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1.
Food Chem ; 339: 127985, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920305

RESUMO

There is limited research focusing on the effects of human gut microbiota on the oral bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption of pesticide residues in food. In the present study, we use a modified setup of the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem for the determination of pesticide residue bioaccessibility in Chaenomeles speciosa, and a Caco-2 cell model of human intestinal absorption. Results showed that gut microbiota played a dual role based their effects on contaminant release and metabolism in the bioaccessibility assay, and Lactobacillus plantarum was one of key bacterial species in the gut microbiota that influenced pesticide stability significantly. The addition of L. plantarum to the system reduced the relative amounts (by 11.40-86.51%) of six pesticides. The interaction between the food matrix and human gut microbiota led to different absorption rates, and the barrier effects increased with an increase in incubation time.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Rosaceae/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus plantarum/isolamento & purificação , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/metabolismo , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Compostos Organotiofosforados/metabolismo , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Tiametoxam/metabolismo , Tiametoxam/farmacologia
2.
Mutat Res ; 856-857: 503233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928373

RESUMO

Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are biotransformed into metabolites such as dialkylphosphates (DAPs). We have evaluated the genotoxicity of malathion and its metabolite dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) in the human hepatic cell lines HepG2 and WRL-68 and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus assay (CBMN), malathion and DMTP increased the frequencies of micronuclei (MN) and nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB). Malathion was primarily clastogenic whereas DMTP was aneuploidogenic. When HepG2 or WRL-68 cells were treated with DMTP in the presence of sulconazole, a non-specific cytochrome P450 inhibitor, MN frequency was reduced, indicating that DMTP genotoxicity requires P450-cataliyzed metabolism.


Assuntos
Citocinese/efeitos dos fármacos , Malation/farmacologia , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutagênicos/farmacologia , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Malation/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade
3.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127760, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731029

RESUMO

Predatory mites belonging to family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) have long been considered as the most promising candidates for biological control of some economically important plant feeding mites and insects. Among them, Euseius scutalis (Athias-Henriot) is one of the most abundant predators and can be considered as an important component for integrated pest management (IPM) programs in Mediterranean citrus orchards. Evaluation of non-target and toxic effects of pesticides is crucial to measure their threats to E. scutalis. In this study, the effects of some selected acaricides (abamectin, etoxazole, spirodiclofen, spirotetramat and pyridaben), that were widely used in citrus orchards, on eggs, larvae, and adult females of E. scutalis were determined under laboratory conditions. In order to observe some possible results at "worst-case scenario", the test units were sprayed at maximum recommended doses. According to the results, abamectin and pyridaben respectively caused 18.00% and 33.50% mortality on eggs, 57.33% and 65.33% on larvae, 23.33% and 44.00% on adult females. While etoxazole was only toxic to the larvae with mortality rates reaching 55.33%, spirodiclofen and spirotetramat were harmless to all developmental stages of the predatory mite. In addition, abamectin, etoxazole and pyridaben caused a significant reduction in the egg production of E. scutalis when compared to the control. Accordingly, spirodiclofen and spirotetramat may be compatible with E. scutalis in IPM programs where it is implemented as a predator. However, further semi-field and/or field experiments are essential in order to draw a final conclusion on compatibility of the other three acaricides.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/toxicidade , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Compostos Aza , Citrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Pragas , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Piridazinas , Compostos de Espiro
4.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127218, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497833

RESUMO

The chemical contamination of terrestrial ecosystems is a great concern as these ecosystems are the target of most of the pollutants derived from anthropogenic activities such as pesticides, heavy metals, nanoparticles, and others. Terrestrial gastropods are considered to be excellent sentinel organisms for biological monitoring of environmental pollution, as they have the ability to accumulate chemicals in their tissues and exhibit a great potential to evaluate the ecological effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. The use of biomarkers as sensitive parameters to estimate the exposure or resulting effects of chemicals have received considerable attention. The successful biomarker must be applicable in the laboratory and field conditions. Many biomarkers have been examined to understand the adverse effects of pollutants. In this review, we shed light on different types of biomarkers, such as oxidative stress, genotoxicity and immunotoxicity as diagnostic tools for monitoring the impacts of pollution. These biomarkers can provide information about early detection and quantification of these impacts during their initial manifestations and can facilitate the implementation of a rapid preventive and/or restorative responses in the affected ecosystems, as well as single or multiple biomarkers can be integrated into routine monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Gastrópodes/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Dano ao DNA , Ecossistema , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/farmacologia
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 199: 110679, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402896

RESUMO

Chlordane is a worldwide banned organochlorine insecticide because of its hazard to animal and human health. It is also a persistent organic pollutant, which can affect either the soil or the aquatic life. The same applies to other chlorinated cyclodiene insecticides, such as dieldrin and aldrin. In turn, organofluorine compounds have a widespread use in agriculture. Therefore, density functional calculations and docking studies showed that the bioisosteric replacement of chlorines in the above-mentioned compounds by fluorines improves some physicochemical parameters used to estimate the toxicity and environmental risk of these compounds, as well as the ligand-enzyme (GABAA receptor-chloride channel complex) interactions related to their insecticidal activity. This work is an effort to provide an improved new class of organofluorine pesticides.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/química , Modelos Teóricos , Praguicidas/química , Receptores de GABA-A/química , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Halogenação , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/farmacologia , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/farmacologia , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/toxicidade , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade
6.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126875, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361544

RESUMO

In the present scenario, insecticides/pesticides are used intensively to control the various insect pests. Indiscriminate use of these insecticides/pesticides affects the structure and function of the ecosystem. In this context, a thorough toxicological study of each insecticide/pesticide is a must to understand the hazardous effect of these chemicals on the target and non-target organisms. The present study was aimed to understand the hazardous effect of thiamethoxam against the Spodoptera litura. Different concentrations (20-80 µg/mL) of thiamethoxam were prepared, and fourth instar larvae of S. litura were allowed to feed for 12-72 h. We first examined the interaction of thiamethoxam with DNA. Next, treated and non-treated larvae were assessed for different biological parameters such as mortality, emergence, fecundity, fertility, longevities, and biochemical parameters. Our result showed that thiamethoxam directly interacts with the DNA and significantly influenced the different biological and biochemical parameters of exposed the organisms. We observed a significant change in stress enzymes such as SOD, CAT, and GST. A similar observation was also made with the oxidative marker for lipid damage, MDA and DNA damage, 8-OHdG, respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that improper use of synthetic chemical insecticides influenced both biological and biochemical parameters through oxidative stress and probably damage the genetic material.


Assuntos
DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Tiametoxam/toxicidade , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Ecossistema , Insetos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6512, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300184

RESUMO

Sustainable, low impact control methods, including mating disruption and microbial insecticides against L. botrana have been available for decades. Yet, successful implementation has been restricted to only a few grapevine districts in the world. A limiting factor is the lack of a female attractant to either monitor or control the damaging sex. Volatile attractants for both female and male insects can be used to assess when L. botrana populations exceed economic thresholds, and to decrease the use of synthetic pesticides within both conventional and pheromone programs. Rather than using host-plant volatiles, which are readily masked by background volatiles released by the main crop, we tested the attractiveness of volatiles that signify microbial breakdown and more likely stand out against the background odour. A two-component blend of 2-phenylethanol (2-PET) and acetic acid (AA) caught significant numbers of both sexes. Catches increased with AA and, to a minimal extent, 2-PET loads. However, a higher load of 2-PET also increased bycatches, especially of Lepidoptera and Neuroptera. Major (ethanol, ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol) or minor (esters, aldehydes, alcohols and a ketone) fermentation volatiles, did surprisingly not improve the attraction of L. botrana compared to the binary blend of 2-PET and AA alone, but strongly increased bycatches. The most attractive lure may thus not be the best choice in terms of specificity. We suggest that future research papers always disclose all bycatches to permit evaluation of lures in terms of sustainability.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Odorantes , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Ácido Acético/química , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lepidópteros/patogenicidade , Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Masculino , Controle de Pragas , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Feromônios/antagonistas & inibidores , Feromônios/metabolismo , Atrativos Sexuais/química , Atrativos Sexuais/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Vitis/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
8.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126271, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114345

RESUMO

Pesticides and veterinary products that are globally used in farming against pests and parasites are known to impact non-target beneficial organisms. While most studies have tested the lethal and sub-lethal effects of single chemicals, species are exposed to multiple contaminants that might interact and exacerbate the toxic responses of life-history fitness components. Here we experimentally tested an ecotoxicological scenario that is likely to be widespread in nature, with non-target dung communities being exposed both to cattle parasiticides during the larval stage and to agricultural insecticides during their adult life. We assessed the independent and combined consumptive effects of varying ivermectin and spinosad concentration on juvenile life-history and adult reproductive traits of the widespread yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae). Larval exposure to ivermectin prolonged development time and reduced egg-to-adult survival, body size, and the magnitude of the male-biased sexual size dimorphism. The consumption by the predatory adult flies of spinosad-contaminated prey showed an additional, independent (from ivermectin) negative effect on female clutch size, and subsequent egg hatching success, but not on the body size and sexual size dimorphism of their surviving offspring. However, there were interactive synergistic effects of both contaminants on offspring emergence and body size. Our results document adverse effects of the combination of different chemicals on fitness components of a dung insect, highlighting transgenerational effects of adult exposure to contaminants for their offspring. These findings suggest that ecotoxicological tests should consider the combination of different contaminants for more accurate eco-assessments.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Dípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrolídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Praguicidas/análise , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(8): 2768-2780, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extraction of environmental fate parameters for pesticides by inverse modeling in laboratory experiments has evolved to become a common practice in higher tier exposure modeling. This study focuses on flooded paddy soil conditions using a simple container test system. Four active ingredients of paddy herbicide were tested. The results were parameterized and transferred to analyze the effect of formulation types on the outdoor experimental data via inverse analyses of two structurally-compatible mathematical models, namely: pesticide concentration in paddy field for laboratory (PCPF-LR) and PCPF for outdoors (PCPF-1Rv1.1 ). RESULTS: After in-laboratory calibration, the PCPF-LR model revealed statistically acceptable or ideal simulations of pesticide concentrations in both the aqueous and soil phases (e.g. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency > 0.7), in addition to determining the apparent sorption from the laboratory data. The extracted persistence indicators (degradation half-life, DegT50 ) in the aqueous phase were 1.4-38.7 times higher than those of the dissipation (DT50 ) due to the exclusion of partitioning and phase transfer processes (diffusion and sorption). In the outdoor experiment, 72% of the outdoor-calibrated simulations of the PCPF-1Rv1.1 model, showed statistically acceptable representations of the concentrations in paddy water. Furthermore, the DegT50 as 'bulk' degradation in paddy water was statistically insignificant between the formulation types; however, the DT50 demonstrated statistically different results. CONCLUSION: The laboratory/outdoor data interconnections using proposed modeling approach facilitate the data-specific model calibration and analysis. These can be useful in the exposure modeling of paddy pesticide by manipulating the parameter uncertainties associated with the experimental constraints. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/farmacologia , Herbicidas , Oryza , Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(14): 4131-4143, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162924

RESUMO

To discover natural-product-based pesticides, 7ß-oxycarbonylandrographolide derivatives were stereoselectively constructed from a labdane diterpenoid andrographolide. Among them, 2'-(n)Pr-1',3'-dioxin-7ß-oxy(m-Cl)benzoylandrographolide (IIc), 2'-(n)Pr-1',3'-dioxin-7ß-oxyacetylandrographolide (IIf), 2'-(p-Me)Ph-1',3'-dioxin-7ß-oxy(o-Cl)benzoylandrographolide (Vb), and 2'-(p-Me)Ph-1',3'-dioxin-7ß-oxy(m-Cl)benzoylandrographolide (Vc) against Mythimna separata displayed the most promising growth inhibitory activity; 2'-(n)Pr-1',3'-dioxin-7ß-oxy(o-Cl)benzoylandrographolide (IIb: LC50 = 0.406 mg/mL) and IIc (LC50 = 0.415 mg/mL) exhibited the most pronounced acaricidal activity (andrographolide; LC50: 5.106 mg/mL) and good control effects against Tetranychus cinnabarinus; compounds Ic, IIe, and Va-c (LD50 = 0.035-0.039 µg/nymph) showed potent aphicidal activity (andrographolide: LD50 = 0.178 µg/nymph), and compounds IIe and Vb showed good control effects against Aphis citricola. Moreover, it was found that Hsp70 of A. citricola was an important gene involved in stress response to andrographolide and its derivatives.


Assuntos
Andrographis/química , Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/química , Diterpenos/química , Praguicidas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Acaricidas/química , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Estrutura Molecular , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tetranychidae/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(1): 44-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014097

RESUMO

There are many studies devoted to the negative impact of conventional pesticides that effectively control pests, but cause widespread environmental pollution. As a result, interest is growing in pesticides of a natural origin with a lower environmental impact. Among them, azadirachtin, sold under various formulations (neem oil, Neem-Azal, Bioneem, etc.), is still the most widely recommended molecule in agricultural ecosystems. Azadirachtin has also been used in traditional medicine for centuries, and studies published over the past few years have tended to support its therapeutic use. Yet the argument that azadirachtin is harmless to the environment has been offset by its notable collateral and controversial effects on non-target organisms. The present paper summarizes the work already done in this field.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Limoninas/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos
12.
Planta ; 251(3): 70, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086615

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Lipopeptides could help to overcome a large concern in agriculture: resistance against chemical pesticides. These molecules have activity against various phytopathogens and a potential to be transformed by genetic engineering. The exponential rise of pest resistances to different chemical pesticides and the global appeal of consumers for a sustainable agriculture and healthy nutrition have led to the search of new solutions for pest control. Furthermore, new laws require a different stance of producers. Based on that, bacteria of the genus Bacillus present a great agricultural potential, producing lipopeptides (LPs) that have high activity against insects, mites, nematodes, and/or phytopathogens that are harmful to plant cultures. Biopesticide activity can be found mainly in three families of Bacillus lipopeptides: surfactin, iturin, and fengycin. These molecules have an amphiphilic nature, interfering with biological membrane structures. Their antimicrobial properties include activity against bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and viruses. Recent studies also highlight the ability of these compounds to stimulate defense mechanisms of plants and biofilm formation, which is a key factor for the successful colonization of biocontrol organisms. The use of molecular biology has also recently been researched for continuous advances and discoveries of new LPs, avoiding possible future problems of resistance against these molecules. As a consequence of the properties and possibilities of LPs, numerous studies and developments as well as the attention of large companies in the field is expected in the near future.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Bacillus/metabolismo , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopeptídeos/química , Lipopeptídeos/metabolismo , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Plantas/microbiologia , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(5): 1236-1247, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922640

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the inhibitory effect of five structurally different imidazolium salts on the in vitro growth of plant pathogenic bacteria that belong to divergent taxonomic genera as well as their ability to reduce the severity of common bacterial blight of common bean caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli and bacterial speck of tomato caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. METHODS AND RESULTS: Growth inhibition of Xanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, Pectobacterium and Dickeya strains by imidazolium salts was assessed in vitro by radial diffusion on agar medium and by ressazurin reduction in liquid medium. The reduction of common bacterial blight and bacterial speck symptoms and the area under de disease progress curves were determined by spraying two selected imidazolium salts on healthy plants 48 h prior to inoculation with virulent strains of the bacterial pathogens. All imidazolium salts inhibited the growth of all plant pathogenic bacteria when tested by radial diffusion on agar medium. The strength of inhibition differed among imidazolium salts when tested on the same bacterial strain and among bacterial strains when tested with the same imidazolium salt. In liquid medium, most imidazolium salts presented the same minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration values (200 µmol l-1 ), the most notable exception of which was the MIC (at least 1000 µmol l-1 ) for the dicationic MImC10 MImBr2 . The imidazolium salts C16 MImBr and C16 MImCl caused significant reductions in the severity of common bacterial blight symptoms when compared with nontreated plants. CONCLUSION: Imidazolium salts inhibit the in vitro growth of plant pathogenic bacteria and reduce plant disease symptoms to levels comparable to an authorized commercial antibiotic product. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: New compounds exhibiting broad-spectrum antibacterial activity with potential use in agriculture were identified.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Verduras/microbiologia
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 231: 115725, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888813

RESUMO

In order to further enhance hydrophilicity of zein and achieve nano-scale pesticide system, phosphorylated zein (P-Zein) was incorporated with graft copolymer CMC-g-PDMDAAC by electrostatic interaction, in which carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) as monomers. P-Zein/CMC-g-PDMDAAC was applied to encapsulate model pesticide avermectin (AVM) via electrostatic interaction to achieve AVM@P-Zein/CMC-g-PDMDAAC nano-pesticides. The stability, drug loading, anti-ultraviolet, adhesion, sustained-release and toxicity of nano-pesticides presented considerable behavior confirmed via various characteristics. The results indicated that AVM@P-Zein/CMC-g-PDMDAAC had an average particle size of 360 nm, and possessed favorable dispersion performance and excellent anti-ultraviolet property compared to P-Zein. And comparatively, encapsulation efficiency increased up to 82.11%. In addition, adhesion performance of AVM@P-Zein/CMC-g-PDMDAAC on foliage also improved by about 20% compared to P-Zein. Also, AVM@P-Zein/CMC-g-PDMDAAC can intelligently control pesticide release by adjusting monomer ratio and pH values. More importantly, such nano-pesticide system presented no significant difference on toxicity in comparison with bare AVM.


Assuntos
Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Praguicidas/química , Zeína/química , Cápsulas/química , Cápsulas/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/química , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Polietilenos/química , Polietilenos/farmacologia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia
15.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 16(6): 586-597, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544698

RESUMO

Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are extremely poisonous and they affect the glucose breakdown in numerous and mechanism. There are higher evidence of stimulating diabetes mellitus through OP pesticides especially the type II diabetes. The upsurge in the level of glucose (hyperglycemia), and insulin resistance along with their related outcomes are discussed in this review. The data related to investigational and clinical techniques endorse a connection amid such molecular mechanism and compounds of OPs. Numerous studies conducted till March 2018 have reported OP' exposures and diabetes-related outcomes. The acute and chronic exposure in case of these insecticides and diabetesrelated outcomes are defined in this study. Initially, it was declared that OPs prompt to hyperglycemia. Then, a high association of glucose in blood beside insulin was found out. The affirmation from some clinical as well as investigational studies supported a connection amid exposure to OP and diabetes, yet in maximum number of instances, non-specific diabetes occurs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/farmacologia , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Organofosfatos/farmacologia , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/farmacologia
16.
Chemosphere ; 241: 124963, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604193

RESUMO

Fish are warned about the presence of predators via an alarm cue released from the skin of injured conspecifics. The detection of this odor inherently initiates an antipredator response, which increases the chance of survival for the individual. In the present study, we assessed the effect of three commonly used pesticides on the antipredator response of zebrafish (Danio rerio). For this, we analyzed the behavioral response of zebrafish to a conspecific skin extract following 24 h of exposure to the respective contaminants. Results demonstrate that fish exposed to 20 µg/L of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos significantly reduced bottom-dwelling and freezing behavior, suggesting an impairment of the antipredator response. For the urea-herbicide linuron and the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin, no statistically significant effects could be detected. However, linuron-exposed fish appeared to respond in an altered manner to the skin extract; some individuals failed to perform the inherent behaviors such as erratic movements and instead merely increased their velocity. Furthermore, we determined whether zebrafish would avoid the pesticides in a choice maze. While fish avoided permethrin, they behaved indifferently to chlorpyrifos and linuron. The study demonstrates that pesticides may alter the olfactory-mediated antipredator response of zebrafish in distinct ways, revealing that particularly fish exposed to chlorpyrifos may be more prone to predation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção Olfatória/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Clorpirifos/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Odorantes , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Microb Pathog ; 139: 103893, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778757

RESUMO

Soil contamination has enlarged over the decades due to intensive use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers in agronomy. Earthworms are significant organisms in the soil community. Earthworms are the major role in soil fertility in most ecological system and the production of biogenic structures. Moreover, earthworm gut mucus enhances the beneficial soil microorganism potential biological activities. They are used as model organisms for assessing the ecological risks of chemicals. Enrichment of essential nutrients in soil through earthworm is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach. In India, the organophosphorus pesticide monocrotophos is commonly used to control agricultural pests. Hence, it is important to study the effect of monocrotophos on the gut microbiota in Lampito mauritii. A 15-day exposure to a low (1/10th of the LC50 after 96 h i.e., 0.093 ppm kg-1) and high sublethal concentration (1/3rd of the LC50 after 96 h i.e., 0.311 ppm kg-1) of monocrotophos led to reduced proliferation of the gut microbiota in L. mauritii. However, exposure for 30 days led to a recuperation of the microbial populations to near control values. Among the eight bacterial and five fungal species that inhabit the gut of L. mauritii, only six bacterial and three fungal species were able to survive after exposure to monocrotophos. In addition to the study, histopathological changes were observed in the intestine of L.mauritii after application of lower sublethal concentration of monocrotophos. Severe pathological changes such as vacuolization, degenerated nuclei, damaged villi and congestion of the blood sinuses were noticed in the intestine on 1st and, 5th day of the experiment. But in 30th day the damages were slowly recovered due to degradation of monocrotophos by the presence of some pesticides degrading bacterial and fungal species and regenerative capability of chloragogen cells in the intestine. The results suggested that reduced microbial populations and pathological damages in intestine were observed during the application of monocrotophos. So, the monocrotophos have several harmful impacts on earthworms.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Monocrotofós/farmacologia , Oligoquetos/microbiologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Bacteriana , Biópsia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Aquat Toxicol ; 219: 105380, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855722

RESUMO

Population control of invasive sea lamprey relies heavily on lampricide treatment of infested streams. The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is thought to impair mitochondrial ATP production through uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. However, the effect of TFM on the entire electron transport chain (complexes I to V) in the mitochondria is not clear. In addition, TFM is reduced in phase I metabolism by sea lamprey at higher levels than in other fish species. The effects of these TFM reductive metabolites on mitochondria have not been explored. In this study, we sought to examine the effects of TFM and its reductive metabolite amino-TFM (TFMa) on cardiac mitochondrial oxygen consumption and membrane potential to delineate potential mechanisms for toxicity. To determine if molecules with similar structure also exhibit similar effects on mitochondria, we used 4-nitro-3-methylphenol (NMP) and its reductive metabolites 4-amino-3-methylphenol (NMPa) and 4-nitroso-3-methylphenol (NMPn) for comparisons. We found that mitochondrial bioenergetics was heavily affected with increasing concentrations of TFM, NMP, and NMPa when complexes I and II of the electron transport chain were examined, indicating that the toxic action of these compounds was exerted not only by uncoupling complex V, but also affecting complexes I and II.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrofenóis/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Petromyzon/metabolismo , Animais , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Desentoxicação Metabólica Fase I , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Nitrofenóis/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/metabolismo
19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(4): 1448-1455, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Populations of target species are typically exposed to pesticide mixtures and natural stressors such as predator cues, and are increasingly developing resistance to single pesticides. Nevertheless, we have poor knowledge whether natural stressors and the presence of pesticide resistance shape mixture toxicity. We tested the single and combined effects of the pesticide chlorpyrifos and the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on the survival of the Southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus, Say) and whether these effects were magnified by synthetic predator cues of Notonecta water bugs and differed between a chlorpyrifos-resistant (Ace-1R) and non-resistant (S-Lab) strain. RESULTS: Single exposure to Bti caused mortality in both strains (S-Lab ∼27%, Ace-1R ∼41%) and single exposure to chlorpyrifos caused only mortality in the S-Lab strain (∼33%), while predator cues did not induce mortality. The chlorpyrifos-resistant strain was 1.5-fold more sensitive to Bti, indicating a cost of resistance. The interaction types between chlorpyrifos and Bti (additive), between chlorpyrifos and predator cues (additive), and between Bti and predator cues (synergistic) were consistent in both strains. Despite predator cues making Bti approximately 8% more lethal, they did not change the additive interaction between Bti and chlorpyrifos in their mixture in either strain. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the resistance against chlorpyrifos was not partly lifted when chlorpyrifos exposure was combined with Bti and predator cues. Identifying the interaction type within pesticide mixtures and how this depends on natural stressors is important to select control strategies that give a disadvantage to resistant individuals compared to non-resistant individuals. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Praguicidas/farmacologia , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis , Clorpirifos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Culex , Larva
20.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 1009, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agricultural insects are one of the major threats to crop yield. It is a known fact that pesticide application is an extensive approach to eliminate insect pests, and has severe adverse effects on environment and ecosystem; however, there is lack of knowledge whether it could influence the physiology and metabolic processes in plants. RESULTS: Here, we systemically analyzed the transcriptomic changes in rice after a spray of two commercial pesticides, Abamectin (ABM) and Thiamethoxam (TXM). We found only a limited number of genes (0.91%) and (1.24%) were altered by ABM and TXM respectively, indicating that these pesticides cannot dramatically affect the performance of rice. Nevertheless, we characterized 1140 Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) interacting with 105 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that can be impacted by the two pesticides, suggesting their certain involvement in response to farm chemicals. Moreover, we detected 274 alternative splicing (AS) alterations accompanied by host genes expressions, elucidating a potential role of AS in control of gene transcription during insecticide spraying. Finally, we identified 488 transposons that were significantly changed with pesticides treatment, leading to a variation in adjacent coding or non-coding transcripts. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our results provide valuable insights into pest management through appropriate timing and balanced mixture, these pesticides have no harmful effects on crop physiology over sustainable application of field drugs.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas/genética , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/genética , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
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