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1.
Licere (Online) ; 24(02): 281-320, 20210630.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282736

RESUMO

O objetivo geral desse estudo de Mestrado foi realizar uma pesquisa histórica sobre os principais divertimentos ocorridos no sul de Minas Gerais, entre as décadas finais do século XIX e as décadas iniciais do século XX, analisando as representações de tais diversões através dos periódicos das cidades de Campanha, Pouso Alegre e Itajubá. A metodologia aplicada foi a análise documental dos periódicos. Optou-se por realizar um "Estudo da Diversão", os quais consideram recortes temporais anteriores à modernidade e também no âmbito desta, uma vez que não se substituiu de imediato um antigo formato de diversão por outros que surgiam. Foram encontradas referências sobre os festejos religiosos, a passagem do circo e companhias teatrais com suas apresentações de comédias e dramas, as festas nos dias de folia (carnaval e entrudo) e a inauguração da ferrovia na região. A imprensa deu destaque a esses momentos inspirada nos ideais de progresso e civilidade e os dados obtidos junto aos periódicos estavam impregnados de sentidos e significados próprios daqueles que escreviam em suas páginas, onde os divertimentos divulgados eram estratégias de controle, mas também permeados por contradições onde o antigo e o novo se influenciavam e fizeram parte do olhar para o futuro, mas com foco nas tradições e valores que persistiam em continuar também na vida divertida de quem habitava a região.


The overall objective of this Master's study was to conduct historical research on the main amusements that occurred in the southern region of Minas GeraisBrazil between the last decade of the nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth century (1891-1930), analyzing their representations through the newspapers of the cities of Campanha, Pouso Alegre and Itajubá. At that time, the progress and modernity ideals were in vogue, which influenced the political, economic and cultural circumstances of the region. The methodology applied in this research was a documental analysis on press and a "Study of Amusement" was carried out, which consider temporal excerpt prior to modernity and within its scope, since the new forms of amusement that arose did not immediately replace the prior ones. Were found reference on the religious festivities, the circus walk and theater companies with their comedy performances and dramas, the festivities in the days (carnival celebration and shrovetide) and the railway inauguration. The Press focused these moments, inspired by the ideals of progress and civility and the data obtained from newspapers were impregnated with particular meanings from those who wrote in their pages, where the announcement of amusements were control strategies, but also permeated by contradictions where the old and the new were influenced by each other and were part of the outlook for the future, but with a focus on the traditions and values that persisted in continuing also in the recreational life of those who inhabited the region.


Assuntos
Prazer , História
2.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 233-242, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202547

RESUMO

The study of happiness and well-being is receiving increased attention in different fields. Recent research into well-being has focused on delving deeper into the individual's conception about the experience of well-being. McMahan and Estes (2011a) created a scale that assesses lay conceptions of well-being based on four dimensions: the experience of pleasure, avoidance of negative experience, self-development and contribution to others. The goal of this study was to adapt this scale, the Beliefs about Well-Being Scale (BWBS), to the Spanish population. The sample consisted of 1,024 participants from the general population ranging in age interval from 17 to 87 years old. The confirmatory factorial analysis results in a structure of four dimensions, similar to the original scale, although in the adaptation of the scale the items decrease from 16 to 12. The results of the reliability analysis reveal indexes similar to those of the original scale. These results confirm the validity of Beliefs about Well-Being Scale with general population in a cultural context different from the original study. This will allow cross-cultural studies to analyze the influence of culture in the perception of well-being


El estudio de la felicidad y el bienestar está recibiendo cada vez más atención en diferentes campos. Las investigaciones recientes sobre el bienestar se han centrado en profundizar en la concepción del individuo sobre la experiencia del bienestar. McMahan y Estes (2011a) crearon una escala que evalúa las concepciones legas del bienestar en base a cuatro dimensiones: la experiencia de placer, la evitación de la experiencia negativa, el autodesarrollo y la contribución a los demás. El objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar esta escala, Beliefs about Well-Being Scale (BWBS), a la población española. La muestra estuvo formada por 1.024 participantes de la población general con un intervalo de edad entre 17 y 87 años. El análisis factorial confirmatorio da como resultado una estructura de cuatro dimensiones, similar a la escala original, aunque en la adaptación de la escala los ítems disminuyen de 16 a 12. Los resultados del análisis de fiabilidad revelan índices similares a los de la escala original. Estos resultados confirman la validez de la Escala de Creencias sobre el Bienestar con población general en un contexto cultural diferente al del estudio original. Esto permitirá realizar estudios transculturales para analizar la influencia de la cultura en la percepción del bienestar


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Satisfação Pessoal , Cultura , Adaptação Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Felicidade , Comparação Transcultural , Filosofia , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Fatorial , Prazer , Espanha
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444609

RESUMO

The public space of a park is one of the most important carriers of social interaction and cultural practice in urban areas. Taking an ethnography of Taijiquan in Chengdu (China) as a case study, this article explores the production of Taijiquan's "park culture space" (PCS). Our analysis revealed that the development of PCS not only transformed "public space" in the park to a "private space" through Taijiquan practice and exchange but also transformed "material space" in the park into "social space" with identification. We found that working on the process of self-managing Taijiquan's "park culture space" included the democratic operation mechanism of communication and consultation, the cooperative operation mechanism of mutual benefit, and the incentive operation mechanism of balancing interests. Taijiquan's "park culture space" was the reproduction of public space that was not only bonded with Taijiquan practice but was also reconstructed and expanded by Taijiquan practitioners. Furthermore, it involved the return of Taijiquan practitioners' historical memory and collective life experience alongside the construction of Taijiquan practitioners' group identity and the development of self-organization.


Assuntos
Autogestão , Tai Ji , Antropologia Cultural , China , Humanos , Prazer
4.
Psychol Aging ; 36(5): 626-641, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351187

RESUMO

Although the benefits of positive affect in old age have been well established, little is known about the late-life salience or adaptive value of discrete positive emotions that have contrasting motivational functions. In two studies, we examined the prevalence and health consequences of individual differences in positive emotions posited to motivate a present-focused mindset that fosters rest and recovery (calmness) or a future-focused mindset that motivates pursuit of novelty and stimulation (excitement). Study 1 was based on a 1-week daily diary study (n = 146) that assessed the salience of these discrete emotions in older adults (M age = 75, SD = 6.82) relative to younger adults (M age = 23, SD = 3.91). Results from multilevel models showed that older adults experienced higher average levels of calmness and lower levels of excitement in comparison to younger adults. Study 2 was based on a 10-year study (n = 336, M age = 75, SD = 6.64) and examined the longitudinal health consequences of individual differences in calmness and excitement for older adults who perceived varying levels of control over their life circumstances. Results from multilevel growth models showed that calmness, but not excitement, buffered against longitudinal declines in psychological well-being (perceived stress, depressive symptoms) and physical health (physical symptoms, chronic conditions) for older adults experiencing low control circumstances. Findings inform theories of emotional aging in showing that positive emotions with disparate motivational functions become more or less salient with age and have diverging consequences for health in late life. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Nível de Alerta , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Emoções , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Motivação , Prazer , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 56(5): 354-363, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338000

RESUMO

All physicians experience some patients described as "difficult." Their prevalence negatively impacts work satisfaction. Prior research identified factors present when physicians perceive patients as difficult. Numerous variables are unrelated to vexing patient visits. Three additive patient characteristics predict difficult encounters: 1) depressive or anxiety comorbidity, 2) polysymptomatic patients, and 3) high symptom severity. The sole physician variable was their score on the Physician Belief Scale (PBS) which quantifies negative attitudes towards psychosocial problems. When all three patient predictors exist, high PBS scorers judge twice as many patients as difficult. Five clinic milieu variables correlated weakly with clinic satisfaction among primary care residents. They are: 1) minimal role conflict, 2) autonomy, 3) collegiality, 4) encouragement of professional growth, and 5) work group loyalty. "Positive affect" was among the strongest physician variables but the author labeled it a confounding variable. Finally, a small "n" QI study conducted in this author's residency explored the role of physician affectivity and identified additional physician characteristics and clinic milieu factors correlating with overall enjoyment of ambulatory clinic practice. Surprisingly, none of the five previously identified clinic milieu variables correlated directly with resident clinic satisfaction. "Supportive staff cohesion" was one milieu variable that correlated significantly with clinic satisfaction. Resident affective characteristics that significantly reduced clinic satisfaction were "hostility" and "negative affectivity." "Joviality" was positively related to clinic satisfaction. While patient variables are uncontrollable, it is plausible that by physicians changing their beliefs and affectivity the percentage of vexing visits could be cut in half improving work satisfaction.


Assuntos
Médicos , Prazer , Assistência Ambulatorial , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Percepção , Relações Médico-Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360464

RESUMO

Benefits of performing sprint interval training (SIT) under hypoxic conditions on improving cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition have been well-documented, yet data is still lacking regarding affective responses to SIT under hypoxia. This study aimed to compare affective responses to SIT exercise under different oxygen conditions. Nineteen active males participated in three sessions of acute SIT exercise (20 repetitions of 6 s of all-out cycling bouts interspersed with 15 s of passive recovery) under conditions of normobaric normoxia (SL: PIO2 150 mmHg, FIO2 0.209), moderate hypoxia (MH: PIO2 117 mmHg, FIO2 0.154, simulating an altitude corresponding to 2500 m), and severe hypoxia (SH: PIO2 87 mmHg, FIO2 0.112, simulating an altitude of 5000 m) in a randomized order. Perceived exertions (RPE), affect, activation, and enjoyment responses were recorded before and immediately after each SIT session. There were no significant differences across the three conditions in RPE or the measurements of affective responses, despite a statistically lower SpO2 (%) in severe hypoxia. Participants maintained a positive affect valence and reported increased activation in all the three SIT conditions. Additionally, participants experienced a medium level of enjoyment after exercise as indicated by the exercise enjoyment scale (EES) and physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). These results indicated that performing short duration SIT exercise under severe hypoxia could be perceived as pleasurable and enjoyable as performing it under normoxia in active male population.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Hipóxia , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Prazer
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 378, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A motivation dimension of the core psychiatric symptom anhedonia additional has been suggested. The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS) has been reported to assess anticipatory and consummatory pleasure separately in multiple factor-structure models. This study explored the factor structure of a Chinese version of the 18-item TEPS and further explored the measurement invariance of the TEPS across sex and clinical status (non-clinical, psychiatric). METHODS: Best-fit factor structure of the TEPS was examined in a non-clinical cohort of 7410 undergraduates, randomized into sample 1 (N = 3755) for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and sample 2 (N = 3663) for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Additionally, serial CFA was conducted to evaluate measurement invariance across sex and between clinical (N = 313) and non-clinical (N = 341) samples. RESULTS: EFA supported a new four-factor structure with a motivation component, based on the original two-factor model (consummatory pleasure with/without motivation drive, anticipatory pleasure with/without motivation drive). CFA confirmed the four-factor model as the best-fit structure and revealed a second-order hierarchy in non-clinical and clinical samples. Full scalar invariance was observed across clinical and non-clinical samples and across sex in the clinical sample; only partial scalar invariance was observed across sex in the non-clinical sample. CONCLUSIONS: A four-factor structured TEPS can assess motivation-driving dimensions of anticipatory and consummatory pleasure, consistent with the recently advanced multidimensional structure of anhedonia. CFA and measurement invariance results support application of the TEPS for assessing motivation aspects of anhedonia.


Assuntos
Prazer , Universidades , China , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 667821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277539

RESUMO

The media increasingly speak of a care crisis. Systematic support is needed to prepare nursing apprentices for the high demands of their profession and to reduce the number of nurses who finally quit. Particularly in stressful jobs like nursing, humor as a coping strategy can have a beneficial effect on perceived stress and overall work enjoyment. In this study, we used a humor intervention among nursing staff in training and evaluated its effects on humor, stress, work enjoyment, the meaningfulness of work, and flow experience. The sample consists of 104 nurses in training. The intervention group received a 3-h humor intervention, while the control group received no intervention. Positive and negative affect were measured immediately before and after the intervention. Humor was measured before the intervention (t0) and again 6 months later (t1); at t1, we again measured humor and also stress, work meaningfulness, work enjoyment, and flow experience. Our analyses showed a beneficial change in positive and negative affect right after the intervention. By means of repeated measures ANOVA we could further confirm an effect of the intervention on reported humor 6 months later. Humor mediated positive effects of the humor intervention on perceived meaningfulness of work, work enjoyment, and on the frequency of flow at work. Also, we found a significant negative relationship between humor and stress measured at t1. The results of this study confirm the effectiveness of humor interventions in promoting humor, and, through this, the meaningfulness of work, work enjoyment, and the frequency of flow experience. Implications of the use of humor interventions in the nursing profession are discussed.


Assuntos
Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Prazer , Adaptação Psicológica , Emoções , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300117

RESUMO

This study aims to establish the basis for the institutional implementation of the 0th period physical education class to promote the health and academic performance of Korean teenagers. To achieve this goal, this study determined the impact of middle school students' participation in physical activities during the 0th period on perceived enjoyment and learning attitude. To examine the model, 282 questionnaires were collected from middle school students in a metropolitan city in South Korea. The samples were obtained using the convenience sampling method, and correlation analysis and structural equation modeling were performed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 21.0. The findings are as follows: first, the participation of middle school students in physical activities during the 0th period had a statistically significant effect on perceived enjoyment. Second, perceived enjoyment had no statistically significant effect on learning attitude. Third, participation was shown to have a significant effect on learning attitudes. These findings supported the academic basis for the implementation of the 0th period physical education class for middle school students and application of practical measures to encourage their participation.


Assuntos
Educação Física e Treinamento , Prazer , Adolescente , Atitude , Humanos , República da Coreia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(9): 1347-1354, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implant (CI) listeners experience diminished music perception and enjoyment from a variety of patient-related and implant-related factors. We investigate the hypothesis that patient-directed music re-engineering may enhance music enjoyment with CI. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Academic cochlear implant center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary team of neurotologists, audiologists, and a sound/audio engineer collaborated with a web developer to create a music re-engineering application. Experienced adult CI listeners rated original excerpts from five major genres of music on enjoyment using a visual analog scale (VAS). Subjects were then allowed to re-engineer the original by adjusting treble frequencies, bass frequencies, percussion emphasis, and reverberation and again rated on enjoyment. RESULTS: Total of 46 subjects, with a mean age of 57.6 years (SD = 16; range, 18-90) participated in the study. User-mixed audio was rated higher across all measures of enjoyment than original recordings (mean difference +0.92; p < 0.05, CI [0.22, 1.62]), an effect that was seen across all genres except for country music. Subjects preferred louder bass frequencies (mean difference +7.1 dB; p < 0.01, CI [2.15, 24.3]) and more reverberation (mean difference +6.6 ms; p < 0.01, CI [2.85, 10.7]). Re-engineered music increased enjoyment in 57%, and 79% reported an interest in being able to mix music of their own choosing. CONCLUSION: User-directed music re-engineering increases music enjoyment for CI listeners. The cochlear implantee preferred heightened bass, reverberation, and treble across musical genres. These findings support the implementation of patient-directed music re-engineering to enhance music enjoyment with technology that is readily available today.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Música , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva , Humanos , Internet , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prazer , Estudos Prospectivos , Software
11.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 180: 359-374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225941

RESUMO

The hypocretins/orexins were discovered in 1998. Within 2 years, this led to the discovery of the cause of human narcolepsy, a 90% loss of hypothalamic neurons containing these peptides. Further work demonstrated that these neurons were not simply linked to waking. Rather these neurons were active during pleasurable behaviors in waking and were silenced by aversive stimulation. This was seen in wild-type mice, rats, cats, and dogs. It was also evident in humans, with increased Hcrt release during pleasurable activities and decreased release, to the levels seen in sleep, during pain. We found that human heroin addicts have, on average, an increase of 54% in the number of detectable Hcrt neurons compared to "control" human brains and that these Hcrt neurons are substantially smaller than those in control brains. We found that in mice, chronic morphine administration induced the same changes in Hcrt neuron number and size. Our studies in the mouse allowed us to determine the specificity, dose response relations, time course of the change in the number of Hcrt neurons, and that the increased number of Hcrt neurons after opiates was not due to neurogenesis. Furthermore, we found that it took a month or longer for these anatomical changes in the mouse brain to return to baseline. Human narcoleptics, despite their prescribed use of several commonly addictive drugs, do not show significant evidence of dose escalation or substance use disorder. Similarly, mice in which the peptide has been eliminated are resistant to addiction. These findings are consistent with the concept that an increased number of Hcrt neurons may underlie and maintain opioid or cocaine use disorders.


Assuntos
Narcolepsia , Prazer , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Orexinas/metabolismo , Ratos
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 219: 103365, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246875

RESUMO

Many philosophers and psychologists have made claims about what is felt in an experience of beauty. Here, we test how well these claims match the feelings that people report while looking at an image, or listening to music, or recalling a personal experience of beauty. We conducted ten experiments (total n = 851) spanning three nations (US, UK, and India). Across nations and modalities, top-rated beauty experiences are strongly characterized by six dimensions: intense pleasure, an impression of universality, the wish to continue the experience, exceeding expectation, perceived harmony in variety, and meaningfulness. Other frequently proposed beauty characteristics - like surprise, desire to understand, and mind wandering - are uncorrelated with feeling beauty. A typical remembered beautiful experience was active and social like a family holiday - hardly ever mentioning beauty - and only rarely mentioned art, unlike the academic emphasis, in aesthetics, on solitary viewing of art. Our survey aligns well with Kant and the psychological theories that emphasize pleasure, and reject theories that emphasize information seeking.


Assuntos
Beleza , Música , Emoções , Estética , Humanos , Prazer
13.
Percept Mot Skills ; 128(5): 2211-2236, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112041

RESUMO

Affective responses and enjoyment of exercise mediate exercise adherence, but previous research findings have failed to examine nuances that may moderate this relationship. We examined the effects of exercise on affective and enjoyment responses during and post exercise through a systematic literature review and meta-regression analysis. We searched major databases up to July 9, 2020 for studies evaluating healthy adults' acute and chronic responses to exercise, using either of The Feeling Scale or Physical Activity Enjoyment Scales. We calculated effect size (ES) values of 20 unique studies (397 participants; 40% females) as standardized differences in the means and expressed them as Hedges' g, together with the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Among acute studies examining affective responses, we found a greater positive effect post exercise for continuous training (CT) compared to high intensity interval training (HIIT) (g = -0.61; 95%CI = -1.11, -0.10; p < .018), but there was no significant difference between these modes for effects during exercise. Subgroup analyses revealed that moderate, and not high intensity, CT, compared to HIIT, resulted in significantly greater positive affective responses (g = -1.09; 95%CI = -1.88, -0.30; p < .006). In contrast, enjoyment was greater for HIIT, compared to CT (g = 0.75; 95%CI = 0.17, -1.13; p = .010), but CT intensity did not influence this result. Among chronic studies, there was greater enjoyment following HIIT compared to CT, but these studies were too few to permit meta-analysis. We concluded that an acute bout of moderate intensity CT is more pleasurable, when measured post exercise than HIIT, but enjoyment is greater following HIIT, perhaps due to an interaction between effort, discomfort, time efficiency and constantly changing stimuli.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Prazer , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073761

RESUMO

This mixed-methods study aimed to determine the feasibility of incorporating movement breaks into university classes in terms of acceptability (disruption, engagement, satisfaction), practicality (ease of scheduling and conducting breaks) and efficacy (sedentary time, concentration, alertness, enjoyment). Movement breaks of five to 10 min duration were scheduled after 20 min of sedentary time during 2-h classes. Classes without movement breaks were used as a comparison. Data were collected using surveys, objective physical activity monitoring and focus group interviews of students (n = 85) and tutors (n = 6). Descriptive statistics (quantitative data) and independent coding and thematic analysis (qualitative data) were completed. Students (mean age 23 ± 2 years, 69% female) actively engaged in movement breaks with no adverse events. Movement breaks were perceived to be beneficial for concentration, engagement and productivity. Timing of the break was perceived to be important to enhance the benefit and reduce disruption. Students preferred outdoor or competitive movement breaks. Students spent 13 min less time sitting (95%CI 10 to 17), took 834 more steps (95%CI 675 to 994) and had higher levels of concentration, alertness and enjoyment (p < 0.001) in classes with movement breaks compared to classes without. Classroom movement breaks are feasible and may be considered for incorporation into university classes to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase physical activity, alertness, concentration and enjoyment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Universidades , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prazer , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070131

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) on affective responses in inactive women. Thirty women with normal body mass index (BMI) and 30 women with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 participated in the study. All participants completed a graded exercise test and performed two exercise sessions (HIIE and MICE) in random order. Affective responses were assessed during and after each exercise session, using the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), Self-Assessment-Manikin (SAM), and Subjective Exercise Experience Scale (SEES). The results showed that the RPE scores were significantly higher in HIIE than in MICE. HIIE resulted in significantly lower pleasure scores using the SAM while arousal and dominance scores were significantly higher with HIIE compared to MICE. Positive well-being scores using the SEES were significantly lower with HIIE and both psychological distress and fatigue scores were significantly higher with HIIE. The results showed that affective responses with MICE were more positive than with HIIE, but no differences were found between normal and overweight/obese women. Based on these results, MICE may be a more acceptable exercise program for inactive women regardless of their weight status.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Afeto , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Prazer
16.
J Affect Disord ; 291: 118-125, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is a common symptom of several disorders, but cost-effective treatments that focus on anhedonia specifically have been lacking. Therefore, personalized lifestyle advice has recently been investigated as a suitable means of enhancing pleasure and positive affect (PA) in young adults with anhedonia. This intervention provided individuals with a personalized lifestyle advice which was based on observed individual patterns of lifestyle behaviors and experienced pleasure in daily life. The present study extends this previous work by examining a potential mechanism of treatment success, affective reactivity. METHODS: We explored changes in affective reactivity to events in daily life from pre- to post-intervention in a subclinical sample of young adults with anhedonia (N = 69). Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), participants answered questions on their activities, their pleasure levels, PA and negative affect (NA) before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Multilevel analysis revealed that participants did not experience an altered affective reactivity to positive events after the intervention. The affective reactivity to negative events depended on the level of improvement in mean-PA after the lifestyle advice intervention. LIMITATIONS: The present study used a subclinical sample with the majority of participants being female which limited the generalizability of the findings. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that an altered affective reactivity to negative events is an underlying mechanism of the effectiveness of a personalized lifestyle advice.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Prazer , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250928, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945568

RESUMO

Taste stimuli can induce a variety of physiological reactions depending on the quality and/or hedonics (overall pleasure) of tastants, for which objective methods have long been desired. In this study, we used artificial intelligence (AI) technology to analyze facial expressions with the aim of assessing its utility as an objective method for the evaluation of food and beverage hedonics compared with conventional subjective (perceived) evaluation methods. The face of each participant (10 females; age range, 21-22 years) was photographed using a smartphone camera a few seconds after drinking 10 different solutions containing five basic tastes with different hedonic tones. Each image was then uploaded to an AI application to achieve outcomes for eight emotions (surprise, happiness, fear, neutral, disgust, sadness, anger, and embarrassment), with scores ranging from 0 to 100. For perceived evaluations, each participant also rated the hedonics of each solution from -10 (extremely unpleasant) to +10 (extremely pleasant). Based on these, we then conducted a multiple linear regression analysis to obtain a formula to predict perceived hedonic ratings. The applicability of the formula was examined by combining the emotion scores with another 11 taste solutions obtained from another 12 participants of both genders (age range, 22-59 years). The predicted hedonic ratings showed good correlation and concordance with the perceived ratings. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a model that enables the prediction of hedonic ratings based on emotional facial expressions to food and beverage stimuli.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Inteligência Artificial , Asco , Expressão Facial , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prazer/fisiologia , Tristeza/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(suppl 3): e20200735, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the experiences that generate pleasure and suffering in the work of nurses in an oncopediatric inpatient unit. METHODS: Qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study. Data collection took place from March to May 2018, through interviews with eight nurses in an oncopediatric inpatient unit. RESULTS: The verbalized experiences of pleasure were the work developed with children, participation in the treatment and cure of patients and the recognition of family members in relation to the work performed. The suffering experiences were palliative care and death of patients, performing invasive procedures and organizing work. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: It was possible to analyze the experiences of pleasure and suffering of nurses in an oncopediatric unit through the psychodynamics of work, allowing to reinvent prevention and intervention measures by managers in health/mental illness processes at work.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/enfermagem , Enfermeiras Pediátricas/psicologia , Dor , Enfermagem Pediátrica , Prazer , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Unidades Hospitalares , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 863, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recreational and sexual drug use among men who have sex with men may result in increased risk of poor health. The aim of this study was to better understand drug use and harm reduction techniques among Swedish men who have sex with men traveling to Berlin in order to improve the health of this population and inform public health strategies. METHODS: A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 15 Swedish men aged 23-44 with experience of drug use were recruited through network sampling. Interviews were conducted in Stockholm and Berlin and analysed using content analysis. The interview guide included questions on drug use, context, health and safety. RESULTS: The participants engaged in drug use in both settings and in various contexts. Participants saw themselves as capable of finding a balance between pleasure, safety and risk with the aim to maximize positive effects while minimizing negative ones. The different risks of drug use were known, and participants relied on knowledge, harm reduction strategies and self-defined rules of intake to stay safe and healthy in a broad sense, both short term (i.e. during each session) and long term. Choice of drug and, frequency of intake, multi-use, risk of overdose, risk of HIV, purpose and context of use, how often, etc. were all part of the overall strategy. Knowledge of these methods was spread within the community and on-line rather than from counsellors or other health care providers. However, it did not always translate perfectly into practice and some had experienced overdoses and problematic use. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study point to the need for increased adoption of harm reduction techniques in this population focusing on mitigating harm and prevention of risk of problematic use or starting injection drugs. Existing traditional services require adaptations to become more accessible and acceptable to sub-groups of drug users, including low-threshold services providing non-judgemental, evidence-based information. This will require funding of alternative providers such as STI/HIV clinics, among others, and health care providers to increase adoption of prevention strategies, specifically pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Berlim , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prazer , Comportamento Sexual , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Elife ; 102021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821797

RESUMO

Oxytocin is well-known for its impact on social cognition. This specificity for the social domain, however, has been challenged by findings suggesting a domain-general allostatic function for oxytocin by promoting future-oriented and flexible behavior. In this pre-registered study, we tested the hypothesized domain-general function of oxytocin by assessing the impact of intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) on core aspects of human social (inequity aversion) and non-social decision making (delay of gratification and cognitive flexibility) in 49 healthy volunteers (within-subject design). In intertemporal choice, patience was higher under oxytocin than under placebo, although this difference was evident only when restricting the analysis to the first experimental session (between-group comparison) due to carry-over effects. Further, oxytocin increased cognitive flexibility in reversal learning as well as generosity under conditions of advantageous but not disadvantageous inequity. Our findings show that oxytocin affects both social and non-social decision making, supporting theoretical accounts of domain-general functions of oxytocin.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Prazer/efeitos dos fármacos , Reversão de Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Social , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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