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1.
Food Chem ; 399: 133958, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027812

RESUMO

The aim of study was to optimize an QuEChERS extraction procedure for simultaneous determination of organic pollutants in aquaculture products. The QuEChERS extracts were measured using LC-HRMS. The target contaminants include 32 pesticides and 20 pharmaceuticals which have not been regulated for the products in Korea. The method was validated according to CODEX guideline (CAC/GL 71-2009). LOD and LOQ for all analytes ranged from 0.1 to 2 µg/kg and from 0.5 to 5 µg/kg, respectively. Intra-day (n = 5) and inter-day (n = 9) accuracy and precision were evaluated with the guideline. The validated method was applied to aquaculture products (n = 303). As a result, 14 pesticides and 8 pharmaceuticals were quantified. Fluxapyroxad, a fungicide frequently detected in domestic surface waters, was found with relatively higher concentration in 17 out of 23 species. It proves that a hydrophobic inland contaminant can be accumulated in the aquaculture products.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Aquicultura , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
2.
Food Chem ; 399: 134008, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037693

RESUMO

The Tyndall Effect assay (TEA) has been applied into colorimetric metal ion detection since 2019. However, the TEA-based sensor for pesticide detection has never been reported till now. Herein, a facile fluorescent organic nanoparticle (FON)-based sensor is firstly developed for fluorine-containing pesticide detection through ratiometric fluorescence assay (FLA) and TEA. For FLA, the intensity of the second-order Tyndall scattering peak (STS590nm) and the fluorescence peak of the FON-based sensor would increase and remain unchanged respectively when adding bifenthrin, flufenoxuron, and diflubenzuron. The detection limits were respectively 9.34, 6.91, and 3.60 µg/kg. For TEA, the increased STS590nm intensity displayed a bright and visible light beam. An economical, simple, and portable device was then constructed to visually monitor the analytes. The sensor was successfully used to detect the analytes in teas through FLA and TEA with the recoveries and RSD ranging from 86.27-100.00 %, and 0.00-5.68 %, respectively.


Assuntos
Diflubenzuron , Nanopartículas , Praguicidas , Corantes Fluorescentes , Fluoretos , Flúor , Compostos de Fenilureia , Piretrinas , Chá
3.
Food Chem ; 400: 134049, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067689

RESUMO

Novel insecticide cyetpyrafen is frequently used in various crops, however, knowledge of its fate in crops and environments is largely unexplored. In this study, an effective method was firstly established for simultaneous determination of cyetpyrafen and its metabolites (M-309 and M-391) in 13 matrices (e.g., plants and soils) to explore their fate. Mean recoveries of the three compounds ranged from 73.1 % to 118.7 % with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 17.9 %. Further, after 28 days of exposure in a field soil-strawberry system, cyetpyrafen and M-309 exhibited great accumulations in strawberry leaves by foliar spray while both compounds were predominately accumulated in roots by root irrigation, where cyetpyrafen was poorly translocated within plant. An equal amount of M-309 was measured in both strawberry plants and soils indicates the extensive transformation of cyetpyrafen in soil-strawberry system. Therefore, metabolism of cyetpyrafen in foods need to be considered for its better risk assessment.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Praguicidas/análise , Solo , Água/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 400: 134075, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075171

RESUMO

On-field detection of pesticide residue in complex-food matrices is a challenge when it comes to analytical detection involving multistep extraction and purification. In this study, we test the feasibility of an electrochemical portable device for detection of spiked pesticides Glyphosate (Glyp) and Chlorpyrifos (Chlp) in low-fat and high-fat food matrix. The immunoassay based two-plex sensing platform was fabricated using respective antibody glyphosate on one side and chlorpyrifos antibody on other side. The sensor response was tested using non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which showed a linear response in Glyp/Chlp concentrations from 0.3 ng/mL to 243 ng/mL with limit of detection 1 ng/mL for low fat and 1 ng/mL to 243 ng/mL with LOD 1 ng/mL for high-fat matrix respectively. The laboratory-based benchtop data was then compared with portable device for feasibility of application as portable device. Such electrochemical portable sensing approach can be a future commercial field testing tool.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Clorpirifos , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Clorpirifos/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Imunoensaio/métodos , Praguicidas/análise
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248842, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339343

RESUMO

Abstract Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


Resumo Os níveis de atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) podem ser usados ​​como um indicador para a inibição da AChE devido ao envenenamento por pesticidas em espécies de aves. Avaliamos o nível de atividade comparativa da colinesterase cerebral (AChE) de cinco espécies de aves que habitam áreas cultivadas expostas a pesticidas e Área Protegida, ou seja, Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber, usando um método espectrofotométrico. Os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 56,3 a 85,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando DVNP. No entanto, os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 27,6 a 79,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando áreas de cultivo. Os níveis de atividade de AChE observados no tagarela da selva, tagarela comum e bulbul vermelho exalado mostraram diferenças significativas (P < 0,05) em dois locais. No entanto, alvéola branca e drongo preto demonstraram diferenças não significativas (P > 0,05). A inibição máxima foi registrada no tagarela da selva (53%), seguido pelo tagarela comum (35%), bulbul vermelho (18%), alvéola branca (15%) e drongo preto (7%). Os níveis de inibição da colinesterase cerebral nos ecossistemas subprotegidos (DVNP, Bhimber) e na paisagem agrícola sugerem contaminação por inseticida e seu impacto na diversidade da avifauna. O estudo também enfatiza a importância das zonas livres de pesticidas para proteger a biodiversidade das aves.


Assuntos
Animais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Paquistão , Acetilcolinesterase , Aves , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Produtos Agrícolas
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248910, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339342

RESUMO

Abstract This study determines the associations among serum lipid profiles, risk of cardiovascular disease, and persistent organic pollutants. Using Gas chromatography technique, the intensity of toxic pollutant residues in serum samples of Hypertensive patients were measured. Based on statistical analysis, the effects of different covariates namely pesticides, age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and lipid profile duration was checked using the logistic regression model. Statistical computation was performed on SPSS 22.0. The P-values of F-Statistic for each lipid profile class are greater than 0.01 (1%), therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis for all cases. The estimated coefficients, their standard errors, Wald Statistic, and odds ratio of the binary logistic regression model for different lipid profile parameters indicate if pesticides increase then the logit value of different lipid profile parameters changes from -0.46 to -0.246 except LDL which increases by 0.135. The study reports a significantly increased threat of cardiovascular disease with increased concentrations of toxic pollutants.


Resumo Este estudo determina as associações entre o perfil lipídico sérico, o risco de doença cardiovascular e os poluentes orgânicos persistentes. Por meio da técnica de cromatografia gasosa, mediu-se a intensidade dos resíduos de poluentes tóxicos em amostras de soro de pacientes hipertensos. Com base na análise estatística, os efeitos de diferentes covariáveis ​​- ou seja, pesticidas, idade, pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica e duração do perfil lipídico - foram verificados usando o modelo de regressão logística. O cálculo estatístico foi realizado no SPSS 22.0. Os valores P da estatística F para cada classe de perfil lipídico são maiores que 0,01 (1%), portanto não podemos rejeitar a hipótese nula para todos os casos. Os coeficientes estimados, seus erros padrão, estatística de Wald e odds ratio do modelo de regressão logística binária para diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico indicam se os pesticidas aumentam, então o valor logit de diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico muda de -0,46 para -0,246, exceto LDL, que aumenta em 0,135. O estudo relata um aumento significativo da ameaça de doença cardiovascular com aumento das concentrações de poluentes tóxicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Praguicidas , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Lipídeos , Lipoproteínas
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 957774, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091511

RESUMO

Inappropriate use of pesticides followed by unsafe handling practices to control the insect infestation among the farming groups in developing countries has resulted in a high exposure risk. The use of personal protective equipment is also negligible among Indian farmers due to their affordability to access the same. Very little research has been conducted to establish an exposure assessment procedure through dermal penetration of pesticide residues. Therefore, to quantify the contamination of pesticide residues through dermal exposure along with detailed field observations and pesticide management practices, a field study was conducted in Rangareddy district, Telangana, Southern India, to assess the dermal exposure based on dosimeter and hand washing methods. The analytical method was modified and validated in-house for performance parameters such as limit of detection, quantification, linear range, recovery, and precision. The potential dermal exposure values ranged from 0.15 to 13.45 µg, while a reduction was found in exposure levels as actual dermal exposure values ranged from 0 to 0.629 µg. Contamination through hand washing was the major contributor to overall dermal exposure. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in the exposed dermal regions of the leg and torso after the use of PPE. Penetration factor for each anatomical region and risk evaluation in terms of the Margin of Safety implies unsafe handling of pesticides. The findings of the present study confirm the increased exposure to organophosphate pesticides among operators and highlight the importance of the use of protective measures, especially among those that focus on dermal exposure mitigation.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Fazendeiros , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Dosímetros de Radiação
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 439: 129677, 2022 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104905

RESUMO

Vanisulfane is a novel plant antiviral agent with promising prospects to prevent and control viral crop diseases. However, human health risk assessment after vanisulfane exposure from animal-derived food products remains limited. To gain insight into the accumulation and biotransformation of vanisulfane in livestock, laying hens were dietary exposed to 14C-vanisulfane. Although more than 80 % of the applied dose was observed in the excreta, vanisulfane and its metabolites accumulated in tissues, especially the liver and kidney, and was found to be transferred to eggs. A total of eight metabolites associated with both phase I and phase II metabolism were identified via 14C tracing and LC-QTOF-MS. Phase I metabolism included oxidation, hydroxylation, dechlorination and demethylation, and phase II metabolism was associated with sulfonic acid and glucuronide conjugation. The high percentages of metabolites in laying hens' tissues and organs, illustrated the active biotransformation of vanisulfane in vivo, which suggests that the marker residues of vanisulfane should consider its major metabolites. A digestive model was also used to determine the digestive fate of vanisulfane. This study improves our understanding of vanisulfane accumulation and biotransformation in laying hens, which will be helpful for risk assessments of foods derived from animals exposed to pesticides.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética , Praguicidas , Animais , Benzaldeídos , Biotransformação , Galinhas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Praguicidas/metabolismo
9.
J Mol Model ; 28(10): 316, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107268

RESUMO

Environmental contamination by pesticides is a recurrent problem, and a way to minimize its impacts and provide the reduction of contaminants already in the environment is a challenge. In this context, porous materials such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained prominence. MOFs can carry the pesticide when physically or chemically interacting with its pore sites, enabling pesticide capture. However, evaluating the best MOF to maximize the process is an important step that can be performed under computer simulation. This work used grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to assess the interaction between glyphosate, atrazine, acephate, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane pesticides with the structures of IRMOF-1, IRMOF-8, IRMOF-10, and IRMOF-16. These MOFs present several organic unit types, which generate different pore volumes with similar chemical environment. For glyphosate, atrazine, and acephate, a direct relationship was shown between the pore volume and the amount of captured pesticide, which is a direct contribution from the strong interaction between the pesticides. Higher pore volumes maximize glyphosate, atrazine, and acephate capture. Otherwise, for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, the larger the pore volume, the smaller the amount of pesticide is loaded. The interaction between all pesticides and IRMOFs is mainly governed by van der Waals contribution, being more pronounced for glyphosate, atrazine, and acephate molecules.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Praguicidas , Simulação por Computador , Eletrônica , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Compostos Organotiofosforados , Fosforamidas
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 790, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107257

RESUMO

For decades, we have observed a major biodiversity crisis impacting all taxa. Avian species have been particularly well monitored over the long term, documenting their declines. In particular, farmland birds are decreasing worldwide, but the contribution of pesticides to their decline remains controversial. Most studies addressing the effects of agrochemicals are limited to their assessment under controlled laboratory conditions, the determination of lethal dose 50 (LD50) values and testing in a few species, most belonging to Galliformes. They often ignore the high interspecies variability in sensitivity, delayed sublethal effects on the physiology, behaviour and life-history traits of individuals and their consequences at the population and community levels. Most importantly, they have entirely neglected to test for the multiple exposure pathways to which individuals are subjected in the field (cocktail effects). The present review aims to provide a comprehensive overview for ecologists, evolutionary ecologists and conservationists. We aimed to compile the literature on the effects of pesticides on bird physiology, behaviour and life-history traits, collecting evidence from model and wild species and from field and lab experiments to highlight the gaps that remain to be filled. We show how subtle nonlethal exposure might be pernicious, with major consequences for bird populations and communities. We finally propose several prospective guidelines for future studies that may be considered to meet urgent needs.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Humanos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
J Int Med Res ; 50(9): 3000605221121965, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorfenapyr is a widely used pesticide and is classified as moderately hazardous to human health. Ingestion usually leads to mortality in humans. However, chlorfenapyr toxicity has a variable course and mechanism of action.Case presentation: We report the case of a 79-year-old female who ingested chlorfenapyr with the intent to commit suicide. The liquid was ingested 2 hours before she was brought to our emergency department. Gastric lavage was immediately performed. On admission, laboratory examinations revealed mildly elevated liver enzyme and creatinine kinase levels. Acute fever occurred on day 7; on day 8, the patient died of progressive respiratory distress and conscious disturbance. Chlorfenapyr toxicity leads to high rates of mortality (75%) and causes damage to the liver and the nervous system. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to observe patients with chlorfenapyr toxicity for 3 weeks because no significant abnormalities occur in the early phase. The onset of fever and deterioration of consciousness is a warning sign of a sudden fatal outcome. We review the literature and discuss neurologic and cardiopulmonary impairment in the clinical course of chlorfenapyr poisoning.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Piretrinas , Idoso , Creatinina , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Piretrinas/farmacologia
12.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(9): 97001, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of contaminants in cannabis presents a potential health hazard to recreational users and susceptible patients with medical conditions. Because of the federally illegal status of cannabis, there are no unified regulatory guidelines mitigating the public health risk of cannabis contaminants. OBJECTIVE: To inform further research and provide solutions to the public health risk of cannabis contaminants at a national level, we examined the current landscape of state-level contaminant regulations, and cannabis contaminants of concern, as well as patient populations susceptible to contaminants. METHODS: We examined the regulatory documents for medical and recreational cannabis in all legalized U.S. jurisdictions and compiled a complete list of regulated contaminants, namely, pesticides, inorganics, solvents, microbes, and mycotoxins. We data mined the compliance testing records of 5,654 cured flower and 3,760 extract samples that accounted for ∼6% of California's legal cannabis production in 2020-2021. We also reviewed the publicly available medical cannabis use reports to tabulate the susceptible patient populations. RESULTS: As of 18 May 2022, 36 states and the District of Columbia listed a total of 679 cannabis contaminants as regulated in medical or recreational cannabis, including 551 pesticides, 74 solvents, 12 inorganics, 21 microbes, 5 mycotoxins, and 16 other contaminants. Different jurisdictions showed significant variations in regulated contaminants and action levels ranging up to four orders of magnitude. A failure rate of 2.3% was identified for flowers and 9.2% for extracts in the California samples. Insecticides and fungicides were the most prevalent categories of detected contaminants, with boscalid and chlorpyrifos being the most common. The contaminant concentrations fell below the regulatory action levels in many legalized jurisdictions, indicating a higher risk of contaminant exposure. Cannabis use reports indicated usage in several patient populations susceptible to contamination toxicity, including cancer (44,318) and seizure (21,195) patients. DISCUSSION: Although individual jurisdictions can implement their policies and regulations for legalized cannabis, this study demonstrates the urgent need to mitigate the public health risk of cannabis contamination by introducing national-level guidelines based on conventional risk assessment methodologies and knowledge of patients' susceptibility in medical use. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP11206.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Micotoxinas , Praguicidas , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Solventes
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15578, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114367

RESUMO

Acute intoxication with diazinon (DZN) as a pesticide causes mortality and morbidity annually. This study shows the impact of sub-acute toxicity of DZN 20 mg/kg and the protective activities of chrysin (CH) as a flavone under the flavonoids family (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) were assessed on BALB/c mouse immune system. The changes in morphological and functional properties of the immune system on thymus, spleen and liver histopathology, sub-populations of T lymphocytes, cytokines levels, transcription factors, complement function, phagocytosis, specific and total antibody productions were considered. The histopathological effects of DZN on the spleen and thymus were not significant, but the liver was damaged remarkably. In the presence of CH, the toxic effect of DZN is suppressed. DZN significantly decreased the number of whole blood TCD4+, TCD8+ and NK cells and suppressed the phagocytosis, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to sheep red blood cell (SRBC). Furthermore, it suppressed specific anti-SRBC-Ab, total IgG and IgM production, T-bet expression, and IFN-γ production. In contrast, DZN did not significantly affect complement function and the number of NK cells, TCD4+ and TCD8+ splenocytes. However, it potentiated the expression of GATA-3, ROR-γt and FOXP3 gene expression and consequently produced IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-ß in whole blood. CH not only significantly increased the variables mentioned above at 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg but also could overcome the toxic effects of DZN on whole blood lymphocyte sub-populations and specific and total Ab production in 25 and 50 mg/kg concentrations, phagocytosis and DTH responses in 50 mg/kg, and modulation of the transcription factors and cytokine production, mainly in 25 and 50 mg/kg. In conclusion, DZN in sub-acute doses could remarkably deteriorate immune responses. However, CH can overcome the toxic effects of DZN on the immune components and functions of the immune system.


Assuntos
Flavonas , Praguicidas , Animais , Diazinon/toxicidade , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-17 , Interleucina-4 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares , Ovinos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta
14.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 9408535, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105633

RESUMO

Pesticides are chemicals used to eradicate pests. Not only are they used for plant protection and livestock in agriculture, but they are also used in public areas to kill mosquitoes, cockroaches, and other pests. Approximately 95% of the pesticides produced are only used in agriculture for crop protection. Every country wants to increase crop production. To protect their crops from pests, farmers must use pesticides. Exposure to pesticides is increasing day by day, whether occupationally or environmentally. This has resulted in an increase in crop production, but it has numerous adverse effects on human health, animal health, and the environment. Farmers repeatedly use the same pesticides on their crops, which is detrimental to human health and the environment. In this research, according to authors, the repetition of pesticides in agriculture is controlled using adjuvant and machine learning algorithms. An adjuvant is a chemical agent that is inserted within the pesticide product for enhanced pesticide performance. By utilizing an algorithm for machine learning, it is no longer necessary to repeatedly spray the same pesticide over the entire crop field in order to determine which sections of the crop field still require repeated pesticide spraying. In this research, the authors predict that 72.5% of insecticides are used in India. Logical regression classification, polynomial regression, and K-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN) are applied to detect this required field.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/análise , Plantas
15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(18): 5973-5986, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063179

RESUMO

Carbamate pesticides are widely used in the environment, and compared with other pesticides in nature, they are easier to decompose and have less durability. However, due to the improper use of carbamate pesticides, some nontarget organisms still may be harmed. To this end, it is necessary to investigate effective removal or elimination methods for carbamate pesticides. Current effective elimination methods could be divided into four categories: physical removal, chemical reaction, biological degradation, and enzymatic degradation. Physical removal primarily includes elution, adsorption, and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical reaction includes Fenton oxidation, photo-radiation, and net electron reduction. Biological degradation is an environmental-friendly manner, which achieves degradation by the metabolism of microorganisms. Enzymatic degradation is more promising due to its high substrate specificity and catalytic efficacy. All in all, this review primarily summarizes the property of carbamate pesticides and the traditional degradation methods as well as the promising biological elimination. KEY POINTS: • The occurrence and toxicity of carbamate pesticides were shown. • Biological degradation strains against carbamate pesticides were presented. • Promising enzymes responsible for the degradation of carbamates were discussed.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Adsorção , Carbamatos/química , Carbamatos/metabolismo , Catálise , Praguicidas/metabolismo
16.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(7): 660-668, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098173

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The use of entomopathogenic agents for crop pest management is a viable alternative to synthetic chemical pesticides. <i>Beauveria bassiana</i> (Bals.) and <i>Metarhizium anisopliae</i> (Metsch.) are fungi considered the most promising extensively widely applied bio-control agents in protecting a wide range of economic crops. Fungal toxins are thought to play a crucial part in the pathogenicity process during insect infestation. The bioinsecticides' synergy could help to control the invasive pest more safely and effectively. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Suspensions of Beauveroz (<i>Beauveria</i> <i>bassiana</i>) and Metarhoz-P (<i>Metarhizium anisopliae</i>), were evaluated as to their virulence against <i>T.</i> <i>absoluta</i> larvae at 3 different doses. As a comparison, Abamectin was utilized as a positive control, while water was used as a negative control. <b>Results:</b> All the commercial compounds caused significant mortality among <i>T.</i> <i>absoluta</i> larvae, with approximately 52% mortality after 5 days of the treatment. Over 5 days, mortality of <i>T.</i> <i>absoluta</i> larvae when exposed to a combined treatment of <i>B.</i> <i>bassiana</i>, <i>M.</i> <i>anisopliae</i> and Abamectin reached 92%. The results under field conditions, showed significant differences (p<0.001) among these products while adding the surfactants increased the mortality larvae. Combined treatments of these 3 commercial compounds showed a synergistic effect acceded the effect obtained using each compound alone. Bio-pesticides, <i>B.</i> <i>bassiana</i> and <i>M.</i> <i>anisopliae</i> formulations caused mortality rates among <i>T.</i> <i>absoluta</i> larvae similar to the Abamectin treatment. <b>Conclusion:</b> Observations indicated that both fungus candidates and Abamectin proved effective against <i>T. absoluta</i> larvae. The combined use showed a high potentiality indicating a positive synergistic effect.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Lepidópteros , Metarhizium , Praguicidas , Animais , Larva , Lepidópteros/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(36): 41337-41347, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053529

RESUMO

A strategy that relies on the differences in feeding behavior between pests and natural enemies to deliver insecticides precisely was proposed. After proving that the digestive enzymes in Lepidopteran pests can act as triggers for lignin-based controlled-release carriers, a novel multiple-enzyme-responsive lignin/polysaccharide/Fe nanocarrier was constructed by combining the electrostatic self-assembly and chelation and loaded with lambda-cyhalothrin (LC) to form a nanocapsule suspension loading system. The nanocapsules were LC@sodium lignosulfonate/chitosan/Fe (LC@SL/CS/Fe) and LC@sodium lignosulfonate/alkyl polyglycoside quaternary ammonium salt/Fe (LC@SL/APQAS/Fe). LC@SL/APQAS/Fe was more stable than LC@SL/CS/Fe because it adsorbs more Fe3+, and the half-lives of LC in LC@SL/APQAS/Fe under UV irradiation were prolonged at 4.02- and 6.03-folds than those of LC@SL/CS/Fe and LC emulsifiable concentrate (LC EC), respectively. Both LC@SL/APQAS/Fe and LC@SL/CS/Fe have responsive release functions to laccase and cellulase, and the release rate of the former was slower. The insecticidal activity of LC@SL/APQAS/Fe against Agrotis ipsilonis was similar to those of LC@SL/CS/Fe and LC EC, while the toxicity of LC@SL/APQAS/Fe to the natural enemy was 2-3 times less than those of LC@SL/CS/Fe and LC EC. Meanwhile, the organic solvent component in the nanocapsule suspension was 94% less than that in the EC preparation. Therefore, the nano loading system based on SL/APQAS/Fe is a promising nanoplatform with the advantages of high efficiency, low toxicity, and environmental friendliness.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Inseticidas , Nanocápsulas , Praguicidas , Lignina , Nitrilas , Piretrinas , Sódio
18.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(10): 375, 2022 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074197

RESUMO

A simple and sensitive colorimetric assay for detecting organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was developed based on 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)-tetramethyl zinc (4-pyridinyl) porphyrin (ZnTPyP). In this system, based on the peroxidase-like activity of DTAB-ZnTPyP, H2O2 decomposes to produce hydroxyl radicals, which oxidize TMB, resulting in blue oxidation products. The OPs (trichlorfon, dichlorvos, and thimet) were first combined with DTAB-ZnTPyP through electrostatic interactions. The OPs caused a decrease in the peroxidase-like activity of DTAB-ZnTPyP due to spatial site blocking. At the same time, π-interactions occurred between them, and these interactions also inhibited the oxidation of TMB (652 nm), thus making the detection of OPs possible. The limits of detection for trichlorfon, dichlorvos, and thimet were 0.25, 1.02, and 0.66 µg/L, respectively, and the corresponding linear ranges were 1-35, 5-45, and 1-40 µg/L, respectively. Moreover, the assay was successfully used to determine OPs in cabbage, apple, soil, and traditional Chinese medicine samples (the recovery ratios were 91.8-109.8%), showing a great promising potential for detecting OPs also in other complex samples.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Porfirinas , Brometos , Colorimetria/métodos , Diclorvós , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Metaloporfirinas , Compostos Organofosforados , Peroxidases , Praguicidas/análise , Triclorfon , Zinco , Compostos de Zinco
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078202

RESUMO

Mancozeb (MNZ) is a fungicide commonly employed in many countries worldwide. This study assesses MNZ absorption dynamics in 19 greenhouse farmers, specifically following dermal exposure, aiming to verify the efficacy of both preventive actions and protective equipment. For data collection, a multi-assessment approach was used, which included a survey to record study population features. MNZ exposure was assessed through the indirect measurement of ethylene thiourea (ETU), widely employed as an MNZ biomarker. The ETU concentration was measured with the patch method, detecting environmental ETU trapped in filter paper pads, applied both on skin and working clothes, during the 8 h work shift. Urine and serum end-of-shift samples were also collected to measure ETU concentrations and well-known oxidative stress biomarkers, respectively, namely reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP). It was observed that levels of ETU absorbed and ETU excreted were positively correlated. Additionally, working clothes effectively protected workers from MNZ exposure. Moreover, following stratification of the samples based on the specific working duty (i.e., preparation and spreading of MNZ and manipulation of MNZ-treated seedlings), it was found that the spreading group had higher ETU-related risk, despite lower chronic exposure levels. AOPP and ROM serum levels were higher in MNZ-exposed subjects compared with non-exposed controls, whereas BAP levels were significantly lower. Such results support an increase in the oxidative stress upon 8 h MNZ exposure at work. In particular, AOPP levels demonstrated a potential predictive role, as suggested by the contingency analysis results. Overall, this study, although conducted in a small group, confirms that ETU detection in pads, as well as in urine, might enable assessment of the risk associated with MNZ exposure in greenhouse workers. Additionally, the measurement of circulating oxidative stress biomarkers might help to stratify exposed workers based on their sensitivity to MNZ. Pivotally, the combination of both ETU measurement and biological monitoring might represent a novel valuable combined approach for risk assessment in farmhouse workers exposed to pesticides. In the future, these observations will help to implement effective preventive strategies in the workplace for workers at higher risk, including greenhouse farmers who are exposed to pesticides daily, as well as to clarify the occupational exposure levels to ETU.


Assuntos
Etilenotioureia , Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Produtos da Oxidação Avançada de Proteínas/metabolismo , Produtos da Oxidação Avançada de Proteínas/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Etilenotioureia/análise , Etilenotioureia/metabolismo , Etilenotioureia/farmacologia , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Maneb , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Praguicidas/análise , Zineb
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078273

RESUMO

This study explores the incidence and trend of zoonoses in China and its relationship with environmental health and proposes suggestions for promoting the long-term sustainable development of human, animal, and environmental systems. The incidence of malaria was selected as the dependent variable, and the consumption of agricultural diesel oil and pesticides and investment in lavatory sanitation improvement in rural areas were selected as independent variables according to the characteristics of nonpoint source pollution and domestic pollution in China's rural areas. By employing a fixed effects regression model, the results indicated that the use of pesticides was negatively associated with the incidence of malaria, continuous investment in rural toilet improvement, and an increase in economic income can play a positive role in the prevention and control of malaria incidence. Guided by the theory of One Health, this study verifies human, animal, and environmental health as a combination of mutual restriction and influence, discusses the complex causal relationship among the three, and provides evidence for sustainable development and integrated governance.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos , Saneamento
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