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1.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 34(6): e14678, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877298

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Students' experiences in physical education (PE) can shape future physical activity (PA) behaviors. PE enjoyment is associated with PA; however, the relationship between PE enjoyment and fitness has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to examine if changes in PE enjoyment were associated with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular fitness (MF) among Finnish adolescents. METHODS: Study participants were students (n = 1147; 11.27 [±0.32] years at baseline) attending public schools in Finland. Data were collected yearly (2017-2021). The 20 m shuttle run assessed CRF, curl-up/push-up tests assessed MF, and the enjoyment subscale of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2 measured PE enjoyment. The random intercept cross-lagged panel model, including repeated measures (within-level) and latent levels (between-level) of PE enjoyment, CRF and MF, was tested. Sex, body mass index, moderate to vigorous PA, and peak height velocity were included as covariates in the analysis. RESULTS: Over 5 years, PE enjoyment decreased, CRF increased until Timepoint 3, and MF remained stable. Positive associations between PE enjoyment and fitness were observed, indicating the greater the PE enjoyment, the higher the fitness. For PE enjoyment, CRF and MF repeated measures were positively associated with measurement of the next year. PE enjoyment was positively related to CRF and MF the years thereafter. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the importance of quality PE experiences for enjoyment and fitness gains during the transition from primary to secondary school. These findings are important given youth fitness levels are associated with future health status.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Educação Física e Treinamento , Humanos , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Finlândia , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Estudos Longitudinais , Criança , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Prazer , Inquéritos e Questionários , Aptidão Física/psicologia
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 245: 105974, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823357

RESUMO

Adults' emotional reactions to the pain and pleasure of others are influenced by the moral character of those individuals. However, it remains unclear whether children's emotional responses also show such selectivity. To investigate this, we compared 4- to 8-year-old children's emotional responses to the physical pain and pleasure of prosocial versus antisocial puppets. In Study 1, children reported unhappiness after witnessing the pain of the prosocial and antisocial puppets but reported less unhappiness after witnessing the pain of the antisocial puppet. In Study 2, children reported happiness after witnessing the pleasure of both puppets but reported being less happy for the antisocial puppet. These results suggest that children are less likely to empathize with antisocial individuals. Meanwhile, children did not display Schadenfreude (pleasure at others' pain) or Gluckschmerz (displeasure at others' pleasure) toward antisocial individuals in our studies. Moreover, the selectivity of children's emotional responses disappeared after we manipulated the physical competence rather than the moral character of the puppets in Study 3. Our findings help to reveal the moral selectivity of emotional responses to others' pleasure and pain during early childhood.


Assuntos
Emoções , Empatia , Dor , Prazer , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dor/psicologia , Princípios Morais , Comportamento Social
3.
Adv Neurobiol ; 35: 241-250, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874726

RESUMO

Pleasant emotions take a variety of forms and are a key part of the human experience. Although negative emotions have often been a focus of research, positive emotions, e.g., joy, pleasure, and love, have recently gained more attention. Each of these emotions is rich and complex in its own right. However, positive emotions appear to serve key evolutionary functions, which are mediated by complex biological substrates. This chapter summarizes key research and explores the biological underpinnings of positive emotions, with an emphasis on the roles that endogenous opioids play in the experience, expression, and development of positive emotions. The necessity of emphasizing positive emotions in research is also discussed.


Assuntos
Emoções , Peptídeos Opioides , Animais , Humanos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Emoções/fisiologia , Peptídeos Opioides/metabolismo , Prazer/fisiologia , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(25): e2310433121, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857402

RESUMO

Pleasure and pain are two fundamental, intertwined aspects of human emotions. Pleasurable sensations can reduce subjective feelings of pain and vice versa, and we often perceive the termination of pain as pleasant and the absence of pleasure as unpleasant. This implies the existence of brain systems that integrate them into modality-general representations of affective experiences. Here, we examined representations of affective valence and intensity in an functional MRI (fMRI) study (n = 58) of sustained pleasure and pain. We found that the distinct subpopulations of voxels within the ventromedial and lateral prefrontal cortices, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior insula, and the amygdala were involved in decoding affective valence versus intensity. Affective valence and intensity predictive models showed significant decoding performance in an independent test dataset (n = 62). These models were differentially connected to distinct large-scale brain networks-the intensity model to the ventral attention network and the valence model to the limbic and default mode networks. Overall, this study identified the brain representations of affective valence and intensity across pleasure and pain, promoting a systems-level understanding of human affective experiences.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Dor , Prazer , Humanos , Prazer/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Adulto Jovem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Emoções/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Afeto/fisiologia
5.
Public Health Nutr ; 27(1): e138, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Legume and pulse consumption is currently recommended for health and sustainability purposes, but barriers to consumption can include low enjoyment and poor sensory properties. This work aimed to investigate the relative importance of a number of barriers and facilitators towards legume, including pulse, consumption with a specific focus on enjoyment, sensory properties and a possible role for perceived cooking abilities in these relationships. DESIGN: A cross-sectional questionnaire study assessed legume and pulse consumption, agreement and disagreement with statements relating to enjoyment, sensory properties, cooking abilities, practical aspects, healthiness, upbringing, social influences and quality issues, and four demographic characteristics. Complete responses were gained from 633 respondents with a mix of genders, ages, usual cooking responsibilities and usual eating habits. SETTING: UK, March 2021 - September 2022. PARTICIPANTS: General UK adult population. RESULTS: Using multiple regression analyses, enjoyment and cooking abilities were found to be important for both legume and pulse consumption (smallest beta = 0·165, P < 0·01), and the sensory properties of these foods were also important for the consumption of pulses (beta = 0·099, P = 0·04). Perceived cooking abilities also reduced the importance of enjoyment and sensory properties for consumption, mitigated effects due to upbringing and practical aspects and increased the value of perceived health benefits (smallest beta = 0·094, P = 0·04). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate a clear role for enjoyment, sensory properties and perceived cooking abilities in legume and pulse consumption and suggest benefits for increasing cooking abilities for improved legume and pulse consumption, as result of both direct and indirect effects.


Assuntos
Culinária , Fabaceae , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Prazer , Paladar , Adolescente , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia
6.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 21(6): 377-405, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763974

RESUMO

The ability to experience pleasurable sexual activity is important for human health. Receptive anal intercourse (RAI) is a common, though frequently stigmatized, pleasurable sexual activity. Little is known about how diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus and their treatments affect RAI. Engaging in RAI with gastrointestinal disease can be difficult due to the unpredictability of symptoms and treatment-related toxic effects. Patients might experience sphincter hypertonicity, gastrointestinal symptom-specific anxiety, altered pelvic blood flow from structural disorders, decreased sensation from cancer-directed therapies or body image issues from stoma creation. These can result in problematic RAI - encompassing anodyspareunia (painful RAI), arousal dysfunction, orgasm dysfunction and decreased sexual desire. Therapeutic strategies for problematic RAI in patients living with gastrointestinal diseases and/or treatment-related dysfunction include pelvic floor muscle strengthening and stretching, psychological interventions, and restorative devices. Providing health-care professionals with a framework to discuss pleasurable RAI and diagnose problematic RAI can help improve patient outcomes. Normalizing RAI, affirming pleasure from RAI and acknowledging that the gastrointestinal system is involved in sexual pleasure, sexual function and sexual health will help transform the scientific paradigm of sexual health to one that is more just and equitable.


Assuntos
Doenças Retais , Humanos , Doenças Retais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Retais/terapia , Doenças Retais/etiologia , Doenças Retais/diagnóstico , Doenças do Colo/terapia , Doenças do Colo/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Colo/etiologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Doenças do Ânus/terapia , Doenças do Ânus/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Ânus/etiologia , Doenças do Ânus/diagnóstico , Prazer/fisiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/terapia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia
7.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114378, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763650

RESUMO

Although chocolates are often chosen for sensory pleasure, they are also selected to enhance mood and relieve emotional stress, or potentially chosen for its perceived health benefits if stress adversely affects physical well-being. This study aimed to investigate whether emotional stress influenced the motivations behind chocolate selection, subsequent liking, and emotional response. Participants were divided into a control group (n = 76) and a group with induced acute stress (n = 74). Stimuli were presented as dark chocolate packaging, each evoking sensory appeal, health, and emotional stress relief. Participants chose one stimulus from three options that they were most inclined to consume and evaluated the overall liking and emotional attributes of the stimuli. They also rated the overall liking and emotional attributes of three types of chocolates, each identical but paired with distinct stimuli. Their food attitudes were also assessed. Stress did not change the choice of stimuli, indicating that stress did not influence the motivation for chocolate selection. Instead, the choice of stimuli aligned with participants' food attitudes; those favoring sensory appeal and emotional stress relief prioritized pleasure in their usual food choices. Stress tended to increase liking and chocolate-associated positive emotions with sensory appeal, as opposed to others, to immediately alleviate negative emotions. The most robust motivation to consume chocolates was sensory pleasure, irrespective of stress, because of a preestablished association between sensory pleasure and mood enhancement.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Comportamento de Escolha , Emoções , Preferências Alimentares , Motivação , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Prazer , Adolescente
8.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303309, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748741

RESUMO

Catchiness and groove are common phenomena when listening to popular music. Catchiness may be a potential factor for experiencing groove but quantitative evidence for such a relationship is missing. To examine whether and how catchiness influences a key component of groove-the pleasurable urge to move to music (PLUMM)-we conducted a listening experiment with 450 participants and 240 short popular music clips of drum patterns, bass lines or keys/guitar parts. We found four main results: (1) catchiness as measured in a recognition task was only weakly associated with participants' perceived catchiness of music. We showed that perceived catchiness is multi-dimensional, subjective, and strongly associated with pleasure. (2) We found a sizeable positive relationship between PLUMM and perceived catchiness. (3) However, the relationship is complex, as further analysis showed that pleasure suppresses perceived catchiness' effect on the urge to move. (4) We compared common factors that promote perceived catchiness and PLUMM and found that listener-related variables contributed similarly, while the effects of musical content diverged. Overall, our data suggests music perceived as catchy is likely to foster groove experiences.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Música , Prazer , Humanos , Música/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Prazer/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estimulação Acústica
9.
Health Psychol ; 43(7): 477-487, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aiming to identify potential intervention targets to achieve more equitable outcomes from behavioral weight loss (BWL) programs, the current study examined whether Black and White individuals experienced similar increases in physical activity (PA) engagement, perceived PA barriers, and PA enjoyment during an 18-month BWL program. METHOD: Adults (N = 290) enrolled in an 18-month BWL program from 2014 to 2016 completed accelerometer-based measurements of moderate-to-vigorous PA and self-reported measures of PA barriers and enjoyment at months 0, 6, 12, and 18. RESULTS: Black participants had significantly fewer minutes of PA than White participants at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Black participants reported fewer barriers to PA than White participants at 0 and 6 months but not at 12 or 18 months. They also reported higher PA enjoyment than White participants at 0 and 6 months but not at 12 or 18 months. Furthermore, whereas White participants had a significant reduction in PA barriers and an increase in PA behavior overtime, Black participants did not. There was no interaction between race and time on PA enjoyment. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional BWL interventions may be ineffective for promoting PA among Black participants and may not appropriately address the unique PA barriers that Black participants experience. An improved understanding of differences in PA behaviors during BWL among Black and White individuals could help delineate why Black participants do not appear to benefit as much as White participants from traditional BWL programs and inform intervention strategies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , Exercício Físico , Redução de Peso , Brancos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Prazer , Programas de Redução de Peso , Brancos/psicologia
10.
Psychol Sport Exerc ; 73: 102637, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615898

RESUMO

Recent studies have examined the relations between the slope of pleasure experienced during exercise and remembered pleasure, forecasted pleasure, and enjoyment. OBJECTIVES: This study advances this line of research by examining the effects of exposing participants to exercise that increases in intensity and then decreases in intensity. METHODS: In a within-subjects design, participants completed three exercise sessions matched for total and average work. One session steadily increased in intensity, another steadily decreased in intensity, and a third increased-then-decreased in intensity. Remembered pleasure, forecasted pleasure, and exercise enjoyment served as primary outcome variables. RESULTS: Remembered pleasure, forecasted pleasure, and enjoyment did not differ between conditions. Remembered pleasure was positively associated with mean experienced pleasure, the overall slope of pleasure during the exercise session, affect experienced at the end of exercise, forecasted pleasure, accomplishment, and enjoyment. CONCLUSIONS: These data add to a growing literature on the effects of patterns of exercise intensity on affective responses to exercise. The results are discussed in context of previous and more recent research.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Prazer , Humanos , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia
11.
Psychol Sport Exerc ; 73: 102652, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663570

RESUMO

Considering recent research and reports, much attention has been given to understanding and addressing issues of abuse in sport. Similarly, attention has been given to enhancing children's psychosocial experiences within sport. However, to-date, consideration of these two elements together, that is minimising abuse and enhancing enjoyment, has been minimal. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to explore perceptions of the process through which an optimally safe and enjoyable sporting experience can be created for young people. A Straussian grounded theory methodology was used to develop a substantive theory detailing the process through which an optimally safe and enjoyable sporting experience is created for young people in sport. Interviews were conducted with 19 young people, six parents, nine coaches, and five individuals in safeguarding roles. The interviews were analysed through open and axial coding, followed by theoretical integration. The resultant theory highlighted that establishing positive relationships between all young people and key individuals in a physically and developmentally safe environment was a fundamental requirement for fostering an optimally safe and enjoyable sporting experience. Achieving this required consideration of factors both in the immediate and broad sporting context. Specifically, support from sports organisations, access to continuing professional development opportunities, and a network of safeguarding experts are required in the broader environment. While within the immediate sporting environment, visibly displayed and appropriately implemented safeguarding policies and procedures; open, honest, and respectful interactions; shared goals and expectations between parents, coaches, and young people, and; trusting and supportive friendships with shared experiences are required.


Assuntos
Esportes Juvenis , Humanos , Adolescente , Reino Unido , Feminino , Masculino , Esportes Juvenis/psicologia , Teoria Fundamentada , Segurança , Criança , Pais/psicologia , Prazer , Entrevistas como Assunto
12.
Physiol Behav ; 281: 114572, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688442

RESUMO

Puberty tends to be viewed as a "turning point" in hedonic perception of body odor (BO)-related smells. The pubertal stage, a potential proxy for the underlying physiological changes, may contribute to variation in odor hedonic perception. Other potential modulators of odor hedonics are general semantic knowledge about odors (which also tends to be subsumed under the term "age") and perceived odor intensity. The present cross-sectional study examined differences in hedonic odor perception across puberty in 205 Czech children aged 11-14 (89 boys). We investigated whether children differ in the hedonic appraisal of BO-related (16-androstenes and castoreum control), but also food and non-food odors according to their pubertal (penis/breast and pubic hair) development and general semantic knowledge about odors (operationalized as odor identification), controlling for age and perceived odor intensity. As a subsidiary aim, we examined variation in odor identification. We asked the children to self-stage themselves using drawings depicting Tanner's penis/breast and pubic hair stages of pubertal development, estimated their general semantic knowledge about odors with a Sniffin' Sticks identification test, and obtained their pleasantness and intensity ratings of body odor-related, food, a non-food smells. We found that the participants' ratings of the 16-androstenes and those of the perceptually similar odor of castoreum differed according to perceived intensity and, in the latter case, in boys vs. girls as well, but there were no influences of pubertal status or odor identification on the perceived pleasantness. Similarly, hedonic appraisal of non-food (but not food) odors was only influenced by perceived intensity. Regarding odor identification, differences between boys and girls were limited to younger children and did not become more marked throughout puberty. Perceived pleasantness of odors, irrespective of whether they are associated with body smells, food, or other, does not appear to vary across puberty, and boys and girls seem to achieve similar levels of semantic odor knowledge as they grow up.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Puberdade , Olfato , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Puberdade/fisiologia , Puberdade/psicologia , Adolescente , República Tcheca , Olfato/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prazer/fisiologia
13.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1535(1): 121-136, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566486

RESUMO

While certain musical genres and songs are widely popular, there is still large variability in the music that individuals find rewarding or emotional, even among those with a similar musical enculturation. Interestingly, there is one Western genre that is intended to attract minimal attention and evoke a mild emotional response: elevator music. In a series of behavioral experiments, we show that elevator music consistently elicits low pleasure and surprise. Participants reported elevator music as being less pleasurable than music from popular genres, even when participants did not regularly listen to the comparison genre. Participants reported elevator music to be familiar even when they had not explicitly heard the presented song before. Computational and behavioral measures of surprisal showed that elevator music was less surprising, and thus more predictable, than other well-known genres. Elevator music covers of popular songs were rated as less pleasurable, surprising, and arousing than their original counterparts. Finally, we used elevator music as a control for self-selected rewarding songs in a proof-of-concept physiological (electrodermal activity and piloerection) experiment. Our results suggest that elevator music elicits low emotional responses consistently across Western music listeners, making it a unique control stimulus for studying musical novelty, pleasure, and surprise.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Emoções , Música , Recompensa , Música/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Estimulação Acústica/métodos
15.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301478, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652721

RESUMO

Groove, or the pleasurable urge to move to music, offers unique insight into the relationship between emotion and action. The predictive coding of music model posits that groove is linked to predictions of music formed over time, with stimuli of moderate complexity rated as most pleasurable and likely to engender movement. At the same time, listeners vary in the pleasure they derive from music listening: individuals with musical anhedonia report reduced pleasure during music listening despite no impairments in music perception and no general anhedonia. Little is known about musical anhedonics' subjective experience of groove. Here we examined the relationship between groove and music reward sensitivity. Participants (n = 287) heard drum-breaks that varied in perceived complexity, and rated each for pleasure and wanting to move. Musical anhedonics (n = 13) had significantly lower ratings compared to controls (n = 13) matched on music perception abilities and general anhedonia. However, both groups demonstrated the classic inverted-U relationship between ratings of pleasure & move and stimulus complexity, with ratings peaking for intermediately complex stimuli. Across our entire sample, pleasure ratings were most strongly related with music reward sensitivity for highly complex stimuli (i.e., there was an interaction between music reward sensitivity and stimulus complexity). Finally, the sensorimotor subscale of music reward was uniquely associated with move, but not pleasure, ratings above and beyond the five other dimensions of musical reward. Results highlight the multidimensional nature of reward sensitivity and suggest that pleasure and wanting to move are driven by overlapping but separable mechanisms.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Percepção Auditiva , Música , Prazer , Recompensa , Humanos , Música/psicologia , Anedonia/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estimulação Acústica
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9030, 2024 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641659

RESUMO

This study compared the effects of blood flow restriction (BFR) on intensity and perceived enjoyment during an exergame. Fourteen healthy young participants engaged in a boxing exergame for 20 min, with or without BFR, across two sessions. Perceived enjoyment levels were assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. Heart rate was monitored, and energy expenditure (EE) during exercise was calculated. A mixed model analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to evaluate differences in EE and enjoyment between exergame conditions (with and without BFR) as well as the interaction effects of these protocols with gender. Although not statistically significant, perceived enjoyment decreased with BFR inclusion for both genders. No significant differences were observed between men and women for both protocols. Regarding EE, there was no significant difference between the two groups (with and without BFR). However, a significant main effect of gender was found, with men exhibiting higher EE values in both protocols compared to women. In conclusion, exergames incorporating BFR impact perceptual responses, particularly perceived enjoyment. Furthermore, significant gender differences in EE were found, with men displaying higher values.


Assuntos
Jogos Eletrônicos de Movimento , Prazer , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Hemodinâmica , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia
17.
Neuron ; 112(9): 1392-1396, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608705

RESUMO

"Supporting human flourishing" is a goal of governments and societies, yet the construct may appear hard to define. We discuss the emerging science of pleasure and flourishing, insights into the brain mechanisms of meaning making and thriving, and the potential for interdisciplinary studies to advance this promising scientific field.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Prazer , Humanos , Prazer/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299115, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598421

RESUMO

Negative emotion evoked in listeners of music can produce intense pleasure, but we do not fully understand why. The present study addressed the question by asking participants (n = 50) to self-select a piece of sadness-evoking music that was loved. The key part of the study asked participants to imagine that the felt sadness could be removed. Overall participants reported performing the task successfully. They also indicated that the removal of the sadness reduced their liking of the music, and 82% of participants reported that the evoked sadness also adds to the enjoyment of the music. The study provided evidence for a "Direct effect hypothesis", which draws on the multicomponent model of emotion, where a component of the negative emotion is experienced as positive during music (and other aesthetic) experiences. Earlier evidence of a mediator, such as 'being moved', as the source of enjoyment was reinterpreted in light of the new findings. Instead, the present study applied a semantic overlap explanation, arguing that sadness primes emotions that share meaning with sadness, such as being-moved. The priming occurs if the overlap in meaning is sufficient. The degree of semantic overlap was defined empirically. The present study therefore suggests that mediator-based explanations need to be treated with caution both as a finding of the study, and because of analytic limitations in earlier research that are discussed in the paper.


Assuntos
Música , Prazer , Humanos , Tristeza , Música/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Felicidade
19.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 46(2): 66-72, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580300

RESUMO

In articles on the methodology of studies investigating affective and enjoyment responses to high-intensity interval training, we noted that, occasionally, exercise conditions described as involving "high" intensity exhibited heart rates that were only as high as, or even lower than, heart rates recorded during comparator conditions described as being of "moderate" intensity. Drs. Vollaard, Metcalfe, Kinghorn, Jung, and Little suggest instead that exercise intensity in high-intensity interval-training studies can be defined in terms of percentages of peak workload. Although we maintain that defining exercise intensity in terms of percentages of maximal heart rate is a suboptimal way to quantify the degree of homeostatic perturbations in response to exercise, we are unconvinced that definitions of intensity relying solely on workload are appropriate for studies investigating affective and enjoyment responses to exercise. The reason is that affect is theorized to have evolved to relay information about homeostatic perturbations to consciousness.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Felicidade , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/psicologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia
20.
Trends Hear ; 28: 23312165241245219, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613359

RESUMO

For people with profound hearing loss, a cochlear implant (CI) is able to provide access to sounds that support speech perception. With current technology, most CI users obtain very good speech understanding in quiet listening environments. However, many CI users still struggle when listening to music. Efforts have been made to preprocess music for CI users and improve their music enjoyment. This work investigates potential modifications of instrumental music to make it more accessible for CI users. For this purpose, we used two datasets with varying complexity and containing individual tracks of instrumental music. The first dataset contained trios and it was newly created and synthesized for this study. The second dataset contained orchestral music with a large number of instruments. Bilateral CI users and normal hearing listeners were asked to remix the multitracks grouped into melody, bass, accompaniment, and percussion. Remixes could be performed in the amplitude, spatial, and spectral domains. Results showed that CI users preferred tracks being panned toward the right side, especially the percussion component. When CI users were grouped into frequent or occasional music listeners, significant differences in remixing preferences in all domains were observed.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Música , Humanos , Idioma , Prazer
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