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1.
Zootaxa ; 4822(4): zootaxa.4822.4.8, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056273

RESUMO

A new species, Ypsolopha admirandella sp. nov., is described from clay-steppes of the Ulyanovsk Region (European Russia). The holotype of the new species is deposited in the collection of the Samara State University. The new species is associated with Ephedra distachya. The holotype and its genitalia, in addition those of the closely related Y. colleaguella Baraniak, 2007 are illustrated.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Mariposas , Animais , Genitália , Federação Russa
3.
Zootaxa ; 4786(3): zootaxa.4786.3.6, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056475

RESUMO

A new species of Aricoris Westwood, 1851, until now treated erroneously as Aricoris tutana (Godart, [1824]), is described and illustrated from the Neotropical Cerrado savanna. Aricoris emeryi Callaghan, Lemes Kaminski, sp. nov. can be identified by a set of characters on wings and male genitalia that differentiates it from other species belonging to the constantius group.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Pradaria , Animais , Genitália Masculina , Masculino , Asas de Animais
4.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 1-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016361

RESUMO

Nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission from agricultural soils represents a significant source of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. We evaluated the suitability of a modified Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to estimate the N2 O flux from the application of solid manure at two grassland sites (North Wyke [NW] and Pwllpeiran [PW]) in the United Kingdom. The simulated N2 O emissions were validated against field observations measured in 2011 and 2012 for model calibration and validation, respectively. The SWAT model predicts water-filled pore space (WFPS) very well with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), R2 , RMSE, and percentage bias (PBIAS) values of 0.67, .72, 0.06, and 3.64, respectively, during the calibration period for NW site, whereas it gives 0.68, .69, 0.07, and 3.04, respectively during the validation period. At PW, the model predicted the NSE, R2 , RMSE, and PBIAS of 0.55, .69, 0.04, and -4.5, respectively, during calibration and 0.63, .71, 0.05, and -2.6, respectively, during the validation period. Compared with WFPS, the model resulted in a slightly lower fit for N2 O emissions for NW (NSE = 0.47, R2  = .63 during calibration, and NSE = 0.55, R2  = .58 during validation) and for PW (NSE = 0.54, R2  = .71 for calibration, and NSE = 0.47, R2  = .69 for validation). Results revealed that the SWAT model performed reasonably well in representing the dynamics of N2 O emissions after solid manure application to grassland.


Assuntos
Esterco , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Pradaria , Solo , Reino Unido
5.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 236-245, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016366

RESUMO

Antimicrobials used in livestock production can be present in manure via excretion in the feces and/or urine. Application of raw or processed (composted or stockpiled) manure to crop and pasture land as a plant nutrient source can result in antimicrobial transport to surface waters via rainfall or snowmelt runoff. Little is known regarding antimicrobial persistence in aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, dissipation of environmentally relevant concentrations of three veterinary antimicrobials (lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and sulfamethazine) was studied in three wetlands on the Canadian Prairies. Study wetlands were fortified in the fall to simulate antimicrobial transport via rainfall runoff from fall manure applications to the wetland catchments. After fortification, water column concentrations of all three antimicrobials decreased through September and October. Plotting natural logarithm values of antimicrobial concentration against time resulted in linear relationships for all three antimicrobials, indicating that the summation of all dissipation processes for each antimicrobial could be described by first-order kinetics. The slopes of the three plots were significantly different, indicating that the order of dissipation was lincomycin < sulfamethazine < chlortetracycline. Consequently, the dissipation DT50 (time required for 50% antimicrobial dissipation) values for lincomycin (14.0 d), sulfamethazine (7.0 d), and chlortetracycline (3.3 d) were significantly different. The longer DT50 values of lincomycin and sulfamethazine suggest that environmentally relevant concentrations of these antimicrobials may affect bacterial production in prairie wetlands.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Clortetraciclina , Canadá , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Lincomicina , Sulfametazina , Áreas Alagadas
6.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1408-1420, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016442

RESUMO

Despite the numerous benefits of biosolids, concerns over nutrient losses restrict the extent to which biosolids can be beneficially reused. We evaluated the effectiveness of biochar in controlling the lability of nutrients in agricultural land. This study was designed to investigate the potential impacts of co-applying biochar with biosolids or inorganic fertilizer on N and P leaching losses. A companion paper focuses on greenhouse gas responses. Nutrients were surface applied as biosolids (aerobically digested Class B) and inorganic fertilizer (ammonium nitrate and triple superphosphate) to an established perennial pasture at equivalent annual rates typical of field practices. Biochar was applied at an annual rate of 20 Mg ha-1 . Leachate N and P were monitored using passive-capillary drainage lysimeters. Results demonstrated significant temporal variability in leachate N and P, with larger pulses generally occurring during periods of high water table levels or after intensive rainfall. Inorganic fertilizer generally resulted in greater leachate N and P losses than biosolids. No differences in leachate N and P losses between biosolids and control were observed. Approximately 1% of applied N was lost via leaching from biosolids treatments vs. 16% for inorganic fertilizer. Regardless of the P source, negligible (0.1-0.2% of applied P), cumulative P leaching occurred during the 3-yr study. Biochar had no effect on P leaching but reduced N leaching from treatments receiving inorganic fertilizer by 60%. Prudent nutrient management is possible even on biosolids-amended Spodosols with high water tables.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Carvão Vegetal , Pradaria , Nutrientes , Solo
7.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1421-1434, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016444

RESUMO

Land application of biochar reportedly provides many benefits, including reduced risk of nutrient transport, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation, and increased soil C storage, but additional field validation is needed. We evaluated the effectiveness of biochar in controlling the lability of nutrients in agricultural land. This study was designed to evaluate the impacts of biochar co-applied with various N and P sources on GHG fluxes from a subtropical grassland. Nutrients (inorganic fertilizer and aerobically digested Class B biosolids) were surface applied at a rate of 160 kg plant available N ha-1  yr-1 with or without biochar (applied at 20 Mg ha-1 ). Greenhouse gas (CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O) fluxes were assessed using static chambers and varied significantly, both temporally and with treatments. Greenhouse gas fluxes ranged from 1,247 to 23,160, -0.7 to 42, and -1.4 to 376 mg m-2 d-1 for CO2 , N2 O, and CH4 , respectively. Results of the 3-yr field study demonstrated strong seasonal variability associated with GHG emissions. Nutrient source had no effect on soil CO2 and CH4 emissions, but annual and cumulative (3-yr) N2 O emissions increased with biosolids (8 kg N2 O ha-1  yr-1 ) compared with inorganic fertilizer (5 kg N2 O ha-1  yr-1 ) application. Data suggested that environmental conditions played a more important role on GHG fluxes than nutrient additions. Biochar reduced CO2 emissions modestly (<9%) but had no effects on N2 O and CH4 emissions.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Pradaria , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Nutrientes , Solo
8.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1435-1444, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016451

RESUMO

Chlortetracycline (CTC), an antimicrobial administered as a feed additive to cattle, swine, and poultry, is present in the corresponding manure. Land application of raw or processed (composted or stockpiled) manure provides a mechanism by which CTC (and other antimicrobials) enters the environment and becomes available for transport to surface receiving waters via rainfall or snowmelt runoff. Chlortetracycline has been detected in Canadian surface waters, but little has been reported on its fate in aquatic ecosystems. To address this knowledge gap, the dissipation of CTC-enol was monitored in deionized water and water typical of wetlands within the prairie region of Canada. In deionized water, CTC-enol tautomerized to CTC-keto, and both tautomers epimerized to 4-epi-CTC-enol and 4-epi-CTC-keto, respectively. Irreversible isomerization to iso-CTC occurred, which then epimerized to 4-epi-iso-CTC. In wetland water, although tauterization of CTC-enol to CTC-keto occurred, there was no evidence of the formation of the 4-epimers of either CTC-enol or CTC-keto. The major product formed in the wetland water was iso-CTC, some of which epimerized to 4-epi-iso-CTC. Although CTC-enol was shown to tautomerize to CTC-keto, the concentration of CTC-keto remained low in both deionized and wetland water, suggesting that the isomerization of CTC-enol to iso-CTC most likely occurred via CTC-keto. The dissipation of CTC-enol in wetland water was described by pseudo first-order kinetics with a DT50 (time required for 50% dissipation) value of 4.8 h. The short DT50 value of CTC and reduced antimicrobial activity of iso-CTC and 4-epi-iso-CTC suggest a lower probability for selection for CTC-resistant bacteria in Canadian Prairie aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Clortetraciclina , Animais , Canadá , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Isomerismo , Suínos , Áreas Alagadas
9.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 1062-1072, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016481

RESUMO

Erosion and sedimentation pose serious threats to soil and water quality worldwide, including in the U.S. southern Great Plains. To better understand these processes in agricultural landscapes, eight 1.6-ha watersheds were established and instrumented in 1976 at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory, ∼50 km west of Oklahoma City near El Reno, OK, to measure precipitation and surface runoff quantity and quality. Prior to construction, all watersheds were in native grass, primarily big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman.), little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash], and Indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash]; afterwards, four of the eight watersheds were cropped initially into winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (two conventionally tilled and two minimally or no-till). Although there have been many peer-reviewed papers from the Water Resources and Erosion (WRE) watersheds, none included all the datasets collected during the period 1977-1999. The objectives of this paper were (a) to present and discuss all archived historical data, including methods of collection and analysis, (b) to provide summary analyses of the variability in each dataset, and (c) to provide details about how to access these datasets. These datasets are valuable resources to improve modeling in relation to land use and management changes, climate variability, and other environmental factors and may be useful in developing strategies to mitigate environmental impacts of agricultural systems. They are available at https://doi.org/10.15482/USDA.ADC/1518421.


Assuntos
Gado , Água , Animais , Pradaria , Oklahoma , Poaceae
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201840, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962550

RESUMO

Within a local assemblage, ecosystem engineers can have major impacts on population dynamics, community composition and ecosystem functions by transforming or creating new habitats. They act as an ecological filter altering community composition through a set of environmental variables. The impact of ants on their environment has been widely studied, but their multi-component effects (both trophic and non-trophic) have been rarely addressed. We investigated the roles of Messor barbarus, one of the commonest harvester ant species in south-western European Mediterranean grasslands. We analysed soil physico-chemical parameters, above-ground vegetation (e.g. species richness, plant community, micro-local heterogeneity, plant biomass) and above- and below-ground fauna (macrofauna, Collembola, Acari and nematodes). A clear and strong local impact of M. barbarus on soil, vegetation and fauna compartments emerges. The environmental filter is altered by modifications to soil physico-chemical properties, and the biotic filter by changes to plant communities and altered above- and below-ground fauna abundance, occurrence and community structure. The engineering activity of M. barbarus affects not only these separate ecosystem components but also the trophic and non-trophic relationships between them. By altering ecological filters at a local scale, M. barbarus creates habitat heterogeneity that may in turn increase ecological niches in these highly diverse ecosystems.


Assuntos
Formigas , Pradaria , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Região do Mediterrâneo
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4547, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917880

RESUMO

Biodiversity loss can alter ecosystem functioning; however, it remains unclear how it alters decomposition-a critical component of biogeochemical cycles in the biosphere. Here, we provide a global-scale meta-analysis to quantify how changes in the diversity of organic matter derived from plants (i.e. litter) affect rates of decomposition. We find that the after-life effects of diversity were significant, and of substantial magnitude, in forests, grasslands, and wetlands. Changes in plant diversity could alter decomposition rates by as much as climate change is projected to alter them. Specifically, diversifying plant litter from mono- to mixed-species increases decomposition rate by 34.7% in forests worldwide, which is comparable in magnitude to the 13.6-26.4% increase in decomposition rates that is projected to occur over the next 50 years in response to climate warming. Thus, biodiversity changes cannot be solely viewed as a response to human influence, such as climate change, but could also be a non-negligible driver of future changes in biogeochemical cycles and climate feedbacks on Earth.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Aquecimento Global , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Plantas/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Florestas , Pradaria , Áreas Alagadas
12.
Am J Bot ; 107(9): 1238-1252, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931042

RESUMO

PREMISE: The impact of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) and climate warming on plant productivity in dryland ecosystems is influenced strongly by soil moisture availability. We predicted that the influence of warming on the stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated [CO2 ] in prairie plants would operate primarily through direct and indirect effects on soil water. METHODS: We measured light-saturated photosynthesis (Anet ), stomatal conductance (gs ), maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax ), maximum electron transport capacity (Jmax ) and related variables in four C3 plant species in the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment in southeastern Wyoming. Measurements were conducted over two growing seasons that differed in the amount of precipitation and soil moisture content. RESULTS: Anet in the C3 subshrub Artemisia frigida and the C3 forb Sphaeralcea coccinea was stimulated by elevated [CO2 ] under ambient and warmed temperature treatments. Warming by itself reduced Anet in all species during the dry year, but stimulated photosynthesis in S. coccinea in the wet year. In contrast, Anet in the C3 grass Pascopyrum smithii was not stimulated by elevated [CO2 ] or warming under wet or dry conditions. Photosynthetic downregulation under elevated [CO2 ] in this species countered the potential stimulatory effect under improved water relations. Warming also reduced the magnitude of CO2 -induced down-regulation in this grass, possibly by sustaining high levels of carbon utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Direct and indirect effects of elevated [CO2 ] and warming on soil water was an overriding factor influencing patterns of Anet in this semi-arid temperate grassland, emphasizing the important role of water relations in driving grassland responses to global change.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Fotossíntese , Clima , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Solo
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4897, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994415

RESUMO

Soil microbial respiration is an important source of uncertainty in projecting future climate and carbon (C) cycle feedbacks. However, its feedbacks to climate warming and underlying microbial mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we show that the temperature sensitivity of soil microbial respiration (Q10) in a temperate grassland ecosystem persistently decreases by 12.0 ± 3.7% across 7 years of warming. Also, the shifts of microbial communities play critical roles in regulating thermal adaptation of soil respiration. Incorporating microbial functional gene abundance data into a microbially-enabled ecosystem model significantly improves the modeling performance of soil microbial respiration by 5-19%, and reduces model parametric uncertainty by 55-71%. In addition, modeling analyses show that the microbial thermal adaptation can lead to considerably less heterotrophic respiration (11.6 ± 7.5%), and hence less soil C loss. If such microbially mediated dampening effects occur generally across different spatial and temporal scales, the potential positive feedback of soil microbial respiration in response to climate warming may be less than previously predicted.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Metagenoma/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Aclimatação/genética , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Celulose/metabolismo , DNA Ambiental/genética , DNA Ambiental/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Aquecimento Global , Pradaria , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Metagenômica , Modelos Genéticos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poaceae/química
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4717, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948774

RESUMO

Unraveling the drivers controlling community assembly is a central issue in ecology. Although it is generally accepted that selection, dispersal, diversification and drift are major community assembly processes, defining their relative importance is very challenging. Here, we present a framework to quantitatively infer community assembly mechanisms by phylogenetic bin-based null model analysis (iCAMP). iCAMP shows high accuracy (0.93-0.99), precision (0.80-0.94), sensitivity (0.82-0.94), and specificity (0.95-0.98) on simulated communities, which are 10-160% higher than those from the entire community-based approach. Application of iCAMP to grassland microbial communities in response to experimental warming reveals dominant roles of homogeneous selection (38%) and 'drift' (59%). Interestingly, warming decreases 'drift' over time, and enhances homogeneous selection which is primarily imposed on Bacillales. In addition, homogeneous selection has higher correlations with drought and plant productivity under warming than control. iCAMP provides an effective and robust tool to quantify microbial assembly processes, and should also be useful for plant and animal ecology.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Aquecimento Global , Pradaria , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Secas , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111016, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778299

RESUMO

Invasive grasses are a threat to some tropical savannas, but despite being fire-prone ecosystems, little is known about the relationships between fire season, climatic conditions and invasive species on these systems. We evaluated the response of the perennial invasive grasses Melinis minutiflora and Urochloa brizantha to three fire seasons in an open tropical savanna in South America: Early-Dry (May), Mid-Dry (July) and Late-Dry (October) in relation to unburned Controls. Moreover, we investigated how these responses were influenced by precipitation and extreme air temperatures. We hypothesized that biomass of both species would be reduced by fires during their reproductive period and that climatic conditions would affect them equally. We conducted prescribed burns on 15 × 15 m plots (4 plots x 4 treatment x 2 invasive species = 32 plots) in 2014. We sampled the biomass before the burn experiments and for the next two years (five 0.25 m2 samples/plot). Our experiments revealed that the fire season did not influence the abundance of either species. However, the two species responded differently to fire occurrence: M. minutiflora decreased whereas U. brizantha was not affected by fires. Early-Dry and Late-Dry fire treatments enhanced the replacement of M. minutiflora by U. brizantha. We found that the influence of precipitation depended on the species: it reduced M. minutiflora but increased U. brizantha abundance. Lower monthly minimum temperatures decreased the abundance of both species. It directly reduced live M. minutiflora and increased dead U. brizantha biomass. Monthly maximum temperatures affected the invasive grasses by reducing live M. minutiflora. Since tropical savannas are predicted to face climatic instability and that climate influences the differential response of invasive species, the management of invaders should consider both the identity of the target species and the possible interactions with other invasive species. Moreover, it is essential to keep an adaptive management approach to face the uncertainties that climate change may pose to biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poaceae , Biodiversidade , Pradaria , América do Sul
16.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111152, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777644

RESUMO

Romanian grasslands have high nature value, being among the most important biodiversity hotspots at the European level. The European Union Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) contradicts the Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 objectives by hindering coordinated grassland governance and collaboration among the involved actors. At the European level, few attempts have been made in creating conceptual strategies for implementing conservation measures in a multi-actor and multi-scale governance setting. Our paper focuses on a comparative network analysis of grassland governance of three Romanian regions (Iron Gates Natural Park - SW; Sighisoara - Tarnava Mare - center; and Dobrogea - SE), representatives for grassland management in mountain and lowland landscapes. We investigated the structural characteristics of one-mode directed governance networks in the three protected areas (standard cohesion and reciprocity metrics, exponential random graph models), the position of actors participating in networks (node-level centrality metrics), and the perception of CAP influence on grassland governance by farmers benefiting of CAP agri-environmental payments. In Sighisoara, grassland governance has been centralized but biodiversity-friendly, while in Iron Gates, grasslands were traditionally managed through a decentralized, community-level system, and this type of governance continues to date. In Dobrogea, grassland governance was performed in an intensive, centralized state-run management regime during the communist time and by large landowners after the transition period ended. Our findings illustrate the structure of the three governance networks and dissimilar patterns of collaboration, indicating distinct particularities to be considered when exploring barriers to and options for successful governance in traditionally managed grasslands in the context of CAP measures-driven management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pradaria , Agricultura , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Cavalos , Humanos
17.
Oecologia ; 193(3): 731-748, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737568

RESUMO

Gross rates of nitrogen (N) turnover inform about the total N release and consumption. We investigated how plant diversity affects gross N mineralization, microbial ammonium (NH4+) consumption and gross inorganic N immobilization in grasslands via isotopic pool dilution. The field experiment included 74 plots with 1-16 plant species and 1-4 plant functional groups (legumes, grasses, tall herbs, small herbs). We determined soil pH, shoot height, root, shoot and microbial biomass, and C and N concentrations in soil, microbial biomass, roots and shoots. Structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that increasing plant species richness significantly decreased gross N mineralization and microbial NH4+ consumption rates via increased root C:N ratios. Root C:N ratios increased because of the replacement of legumes (low C:N ratios) by small herbs (high C:N ratios) and an increasing shoot height, which was positively related with root C:N ratios, with increasing species richness. However, in our SEM remained an unexplained direct negative path from species richness to both N turnover rates. The presence of legumes increased gross N mineralization, microbial NH4+ consumption and gross inorganic N immobilization rates likely because of improved N supply by N2 fixation. The positive effect of small herbs on microbial NH4+ consumption and gross inorganic N immobilization could be attributed to their increased rhizodeposition, stimulating microbial growth. Our results demonstrate that increasing root C:N ratios with increasing species richness slow down the N cycle but also that there must be additional, still unidentified processes behind the species richness effect potentially including changed microbial community composition.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Nitrogênio , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Pradaria , Solo
18.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 115079, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806461

RESUMO

Soils, especially permafrost in the Arctic and the Tibetan Plateau, are one of the largest reservoirs of mercury (Hg) in the global environment. The Hg concentration in the grassland soils over the Tibetan Plateau and its driving factors have been less studied. This study analyzes soil total mercury (STHg) concentrations and its vertical distribution in grassland soil samples collected from the Tibetan Plateau. We adopt a nested-grid high-resolution GEOS-Chem model to simulate atmospheric Hg deposition. The relationship between STHg and soil organic carbon (SOC), as well as atmospheric deposition, are explored. Our results show that the STHg concentrations in the Tibetan Plateau are 19.8 ± 12.2 ng/g. The concentrations are higher in the south and lower in the north in the Tibetan Plateau, consistent with the previous results. Our model shows that the average deposition flux of Hg is 3.3 µg m-2 yr-1, with 57% contributed by dry deposition of elemental mercury (Hg0), followed by dry (19%) and wet (24%) deposition of divalent mercury. We calculate the Hg to carbon ratio (RHg:C) as 5.6 ± 6.5 µg Hg/g C, and the estimated STHg is 86.6 ± 101.2 Gg in alpine grasslands in the Tibetan Plateau. We find a positive relationship between STHg and SOC in the Tibetan Plateau (r2 = 0.36) and a similar positive relationship between STHg and atmospheric total Hg deposition (r2 = 0.24). A multiple linear regression involving both variables better model the observed STHg (r2 = 0.42). We conclude that SOC and atmospheric deposition influence STHg simultaneously in this region. The data provides information to quantify the size of the soil Hg pool in the Tibetan Plateau further, which has important implications for the Hg cycles in the permafrost regions as well as on the global scale.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Pergelissolo , Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pradaria , Solo , Tibet
19.
Oecologia ; 193(4): 959-968, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851494

RESUMO

Old fields are spreading in the world because of agriculture abandonment, and they show a persistence of exotic plant species with little recovery towards the original vegetation composition. Soil biota may also differ between old fields and native grasslands, but were comparatively less studied than plant communities, despite their importance in biogeochemical processes. Here we compared soil bacterial communities of exotic-dominated old fields with those of remnants of native grasslands in the Inland Pampa, Argentina, using the 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing approach. We also characterized plant communities, soil physico-chemical properties, and soil respiration. We expected more diverse soil bacterial communities, with higher heterogeneity, in remnant grasslands than in old fields because of a more diverse and more heterogeneous plant community. However, our results showed that soil bacterial communities had higher Shannon diversity in old fields than in remnant grasslands, but richness was not significantly different. Also we found different bacterial community compositions between grasslands even at a low taxonomic level. On the other hand, old fields harbored less heterogeneous bacterial communities than remnants, and bacteria and plant beta diversity were correlated. Despite contrasting plant and bacterial composition between old fields and remnant grasslands, soil physico-chemical properties were quite similar between grasslands. Overall, our results showed that bacterial communities in grassland soils were associated with changes in plant communities after agricultural abandonment. Plant-microbial feedbacks might regulate plant and soil bacterial community assemblage in old fields, yet further research is needed to demonstrate this potential feedback mechanism.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Solo , Agricultura , Argentina , Bactérias , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
Toxicon ; 186: 105-108, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777251

RESUMO

It is assumed that toxin expression is equivalent between left and right glands of a single snake. In the current study, we report venoms that differ in enzyme functionality and overall composition between the left and right gland of a single snake. The right gland produced venom of comparable composition to venom previously extracted from the same individual; however, the left gland produced venom with overall lower protein content and considerably less enzyme activity.


Assuntos
Venenos de Crotalídeos , Crotalus , Animais , Pradaria
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