Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 27.524
Filtrar
1.
JAMA ; 329(4): 285-286, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602795

RESUMO

This Viewpoint discusses recent legal directives by the DHHS and FDA that could increase health care entities' liability for possible discriminatory biases of clinical algorithms and the need for additional legal clarity to avoid adverse effects on algorithm development and use.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Atenção à Saúde , Legislação de Dispositivos Médicos , Preconceito , Responsabilidade Legal , Preconceito/legislação & jurisprudência , Preconceito/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Atenção à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Atenção à Saúde/métodos
2.
JAMA ; 329(4): 283-284, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602791

RESUMO

This Viewpoint discusses a proposed DHHS rule to address discrimination in clinical algorithms and the need for additional considerations to ensure the burden of liability for biased algorithms is not disproportionately placed on health care professionals.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Atenção à Saúde , Preconceito , Discriminação Social , Viés , Preconceito/prevenção & controle , Discriminação Social/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/normas
3.
JAMA ; 329(4): 306-317, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692561

RESUMO

Importance: Stroke is the fifth-highest cause of death in the US and a leading cause of serious long-term disability with particularly high risk in Black individuals. Quality risk prediction algorithms, free of bias, are key for comprehensive prevention strategies. Objective: To compare the performance of stroke-specific algorithms with pooled cohort equations developed for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease for the prediction of new-onset stroke across different subgroups (race, sex, and age) and to determine the added value of novel machine learning techniques. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study on combined and harmonized data from Black and White participants of the Framingham Offspring, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC), Multi-Ethnic Study for Atherosclerosis (MESA), and Reasons for Geographical and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) studies (1983-2019) conducted in the US. The 62 482 participants included at baseline were at least 45 years of age and free of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Exposures: Published stroke-specific algorithms from Framingham and REGARDS (based on self-reported risk factors) as well as pooled cohort equations for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease plus 2 newly developed machine learning algorithms. Main Outcomes and Measures: Models were designed to estimate the 10-year risk of new-onset stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic). Discrimination concordance index (C index) and calibration ratios of expected vs observed event rates were assessed at 10 years. Analyses were conducted by race, sex, and age groups. Results: The combined study sample included 62 482 participants (median age, 61 years, 54% women, and 29% Black individuals). Discrimination C indexes were not significantly different for the 2 stroke-specific models (Framingham stroke, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.72-073; REGARDS self-report, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.72-0.74) vs the pooled cohort equations (0.72; 95% CI, 0.71-0.73): differences 0.01 or less (P values >.05) in the combined sample. Significant differences in discrimination were observed by race: the C indexes were 0.76 for all 3 models in White vs 0.69 in Black women (all P values <.001) and between 0.71 and 0.72 in White men and between 0.64 and 0.66 in Black men (all P values ≤.001). When stratified by age, model discrimination was better for younger (<60 years) vs older (≥60 years) adults for both Black and White individuals. The ratios of observed to expected 10-year stroke rates were closest to 1 for the REGARDS self-report model (1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09) and indicated risk overestimation for Framingham stroke (0.86; 95% CI, 0.82-0.89) and pooled cohort equations (0.74; 95% CI, 0.71-0.77). Performance did not significantly improve when novel machine learning algorithms were applied. Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of Black and White individuals without stroke or transient ischemic attack among 4 US cohorts, existing stroke-specific risk prediction models and novel machine learning techniques did not significantly improve discriminative accuracy for new-onset stroke compared with the pooled cohort equations, and the REGARDS self-report model had the best calibration. All algorithms exhibited worse discrimination in Black individuals than in White individuals, indicating the need to expand the pool of risk factors and improve modeling techniques to address observed racial disparities and improve model performance.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Preconceito , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Medição de Risco/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Etários , Fatores Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , /estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina/normas , Viés , Preconceito/prevenção & controle , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador/normas , Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1991): 20221834, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651042

RESUMO

Stereotypes are generalized beliefs about groups of people, which are used to make decisions and judgements about them. Although such heuristics can be useful when decisions must be made quickly, or when information is lacking, they can also serve as the basis for prejudice and discrimination. In this paper, we study the evolution of stereotypes through group reciprocity. We characterize the warmth of a stereotype as the willingness to cooperate with an individual based solely on the identity of the group they belong to. We show that when stereotype groups are large, such group reciprocity is less likely to evolve, and stereotypes tend to be negative. We also show that, even when stereotypes are broadly positive, individuals are often overly pessimistic about the willingness of those they stereotype to cooperate. We then show that the tendency for stereotyping itself to evolve is driven by the costs of cognition, so that more people are stereotyped with greater coarseness as costs increase. Finally we show that extrinsic 'shocks', in which the benefits of cooperation are suddenly reduced, can cause stereotype warmth and judgement bias to turn sharply negative, consistent with the view that economic and other crises are drivers of out-group animosity.


Assuntos
Preconceito , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Julgamento , Viés , Cognição
6.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280557, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649368

RESUMO

Prejudice reduction messages have been shown to be effective through changing norms. Previous research suggests that Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) moderates the reaction to these messages, but it is unclear whether individuals high in RWA are more or less sensitive to prejudice-reduction campaigns. This research used the social identity approach to investigate the role of RWA in moderating the reactions to messages that look to reduce support for prejudicial policies and associated prejudice against an ethnoreligious group (Muslims). Americans (N = 388) were presented with statements on a real, proposed ban on Muslim immigration into the US from an in-group member (i.e., an American freight worker who disapproves of the Muslim ban), outgroup member (an Iraqi refugee who is in favour if the Muslim ban), or both, or control message. Those high in RWA showed consistently high levels of prejudice against Muslims in all conditions, but those low in RWA showed lower prejudice when presented with the anti-prejudice message from an in-group member (compared to control). This suggests that anti-prejudice messages primarily affect those with low RWA, clarifying that RWA likely leads to resistance to anti-prejudice messages regardless of the source. Future research aiming to reduce prejudice should examine how messages can be tailored to reduce prejudice in those with high RWA.


Assuntos
Autoritarismo , Predomínio Social , Humanos , Política , Preconceito , Identificação Social
7.
N Engl J Med ; 388(1): 5-7, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592337
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22278, 2022 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566280

RESUMO

In the United States, anti-Asian sentiment has pervaded the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Could Americans' fear of contracting the virus relate to prejudice against Asian individuals? According to intergroup threat theory, prejudice increases toward groups of people when they are perceived as a likely cause of symbolic and/or real threat, including disease threat. We tested this perspective in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic by investigating the relationship between Americans' concern about contracting COVID-19 and their feelings toward individuals from multiple countries. Between May 12-14 2020, participants residing in the United States (N = 932) completed an online survey assessing their (1) perceived threat of COVID-19 infection, (2) feelings of warmth and coldness toward people in America, China, Italy, Japan, and Greece, and (3) trait-level prejudice. Perceived threat of COVID-19 infection differentially related to feelings toward American and Chinese nationals and was unrelated to feelings toward people from other countries assessed. Specifically, greater threat of infection was associated with less warmth toward individuals from China, an effect moderated by trait-level prejudice. That is, participants high (but not medium or low) in trait prejudice showed a significant relationship between threat of COVID-19 infection and reduced warmth toward Chinese individuals. Threat of infection also related to greater warmth and less coldness toward American nationals, consistent with prior work indicating that disease threats amplify ethnocentrism. Collectively, results suggest that perceived threat of COVID-19 infection may correspond with prejudice toward the national outgroup associated with the disease's origin (i.e., China), as well as national ingroup favoritism, among Americans prone to prejudice.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Preconceito , Atitude , Emoções
9.
PeerJ ; 10: e14545, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36570010

RESUMO

Prejudice related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a social issue worldwide. A possible psychological factor that promotes prejudice is the belief in just deserts (BJD) regarding individuals infected with COVID-19 (i.e., the belief that the infected individual deserves to be infected). The BJD is based on the belief in immanent justice. It is reportedly higher in Japan than in other countries. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the BJD among Japanese individuals and clarify its associations with demographic factors or infection-related and socio-psychological characteristics. To this end, we conducted an online questionnaire survey in Japan from August 7-8, 2020, with 1,207 respondents aged 20-69 years. We performed screening to exclude inappropriate responses. We investigated the association between the BJD and demographic factors such as gender and age. We also investigated the association between the BJD and infection-related and socio-psychological characteristics, including risk perception of COVID-19 infection and human rights restrictions (i.e., the degree of agreement with government restrictions on individuals' behavior during emergencies). Among the surveyed items, human rights restrictions showed a strong association with BJD, followed by risk perception of COVID-19 infection. Men had a slightly higher BJD than women. Our study is significant in that it is the first to investigate the items associated with the BJD, thereby providing foundational information for revising individual perceptions of justice related to COVID-19 and solving prejudice-related issues.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Japão/epidemiologia , Preconceito , Demografia
11.
Psychiatr Hung ; 37(4): 373-377, 2022.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524805

RESUMO

Regardless of sexual orientation, we are all socialised in a heteronormative culture and society. 85% of LGBTQ+ people are aware of their sexual identity before the age of 18, and like members of minority groups in general, they are regularly subjected to microaggressions, possibly overt verbal and/or physical abuse and discrimination. One of the most common settings for this is school. If school is left out of sexual education as a socialisation medium and as a representation of society for the child, the family - and the LGBTQ+ child in it - is left with a heavy burden. The tabooed LGBTQ+ sexuality, excluded from the discourse of public education, reinforces the invisibility of these young people, increasing shame, guilt, feelings of stigma, isolation - with consequent feelings of nonconformity and mental illness. Given that the knowledge, attitudes, orientations and skills of the family members involved are often limited or prejudiced, and that children spend a large part of their lives at school, the family is not the only medium for education and support for identity development, and often the family itself needs support.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Preconceito , Estigma Social , Comportamento Sexual , Família
12.
Nature ; 612(7940): 404, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513835
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(47): e2212183119, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375070

RESUMO

About one in six Asian Americans have fallen victim to anti-Asian racism during the COVID-19 pandemic [J. Lee, K. Ramakrishnan, aapidata.com/blog/discrimination-survey-2022/]. By examining anti-Asian racism in the United States primarily as a domestic issue, most prior studies have overlooked the connections between shifting US-China relations and Americans' prejudices against the Chinese in China and, by extension, East Asian Americans. This study investigates the patterns and perceptual bases of nationality-based prejudices against Chinese amid the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Our nationally representative online survey experiment reveals that Americans assess a hypothetical Chinese person in China as inferior in multiple social and psychological characteristics to an otherwise identical Japanese person in Japan or East Asian American. Furthermore, subjects who perceive China as more threatening to America's national interests assess Chinese more negatively, especially in terms of trustworthiness and morality, suggesting that perceived China threats propel Americans' negative stereotypes about Chinese. A contextual analysis further indicates that counties with a higher share of Trump voters in 2016 tend to perceive all East Asian-origin groups similarly as a racial outgroup. By contrast, residents in predominantly Democrat-voting counties tend to perceive Chinese in China more negatively relative to Asian Americans, despite broadly viewing East Asians more favorably. Overall, this study underscores the often-overlooked relationships between the prevailing anti-Asian sentiments in the United States and the US-China geopolitical tensions and America's domestic political polarization.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Racismo , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Preconceito , Racismo/psicologia , Princípios Morais , China
16.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 64(9): 568-573, 2022.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to impediments to social and social functioning, people with severe mental illness also experience the negative consequences of prejudice and stigmatization. Stigmatization also occurs in mental health care, including addiction care. AIM: To describe the occurrence and manifestations of stigmatization by care providers, from the perspective of clients and care providers. METHOD: Digital surveys among clients of the panel Psychisch Gezien (n = 628) and among care providers (n = 471). RESULTS: More than half (54%) of the panel members had experienced stigmatization by mental health care providers in the past two years. They experienced this mainly through a distant attitude (22%) and the language used by care providers (20%). Two-fifths (40%) of the care providers indicated that stigmatization occured regularly or often in their own team. Both clients and counselors emphasized the importance of normalizing mental health problems, reluctant use of psychiatric labels and recovery-oriented work to reduce stigma. CONCLUSION: Stigmatization by mental health care providers is manifested in many ways, making it a complex and ambiguous problem. Although there is no ‘one size fits all’ solution, normalization of mental problems is an important starting point.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estereotipagem , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Preconceito , Estigma Social , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
19.
BMJ ; 379: o2445, 2022 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229062
20.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 184(42)2022 10 17.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305256

RESUMO

Obesity stigma refers to the pervasive sociocultural disapproval and prejudice against people with obesity which is associated with different negative traits. The stigmatisation of people with obesity manifests itself in different social areas, both privately and publicly, including in the health care system, often resulting in negative physical, social, and psychological consequences for people with obesity. Consequently, it is imperative that healthcare professionals seek to avoid and take action against this type of stigmatisation, e.g. when communicating about weight.


Assuntos
Preconceito , Estigma Social , Humanos , Estereotipagem , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Atenção à Saúde
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...