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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 639, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance of pest insect species to insecticides, including B. thuringiensis (Bt) pesticidal proteins expressed by transgenic plants, is a threat to global food security. Despite the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, being a major pest of maize and having populations showing increasing levels of resistance to hybrids expressing Bt pesticidal proteins, the cell mechanisms leading to mortality are not fully understood. RESULTS: Twenty unique RNA-seq libraries from the Bt susceptible D. v. virgifera inbred line Ped12, representing all growth stages and a range of different adult and larval exposures, were assembled into a reference transcriptome. Ten-day exposures of Ped12 larvae to transgenic Bt Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize roots showed significant differential expression of 1055 and 1374 transcripts, respectively, compared to cohorts on non-Bt maize. Among these, 696 were differentially expressed in both Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize exposures. Differentially-expressed transcripts encoded protein domains putatively involved in detoxification, metabolism, binding, and transport, were, in part, shared among transcripts that changed significantly following exposures to the entomopathogens Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Metarhizium anisopliae. Differentially expressed transcripts in common between Bt and entomopathogen treatments encode proteins in general stress response pathways, including putative Bt binding receptors from the ATP binding cassette transporter superfamily. Putative caspases, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-response factors were identified among transcripts uniquely up-regulated following exposure to either Bt protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the up-regulation of genes involved in ER stress management and apoptotic progression may be important in determining cell fate following exposure of susceptible D. v. virgifera larvae to Bt maize roots. This study provides novel insights into insect response to Bt intoxication, and a possible framework for future investigations of resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Praguicidas , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Besouros/genética , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Regulação para Cima , Zea mays/genética
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502694

RESUMO

This study presents the experimental testing of a gas-sensing array, for the detection of two commercially available pesticides (i.e., Chloract 48 EC and Nimrod), towards its eventual use along a commercial smart-farming system. The array is comprised of four distinctive sensing devices based on nanoparticles, each functionalized with a different gas-absorbing polymeric layer. As discussed herein, the sensing array is able to identify as well as quantify three gas-analytes, two pesticide solutions, and relative humidity, which acts as a reference analyte. All of the evaluation experiments were conducted in close to real-life conditions; specifically, the sensors response towards the three analytes was tested in three relative humidity backgrounds while the effect of temperature was also considered. The unique response patterns generated after the exposure of the sensing-array to the two gas-analytes were analyzed using the common statistical analysis tool Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The sensing array, being compact, low-cost, and highly sensitive, can be easily integrated with pre-existing crop-monitoring solutions. Given that there are limited reports for effective pesticide gas-sensing solutions, the proposed gas-sensing technology would significantly upgrade the added-value of the integrated system, providing it with unique advantages.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Praguicidas , Polímeros , Temperatura
3.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(4): 133-137, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470943

RESUMO

A rapid, easy and versatile, simultaneous analytical method by LC-MS/MS based on extraction of QuEChERS method (EN 15662:2008) was developed for the determination of residual pesticides in Edamame (immature soybeans). In this method, it allowed to prepare a test solution only dilution without purification using solid column. As a result, 202 analytes met the management criteria of the guideline for validity assessment (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan). Thus, the present method could be useful for a rapid simultaneous determination of residual pesticides in green soybean.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Cromatografia Líquida , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Soja , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495166

RESUMO

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Aves , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Praguicidas/toxicidade
5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1178: 338802, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482881

RESUMO

Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction procedure using a novel and selective sorbent prepared from four components was developed as a sample preparation strategy for extracting five organophosphorus pesticides, including fenitrothion, malathion, ethion, and chlorpyrifos, and diazinon in several vegetables, fruit juices, and cow's milk samples. Due to the high importance of the sorbent in the microextraction process, the percentages of sorbent components, including metal-organic framework (ZIF-67), chitosan, magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and silica nanoparticles, were optimized by a simplex lattice mixture design. After optimizing the sorbent composite, effective parameters on the extraction of organophosphorus pesticides were optimized using a definitive screening design and Box-Behnken design, respectively. A surfactant (Triton X100) as a dispersion agent with a low volume (10 µL) was utilized in the microextraction procedure to reduce the sorbent dispersion time and increase the sorbent dispersion efficiency. Under the optimal conditions, linearity for the determination of fenitrothion, malathion, ethion, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon was in the concentration ranges of 0.13-1100, 0.27-1000, 0.38-1000, 0.21-1200, and 0.11-1100 ng mL-1 with a determination coefficient higher than 0.9906, respectively. The quantitation limits, detection limits, and relative standard deviations (n = 5) were lower than 0.38 ng mL-1, 0.11 ng mL-1, and 4.59% for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides. The method application for measuring OPPs on cucumber, carrot, tomato, apple juice, orange juice, and cow's milk indicated the presence of residual amounts of malathion in a cucumber sample, diazinon in a carrot sample, and chlorpyrifos in a tomato sample.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Leite/química , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Verduras , Água/análise
6.
Se Pu ; 39(9): 930-940, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486832

RESUMO

Polar pesticides can be primarily classified as fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides; their rich variety and low cost have led to their extensive utilization in agriculture. However, the overuse of polar pesticides can lead to environmental contamination, such as water or soil pollution, which can also increase the risk of pesticide exposure among human life directly, or indirectly through contact with animal and plant-derived food. There are considerable differences in the physical and chemical properties of polar pesticides, as well as their trace amounts in complex food and environmental samples, posing immense challenges to their accurate detection. As a kind of artificially prepared selective adsorbent, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) possess specific recognition sites complementary to template molecules in terms of the spatial structure, size, and chemical functional groups. With many advantages such as easy preparation, low cost, as well as good chemical and mechanical stability, MIPs have been widely applied in sample pretreatment and the analysis of polar pesticide residues. MIPs are typically used as adsorption materials in solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, including magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE), dispersed solid phase extraction (DSPE), and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). To rapidly detect polar pesticide residues with high sensitivity, MIPs are also used in the preparation of fluorescent sensors and electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, MIPs can be employed as the substrate in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and as the substrate for the ion source in mass spectrometry for polar pesticide residue analysis. Thus far, various molecularly imprinted materials have been reported for the efficient separation and analysis of polar pesticide residues in various complex matrices. However, there is no review that summarizes the recent advances in MIPs for the determination of polar pesticides. This review introduces imprinting strategies and polymerization methods for MIPs, and briefly summarizes some new molecular imprinting strategies and preparation technologies. The application of MIPs in recent years (particularly the last five years) to the detection of polar pesticide residues including neonicotinoids, organophosphorus, triazines, azoles, and urea is then systematically summarized. Finally, the future development direction and trends for MIPs are proposed considering existing challenges, with the aim of providing reference to guide future research on MIPs in the field of polar pesticide residue detection.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Adsorção , Humanos , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida
7.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131447, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467951

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) falls under the category of organophosphorus pesticides which are in huge demand in the agricultural sector. Overuse of this pesticide has led to the degradation of the quality of terrestrial and aquatic life. The chemical is moderately persistent in the environment but its primary metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) is comparatively highly persistent. Thus, it is important to degrade the chemical and there are many proposed techniques of degradation. Out of which bioremediation is considered to be highly cost-effective and efficient. Many previous studies have attempted to isolate appropriate microbial strains to degrade CPF which established the fact that chlorine atoms released while mineralising TCP inhibits further proliferation of microorganisms. Thus, it has been increasingly important to experiment with strains that can simultaneously degrade both CPF and TCP. In this review paper, the need for degrading CPF specifically the problems related to it has been discussed elaborately. Alongside these, the metabolism pathways undertaken by different kinds of microorganisms have been included. This paper also gives a detailed insight into the potential strains of microorganisms which has been confirmed through experiments conducted previously. It can be concluded that a wide range of microorganisms has to be studied to understand the possibility of applying bioremediation in wastewater treatment to remove pesticide residues. In addition to this, in the case of recalcitrant pesticides, options of treating it with hybrid techniques like bioremediation clubbed with photocatalytic biodegradation can be attempted.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Compostos Organofosforados , Piridonas
8.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131125, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467953

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are industrial chemicals with long half-lives. Early life exposure to POPs has been associated with adverse effects. Fetal exposure is typically estimated based on concentrations in maternal serum or placenta and little is known on the actual fetal exposure. We measured the concentrations of nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry in maternal serum, placenta, and fetal tissues (adipose tissue, liver, heart, lung and brain) in 20 pregnancies that ended in stillbirth (gestational weeks 36-41). The data were combined with our earlier data on perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the same cohort (Mamsen et al. 2019). HCB, p,p'-DDE, PCB 138 and PCB 153 were quantified in all samples of maternal serum, placenta and fetal tissues. All 22 POPs were detected in all fetal adipose tissue samples, even in cases where they could not be detected in maternal serum or placenta. Tissue:serum ratios were significantly higher in later gestations, male fetuses, and pregnancies with normal placental function. OCPs showed the highest tissue:serum ratios and PFAS the lowest. The highest chemical burden was found in adipose tissue and lowest in the brain. Overall, all studied human fetuses were intrinsically exposed to mixtures of POPs. Tissue:serum ratios were significantly modified by gestational age, fetal sex and placental function. Importantly, more chemicals were detected in fetal tissues compared to maternal serum and placenta, implying that these proxy samples may provide a misleading picture of actual fetal exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Feminino , Feto , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Placenta , Gravidez
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361757

RESUMO

Detection of relevant contaminants using screening approaches is a key issue to ensure food safety and respect for the regulatory limits established. Electrochemical sensors present several advantages such as rapidity; ease of use; possibility of on-site analysis and low cost. The lack of selectivity for electrochemical sensors working in complex samples as food may be overcome by coupling them with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). MIPs are synthetic materials that mimic biological receptors and are produced by the polymerization of functional monomers in presence of a target analyte. This paper critically reviews and discusses the recent progress in MIP-based electrochemical sensors for food safety. A brief introduction on MIPs and electrochemical sensors is given; followed by a discussion of the recent achievements for various MIPs-based electrochemical sensors for food contaminants analysis. Both electropolymerization and chemical synthesis of MIP-based electrochemical sensing are discussed as well as the relevant applications of MIPs used in sample preparation and then coupled to electrochemical analysis. Future perspectives and challenges have been eventually given.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos/síntese química , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Micotoxinas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Polimerização , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Drogas Veterinárias/análise
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9434-9442, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374286

RESUMO

A rapid nanoconfined liquid phase filtration system (NLPF) based on solvent-confined carbon nanofibers/carbon fiber materials (CNFs/CFs) was proposed to effectively remove chlorinated pesticides from ginsenosides-containing ginseng extracts. A series of major parameters that may affect the separation performance of the CNFs-NLPF method were extensively investigated, including the water solubility of nanoconfined solvents, filtration rate, ethanol content of the ginseng extracts, and reusability of the material for repeated adsorption. The developed method showed a high removal efficiency of pesticides (85.5-97.5%), high retainment rate of ginsenosides (95.4-98.9%), and consistent reproducibility (RSD < 11.8%). Furthermore, the feasibility of the CNFs-NLPF technique to be scaled-up for industrial application was systematically explored by analyzing large-volume ginseng extract (1 L), which also verified its excellent modifiable characteristic. This filtration method exhibits promising potential as a practical tool for removing pesticide residues and other organic pollutants in food samples to assure food quality and safeguard human health.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Nanofibras , Panax , Praguicidas , Carbono , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117376, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380208

RESUMO

Despite the abundance of epidemiological evidence concerning the association between pesticide exposure and adverse health outcomes including acute childhood leukemia (AL), evidence remains inconclusive, and is inherently limited by heterogeneous exposure assessment and multiple statistical testing. We performed a literature search of peer-reviewed studies, published until January 2021, without language restrictions. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from stratified random-effects meta-analyses by type of exposure and outcome, exposed populations and window of exposure to address the large heterogeneity of existing literature. Heterogeneity and small-study effects were also assessed. We identified 55 eligible studies (n = 48 case-control and n = 7 cohorts) from over 30 countries assessing >200 different exposures of pesticides (n = 160,924 participants). The summary OR for maternal environmental exposure to pesticides (broad term) during pregnancy and AL was 1.88 (95%CI: 1.15-3.08), reaching 2.51 for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 95%CI: 1.39-4.55). Analysis by pesticide subtype yielded an increased risk for maternal herbicide (OR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.00-1.99) and insecticide (OR: 1.60, 95%CI: 1.11-2.29) exposure during pregnancy and AL without heterogeneity (p = 0.12-0.34). Meta-analyses of infant leukemia were only feasible for maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy. Higher magnitude risks were observed for maternal pesticide exposure and infant ALL (OR: 2.18, 95%CI: 1.44-3.29), and the highest for infant acute myeloid leukemia (OR: 3.42, 95%CI: 1.98-5.91). Overall, the associations were stronger for maternal exposure during pregnancy compared to childhood exposure. For occupational or mixed exposures, parental, and specifically paternal, pesticide exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of AL (ORparental: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.08-2.85; ORpaternal: 1.20, 95%CI: 1.07-1.35). The epidemiological evidence, supported by mechanistic studies, suggests that pesticide exposure, mainly during pregnancy, increases the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly among infants. Sufficiently powered studies using repeated biomarker analyses are needed to confirm whether there is public health merit in reducing prenatal pesticide exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Exposição Paterna , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(34): 9754-9763, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415761

RESUMO

Plant viruses and fungi are a serious threat to food security and natural ecosystems. The efficient and environment-friendly control methods are urgently needed to help safeguard such resources. Here, we achieved the efficient synthesis of toad alkaloid dehydrobufotenine in eight steps with an overall yield of 8% from 5-methoxyindole. A series of dehydrobufotenine derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antiviral and fungicidal activities systematically. It was found for the first time that these compounds have good anti-plant virus activities and anti-plant pathogen activities. The antiviral activities of 21 compounds were similar to or better than those of ribavirin. Compounds 12 and 17 displayed better antiviral activities than ningnanmycin which is perhaps the most effective anti-plant virus agent. The antiviral mechanism research study of 12 revealed that it could make 20S CP disk fusion and aggregation. Further molecular docking results showed that there are hydrogen bonds between compounds 12, 17, and tobacco mosaic virus CP. The docking results are consistent with the antiviral activity. These compounds also displayed broad-spectrum fungicidal activities against 14 kinds of fungi, especially for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this work, the synthesis, structure optimization, structure-activity relationship studies, and mode of action research of dehydrobufotenine alkaloids were carried out. It provides a reference for the development of the anti-plant virus agent and anti-plant pathogen agent from toad alkaloids.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Fungicidas Industriais , Praguicidas , Vírus de Plantas , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ascomicetos , Desenho de Fármacos , Ecossistema , Fungos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148412, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412385

RESUMO

To better manage pesticide pollution in surface soils, we introduced a first-order-kinetics-based screening model to evaluate the steady-state concentrations of pesticides in surface soils while considering degradation, volatilization, plant uptake, and precipitation processes. For each process, we developed a spatiotemporal-pattern-based model using spatiotemporal variables, including air temperature (TA), relative humidity (RHA), and rainfall intensity (IRA), to characterize the overall dissipation rates (kT) of pesticides in the soil. These dissipation rates were converted to fate factors (FFs), which are commonly used in life cycle analyses. The results indicate that, in general, the kT values increase with increasing TA and IRA and decrease with increasing RHA. This is because increased TA boosts the degradation, volatilization, and plant uptake processes, whereas increased RHA lowers the plant transpiration rate. Also, the simulation for over 700 pesticides indicated that the degradation process dominates the overall dissipation of most pesticides in the soil, and the volatilization process contributes the least. In addition, we simulated chlorpyrifos FFs for Brazil, China, the US, and the European Union (EU) using the annual average TA, RHA, and IRA values. The results indicate that, in general, Brazilian federal units have the smallest FFs and the narrowest simulated FF range because of their humid tropical climates. Meanwhile, the EU member states have the largest FFs and the widest FF range because of their range in locations. In addition, our simulated results show that the surface soils in the high-latitude regions could accumulate more chlorpyrifos than those in low-latitude regions because of the larger simulated FFs. Furthermore, we parameterized our model using 737 pesticides with the USEtox, thereby providing an alternative approach to simulate the steady-state concentration of pesticides in surface soils from the USEtox available data. The model developed herein is a useful screening tool for predicting pesticide concentrations in surface soil worldwide to improve soil and ecological health risk management.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Praguicidas/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Volatilização
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148395, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412412

RESUMO

Every year, after grape harvesting, high quantities of vine-canes are generated. Due to the high amount of bioactive compounds present in this woody material, several studies reported their potential to be used in different sustainable applications. However, before employing vine-canes in this kind of products, their safety needs to be assessed. A robust method for identification and quantification of 30 environmental contaminants (12 organochloride pesticides (OCPs), 6 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), 5 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 7 brominated flame retardants (BFRs)) in vine-canes was developed. For that, the extraction and clean-up procedures were optimized, namely the vine-canes size, the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) composition and the amount of carbon used in the dispersive-solid phase extraction (d-SPE). Suitable analytical parameters were obtained: linearity (r2) >0.99 for all the studied compounds and for the solvent and matrix-matched standards; relative standard deviation (RSD) below 14%; and mean recoveries for two spiking levels (10 and 20 µg/kg) between 75 and 103%, excepting for the PCBs that ranged between 59 and 105%. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranged between 0.38 and 1.09 and 1.26 to 3.64 µg/kg, respectively. Regarding the analysis of 19 vine-cane samples, corresponding to four different varieties (Touriga Nacional, Tinta Roriz, Alvarinho, and Loureiro) collected in four different years in the North of Portugal, five contaminants (aldrin, 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB28), and 2,2',4,5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB101)) were detected. However, only α-HCH (5.85 ± 0.32 to 5.99 ± 0.25 µg/kg) and aldrin (2.44 ± 0.15 µg/kg) were quantified above the LOQ. The screening of environmental contaminants in vine-canes is essential to waste valorization, especially if the goal is to apply them in products for human consumption.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Bengala , Fazendas , Humanos , Compostos Organofosforados , Portugal
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444547

RESUMO

Information on knowledge (K), attitude (A), and practice (P) in terms of pesticide use is essential for an effective exposure control program. The objectives of this study were to survey the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice in terms of pesticide use, and the prevalence of acute health symptoms (AHSs) among farmers in Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. The study also tried to identify factors affecting the practice of pesticide use. Data from 680 farmers were collected using a face-to-face interview questionnaire. The relationship between safety practices and related factors was analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. This study found about 40% of the farmers had a good level of practice. Factors affecting practice were education, work experience, level of knowledge, or attitudes. Many participants experienced acute health symptoms in the past 24 h, and these symptoms were significantly associated with poor practice (p < 0.05). Public health organizations should provide farmers with more information, especially on chronic effects of pesticides.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Tailândia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361024

RESUMO

The use of chemicals to boost food production increases as human consumption also increases. The insectidal, nematicidal and acaricidal chemical carbofuran (CAF), is among the highly toxic carbamate pesticide used today. Alongside, copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO) are also used as pesticides due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The overuse of these pesticides may lead to leaching into the aquatic environments and could potentially cause adverse effects to aquatic animals. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of carbofuran and copper oxide nanoparticles into the cardiovascular system of zebrafish and unveil the mechanism behind them. We found that a combination of copper oxide nanoparticle and carbofuran increases cardiac edema in zebrafish larvae and disturbs cardiac rhythm of zebrafish. Furthermore, molecular docking data show that carbofuran inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in silico, thus leading to impair cardiac rhythms. Overall, our data suggest that copper oxide nanoparticle and carbofuran combinations work synergistically to enhance toxicity on the cardiovascular performance of zebrafish larvae.


Assuntos
Carbofurano/toxicidade , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Cobre/toxicidade , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Carbofurano/farmacologia , Cardiotoxicidade , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Theriogenology ; 173: 249-260, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399389

RESUMO

Chlorpyrifos (CPF), as one of the most extensively applied organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in agricultural and domestic settings, causes a potential threat to human and animal health. Various reproductive toxicities of CPF have been reported, however, little information is available on whether CPF exposure could exert toxic effects on mammalian oocytes. Herein, the effects of CPF on the meiotic maturation and developmental capability of porcine oocytes were investigated, and the possible toxic mechanisms of CPF were also explored. Porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were treated with 0, 5, 10, or 20 µM CPF for 44 h during in vitro maturation (IVM), and the results showed that the first polar body (PB1) extrusion rate was significantly decreased, and the subsequent developmental competence of the resulting metaphase II (MII) oocytes was also impaired when the concentration of CPF reached 10 µM. In addition, a higher percentage of CPF-exposed oocytes were arrested at the anaphase-telophase I (ATI) stage, accompanied by misaligned chromosomes and aberrant spindles. Furthermore, higher levels of ROS and upregulated antioxidant-related genes (CAT, SOD1, SOD2, GPX) were detected in CPF-treated oocytes. Additionally, CPF treatment led to the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c). Simultaneously, the apoptotic rate of the oocytes was significantly increased, and the expression levels of Bax and CASPASE3 were significantly upregulated after CFP exposure. Together, exposure to 10 µM CPF can disrupt the meiotic cycle progression, lead to aberrant spindles and mitochondrial dysfunction, which eventually induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in porcine oocytes.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Animais , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Mitocôndrias , Oócitos/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Suínos
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112563, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343900

RESUMO

Although many toxicological evaluations have been conducted for honey bees (Apis mellifera), most of these studies have only focused on the effects of individual chemicals. However, honey bees are usually exposed to pesticide mixtures under field conditions. In this study, we examined the effects of individual pesticides and mixtures of clothianidin (CLO) with eight other pesticides [carbaryl (CAR), thiodicarb (THI), chlorpyrifos (CHL), beta-cyfluthrin (BCY), gamma-cyhalothrin (GCY), tetraconazole (TET), spinosad (SPI) and indoxacarb (IND)] on honey bees using a feeding method. Toxicity tests of a 4-day exposure to individual pesticides revealed that CLO had the highest toxicity to A. mellifera, with an LC50 value of 0.24 µg a.i. mL-1, followed by IND and CHL with LC50 values of 3.40 and 3.56 µg a.i. mL-1, respectively. SPI and CAR had relatively low toxicities, with LC50 values of 7.19 and 8.42 µg a.i. mL-1, respectively. In contrast, TET exhibited the least toxicity, with an LC50 value of 258.7 µg a.i. mL-1. Most binary mixtures of CLO with other pesticides exerted additive and antagonistic effects. However, all the ternary mixtures containing CLO and TET (except for CLO+TET+THD) elicited synergistic responses to bees. Either increased numbers of components in the mixture or/and a unique mode of action appeared to be responsible for the higher toxicity of mixtures. Our findings emphasized the need for risk assessment of pesticide mixtures rather than the individual chemicals. Our data also provided information that might help growers avoid increased toxicity and unnecessary injury to pollinators.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Abelhas , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Tiazóis
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112591, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364123

RESUMO

As a new type of environmental pollutant, microplastics (MPs) can adsorb residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soil and pose a severe threat to the soil ecosystems. To understand the interaction between soil MPs and OCPs, the sorption of two kinds of OCPs, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), on polyethylene (PE) microplastics in soil suspension was studied through sorption kinetics and isotherm models. The effects of solution/soil ratio and MPs diameter on sorption were examined. The kinetic experiment results show that the sorption equilibrium was 12 h, and the sorption process of OCPs on MPs can be well described by a pseudo-second-order model. The Freundlich model (R2 = 0.942-0.997) provides a better fit to the sorption isotherm data than the Langmuir model (R2 = 0.062-0.634), indicating that the sorption process takes place on the nonuniform surface of MPs. The MPs had a good sorption effect on OCPs when the solution/soil ratio was from 75:1 to 100:1. As the diameter of MPs increases, the sorption capacity decreases. These results provide support for further research on microplastic pollution in soil.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Adsorção , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Polietileno , Solo
20.
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