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1.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e82, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839013

RESUMO

AIMS: This review aims to understand the scope of the literature regarding mental health-related microaggressions towards people affected by mental health problems. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to explore this question. Four electronic health-oriented databases were searched alongside Google Scholar. As per scoping review principles, the inclusion criteria were developed iteratively. The results of included studies were synthesised using a basic narrative synthesis approach, utilising principles of thematic analysis and thematic synthesis where appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 1196 records were identified, of which 17 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 12 were peer-reviewed journal articles, three were research degree theses and two were book chapters. Six included empirical studies were qualitative, four were quantitative and two employed a mixed-methods design. Within these, five qualitative studies aimed to describe the nature of mental health microaggressions experienced by people with mental health problems. Themes identified in a thematic synthesis of these five studies included stereotypes about mental illness, invalidating peoples' experience and blaming people with mental illness for their condition. The included publications informed on the perpetration of mental health microaggressions by family, friends, health professionals and social workers. In addition, two studies created scales, which were then used in cross-sectional surveys of the general public and community members to assess characteristics, such as right-wing political views, associated with endorsement of mental health microaggressions. A consensus definition of microaggressions emerged from the included studies: microaggressions are brief, everyday slights, snubs or insults, that may be subtle or ambiguous, but communicate a negative message to a target person based on their membership of a marginalised group, in this case, people affected by mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: The study of mental health microaggressions is an emerging, heterogeneous field, embedded in the wider stigma and discrimination literature. It has been influenced by earlier work on racial microaggressions. Both can be ambiguous and contradictory, which creates difficulty defining the boundaries of the concept, but also underpins the key theoretical basis for the negative impact of microaggressions. Mental illness is a more concealable potential type of identity, so it follows that the reported perpetrators of microaggressions are largely friends, family and professionals. This has implications for intervening to reduce the impact of microaggressions. There are several challenges facing research in this area, and further work is needed to understand the impact of mental health microaggressions on people affected by mental health problems.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Discriminação Social , Estigma Social , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estereotipagem
2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 876-886, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047660

RESUMO

"Eu sou um pessimista ativo, porque tenho fé". Assim Muniz Sodré se declara ao conceder à Reciis uma entrevista que trata sobre a questão de raça/etnicidades em articulação com os estudos da comunicação. O professor e pesquisador argumenta que a escravidão está enraizada na forma social brasileira, pois a abolição jurídico-política não foi suficiente para abolir os espíritos escravocratas. Mas que é preciso ter fé nas movimentações e contramovimentações sensíveis do corpo do outro, negro, o qual mobiliza as barreiras de imunidade racistas. Sodré entende que a expressão lugar de fala é uma reivindicação efêmera, pois acredita na virtude do corpo como um espaço de diálogo com outros lugares. Em relação aos estudos de comunicação e raça, argumenta que as pesquisas se restringem ainda às descrições das tecnologias da mídia, assim como as pesquisas de maneira geral, mas que esses estudos "têm um papel político forte: eles fazem emergir essa classe intelectual negra que estava submersa". Muniz Sodré é professor emérito da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.


Assuntos
Humanos , Fala , Grupos Étnicos , Comunicação , Cultura , Racismo , Preconceito , Ciências Sociais , Violência , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Homicídio , Relações Interpessoais
3.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1257-1278, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-995086

RESUMO

Discute-se, aqui, as contribuições da Psicologia, elaborada por Dante Moreira Leite, importante intelectual e psicólogo brasileiro, para a educação. O objetivo é analisar a crítica social realizada pelo pesquisador, quanto aos seus potenciais e limites, relacionando-a com as principais conclusões da teoria crítica da sociedade, conforme os autores da primeira geração. Constata-se que Dante debate problemas fundamentais da educação nacional, com destaque para seus estudos acerca dos conceitos de ideologia e preconceito, evidenciando que as manifestações de tais conceitos são psicológicas, mas as origens são sociais. Dante elaborou, então, proposições com o intuito de motivar o aluno, mantendo-o na escola e promovendo o seu aprendizado, de melhor preparar o professor, bem como para propugnar medidas pedagógicas, até hoje em discussão. No entanto, nota-se que suas proposições se voltam mais para a adaptação à ordem social vigente do que à crítica dessa ordem.(AU)


Here we discuss the contributions of Psychology to education, as formulated by Dante Moreira Leite, an important Brazilian intellectual and psychologist. Our objective is to analyse the social critique elaborated by this researcher, regarding its potentials and limits, relating it to the main conclusions of critical theory of society, as stablished by the authors of the first generation. Although Dante discusses fundamental problems of national education, here we highlight his studies regarding ideology and prejudice, whose manifestations are psychological, but origins are social. The author makes propositions with the intention of motivating the students, keeping them in school and promoting their apprenticeship, preparing the teacher, also advocating pedagogical measures that are until this day under discussion. However, it is noted that his propositions relate more to adaptation to the current social order than to the criticism of that order.(AU)


Se discute, aquí, las contribuciones de la Psicología para la educación, conforme elaborada por Dante Moreira Leite, importante intelectual y psicólogo brasileño. El objetivo es analizar la crítica social elaborada por el investigador, en cuanto a sus potenciales y límites, relacionándola con las principales conclusiones de la teoría crítica de la sociedad, consonante con los autores de la primera generación. Se constata que Dante debate problemas fundamentales de la educación nacional, con destaque para sus estudios acerca de la ideología y el prejuicio, siendo que sus manifestaciones son psicológicas, pero sus orígenes son sociales. Elabora, entonces, proposiciones con el propósito de motivar al alumno, manteniéndolo en la escuela y promoviendo su aprendizaje, la preparación del profesor, así como propugnar medidas pedagógicas, hasta hoy en discusión. Sin embargo, se nota que sus proposiciones se vuelven más a la adaptación al orden social vigente que a la crítica de ese orden.(AU)


Assuntos
Preconceito/psicologia , Educação , Psicologia
4.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020419, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656607

RESUMO

Background: Mental health disorders (MHD) are leading causes of disabilities. Awareness of MHD in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is crucial to both health care professionals and general community if those affected by MHD are to be allowed to live in dignity and be socially included, rather than being treated as outcasts or witches, as is presently the case. Therefore, this review aims to map and summarise the extent to which awareness of MHD and dementia in SSA challenges stigmatisation issues. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO). A content analysis of selected studies was performed. Findings on awareness challenges and stigmatisation were identified and categorised. Results: A total of 230 publications were screened, 25 were selected for this review. The results demonstrate strong supernatural beliefs influencing peoples' perceptions of diseases. These perceptions promote stigmatising attitudes towards people with MHD and dementia. The education level correlated with stigmatising attitudes, whereby higher educated people were less likely to distance themselves socially from people with MHD and from people living with dementia (PwD). Astonishingly, even people educated in health issues (eg, nurses, medical practitioners) tended to have strong beliefs in supernatural causations of diseases, like witchcraft, and hold negative attitudes towards MHD and PwD. Conclusions: This review provides some evidence on the influence of traditional beliefs on MHDs in SSA. Those beliefs are powerful and exist in all segments in SSA-communities, promoting superstitious perceptions on diseases and stigmatisation. Awareness and education campaigns on MHD are absolutely mandatory to reduce stigmatisation.


Assuntos
Demência/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , África ao Sul do Saara , Humanos , Preconceito , Estereotipagem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1271, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpersonal discrimination experience has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Limited research has evaluated this relationship within multicultural contexts outside the United States where the nature and salience of discrimination experiences may differ. Such research is important in order to help identify protective and risk factors that may mediate the relationship between discrimination experience and adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: Evaluated the relationship between perceived discrimination, as measured in pregnancy, with birth weight and gestation length among Maori, Pacific, and Asian women from Aotearoa New Zealand (N = 1653). RESULTS: Thirty percent of the sample reported some type of unfair treatment that they attributed to their ethnicity. For Maori women specifically, unfair treatment at work (ß = - 243 g) and in acquiring housing (ß = - 146 g) were associated with lower birth weight when compared to Maori women not experiencing these types of discrimination, while an ethnically motivated physical attack (ß = - 1.06 week), and unfair treatment in the workplace (ß = - 0.95 week), in the criminal justice system (ß = - 0.55 week), or in banking (ß = - 0.73 week) were associated with significantly shorter gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high prevalence of discrimination experience among women from all ethnic groups, discrimination experience was a strong predictor of lower birth weight and shorter gestation length among indigenous Maori women only. Additional research is needed to better understand the risk and protective factors that may moderate the relationship between discrimination experience and adverse birth outcomes among women from different ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 624, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A physician shortage is a worldwide problem and foreign-born physicians fill in the shortage of physicians in many developed countries. One problem that is associated with the physician shortage is increased physician turnover. Also, regarding foreign-born physicians, migration can be costly. The present study aimed to examine the turnover intentions and intentions to leave the country of foreign-born physicians. We examined how demographics, discrimination, language problems, perceived employment barriers, satisfaction with living in Finland, team climate, job satisfaction and patient-related stress were associated with these factors. METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 371 foreign-born physicians in Finland that were aged between 26 and 65 (65% women). Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations. RESULTS: Half of the respondents had turnover intentions and 14.5% had considered leaving the country. High satisfaction with living in Finland was associated with a lower likelihood of both turnover intentions and intentions to leave the country. High levels of discrimination and employment barriers were associated with a high likelihood of turnover intentions whereas good team climate was associated with a low likelihood of turnover intentions. High levels of language problems were associated with a high likelihood of intentions to leave the country. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed the importance of satisfaction with living in the host country, the prevention of discrimination and employment barriers, language skills and a good team climate for the retention of foreign-born physicians in their current job and in the host country. Thus, to keep their foreign-born physicians, health care organisations should implement measures to tackle these challenges. Organisations could arrange, for example, diversity training, self-assessment, team reflections, leadership coaching and culturally-specific networks. Moreover, internships associated with the qualification process could be utilised better in order to give a thorough introduction to the host country's health care environment and the possibilities for learning the language.


Assuntos
Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/psicologia , Humanos , Intenção , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Médicos/psicologia , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Preconceito/psicologia , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(3): 618-633, jul.-set. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021535

RESUMO

Nesta entrevista concedida à Reciis, Richard Parker discute sobre as configurações contemporâneas das identidades, dos movimentos LGBT e do combate ao HIV/aids a partir de um cenário histórico da década de 1980, quando por motivos pessoais e profissionais resolve se mudar para o Brasil e começa a desenvolver pesquisas sobre sexualidade. O pesquisador comenta que a globalização da sexualidade e a velocidade do mundo digital ampliaram as possiblidades e transformações das identidades LGBT, o que, contudo, não propiciou mudanças nos sistemas de exclusão, de desigualdades, de discriminação e de formação de estigmas desses sujeitos. No período de emergência da epidemia, Parker testemunhou e participou da construção de importantes organizações de apoio ao combate do HIV/aids no país e, hoje, propõe pensar em uma desconstrução do estigma desta infecção na interceccionalidade a partir dos estigmas das desigualdades sociais e de raça. Em relação à prevenção e tratamento, argumenta sobre a prevalência de uma abordagem biomédica de "testar e tratar" em detrimento de uma pedagogia da prevenção que reforça princípios de solidariedade e direitos humanos no compartilhamento e incorporação de saberes entre a ciência e a comunidade. Richard Parker é professor visitante sênior do Instituto de Estudos em Saúde Coletiva (Iesc) da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) e professor titular emérito da Universidade de Columbia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , HIV , Vulnerabilidade Social , Estigma Social , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Ativismo Político , Direitos Humanos , Preconceito , Transexualismo , Brasil , Sexualidade , Cultura , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição
9.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 7(4): 387-394, 30/09/2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023227

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar o atendimento dos serviços de saúde prestados às pessoas que vivem com HIV/AIDS, buscando identificar atitudes de discriminação e preconceito vivenciadas na perspectiva dos usuários no município de Fortaleza/CE. Método: estudo seccional e exploratório, com abordagem quantitativa, realizada no período de março a junho/2018, com 65 indivíduos que frequentam a unidade da Rede Nacional de pessoas que vivem com HIV/AIDS (RNP) na cidade de Fortaleza-CE. As atitudes de discriminação foram mensuradas por meio da escala de Allport. Os dados foram digitados pelo software Excel for Windows® 2010 e, a seguir, exportados e analisados pelo programa STATA/SE® 11.2. Resultados: 20% dos indivíduos afirmaram sofrer algum tipo de discriminação em locais de saúde por viverem com HIV/AIDS. Entretanto, 67,7% informaram já terem sido vitimas de algum tipo de preconceito por causa da doença, desses 50% foram vítimas de piadas e apenas 6% de ataques físicos. Conclusão: ainda há muito a melhorar para uma efetiva garantia do acesso e humanização do atendimento às pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS.


Objective: to analyze the care provided to people living with HIV/AIDS, seeking to identify discrimination and prejudicial attitudes experienced by the users' perspective, in the city of Fortaleza. Method: this is a cross-sectional and exploratory field survey, with a quantitative approach, which was carried out between March and June 2018, with 65 individuals who attending the unit of the National Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS (RNP), located in the municipality of Fortaleza-Ceará. Discriminative attitudes were measured by the Allport Scale. The data was entered by the software Excel for Windows® 2010 and then was exported and analyzed by the STATA/SE® 11.2 program. Results: 20% of individuals reported having suffered some kind type of discrimination in health places due to the fact that they have HIV/AIDS. However, 67.7% reported that they had already suffered some kind of prejudice because of the disease, and that 50% were victims of jokes and only 6% of physical attacks. Conclusion: there is still much to improve for an effective guarantee of access and humanization of care for people living with HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , HIV , Preconceito , Estigma Social , Serviços de Saúde
10.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 213(4): 785-791, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. This article introduces key concepts of inequity as they apply to interventional radiology, from both the patient and the physician perspectives, to ultimately improve the health care of all patients. CONCLUSION. By directing society's efforts toward addressing health care disparities, our specialty may begin to establish trust and partnerships with populations that are disproportionately affected and those that have been historically exploited and disenfranchised by medicine in the name of innovation. Although we may look to close the equity gap by understanding health care disparities as they pertain to our patient populations, a closer examination of barriers of entry into medicine for underrepresented minorities reveals numerous disparities across race, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Radiologia Intervencionista , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Defesa do Paciente , Preconceito , Radiologia Intervencionista/educação
11.
S Afr Med J ; 109(8): 548-551, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456545

RESUMO

The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) requires the blood testosterone level of female athletes with differences of sex development to be reduced to below 5 nmol/L for a continuous period of at least 6 months, and thereafter to be maintained to below 5 nmol/L continuously for as long as the athlete wishes to remain eligible. Its ruling is based on questionable research findings. Medical decisions and interventions should be based on evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research and confirmatory studies. Caster Semenya, the reigning 800-meter Olympic champion since 2015, has challenged this ruling. Gender verification was instituted with women's participation in the Olympics in 1900, and female athletes were subjected to invasive, embarrassing and humiliating procedures. In its many decades of harsh scrutiny of successful female athletes, especially those from backgrounds similar to Semenya's, the IAAF has disrespected human rights and medical ethics and allowed prejudice, discrimination and injustice to infringe on their dignity and relentlessly obstruct their international sporting careers.


Assuntos
Atletas/legislação & jurisprudência , Hiperandrogenismo , Análise para Determinação do Sexo , Medicina Esportiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Preconceito , Racismo , Análise para Determinação do Sexo/ética
12.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1938-1951, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446586

RESUMO

Sexual/gender minority (Sexual/gender minority people are also referred to as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer) youth are more likely than cisgender heterosexual youth to exhibit depressive symptoms and be victimized. School climate research indicates that the presence of a Gay-Straight Alliance (a Gay-Straight Alliance or Gender-Sexuality Alliance is also referred to as a GSA and is a youth group to support sexual/gender minority youth), a supportive school climate, and seeking help from teachers are associated with more positive mental health outcomes; however, they are not typically measured together. This study uses a survey that measures all four measures of school environment with a national sample of 240 sexual/gender minority high school students ages 14-18 (mean age 15.77) where 53% of participants had a Gay-Straight Alliance in their school. The sample is 53% cisgender, 100% sexual minority and 62% white. Adjusting for demographics and presence of a Gay-Straight Alliance, fewer depressive symptoms were associated with lower help-seeking intentions for suicidal thoughts. The presence of Gay-Straight Alliance was not statistically associated with past-month help-seeking intentions or behaviors. Additionally, a more supportive school climate was associated with lower anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, the presence of a Gay-Straight Alliance was not statistically associated with anxiety or depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that a supportive school climate and supportive school personnel may be important for supporting the mental health of sexual/gender minority students.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Preconceito/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Sexualidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Bissexualidade/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia
13.
Intellect Dev Disabil ; 57(4): 263-273, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373544

RESUMO

There are decades of research indicating ableism is extremely prominent. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between disability prejudice and institutionalization of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). This study had two research questions: (1) How does disability prejudice impact the number of people with IDD who are institutionalized in a state? and (2) How does disability prejudice impact spending on institutions? To do so, we utilized secondary data about state utilization of institutions (fiscal year 2015), and disability prejudice data from 325,000 people. Findings revealed, states with higher disability prejudice institutionalize more people, even when controlling for size. Moreover, states with higher disability prejudice also spend more on institutional funding, regardless of size or wealth.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Institucionalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiência Intelectual , Preconceito , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/economia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Assistência de Longa Duração/economia , Medicaid , Estados Unidos
15.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 342-365, maio-ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1010038

RESUMO

Este artigo de revisão objetiva destacar as contribuições e fazer um panorama dos estudos que utilizam a teoria das representações sociais para estudar o fenômeno da homofobia no contexto da psicologia social brasileira. A pesquisa foi realizada nas bases BVS, PePSIC e SciELO, sem demarcação de tempo. Foram encontrados sete artigos empíricos realizados no contexto brasileiro, três de cunho quantitativo e quatro qualitativos. Cinco artigos deixaram claros os modelos escolhidos, entre eles a abordagem societal e abordagem estrutural. Também apontaram quatro núcleos temáticos que não são excludentes, mas dizem respeito ao foco de cada trabalho: (1) Expressão do preconceito e natureza da homossexualidade; (2) Adoção homoparental; (3) Representações sociais da homossexualidade; (4) Professores e representações sociais da homossexualidade e diversidade sexual. Duas tendências podem ser apontadas quanto aos objetivos: (1) a compreensão das expressões do preconceito (sutil e flagrante) com base nas representações sobre a natureza da homossexualidade; (2) as representações a respeito da homossexualidade. É preciso que os estudos futuros mudem seu foco, propondo formas de enfrentamento e combate a discriminação homofóbica, além de considerar o lugar de fala de LGBT. Deixando a busca pela origem da homofobia e da homossexualidade em segundo plano.(AU)


This review article aims to highlight the contributions and give an overview of the studies that use social representations theories to study the homophobia phenomenon in the context of Brazilian Social Psychology. The research was carried out in the BVS, PePSIC and SciELO bases, without time demarcation. seven empirical articles were found in the Brazilian context. Three with quantitative aproach and four with qualitative aproach. Five articles made clear their chosen models, among them the societal approach and structural approach. They also pointed out four thematic nuclei that were not excluding but related to the focus of each work: (1) Expressions of prejudice and nature of homosexuality; (2) Homoparental adoption; (3) Social representations of homosexuality and; (4) Teachers and social representations of homosexuality and sexual diversity. Two tendencies can be pointed toward the objectives: (1) the understanding of expressions of prejudice (subtle and flagrant) based on representations about the nature of homosexuality and; (2) representations regarding homosexuality. It is necessary that future studies change their focus, proposing strategies to face and fight homophobic discrimination, as well as taking into account the place of LGBT speech. Leaving the search for the origin of homophobia and homosexuality in the background.(AU)


Este artículo de revisión tiene por objetivo destacar las contribuciones y hacer un panorama de los estudios que utilizan la teoría de las representaciones sociales para estudiar el fenómeno de la homofobia en el contexto de la psicología social brasileña. La investigación se realizó en las bases BVS, PePSIC y SciELO, sin demarcación de tiempo. Se encontraron sete artículos empíricos realizados en el contexto brasileño. Tres de carácter cuantitativo y cuatro cualitativos. Cinco artículos dejaron claros los modelos escogidos, entre ellos el enfoque societal y el enfoque estructural. También señalaron cuatro temas que no son excluyentes entre sí, sino que se relacionan con el enfoque de cada trabajo: (1) la expresión de los prejuicios y la naturaleza de la homosexualidad; (2) Adopción homoparental; (3) Representaciones sociales de la homosexualidad; (4) Profesores y representaciones sociales de la homosexualidad y diversidad sexual. Dos tendencias se pueden identificar cuanto a los objetivos: (1) la comprensión de las expresiones del prejuicio (sutiles y evidentes) con base en las representaciones acerca de la naturaleza de la homosexualidad y; (2) las representaciones acerca de la homosexualidad. Es necesario que los estudios futuros cambien su enfoque, proponiendo formas de enfrentamiento y combate a la discriminación homofóbica, además de considerar el lugar de habla de LGBT. Dejando la búsqueda por el origen de la homofobia y de la homosexualidad en segundo plano.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Social , Homofobia/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Homossexualidade , Sexismo
16.
Clin Rehabil ; 33(11): 1800-1809, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to analyse the psychometric properties of the Stroke Stigma Scale, a novel scale to assess perceived stigma of patients with stroke. DESIGN: This is a psychometric study. SETTING: Neurology or rehabilitation units in three hospitals in China. SUBJECTS: A total of 288 patients with stroke. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASURES: The content validity of the Stroke Stigma Scale was assessed through expert consultation. Criterion validity was evaluated based on the scale's relationships with the Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness and the Self-rating Depression Scale. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, and internal consistency was tested with Cronbach's α. RESULTS: The final version Stroke Stigma Scale consists of 16 items. It showed strong positive correlations with both the Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness (ρ = 0.89, P < 0.001) and the Self-rating Depression Scale (ρ = 0.82, P < 0.001). The exploratory factor analysis revealed four components of the Stroke Stigma Scale: internalized stigma, physical impairment, discrimination experience, and social isolation, which were strongly associated with our perceived stroke stigma model. Cronbach's α for the total scale was 0.92, and that of each subscale was 0.77-0.86. The test-retest reliability with intra-class correlation coefficients of the total scale was 0.92 (P < 0.001), and intra-class correlation coefficients of each subscale were 0.74-0.89 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The Stroke Stigma Scale is a reliable and valid measure of perceived stigma in patients with stroke, which may be useful in stigma prevention and stroke rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Estigma Social , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preconceito , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Isolamento Social
20.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(6): 651-664, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282691

RESUMO

In this qualitative study, the authors examined responses to racial microaggressions among community members in Montreal, Canada. To this end, using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA; Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009) we conducted individual interviews with Black Canadian (n = 5) and Indigenous (n = 5) community members who pursued employment directly after secondary education. Seven themes emerged from the data (e.g., calling out perpetrators, empowering self and others, choosing to not engage, and using humor). Response strategies convey 4 primary features: (a) importance of social support in accessing resources and confronting racial microaggressions, (b) use of culturally grounded strategies as a form of resistance, (c) multifaceted use of humor to confront and to minimize racial microaggressions, and (d) intentional use of avoidance among women participants. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Agressão/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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