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1.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 146: 109418, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301811

RESUMO

The rice fish system represents an innovative and sustainable approach to integrated farming, combining rice cultivation with fish rearing in the same ecosystem. However, one of the major challenges in this system is the pesticidal pollution resulting from various sources, which poses risks to fish health and overall ecosystem balance. In recent years, dietary polyphenols have emerged as promising bioactive compounds with potential chemo-preventive and therapeutic properties. These polyphenols, derived from various plant sources, have shown great potential in reducing the toxicity of pesticides and improving the health of fish within the rice fish system. This review aims to explore the novel aspects of using dietary polyphenols to mitigate pesticidal toxicity and enhance fish health in the rice fish system. It provides comprehensive insights into the mechanisms of action of dietary polyphenols and their beneficial effects on fish health, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and detoxification properties. Furthermore, the review discusses the potential application methods of dietary polyphenols, such as direct supplementation in fish diets or through incorporation into the rice fields. By understanding the interplay between dietary polyphenols and pesticides in the rice fish system, researchers can develop innovative and sustainable strategies to promote fish health, minimize pesticide impacts, and ensure the long-term viability of this integrated farming approach. The information presented in this review will be valuable for scientists, aqua-culturists, and policymakers aiming to implement eco-friendly and health-enhancing practices in the rice fish system.


Assuntos
Oryza , Praguicidas , Animais , Ecossistema , Agricultura/métodos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/análise , Peixes , Polifenóis/farmacologia
2.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338305

RESUMO

Pesticides have become an integral part of modern agricultural practices, but their widespread use poses a significant threat to human health. As such, there is a pressing need to develop effective methods for detecting pesticides in food and environmental samples. Traditional chromatography methods and common rapid detection methods cannot satisfy accuracy, portability, long storage time, and solution stability at the same time. In recent years, photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing technology has gained attention as a promising approach for detecting various pesticides due to its salient advantages, including high sensitivity, low cost, simple operation, fast response, and easy miniaturization, thus becoming a competitive candidate for real-time and on-site monitoring of pesticide levels. This review provides an overview of the recent advancements in PEC methods for pesticide detection and their applications in ensuring food and environmental safety, with a focus on the categories of photoactive materials, from single semiconductor to semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunction, and signaling mechanisms of PEC sensing platforms, including oxidation of pesticides, steric hindrance, generation/decrease in sacrificial agents, and introduction/release of photoactive materials. Additionally, this review will offer insights into future prospects and confrontations, thereby contributing novel perspectives to this evolving domain.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Praguicidas , Humanos , Praguicidas/análise , Oxirredução , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338986

RESUMO

Root knot nematodes cause serious damage to global agricultural production annually. Given that traditional chemical fumigant nematicides are harmful to non-target organisms and the environment, the development of biocontrol strategies has attracted significant attention in recent years. In this study, it was found that the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner strain NBIN-863 exhibits strong fumigant nematicidal activity and has a high attraction effect on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. Four volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by NBIN-863 were identified using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The nematicidal activity of four VOCs, namely, N-methylformamide, propenamide, 3-(methylthio)propionic acid, and phenylmalonic acid, was detected. Among these compounds, 3-(methylthio)propionic acid exhibited the highest direct contact nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with an LC50 value of 6.27 µg/mL at 24 h. In the fumigant bioassay, the mortality rate of M. incognita treated with 1 mg/mL of 3-(methylthio)propionic acid for 24 h increased to 69.93%. Furthermore, 3-(methylthio)propionic acid also exhibited an inhibitory effect on the egg-hatching of M. incognita. Using chemotaxis assays, it was determined that 3-(methylthio)propionic acid was highly attractive to M. incognita. In pot experiments, the application of 3-(methylthio)propionic acid resulted in a reduction in gall numbers, decreasing the number of galls per gram of tomato root from 97.58 to 6.97. Additionally, the root length and plant height of the treated plants showed significant increases in comparison with the control group. The current study suggests that 3-(methylthio)propionic acid is a novel nematicidal virulence factor of B. thuringiensis. Our research provides evidence for the potential use of NBIN-863 or its VOCs in biocontrol against root knot nematodes.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Praguicidas , Propionatos , Tylenchoidea , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
4.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(2): 68, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342781

RESUMO

These days, the presence of pesticide residues in drinking water sources is a serious concern. In drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), various methods have been proposed to remove pesticide residues. This study was designed with the objectives of monitoring the occurrence and seasonal variations of pesticides in the output of drinking water treatment plants in two Northern provinces of Iran, Gilan and Golestan, and identifying their human health risks. Seventeen pesticide residues from different chemical structures were determined by using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results showed that only Alachlor, Diazinon, Fenitrothion, Malathion, and Chlorpyrifos were detected. The pesticide concentrations ranged from ND to 405.3 ng/L and were higher in the first half-year period. The total non-carcinogenic human health risks was in safe range for infants, children, and adults (HI < 1). The carcinogenic human health risks of Alachlor for infants, children, and adults were in the range of 4.3 × 10-7 to 1.3 × 10-6, 2.0 × 10-7 to 9.6 × 10-7, and 1.1 × 10-7 to 5.5 × 10-7, respectively. These values do not pose health risks for adults and children, but may present a possible cancer risk for infants in two DWTPs of Golestan. In conclusion, considering the possibility of exposure to these pesticides through other routes, simultaneously, it is suggested to carry out a study that examines the level of risk by considering all exposure routes. We also propose stricter regulations for the sale and use of pesticides in Iran.


Assuntos
Acetamidas , Água Potável , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Irã (Geográfico) , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco
5.
Environ Int ; 184: 108485, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pesticides cause a wide range of deleterious health effects, including metabolic disorders. Little is known about the effects of dietary pesticide exposure on body weight (BW) change in the general population. We aimed to investigate the role of dietary pesticide exposure in BW change among NutriNet-Santé participants, focusing on potential sexual dimorphism. METHODS: Participants completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire (2014), assessing conventional and organic food consumption. Dietary exposure from plant foods of 25 commonly used pesticides was estimated using a residue database, accounting for agricultural practices (conventional and organic). Exposure profiles based on dietary patterns were computed using Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). Mixed models were used to estimate the associations between BW change and exposure to pesticide mixtures, overall and after stratification by sex and menopausal status. RESULTS: The final sample included 32,062 participants (8,211 men, 10,637 premenopausal, and 13,214 postmenopausal women). The median (IQR) follow-up was 7.0 (4.4; 8.0) years. Four pesticides profiles were inferred. Overall, men and postmenopausal women lost BW during follow-up, whereas premenopausal women gained BW. Higher exposure to NMF3, reflecting a lower exposure to synthetic pesticides, was associated with a lower BW gain, especially in premenopausal women (ß(95 %CI) = -0.04 (-0.07; 0) kg/year, p = 0.04). Higher exposure to NMF2, highly positively correlated with a mixture of synthetic pesticides (azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorpropham, cyprodinil, difenoconazole, fenhexamid, iprodione, tebuconazole, and lamda-cyhalothrin), was associated with a higher BW loss in men (ß(95 %CI) = -0.05 (-0.08; -0.03) kg/year, p < 0.0001). No associations were observed for NMF1 and 4. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a role of pesticide exposure, inferred from dietary patterns, on BW change, with sexually dimorphic actions, including a potential role of a lower exposure to synthetic pesticides on BW change in women. In men, exposure to a specific pesticide mixture was associated with higher BW loss. The underlying mechanisms need further elucidation.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética , Alimentos Orgânicos , Peso Corporal , Dieta
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3544, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347059

RESUMO

Acute poisonings are a global public health problem, which implies costs and disease burden for society. In Colombia, there is a significant underreporting of data on acute poisoning and data gaps on the toxicological profile of the population. This study aims to identify the epidemiology of acute poisoning in a high-complexity hospital in southwestern Colombia. A descriptive study with retrospective data collection was performed. The variables were expressed through the measure of central tendency and dispersion. Categorical variables were described in proportions. A total of 406 patients were included. The median age was 31 years (IQR 23-48), 56.2% were male, and only 19.2% had a history of mental illness. Suicidal intent represented 58.8% of the cases, and the most frequent route of exposure was the oral route (81.6%). The most prevalent groups of substances were pesticides (34.2%) and medicines (32%). The most common etiological agent was organophosphates (16.5%). Cholinergic toxidrome was the most common. The average stay in the ICU was 4.5 days (± 4.8), and the mortality was 4.2%. The principal causes of acute poisoning were drugs and pesticides, with a predominant etiology of organophosphates and depressants of the central nervous system. There was a significant predominance of young male patients with suicidal intent, low mental disorders, elevated unemployment rate, and similar mortality reported in other studies. This study improves the knowledge about acute poisoning in southwestern Colombian to carry out multicenter analytic studies.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Intoxicação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais Universitários , Organofosfatos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298450, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pesticide poisoning is the main cause of adverse effects and mortality worldwide. Protective measures can reduce the intensity of the effects of pesticides on the health of farmers. Numerous cross-sectional studies have been conducted on the determinants of performing protective measures to reduce exposure to pesticides, but there is no systematic study that comprehensively examines the impact of these factors. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify existing studies on the determinants of effective protective measures to reduce exposure to pesticides among farmers. METHODS: In this systematic review, studies were obtained from PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases using a search strategy that covered articles from the first years of database design to April 20, 2023. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were based on the PICOs criteria. The study included cross-sectional studies that measured the implementation of protective measures using objective or valid subjective tools. The data were extracted and analyzed based on several criteria and ecological levels. The Ecological Model of Health Behavior was used to classify the determinants that affect the performance of protective behaviors. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has developed a quality assessment tool for studies. RESULTS: A total of 39 studies were ultimately selected for inclusion in this analysis. Many of these studies were conducted in developing countries. The most important factors that have an impact on protective measures include a variety of socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, level of education, income, farming experience, experience of using pesticides), individual level (knowledge, attitude, risk perception, intention), interpersonal level (subjective norms), organizational level (education), and public policy level (government attention, health costs, governmental extension services). The quality of most studies was fair. CONCLUSIONS: Research indicates that several factors influence the use of personal protective equipment and safe behaviors when handling pesticides. These include farmers' education level, knowledge, and attitudes towards safety measures. Environmental factors such as access to information, extension services, training programs, and media coverage can also help minimize exposure to pesticides.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Humanos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Fazendeiros , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Agricultura
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170534, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301793

RESUMO

Stormwater ponds frequently receive urban runoff, increasing the likelihood of pesticide contamination. Biofilms growing in surface waters of these ponds are known to accumulate a range of aquatic contaminants, paradoxically providing both water purification services and potentially posing a threat to urban wildlife. Thus, sampling biofilms in stormwater ponds may be a critical and biologically relevant tool for characterizing pesticide contamination and toxicity in urban environments. Here, we aimed to investigate pesticide occurrences at 21 stormwater ponds in Brampton, ON, one of Canada's fastest growing municipalities, and quantify their accumulation in biofilm. Over nine weeks, we collected time-integrated composite water and biofilm samples for analysis of ∼500 current-use and legacy pesticides. Thirty-two pesticide compounds were detected across both matrices, with 2,4-D, MCPA, MCPP, azoxystrobin, bentazon, triclopyr, and diuron having near-ubiquitous occurrences. Several compounds not typically monitored in pesticide suites (e.g., melamine and nicotine) were also detected, but only in biofilms. Overall, 56 % of analytes detected in biofilms were not found in water samples, indicating traditional pesticide monitoring practices fail to capture all exposure routes, as even when pesticides are below detection levels in water, organisms may still be exposed via dietary pathways. Calculated bioconcentration factors ranged from 4.2 to 1275 and were not predicted by standard pesticide physicochemical properties. Monitoring biofilms provides a sensitive and comprehensive supplement to water sampling for pesticide quantification in urban areas, and identifying pesticide occurrences in stormwater could improve source-tracking efforts in the future. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms driving pesticide accumulation, to investigate toxicity risks associated with pesticide-contaminated biofilm, and to evaluate whether pesticide accumulation in stormwater pond biofilms represents a route through which contaminants are mobilized into the surrounding terrestrial and downstream aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Praguicidas/análise , Lagoas/química , Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 917: 170535, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307287

RESUMO

Owing to a wide range of advantages, such as stability, non-invasiveness, and ease of sampling, hair has been used progressively for comprehensive biomonitoring of organic pollutants for the last three decades. This has led to the development of new analytical and multi-class analysis methods for the assessment of a broad range of organic pollutants in various population groups, ranging from small-scale studies to advanced studies with a large number of participants based on different exposure settings. This meta-analysis summarizes the existing literature on the assessment of organic pollutants in hair in terms of residue levels, the correlation of hair residue levels with those of other biological matrices and socio-demographic factors, the reliability of hair versus other biomatrices for exposure assessment, the use of segmental hair analysis for chronic exposure evaluation and the effect of external contamination on hair residue levels. Significantly high concentrations of organic pollutants such as pesticides, flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon were reported in human hair samples from different regions and under different exposure settings. Similarly, high concentrations of pesticides (from agricultural activities), flame retardants (E-waste dismantling activities), dioxins and furans were observed in various occupational settings. Moreover, significant correlations (p < 0.05) for hair and blood concentrations were observed in majority of studies featuring pesticides and flame retardants. While among sociodemographic factors, gender and age significantly affected the hair concentrations in females and children in general exposure settings, whereas adult workers in occupational settings. Furthermore, the assessment of the hair burden of persistent organic pollutants in domestic and wild animals showed high concentrations for pesticides such as HCHs and DDTs whereas the laboratory-based studies using animals demonstrated strong correlations between exposure dose, exposure duration, and measured organic pollutant levels, mainly for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, terbuthylazine, aldrin, dieldrin and pyrethroid metabolites. Considering the critical analysis of the results obtained from literature review, hair is regarded as a reliable matrix for organic pollutant assessment; however, some limitations, as discussed in this review, need to be overcome to reinforce the status of hair as a suitable matrix for exposure assessment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Feminino , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Cabelo/química
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170506, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307285

RESUMO

Groundwater contamination from abandoned pesticide sites is a prevalent issue in China. To address this problem, natural attenuation (NA) of pollutants has been increasingly employed as a management strategy for abandoned pesticide sites. However, limited studies have focused on the long-term NA process of co-existing organic pollutants in abandoned pesticide sites by an integrated approach. In this study, the NA of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), and chlorobenzenes (CBs) in groundwater of a retired industry in China was systematically investigated during the monitoring period from June 2016 to December 2021. The findings revealed that concentrations of BTEX and CBs were effectively reduced, and their NA followed first-order kinetics with different rate constants. The sulfate-reducing bacteria, nitrate-reducing bacteria, fermenting bacteria, aromatic hydrocarbon metabolizing bacteria, and reductive dechlorinating bacteria were detected in groundwater. It was observed that distinct environmental parameters played a role in shaping both overall and key bacterial communities. ORP (14.72%) and BTEX (12.89%) were the main drivers for variations of the whole and key functional microbial community, respectively. Moreover, BTEX accelerated reductive dechlorination. Furthermore, BTEX and CBs exhibited significant enrichment of 13C, ranging from +2.9 to +27.3‰, demonstrating their significance in situ biodegradation. This study provides a scientific basis for site management.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Água Subterrânea , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Benzeno/análise , Tolueno/análise , Xilenos/análise , Clorobenzenos/metabolismo , Praguicidas/análise , Derivados de Benzeno/análise , Isótopos/análise , Bactérias/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170589, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309350

RESUMO

A modelling framework was developed to facilitate a probabilistic assessment of health risks posed by pesticide exposure via drinking water due to runoff, with the inclusion of influential site conditions and in-stream processes. A Monte-Carlo based approach was utilised to account for the inherent variability in pesticide and population properties, as well as site and climatic conditions. The framework presented in this study was developed with an ability to integrate different data sources and adapt the model for various scenarios and locations to meet the users' needs. The results from this model can be used by farm advisors and catchment managers to identify lower risk pesticides for use for given soil and site conditions and implement risk mitigation measures to protect water resources. Pesticide concentrations in surface water, and their risk of regulatory threshold exceedances, were simulated for fifteen pesticides in an Irish case study. The predicted concentrations in surface water were then used to quantify the level of health risk posed to Irish adults and children. The analysis indicated that herbicides triclopyr and MCPA occur in the greatest concentrations in surface water, while mecoprop was associated with the highest potential for health risks. The study found that the modelled pesticides posed little risk to human health under current application patterns and climatic conditions in Ireland using international acceptable intake values. A sensitivity study conducted examined the impact seasonal conditions, timing of application, and instream processes, have on the transport of pesticides to drinking water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Herbicidas , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Criança , Humanos , Praguicidas/análise , Água Potável/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Medição de Risco
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170678, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been related to the risk of endometriosis however the mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to characterize the metabolic profiles underpinning the associations between POPs and endometriosis risk. METHODOLOGY: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in France to recruit women with and without surgically confirmed deep endometriosis. Women's serum was analyzed using gas and liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to measure the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). A comprehensive metabolomic profiling was conducted using targeted HRMS and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) to cover polar and non-polar fractions. A "meet-in-the-middle" statistical framework was applied to identify the metabolites related to endometriosis and POP levels, using multivariate linear and logistic regressions adjusting for confounding variables. RESULTS: Fourteen PCBs, six OCPs and six PFAS were widely found in almost all serum samples. The pesticide trans-nonachlor was the POP most strongly and positively associated with deep endometriosis risk, with odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) of 2.42 (1.49; 4.12), followed by PCB180 and 167. Women with endometriosis exhibited a distinctive metabolic profile, with elevated serum levels of lactate, ketone bodies and multiple amino acids and lower levels of bile acids, phosphatidylcholines (PCs), cortisol and hippuric acid. The metabolite 2-hydroxybutyrate was simultaneously associated to endometriosis risk and exposure to trans-nonachlor. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive metabolome-wide association study of endometriosis, integrating ultra-trace profiling of POPs. The results confirmed a metabolic alteration among women with deep endometriosis that could be also associated to the exposure to POPs. Further observational and experimental studies will be required to delineate the causal ordering of those associations and gain insight on the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorocarbonos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Humanos , Feminino , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Endometriose/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidroxibutiratos , Fluorocarbonos/análise
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(7): 3374-3387, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319593

RESUMO

The conversion of contact-killing pesticides into systemic pesticides can significantly enhance the bioavailability of pesticides, thereby reducing pesticide usage and environmental harm. A series of ß-cyclodextrin fatty acid esters with varying branch chains were synthesized and employed as carriers in nanoformulation of insecticide. The investigation revealed that nanoformulations prepared using ß-cyclodextrin octadecarboxylate (ß-CDs) exhibited superior stability and remarkable systemic translocation within plants. Six contact-killing insecticide nanoformulations were developed utilizing ß-CDs as carriers, and tests indicated that ß-CDs significantly enhanced the systemic translocation of insecticides in plants compared to carrier-free nanoformulations. It was found that ß-CDs increased the level of systemic translocation of insecticides by 5-12 times. Additionally, characterization results from λ-cyhalothrin-ß-CDs nanoformulation demonstrated their superior ability to improve photolysis resistance, prolong release time, and extend insecticidal duration. Consequently, ß-CDs can be utilized as a green additive in pesticide production to enhance the systemic translocation of pesticides in plants and increase their bioavailability.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , beta-Ciclodextrinas
14.
Chem Biodivers ; 21(2): e202301871, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320175

RESUMO

This report informs for the first time the chemical constituents of Diospyros xolocotzii and Diospyros digyna, the pesticidal and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition potential of some compounds calculated by in silico approaches, the larvicidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda of available compounds, the AChE inhibition of selected compounds, and the results of the molecular docking of the most active ones with this receptor. From the aerial parts of D. xolocotzii were isolated pentacyclic triterpenes (1-4, 6, 10, 11-13), phytosterols (15-17), and isodiospyrin (18), whereas the analysis of aerial parts of D. digyna conducted to the isolation of pentacyclic triterpenes (4, 5, 7-9, 11-14), (4S)-shinanolone (19), and scopoletin (20). For comparison purposes, origanal (21) was chemically prepared from 11. The in silico analysis showed that the tested compounds have pesticide potential. The larvicidal activities of 11>13>12 indicated that the increase of the oxidation degree at C-28 increases their bioactivity. Compounds 11 and 21 presented the higher inhibition in the acetylcholinesterase assay, and the higher binding energies, and for the interactionswith AChE by molecular docking. Both Diospyros species are sources of triterpenes with pesticidal potential and the molecular changes in lupane triterpenes correlate with the observed bioactivity and molecular docking.


Assuntos
Diospyros , Praguicidas , Animais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Diospyros/química , Diospyros/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Spodoptera , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos
15.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 38(3): e23660, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356323

RESUMO

The most widespread neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by severe behavioral abnormalities, cognitive and functional impairments. It is inextricably linked with the deposition of amyloid ß (Aß) plaques and tau protein in the brain. Loss of white matter, neurons, synapses, and reactive microgliosis are also frequently observed in patients of AD. Although the causative mechanisms behind the neuropathological alterations in AD are not fully understood, they are likely influenced by hereditary and environmental factors. The etiology and pathogenesis of AD are significantly influenced by the cells of the central nervous system, namely, glial cells and neurons, which are directly engaged in the transmission of electrical signals and the processing of information. Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) can trigger inflammatory responses in glial cells, leading to various cascades of events that contribute to neuroinflammation, neuronal damage, and ultimately, AD pathogenesis. Furthermore, there are striking similarities between the biomarkers associated with AD and OPPs, including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, dysregulation of microRNA, and accumulation of toxic protein aggregates, such as amyloid ß. These shared markers suggest a potential mechanistic link between OPP exposure and AD pathology. In this review, we attempt to address the role of OPPs on altered cell physiology of the brain cells leading to neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress linked with AD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Praguicidas , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Praguicidas/metabolismo
16.
Food Res Int ; 179: 114020, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342520

RESUMO

In the past years, the European Union (EU) has added edible insects to the list of novel foods, allowing an increasing number of insect-based products into the European market. With insects gaining more popularity in the Western world, it is crucial to investigate their chemical food safety. This study aimed at investigating possible isotopic patterns in different edible insect species (n = 52) from Asia, Africa and Europe using stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) to provide a framework for future investigations on food authenticity and traceability. Additionally, complementary mass-spectrometric screening approaches were applied to gain a comprehensive overview of contamination levels of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in edible insects, to assess their chemical food safety. SIRA revealed significant differences between countries in δ13CVPDB- (p < 0.001) and δ15Nair- (p < 0.001) values. While it was not possible to distinguish between individual countries using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminative analysis (LDA), the latter could be used to distinguish between larger geographical areas (i.e. Africa, Europe and Asia). In general, African samples had a more distinct isotopic profile compared to European and Asian samples. When comparing the isotopic compositions of samples containing pesticides with samples with no detected pesticides, differences in sulphur compositions could be observed. Additionally, LDA was able to correctly classify the presence of pesticides in a sample with 76% correct classification based on the sulphur composition. These findings show that SIRA could be a useful tool to provide a framework for future investigations on food authenticity and traceability of edible insects. A total of 26 CUPs were detected using suspect screening and an additional 30 CUPS were quantified using target analysis, out of which 9 compounds had a detection frequency higher than 30%. Most detected pesticides were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) for meat, suggesting low contamination levels. However, dichlorvos and fipronil could be detected in the same order of magnitude as the MRLs, even in samples purchased in Europe. These findings indicate a limited chemical risk for edible insects regarding pesticide contamination. Nevertheless, the study also highlights that further and more extensive investigations are needed to give a comprehensive assessment of the chemical risk of edible insects as a novel food source in Europe. With insects recently being potentially more incorporated into daily diets, more attention should be paid to possible chemical hazards to accurately assess their risk and to ensure food safety.


Assuntos
Insetos Comestíveis , Praguicidas , Animais , Praguicidas/análise , Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Insetos , Enxofre
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 466: 133656, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306832

RESUMO

Pesticides and microplastics (MPs) derived from mulch film in agricultural soil can independently impact soil ecology, yet the consequences of their combined exposure remain unclear. Therefore, the effects of simultaneous exposure to commonly used pesticides (imidacloprid and flumioxazin) and aged mulch film-derived MPs on soil microorganisms and element cycles in cotton fields were investigated. The combined exposure influenced soil microorganisms, alongside processes related to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles, exhibiting effects that were either neutralized or enhanced compared to individual exposures. The impact of pesticides in combined exposure was notably more significant and played a dominant role than that of MPs. Specifically, combined exposure intensified changes in soil bacterial community and symbiotic networks. The combined exposure neutralized NH4+, NO3-, DOC, and A-P contents, shifting from 0.33 % and 40.23 % increase in MPs and pesticides individually to a 40.24 % increase. Moreover, combined exposure resulted in the neutralization or amplification of the nitrogen-fixing gene nifH, nitrifying genes (amoA and amoB), and denitrifying genes (nirS and nirK), the carbon cycle gene cbbLG and the phosphorus cycle gene phoD from 0.48 and 2.57-fold increase to a 2.99-fold increase. The combined exposure also led to the neutralization or enhancement of carbon and nitrogen cycle functional microorganisms, shifting from a 1.53-fold inhibition and 10.52-fold increase to a 6.39-fold increase. These findings provide additional insights into the potential risks associated with combined pesticide exposure and MPs, particularly concerning soil microbial communities and elemental cycling processes.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Praguicidas , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Solo , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Carbono , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 57(1): 73-82, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The unsafe use of pesticides in agriculture represents a major hazard to human health. This study was conducted to investigate the association between pesticide exposure and health symptoms among chili farmers in northeast Thailand. METHODS: This cross-sectional analytic study included 141 chili farmers in Sakon Nakhon Province, in northeast Thailand. Data regarding health symptoms were gathered using a self-report questionnaire. A medical technician tested blood cholinesterase activity using an erythrocyte method, and an occupational medicine specialist at Ramathibodi Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand reviewed the results. Associations between personal characteristics, pesticide exposure factors, and health symptoms were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 141 chili farmers studied, 66.7% experienced pesticide poisoning, as indicated by below-normal cholinesterase levels. Fatigue was the most frequently reported symptom associated with pesticide exposure, affecting 37.6% of participants. This was followed by nausea and vomiting (31.9%), dizziness (14.9%), and dry throat (14.9%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that several factors were significantly associated with adverse symptoms: amount of work experience, volume of pesticides used, use of chemical pesticides, use of leaking containers during spraying, direct pesticide exposure while working, contact with pesticide-soaked clothing, consumption of food and drinks in the fields, and blood cholinesterase level indicating risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests potential health risks for chili farmers stemming from exposure to and contamination by pesticides used in agricultural practices. To mitigate these risks, it is essential to supply personal protective equipment and to implement educational programs aimed at improving protective behaviors among farmers.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Humanos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Fazendeiros , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Agricultura , Colinesterases , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
19.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(2): 27010, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrazine is a common agricultural herbicide in the United States. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated cancer risks. Previous analyses within the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) have found some evidence of associations with cancer at some sites. OBJECTIVE: We updated exposure information, incident cases, and follow-up time to assess the associations between atrazine use and cancer at specific sites in the AHS. METHODS: Information about lifetime pesticide use was reported at enrollment (1993-1997) and follow-up (1999-2005). Among 53,562 pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa, we identified 8,915 incident cases through cancer registry linkages through 2014 (North Carolina)/2017 (Iowa). We used Poisson regression to evaluate the association between ever/never and intensity-weighted lifetime days of atrazine use and incident cancer risk controlling for several confounders. We also evaluated lagged exposures and age-stratified risk. RESULTS: Approximately 71.2% of applicators reported ever using atrazine, which was associated with lung cancer [rate ratios (RR)=1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.46]. Aggressive prostate cancer risk was increased in the highest quartile (RRQ4=1.20; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.52; p-trend=0.19), particularly among those <60 years old (RRQ4=3.04; 95% CI: 1.61, 5.75; p-trend<0.001; p-interaction=0.04). Among applicators <50 years of age, ever-atrazine use was associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (RR=2.43; 95% CI: 1.10, 5.38; p-interaction=0.60). For soft tissue sarcoma, there was an elevated risk in the highest tertile of exposure (RRT3: 2.54; 95% CI: 0.97, 6.62; p-trend=0.31). In analyses with exposure lagged by 25 years, there was an elevated risk of pharyngeal (RRT3=3.04; 95% CI: 1.45, 6.36; p-trend=0.07) and kidney (RRQ4=1.62; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.29; p-trend<0.005) cancers. DISCUSSION: We observed suggestive associations with some malignancies in overall, age-specific, and lagged analyses. Associations with aggressive prostate cancer and NHL were apparent among those diagnosed at younger ages and with cancers of the pharynx and kidney, and soft tissue sarcomas were observed in lagged analyses. Further work is needed to confirm these observed associations and elucidate potential underlying mechanisms. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP13684.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Praguicidas , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Incidência , Agricultura
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 53(1)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paraquat dichloride is currently among the most widely used commercial herbicides in the USA. In the present study, we provide epidemiological assessment of ambient paraquat exposure and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk in a population-based study of PD in agricultural regions of Central California. METHODS: Based on 829 PD patients and 824 community controls, we assessed associations between ambient paraquat dichloride exposure and PD. We estimated residential and workplace proximity to commercial agricultural applications in three California counties since 1974 using the CA pesticide use reporting (PUR) data and land use maps. We evaluated any, duration and average intensity [pounds (0.45 kilograms) per acre per year] of exposure for paraquat in four time windows. RESULTS: Ambient paraquat exposure assessed at both residence and workplace was associated with PD, based on several different exposure measures. The PD patients both lived and worked near agricultural facilities applying greater amounts of the herbicide than community controls. For workplace proximity to commercial applications since 1974, working near paraquat applications every year in the window [odds ratio (OR) = 2.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.46, 3.19] and a higher average intensity of exposure [per 10 pounds (4.54 kilograms), OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.31, 3.38] were both associated with an increased odds of PD. Similar associations were observed for residential proximity (duration: OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.30, 2.83; average intensity: OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 0.99, 3.04). Risk estimates were comparable for men and women, and the strongest odds were observed for those diagnosed at ≤60 years of age. CONCLUSION: This study provides further indication that paraquat dichloride exposure increases the risk of Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Praguicidas , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Paraquat , Agricultura , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , California/epidemiologia
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