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1.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-11, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1341800

RESUMO

Diferentes configurações familiares têm surgido na contemporaneidade em decorrência de avanços sociais. Entre as parentalidades emergentes, a homoparentalidade é a que mais se distancia do ideal social, já que evidencia a orientação sexual dos pais e mobiliza fantasias de que ela interfira no exercício parental e no desenvolvimento de seus filhos. Por esta razão, investigamos a experiência emocional de casais homoafetivos em relação ao preconceito vivenciado no exercício da parentalidade. Para isso, adotamos uma abordagem qualitativa psicanalítica e entrevistamos seis casais homoafetivos, fazendo uso de uma Narrativa Interativa, dado seu potencial de acesso lúdico e protegido à experiência emocional dos participantes. A análise interpretativa do material narrativo resultou em campos de sentidos afetivo-emocionais dos quais o campo "Que família é essa?" emerge como emblemático do preconceito sofrido pela família homoparental em decorrência de uma visão patriarcal e heteronormativa da sociedade. Embora os casais homoafetivos reproduzam em certa medida o padrão familiar heterossexual, seu modo de exercer a parentalidade aponta para alternativas criativas e levanta novos questionamentos.


Different family configurations have emerged in contemporary times due to social advancements. Among the emergent parenting, homoparenting is the one that distances itself from the social ideal the most, as it evidences the parents' sexual orientation and mobilizes fantasies that it interferes with the parenting exercise and their children's development. For this reason, we investigate the emotional experience of homoaffective couples regarding the prejudice experienced in parenting exercise. For this, we adopted a qualitative psychoanalytic approach, and we interviewed six homoaffective couples, making use of an Interactive Narrative, given its potential for ludic and protected access to the emotional experience of the participants. The interpretive analysis of the narrative material has resulted in fields of affective-emotional meaning, from which the "What family is this?" field emerges as emblematic of the prejudice suffered by the homoparental family as a result of a patriarchal and heteronormative view from society. Although homoaffective couples to some extent reproduce the heterosexual family pattern, their way of parenting exercise point out to creative alternatives and raise new questions.


Diferentes configuraciones familiares han surgido en los tiempos contemporáneos como resultado de avances sociales. Entre las paternidades emergentes, la homoparentalidad es la más alejada del ideal social, ya que destaca la orientación sexual de los padres y moviliza fantasías de ella interfiriendo en el ejercicio parental y en el desarrollo de sus hijos. Por esta razón, investigamos la experiencia emocional de parejas homoafetivas en relación al prejuicio experimentado en el ejercicio de la parentalidad. Para esto, adoptamos un enfoque psicoanalítico cualitativo y entrevistamos a seis parejas homoafetivas, haciendo uso de una Narrativa Interactiva, dado su potencial para el acceso lúdico y protegido a la experiencia emocional de los participantes. El análisis interpretativo del material narrativo ha dado como resultado campos de significados afectivo-emocionales de los cuales el campo "¿Que familia es esta?" emerge como un emblema del prejuicio sufrido por la familia homoparental como resultado de una visión patriarcal y heteronormativa de la sociedad. Aunque las parejas homoafetivas reproducen hasta cierto punto el patrón familiar heterosexual, su modo de ejercer la parentalidad apunta a alternativas creativas y plantean nuevas preguntas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preconceito , Comportamento Sexual , Homossexualidade , Características da Família , Poder Familiar , Heterossexualidade , Narrativa Pessoal , Identidade de Gênero
2.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(4): 83-91, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1347844

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: compreender o imaginário coletivo sobre pacientes com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia por parte de enfermeiros inseridos na Atenção Primária, com foco em suas possíveis reverberações no tocante à atenção em saúde mental. MÉTODO: pesquisa qualitativa, orientada pelo método investigativo psicanalítico, desenvolvida junto a 15 enfermeiros. O instrumento utilizado foi o Procedimento de Desenho-Estória com Tema, e os dados coletados foram interpretados psicanaliticamente visando à captação dos campos de sentido. RESULTADOS: no imaginário coletivo da maioria dos participantes, ocupa lugar central a crença de que o acompanhamento de pacientes com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia é responsabilidade exclusiva de profissionais e/ou serviços de saúde "especializados", o que aparentemente atravessa, de modo marcante, os (des)encontros que se estabelecem entre os enfermeiros e os referidos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: essa crença é incompatível com os preceitos da Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira e com o papel a ser desempenhado, na Atenção Primária, pelos enfermeiros.


OBJECTIVE: understand the collective imaginary about patients diagnosed with schizophrenia by nurses in Primary Health Care, focusing on their possible reverberations regarding mental health care. METHOD: qualitative research oriented by the psychoanalytical investigative method, developed with 15 nurses. The instrument used was the Drawing-Story with Theme Procedure, and the data collected were interpreted psychoanalytically to capture fields of meaning. RESULTS: in the collective imaginary of most participants, is central the belief that the continuity of mental health care of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is an exclusive responsibility of "specialized" health professionals and/or services, and it seems to significantly affect the (dis)encounters established between the nurses and those patients. CONCLUSION: this belief is incompatible with the precepts of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and with the role of nurses in Primary Health Care.


OBJETIVO: comprender el imaginario colectivo sobre pacientes con diagnóstico de esquizofrenia por parte de enfermeros de la Atención Primaria, enfocándose en sus posibles reverberaciones con respecto a la atención en salud mental. MÉTODO: investigación cualitativa, orientada por el método investigativo psicoanalítico, desarrollada con 15 enfermeros. El instrumento utilizado fue el Procedimiento de Dibujo-Cuentos con Tema, y los datos fueron interpretados psicoanalíticamente para capturar campos de sentido. RESULTADOS: en el imaginario colectivo de la mayoría de los participantes, es central la creencia de que la continuidad de la asistencia a pacientes con diagnóstico de esquizofrenia es responsabilidad exclusiva de profesionales y/o servicios de salud "especializados", lo que aparentemente afecta de manera significativa los (des)encuentros que se establecen entre los enfermeros y esos pacientes. CONCLUSIÓN: esta creencia es incompatible con los preceptos de la Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileña y con el papel que deben desempeñar los enfermeros en la Atención Primaria.


Assuntos
Humanos , Preconceito , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Esquizofrenia , Saúde Mental , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770155

RESUMO

The objective of the article is to understand Afro-Colombian women's emotional experiences of the migratory process, and their labor insertion in Chilean territory. The Antofagasta region is one of the doors that connects Chile with its neighbors; at the same time, it is a national territory that is linked to important economic and human movements due to its mining activity. In the analysis of the data collected through of group and individual interviews conducted in the city of Antofagasta, we found experiences of xenophobia, labor abuse, discrimination, prejudices, and stereotypes articulated, along with the tendency of Chilean culture to value European traits over native Latin American traits.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Preconceito , Chile , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Direitos da Mulher
4.
5.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75(1): e20210135, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess stigma and prejudice in the organization of the Psychosocial Care Network for drug users. METHODS: this is a qualitative study, developed through Empowerment Assessment. The survey was conducted in a municipality in Rio Grande do Sul, with 42 network workers. For data collection, participant observation, semi-structured interviews and open forum were used. For data analysis, thematic analysis was used. RESULTS: the network's mission involved a proposal for care without prejudice and judgments for drug users. It was identified that the composition of the network with training in multidisciplinary residency and psychiatry facilitates achieving the mission, and among the difficulties, the challenges to overcome prejudice were analyzed. Strategies for continuing education, seminars, and user empowerment in the community are suggested. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: stigma and prejudice need to be problematized in the networks for the organization of more inclusive and rehabilitating psychosocial care.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Internato e Residência , Educação Continuada , Humanos , Preconceito , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20210065, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the perception of nurses on the decentralization of care to people living with HIV. METHOD: Exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study conducted with primary health care nurses based on Imogene King's Open Systems Theory (personal, interpersonal, and social). The data were obtained through interviews; a sociodemographic/professional questionnaire and a semi-structured script were employed, processed by the IRAMUTEQ software and analyzed through Descending Hierarchical Classification. RESULTS: Study participants amounted to 32 nurses. Five classes emerged from the analysis: "diagnostic revelation process"; "professional training"; "preventive measures"; "barriers and potentials in the process of decentralization"; and "stigma and prejudice". CONCLUSION: In the process of reorganization of the healthcare model for people living with HIV in primary health care, an important contribution by nurses in strengthening the local healthcare decentralization was identified.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Estigma Social , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Política , Preconceito , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1595, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experiences of HIV stigma remain prevalent across Canada, causing significant stress and negatively affecting the health and wellbeing of people living with HIV. While studies have consistently demonstrated that stigma negatively impacts health, there has been limited research on the mechanisms behind these effects. This study aims to identify which dimensions of stigma have significant relationships with self-rated health and examine the mechanisms by which those types of stigma impact self-rated health. METHODS: We recruited 724 participants to complete the People Living with HIV Stigma Index in Ontario, designed by people living with HIV to measure nuanced changes in stigma and discrimination. The present study utilizes data from externally validated measures of stigma and health risks that were included in the survey. First, we conducted multiple regression analyses to examine which variables had a significant impact on self-rated health. Results from the multiple regression guided the mediation analysis. A parallel mediation model was created with enacted stigma as the antecedent, internalized stigma and depression as the mediators, and self-rated health as the outcome. RESULTS: In the multiple regression analysis, internalized stigma (coefficient = -0.20, p < 0.01) and depression (coefficient = -0.07, p < 0.01) were both significant and independent predictors of health. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between enacted stigma and self-rated health is mediated in parallel by both internalized stigma [coefficient = -0.08, se = 0.03, 95% CI (-0.14, -0.02)] and depression [coefficient = -0.16, se = 0.03, 95% CI (-0.22, -0.11)]. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a mediation model to explain how HIV-related stigma negatively impacts health. We found that that enacted stigma, or experiences of prejudice or discrimination, can lead to internalized stigma, or internalization of negative thoughts regarding one's HIV status and/or increased depressive symptoms which then may lead to worse overall health. Highlighting the importance of internalized stigma and depression has the potential to shape the development of targeted intervention strategies aimed at reducing the burden of stigma and improving the health and wellbeing of people living with HIV.


Assuntos
Depressão , Infecções por HIV , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Preconceito , Estigma Social
9.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(752): 1649-1653, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585862

RESUMO

Implicit biases are a daily occurrence during medical consultations. Biases disrupt the clinical judgment and modify the attitude of the practitioner. They are a source of medical errors and they impact negatively all indicators of quality of care. Biases are rooted in collective stereotypes and individual prejudice and can contribute to sexual harassment and discrimination. Developing strategies to reduce stereotypes and their impact must be a part of any program targeting sexual harassment, sexism or discrimination of any kind. This article offers an understanding of the essence of biases, based on complex cognitive processes, and proposes strategies to increase awareness at the individual and collective level.


Assuntos
Preconceito , Assédio Sexual , Viés , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Sexismo
11.
Psychoanal Rev ; 108(3): 243-250, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468222

RESUMO

On Tuesday, April 24, 1900, three days after Passover, Freud gave a talk at his B'nai B'rith lodge on Emile Zola's utopian novel penned in self-exile in London, Fécondité (1899). The next day Freud wrote Wilhelm Fliess that the night before the talk he had a dream in which "[t]he brethren … were unkind and scornful of me." In the dream his brethren's contempt signifies that Freud is making his impious move to destroy their Tree of Life: no Law, no Judaism, no Christianity, no miserable anti-Semitism. In Freud's utopia, an enlightened socially just world grounded in reason, which mirrors the brotherly atheistic utopia envisioned in Fécondité, the seed of Abraham at long last can move across frontiers freely, develop their talents, and satisfy their needs.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Depressão , Teoria Freudiana , História do Século XX , Humanos , Judaísmo , Masculino , Preconceito
12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256922, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469486

RESUMO

The democratization of AI tools for content generation, combined with unrestricted access to mass media for all (e.g. through microblogging and social media), makes it increasingly hard for people to distinguish fact from fiction. This raises the question of how individual opinions evolve in such a networked environment without grounding in a known reality. The dominant approach to studying this problem uses simple models from the social sciences on how individuals change their opinions when exposed to their social neighborhood, and applies them on large social networks. We propose a novel model that incorporates two known social phenomena: (i) Biased Assimilation: the tendency of individuals to adopt other opinions if they are similar to their own; (ii) Backfire Effect: the fact that an opposite opinion may further entrench people in their stances, making their opinions more extreme instead of moderating them. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first DeGroot-type opinion formation model that captures the Backfire Effect. A thorough theoretical and empirical analysis of the proposed model reveals intuitive conditions for polarization and consensus to exist, as well as the properties of the resulting opinions.


Assuntos
Atitude , Modelos Psicológicos , Redes Sociais Online , Preconceito/psicologia , Humanos , Mídias Sociais
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256912, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469494

RESUMO

Social interaction requires fast and efficient processing of another person's intentions. In face-to-face interactions, aversive or appetitive actions typically co-occur with emotional expressions, allowing an observer to anticipate action intentions. In the present study, we investigated the influence of facial emotions on the processing of action intentions. Thirty-two participants were presented with video clips showing virtual agents displaying a facial emotion (angry vs. happy) while performing an action (punch vs. fist-bump) directed towards the observer. During each trial, video clips stopped at varying durations of the unfolding action, and participants had to recognize the presented action. Naturally, participants' recognition accuracy improved with increasing duration of the unfolding actions. Interestingly, while facial emotions did not influence accuracy, there was a significant influence on participants' action judgements. Participants were more likely to judge a presented action as a punch when agents showed an angry compared to a happy facial emotion. This effect was more pronounced in short video clips, showing only the beginning of an unfolding action, than in long video clips, showing near-complete actions. These results suggest that facial emotions influence anticipatory processing of action intentions allowing for fast and adaptive responses in social interactions.


Assuntos
Ira , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial , Preconceito/psicologia , Interação Social , Adulto , Feminino , Felicidade , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(7): 3035-3051, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505215

RESUMO

Prejudice against sexual and gender minorities (e.g., LGBT people) is quite prevalent and is harmful. We examined an existing-and often-used-contact intervention in pre-existing groups in an educational setting and assessed its effectiveness in reducing different forms of LGBT negativity. We focused particularly on modern LGBT negativity: a relatively subtle form of prejudice, involving ambivalence, denial, and/or the belief that there is too much attention for LGBT prejudice. We used a mixed design in which condition (experimental vs. control group) was the between-participants factor, which was randomized at the group level, and time (pretest vs. posttest vs. follow-up) was the within-participants factor (N = 117). Interventions were video recorded and the behavior of LGBT educators and participants was coded. Participants responded positively to the intervention, especially to the LGBT educator's "coming-out story." Exploratory analysis of the video data indicated that the perceived effectiveness of the intervention was higher in groups where participants were more engaged, although caution is necessary in interpreting this finding. The most important measure indicated that modern LGBT negativity decreased in the intervention groups directly after the intervention, but returned to baseline levels one week later. However, in the control condition, modern LGBT negativity had increased over time. Taken together, this suggests that an actual reduction in modern LGBT negativity was short-lived (i.e., the intervention effect disappeared within 7 days).


Assuntos
Preconceito , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual
15.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 121(3): 498-523, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472907

RESUMO

People's automatic (unintentional, uncontrollable, and efficient) preference between social groups often determines their automatic preference between unknown individual members of these groups, a prominent example for automatic prejudice. What happens when the person making the judgment has long known the target individuals? Practice might automatize the deliberate judgment of the individuals. Then, if deliberate judgment is nonprejudiced, automatic prejudice might decrease. In 29 studies (total N = 4,907), we compared preferences between a famous member of a dominant social group and a famous member of a stigmatized social group on indirect measures of evaluation that were developed to measure automatic preference and on self-report measures. In most studies, we chose pairs based on prior self-reported preference for the member of the stigmatized group. The measures showed discrepancy, with indirect measures suggesting an automatic preference for the member of the dominant group. We replicated these results with various target individuals, two pairs of social groups (Black/White, old/young), two indirect measures, and in two countries (Studies 1-23). The indirectly measured prodominant preference was stronger when visual characteristics of the group were present rather than absent (Studies 24 and 25), suggesting a stronger effect of group characteristics on automatic than on deliberate preference between the individuals. On self-report and indirect measures, the preferences between individuals were related to the preferences between their groups (Studies 26 and 27) yet also to individuating information (Studies 28 and 29). Our results suggest that group evaluation plays a central role in the automatic evaluation of familiar (and not only novel) members of stigmatized groups. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Julgamento , Preconceito , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Autorrelato
16.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(5): 595-599, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533523

RESUMO

Being mindful of one's implicit bias in the treatment of patients with cancer who have substance use disorders is fundamental to quality of care and good patient outcomes. Implicit bias held by healthcare professionals could negatively affect patient assessment, diagnosis and treatment decisions, and follow-ups at discharge.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Preconceito
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360170

RESUMO

Overweight, obesity and cardiometabolic diseases are major global health concerns. Lifestyle factors, including diet, have been acknowledged to play a key role in the solution of these health risks. However, as shown by numerous studies, and in clinical practice, it is extremely challenging to quantify dietary behaviors as well as influencing them via dietary interventions. As shown by the limited success of 'one-size-fits-all' nutritional campaigns catered to an entire population or subpopulation, the need for more personalized coaching approaches is evident. New technology-based innovations provide opportunities to further improve the accuracy of dietary assessment and develop approaches to coach individuals towards healthier dietary behaviors. Pride & Prejudice (P&P) is a unique multi-disciplinary consortium consisting of researchers in life, nutrition, ICT, design, behavioral and social sciences from all four Dutch Universities of Technology. P&P focuses on the development and integration of innovative technological techniques such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, conversational agents, behavior change theory and personalized coaching to improve current practices and establish lasting dietary behavior change.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Inteligência Artificial , Dieta , Humanos , Sobrepeso , Preconceito
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462353

RESUMO

Mounting reports in the media suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has intensified prejudice and discrimination against racial/ethnic minorities, especially Asians. Existing research has focused on discrimination against Asians and is primarily based on self-reported incidents or nonrepresentative samples. We investigate the extent to which COVID-19 has fueled prejudice and discrimination against multiple racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States by examining nationally representative survey data with an embedded vignette experiment about roommate selection (collected in August 2020; n = 5,000). We find that priming COVID-19 salience has an immediate, statistically significant impact: compared to the control group, respondents in the treatment group exhibited increased prejudice and discriminatory intent against East Asian, South Asian, and Hispanic hypothetical room-seekers. The treatment effect is more pronounced in increasing extreme negative attitudes toward the three minority groups than decreasing extreme positive attitudes toward them. This is partly due to the treatment increasing the proportion of respondents who perceive these minority groups as extremely culturally incompatible (Asians and Hispanics) and extremely irresponsible (Asians). Sociopolitical factors did not moderate the treatment effects on attitudes toward Asians, but prior social contact with Hispanics mitigated prejudices against them. These findings suggest that COVID-19-fueled prejudice and discrimination have not been limited to East Asians but are part of a broader phenomenon that has affected Asians generally and Hispanics as well.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Preconceito , Atitude , COVID-19/etnologia , Humanos , Intenção , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pandemias , Preconceito/etnologia , Racismo/etnologia , Racismo/psicologia , Estados Unidos
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