OCG and its relationships with soil available nutrients, plant nutrient use efficiency (i.e., nitrogen use efficiency, NUE; and phosphorus use efficiency, PUE), and precipitation. The results showed that 1) the OCG of the plant community generally occurred across all degradation levels, and the OCG strength of the plant community decreased with mowing duration. Moreover, the OCG strength of the plant community in the SD treatment was significantly greater than that in the MD and LD treatments after two years of mowing (p < 0.05). 2) In LD and MD, the soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-) and available phosphorus (AP) concentrations exhibited a decreasing trend (p < 0.05), while the soil ammonium nitrogen (NH4+) concentration did not change from 2018 to 2020 (p > 0.05). In the SD treatment, the soil NO3- concentration tended to decrease (p < 0.05), the NH4+ concentration tended to increase (p < 0.05), and the AP concentration exhibited an inverse parabolic trend (p < 0.05) from 2018 to 2020. 3) From 2018 to 2020, plant NUE and PUE exhibited decreasing trends at all degradation levels. 4) Plant nutrient use efficiency, which is regulated by complex plant-soil interactions, strongly controlled the OCG of the plant community along each degradation gradient. Moreover, precipitation not only directly promoted the OCG of the plant community but also indirectly affected it by regulating the structure of the plant community and plant nutrient use efficiency. These results suggest that the OCG of the plant community in degraded alpine meadows may benefit not only from the strong self-regulating capacity of the plant-soil system but also from humid climatic conditions.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Plantas , Tibet , Plantas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo/química , Fósforo/metabolismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3769, 2024 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355917

RESUMO

The current study provides field experimental data that support the use of γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) in drought stress and proposes its application in grassland management. We hypothesized that water treatment combined with PGA application to sandy soil would reduce drought stress in grasslands more effectively than watering alone. A randomized block design was used, with three replicate watering blocks (no watering, weekly watering, and monthly watering) and PGA treatments at four different concentrations (0%, 0.3%, 1%, and 2% PGA). The results showed that PGA acts as a biostimulant, alleviating the effects of stress in plants by: (1) increasing the availability of ions, especially K+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe2+/3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, as well as N-NH4+, and N-NO3-, (2) elongating plant roots, (3) increasing the aboveground biomass, (4) improving the resprouting capacity of the dominant grass Nardus stricta, and (5) improving the regeneration of dicotyledons. In the case of meadows on sandy soils, the use of low PGA concentrations (0.3% or 1%) was the most beneficial for the availability of macro- and microelements and improving the functional traits of plants. Irrigation had a greater effect than using PGA only for the dicotyledon to monocotyledon ratio.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Ácido Poliglutâmico/análogos & derivados , Solo , Pradaria , Areia , Secas , Plantas , Poaceae
12.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(2): e17189, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375686

RESUMO

Terrestrial ecosystems affect climate by reflecting solar irradiation, evaporative cooling, and carbon sequestration. Yet very little is known about how plant traits affect climate regulation processes (CRPs) in different habitat types. Here, we used linear and random forest models to relate the community-weighted mean and variance values of 19 plant traits (summarized into eight trait axes) to the climate-adjusted proportion of reflected solar irradiation, evapotranspiration, and net primary productivity across 36,630 grid cells at the European extent, classified into 10 types of forest, shrubland, and grassland habitats. We found that these trait axes were more tightly linked to log evapotranspiration (with an average of 6.2% explained variation) and the proportion of reflected solar irradiation (6.1%) than to net primary productivity (4.9%). The highest variation in CRPs was explained in forest and temperate shrubland habitats. Yet, the strength and direction of these relationships were strongly habitat-dependent. We conclude that any spatial upscaling of the effects of plant communities on CRPs must consider the relative contribution of different habitat types.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Plantas , Clima , Processos Climáticos , Biodiversidade
13.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 26, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon and water use efficiencies (CUE and WUE, respectively) are vital indicators of the adaptability of plants to environmental conditions. However, the effects of grazing and climate change on the spatiotemporal changes in CUE and WUE in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau grasslands (QTPG) are still unclear. RESULTS: Using the enhanced Biome-BGCMuSo model in combination with observed data, we estimated and analyzed the spatiotemporal variations in CUE and WUE and their responses to grazing in QTPG from 1979 to 2018. The mean annual CUE was 0.7066 in QTPG from 1979 to 2018 under the actual climate scenario. In general, the grassland CUE was low in the southeast and high in the northwest. Grazing generally decreased CUE in QTPG from 1979 to 2018, and there was an increasing trend in the difference in CUE between the grazing and nongrazing scenarios. The difference in CUE was generally greater in the northwest than in the southeast. The mean annual WUE was 0.5591 g C/kg H2O in QTPG from 1979 to 2018 under the actual climate scenario. After 2000, the grassland WUE exhibited a fluctuating upward trend. In general, the grassland WUE was greater in the southeast than in the northwest. Grazing generally decreased WUE in QTPG from 1979 to 2018, and there was an increasing trend in the difference in WUE between the grazing and nongrazing scenarios. The difference in WUE was generally greater in the northwest than in the southeast. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggested that the spatiotemporal changes in CUE and WUE in QTPG were closely related to changes in the natural environment and grazing management.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Água , Tibet , Carbono , Ecossistema
14.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 225, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383609

RESUMO

Alpine grassland vegetation supports globally important biodiversity and ecosystems that are increasingly threatened by climate warming and other environmental changes. Trait-based approaches can support understanding of vegetation responses to global change drivers and consequences for ecosystem functioning. In six sites along a 1314 m elevational gradient in Puna grasslands in the Peruvian Andes, we collected datasets on vascular plant composition, plant functional traits, biomass, ecosystem fluxes, and climate data over three years. The data were collected in the wet and dry season and from plots with different fire histories. We selected traits associated with plant resource use, growth, and life history strategies (leaf area, leaf dry/wet mass, leaf thickness, specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf C, N, P content, C and N isotopes). The trait dataset contains 3,665 plant records from 145 taxa, 54,036 trait measurements (increasing the trait data coverage of the regional flora by 420%) covering 14 traits and 121 plant taxa (ca. 40% of which have no previous publicly available trait data) across 33 families.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Humanos , Peru , Plantas , Biodiversidade
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 919: 170648, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336078

RESUMO

Soil asymbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation provides a critical N source to support plant growth in alpine grasslands, and precipitation change is expected to lead to shifts in soil asymbiotic N fixation. However, large gaps remain in understanding the response of soil asymbiotic N fixation to precipitation gradients. Here we simulated five precipitation gradients (10 % (0.1P), 50 % (0.5P), 70 % (0.7P), 100 % (1.0P) and 150 % (1.5P) of the natural precipitation) in an alpine grassland of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and examined the soil nitrogenase activity and N fixation rate for each gradient. Quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing were used to measure the abundance and community composition of the soil nifH DNA (total diazotrophs) and nifH RNA reverse transcription (active diazotrophs) gene. Our results showed that the soil diazotrophic abundance, diversity and nifH gene expression rate peaked under the 0.5P. Soil nitrogenase activity and N fixation rate varied in the range 0.032-0.073 nmol·C2H4·g-1·h-1 and 0.008-0.022 nmol·N2·g-1·h-1 respectively, being highest under the 0.5P. The 50 % precipitation reduction enhanced the gene expression rates of Azospirillum and Halorhodospira which were likely responsible for the high N fixation potential. The 0.5P treatment also possessed a larger and more complex active diazotrophic network than the other treatments, which facilitated the resistance of diazotrophic community to environmental stress and thus maintained a high N fixation potential. The active diazotrophic abundance had the largest positive effect on soil N fixation, while nitrate nitrogen had the largest negative effect. Together, our study suggested that appropriate precipitation reduction can enhance soil N fixation through promoting the abundance of the soil active diazotrophs and decreasing soil nitrate nitrogen, and soil active diazotrophs and nitrate nitrogen should be considered in predicting soil N inputs in the alpine grassland of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau under precipitation change.


Assuntos
Fixação de Nitrogênio , Solo , Pradaria , Tibet , Nitratos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Nitrogenase/metabolismo
16.
J Affect Disord ; 351: 833-842, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress-induced illnesses, like major depression, are among the leading causes of disability across the world. Consequently, there is a dire need for the validation of translationally-suited animal models incorporating social stress to uncover the etiology of depression. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are more translationally relevant than many other rodent models as they display monogamous social and bi-parental behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated whether a novel social defeat stress (SDS) model in male prairie voles induces depression-relevant behavioral outcomes. METHODS: Adult sexually-naïve male prairie voles experienced SDS bouts from a conspecific pair-bonded male aggressor, 10 min per day for 10 consecutive days. Non-stressed controls (same-sex siblings) were housed in similar conditions but never experienced physical stress. Twenty-four h later, voles were evaluated in social interaction, sucrose preference, and Morris water maze tests - behavioral endpoints validated to assess social withdrawal, anhedonia-related behavior, and spatial memory performance, respectively. RESULTS: SDS-exposed voles displayed lower sociability and body weight, decreased preference for a sucrose solution, and impairment of spatial memory retrieval. Importantly, no differences in general locomotor activity were observed as a function of SDS exposure. LIMITATIONS: This study does not include female voles in the experimental design. CONCLUSIONS: We found that repeated SDS exposure, in male prairie voles, results in a depression-relevant phenotype resembling an anhedonia-like outcome (per reductions in sucrose preference) along with social withdrawal and spatial memory impairment - highlighting that the prairie vole is a valuable model with potential to study the neurobiology of social stress-induced depression-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Derrota Social , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Depressão , Anedonia , Pradaria , Arvicolinae , Sacarose
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 919: 170920, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354797

RESUMO

Variation in biomass elemental composition of grassland plants may have important implications for ecosystem functioning in response to global change. However, relevant studies have mostly focused on variation of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations in plant leaves, while few studies have evaluated other elements and plant organs of grassland species. Here, we examined the effects of N addition on multi-element concentrations, and analyzed their patterns across different organs (leaf, stem, root and seed) of five plant species in a steppe community of the Inner Mongolian grassland. Our results showed that seeds exhibited the most stable elemental composition with N addition, and that manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) concentrations were substantially more variable than macro-elements in response to N addition. In particular, we identified a set of significant negative relationships between elemental concentrations and their corresponding CVs (coefficients of variation) for all plant organs as a whole and for each individual organ. We further found that changes in soil pH and the availability of soil nutrients contributed mostly to variation in the biomass elemental composition of major plants in this community. These findings are important for accurately assessing the effects of N deposition on the biochemical cycling of nutrient elements in grassland ecosystems, and provide critical clues for developing effective approaches to adaptively managing grassland resources as well as mitigating the impact of global change on the dryland ecosystems in the Mongolia Plateau.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nitrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Pradaria , Biomassa , Plantas , Sementes/química , Solo/química , China
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 919: 170900, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354804

RESUMO

The sensitivity of grassland above- (AGB, gC m-2) and below-ground biomass (BGB, gC m-2) to climate has been shown to be significant on the Tibetan Plateau, however, the spatial patterns and sensitivity of biomass with altitudinal change needs to be quantitated. In this study, large data sets of AGB and BGB during the peak growth season, and the corresponding geographical and climate conditions in the grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau between 2001 and 2020 were analyzed, and modelled using a Cubist regression trees algorithm. The mean values for AGB and BGB were 61.3 and 1304.3 gC m-2, respectively, for the whole region over the two decades. There was a significant change in spatial AGB of 64.8 % on the Plateau (P < 0.05, with areas where AGB increased being twice as large as areas where AGB decreased), while BGB did not change significantly in majority the of the region (≥ 90.1 %, P > 0.05). In general, the areas where AGB showed positive partial correlations with precipitation were larger than the areas where AGB had positive correlations with temperature (P < 0.05). However, these trends varied depending on the climatic conditions: in the wetter regions, temperature had a greater effect on the size of the areas with positive AGB responses than precipitation (P < 0.05), while precipitation had a greater effect on the size of areas with positive BGB changes than temperature (P < 0.05). In the drier areas, however, precipitation affected the AGB response significantly compared to temperature (P < 0.05), while temperature influenced the BGB response greater than precipitation (P < 0.05). The response and sensitivity of grassland biomass to temperature and precipitation varied according to the altitude of the Plateau: the response and sensitivity were stronger and more sensitive at medium altitudes, and weak at the higher or lower altitudes. Likely, this phenomenon was resulted from the natural selection of plants to maintain the efficient use of resources during un-favourable and stressed conditions for maximum plant development and growth. These findings will help assess the ecological consequences of global climate change for the grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau, particularly in those regions with highly variable altitudes.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Pradaria , Biomassa , Tibet , Plantas , Ecossistema
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 809, 2024 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191639

RESUMO

The ecosystem services offered by pollinators are vital for supporting agriculture and ecosystem functioning, with bees standing out as especially valuable contributors among these insects. Threats such as habitat fragmentation, intensive agriculture, and climate change are contributing to the decline of natural bee populations. Remote sensing could be a useful tool to identify sites of high diversity before investing into more expensive field survey. In this study, the ability of Unoccupied Aerial Vehicles (UAV) images to estimate biodiversity at a local scale has been assessed while testing the concept of the Height Variation Hypothesis (HVH). This hypothesis states that the higher the vegetation height heterogeneity (HH) measured by remote sensing information, the higher the vegetation vertical complexity and the associated species diversity. In this study, the concept has been further developed to understand if vegetation HH can also be considered a proxy for bee diversity and abundance. We tested this approach in 30 grasslands in the South of the Netherlands, where an intensive field data campaign (collection of flower and bee diversity and abundance) was carried out in 2021, along with a UAV campaign (collection of true color-RGB-images at high spatial resolution). Canopy Height Models (CHM) of the grasslands were derived using the photogrammetry technique "Structure from Motion" (SfM) with horizontal resolution (spatial) of 10 cm, 25 cm, and 50 cm. The accuracy of the CHM derived from UAV photogrammetry was assessed by comparing them through linear regression against local CHM LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data derived from an Airborne Laser Scanner campaign completed in 2020/2021, yielding an [Formula: see text] of 0.71. Subsequently, the HH assessed on the CHMs at the three spatial resolutions, using four different heterogeneity indices (Rao's Q, Coefficient of Variation, Berger-Parker index, and Simpson's D index), was correlated with the ground-based flower and bee diversity and bee abundance data. The Rao's Q index was the most effective heterogeneity index, reaching high correlations with the ground-based data (0.44 for flower diversity, 0.47 for bee diversity, and 0.34 for bee abundance). Interestingly, the correlations were not significantly influenced by the spatial resolution of the CHM derived from UAV photogrammetry. Our results suggest that vegetation height heterogeneity can be used as a proxy for large-scale, standardized, and cost-effective inference of flower diversity and habitat quality for bees.


Assuntos
Asma , Ecossistema , Abelhas , Animais , Pradaria , Agricultura , Flores , Fotogrametria
20.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 117(1): 16, 2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38189906

RESUMO

The unique eco-environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau breeds abundant microbial resources. In this research, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GL18, isolated from the rhizosphere of Kobresia myosuroides from an alpine meadow, and the antagonistic activity, bacteriostatic hydrolase activity, and low temperature, salt, and drought resistance of it were determined and analysed. The seedlings of Avena sativa were root-irrigated using bacteria suspensions (cell concentration 1 × 107 cfu/mL) of GL18, and the growth-promoting effect of GL18 on it was determined under cold, salt and drought stress, respectively. The whole genome of GL18 was sequenced, and its functional genes were analysed. GL18 presented significant antagonistic activity to Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger (inhibition zone diameter > 17 mm). Transparent zones formed on four hydrolase detection media, indicating that GL18 secreted cellulase, protease, pectinase and ß-1,3-glucanase. GL18 tolerated conditions of 10 °C, 11% NaCl and 15% PEG-6000, presenting cold, salt and drought resistance. GL18 improved the cold, salt and drought tolerance of A. sativa and it showed significant growth effects under different stress. The total length of the GL18 genome was 3,915,550 bp, and the number of coding DNA sequence was 3726. Compared with the clusters of orthologous groups of proteins, gene ontology and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes databases, 3088, 2869 and 2357 functional genes were annotated, respectively. GL18 contained gene clusters related to antibacterial substances, functional genes related to the synthesis of plant growth-promoting substances, and encoding genes related to stress resistance. This study identified an excellent Bacillus strain and provided a theoretical basis for improving stress resistance and promoting the growth of herbages under abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , Cyperaceae , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/genética , Rizosfera , Pradaria , Cloreto de Sódio , Peptídeo Hidrolases
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