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1.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 55-65, jul.-dez. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1125731

RESUMO

Casais que vivem em residências separadas (LAT - Living Apart Together) representam uma configuração conjugal diferente da tradicional. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a configuração conjugal de alguns casais LAT no norte do Rio Grande do Sul. Realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória por meio de amostragem de conveniência. Foram entrevistados cinco casais, com base em um questionário sociodemográfico e entrevistas semiestruturadas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática e geraram duas categorias principais: relacionamentos LAT permanente e provisório. Os subtemas comuns às duas categorias foram conjugalidade, coparentalidade e suporte social. O desejo de coabitar mostrou-se presente somente na configuração LAT provisório e nenhum casal reportou experiência de preconceito contra seu tipo de relacionamento.


Couples who living apart together (LAT) represent a new marital relationship, different from the traditional. The aim of this study was to investigate some LAT couples' marital relationships in the north of Rio Grande do Sul. Qualitative and exploratory research was designed with a convenience sample. We interviewed five couples with a sociodemographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The material was submitted to thematic analysis, which results in two main categories: LAT relationships that are permanent and transitory. Common subthemes to both categories were conjugality, co-parenthood, and social support. The desire for cohabitation was present only in transitory LAT configuration and no couple reported experience of prejudice against their relationship.


Parejas que viven en residencias separadas (LAT - Living Apart Together) representan una configuración conyugal distinta de la tradicional. Este estudio objetivó investigar la configuración conyugal de dos parejas LAT al norte del estado de Rio Grande do Sul. Se realizó una investigación cualitativa y exploratoria en un muestreo por conveniencia y se entrevistó cinco parejas, con un cuestionario sociodemográfico y entrevistas semiestructuradas. Un análisis temático mostró la presencia de dos tipos de relaciones de pareja LAT, el permanente y el transitorio. Subtemas comunes a las categorías fueron configuración conyugal, coparentalidad y suporte social. El deseo de cohabitación estuvo presente solamente en la configuración LAT transitoria y ninguna de las parejas reportaron experiencias de prejuicio.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Preconceito , Características da Família , Saúde da Família , Inquéritos e Questionários , Terapia de Casal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Relações Familiares
2.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 41-54, jul.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1125730

RESUMO

A teoria do estresse de minoria (EM) defende que minorias sociais vivenciam estressores específicos adicionais aos estressores cotidianos. Fatores individuais e do meio podem funcionar como fatores de risco e/ou de proteção no comprometimento da saúde mental de pessoas LGB. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar e discutir a teoria do EM em indivíduos LGB por meio de uma revisão narrativa. Compreender a ocorrência do EM em pessoas LGB pode auxiliar na elaboração de planos interventivos, de ordem clínica ou social, com o objetivo de minimizar os efeitos do preconceito nestes indivíduos.


The minority stress (MS) theory argues that social minorities experience specific stressors added to everyday stressors. Individual and contextual factors can function as risk and/or protective factors without compromising the mental health of LGB people. This study aims to present and discuss the theory of MS in LGB individuals through a narrative review. Understanding the occurrence of MS in LGB people can assist in the elaboration of intervention plans, of a clinical or social nature to minimize the effects of prejudice in these situations.


La teoría del estrés de minoría (EM) argumenta que las minorías sociales experimentan factores estresantes que se agregan a los factores estresantes cotidianos. Los factores individuales y contextuales pueden funcionar como factores de riesgo o protectores sin comprometer la salud mental de las personas LGB. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar y discutir la teoría de EM en individuos LGB a través de una revisión narrativa. Comprender el EM en personas LGB puede ayudar en la elaboración de planes de intervención, de naturaleza clínica o social, con el objetivo de minimizar los efectos de los prejuicios en estas situaciones.


Assuntos
Preconceito , Estresse Psicológico , Saúde Mental , Risco , Vulnerabilidade Social , Narração , Compreensão , Fatores de Proteção , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Angústia Psicológica , Grupos Minoritários
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052909

RESUMO

The general public is increasingly aware of the role of genes in causing depression. Recent studies have begun uncovering unintended negative consequences of learning about a person's genetic susceptibility to disorders. Because people tend to believe that genes determine one's identity, having genes related to a disorder can be misinterpreted as equivalent to having the disorder. Consequently, learning that a person is genetically predisposed to depression can make people misremember mild depression as more severe. Participants across three experiments read a target vignette about a character displaying mild depressive symptoms, while descriptions of the character's genetic susceptibility to depression were experimentally manipulated. Participants then read a foil vignette describing a character with more severe depressive symptoms. Afterwards, participants who had learned that the target character was genetically predisposed to depression were comparatively more likely to misremember the target symptoms as being severe, when in fact they were mild. This pattern of results was obtained among both laypeople (Experiments 1 and 2) and practicing master's-level, but not doctoral-level, mental health clinicians (Experiment 3). Given that depression is diagnosed primarily based on a person's memory of depressive symptoms, the current findings suggest that genetic information about depression may lead to over-diagnosis of depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Testes Genéticos/ética , Adulto , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Memória , Preconceito/psicologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239482, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: I investigate the association of perceived discrimination based both on race and other attributes such as age, gender, and insurance status on self-reported health access and health outcomes in a diverse and densely populated metropolitan area. METHODS: Restricted data from the 2016 round of the New York City Community Health Survey was used to create prevalence estimates for both racial and non-racial discrimination. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of these discrimination measures with health access and health outcome variables. RESULTS: Among residents who perceived discrimination receiving health care during the previous year, 15% reported the reason behind such discrimination to race, while the rest chose other reasons. Among the non-race based categories, 34% reported the reason behind such discrimination to be insurance status, followed by other reasons (26.83%) and income (11.76%). Non-racial discrimination was significantly associated with the adjusted odds of not receiving care when needed (AOR = 6.96; CI: [5.00 9.70]), and seeking informal care (AOR = 2.24; CI: [1.13 4.48] respectively, after adjusting for insurance status, age, gender, marital status, race/ethnicity, nativity, and poverty. It was also associated with higher adjusted odds of reporting poor health (AOR = 2.49; CI: [1.65 3.75]) and being diagnosed with hypertension (AOR = 1.75; CI: [1.21 2.52]), and diabetes (AOR = 1.84; CI: [1.22 2.77]) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived discrimination in health care exists in multiple forms. Non-racial discrimination was strongly associated with worse health access and outcomes, and such experiences may contribute to health disparities between different socioeconomic groups.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(704): 1582-1585, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880117

RESUMO

Our medical practice brings us to meet people from all walks of life. Some of our patients experience multiple vulnerabilities and are at greater risk of stigma and discrimination. In the field of asylum, they are often firstly designated by words reflecting their socio-administrative reality. These words are supposed to define their identity. The individual is dehumanized because reduced to an administrative status. These terms carry a denotative meaning, valuable in understanding the context in which the patient evolves ; but also a connotative meaning, which through implicit bias leads the caregiver to adopt attitudes that may be detrimental to the proper care of the patient. Words must be carefully chosen and brought in a timely manner, because words matter.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Idioma , Saúde Mental , Preconceito , Humanos , Vergonha , Estigma Social
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1477, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many migrants suffer from discrimination and poor health in China. We sought to examine the associations between experiences of discrimination and self-reported health among internal migrants in China, as well as the mediators of social integration and perceived stress. METHODS: The data was obtained from a specific survey of migrants, as a part of the National Health and Family Planning Dynamic Monitoring for Migrants conducted in 2014. A total of 15,999 migrants aged 15 to 59 years were recruited by a stratified, multistage clustered sampling procedure in eight Chinese cities. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was conducted. RESULTS: The results indicated that experiences of discrimination were associated with worse self-reported health (ß = - 0.32, P < 0.001), less social integration (ß = - 0.25, P < 0.001), as well as higher perceived stress (ß = 0.21, P < 0.01). Both objectively measured socioeconomic status (ß = 0.21, P < 0.001) and subjective social status (ß = 0.21, P < 0.01) had significantly positive correlations with self-reported health. CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination, social exclusion and perceived stress experienced by migrants have significant implications on their health.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Preconceito/psicologia , Autorrelato , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica Populacional , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
JAMA ; 324(11): 1039-1040, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930762
16.
Ann Behav Med ; 54(10): 728-737, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is an emerging pandemic with heightened concerns for people with compromised immune systems, including people living with HIV. PURPOSE: In the absence of a vaccine, public health messaging to mitigate risks for COVID-19 primarily focuses on social distancing. Because people living with HIV commonly experience mistreatment associated with HIV, their response to social distancing may be complicated by psychosocial attitudes associated with COVID-19. METHODS: To evaluate these relationships, we conducted a rapid-response, cross-sectional survey with people living with HIV (N = 149) to assess social distancing practices, COVID-19 discriminatory attitudes, COVID-19 xenophobic attitudes, HIV microaggressions, and concern over contracting COVID-19. Data were collected from participants enrolled in a larger ongoing study between March 30, 2020 and April 17, 2020. RESULTS: Results indicated that choosing to socially distance to reduce COVID-19 exposure was associated with COVID-19 discriminatory attitudes, concerns of contracting COVID-19, and identifying as transgender. Likewise, social distancing imposed by others (e.g., cancelations and restrictions) was associated with concerns of contracting COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate that social distancing measures are related to concerns of contracting the virus and discriminatory attitudes toward those who are presumed to be living with COVID-19. These potentially negative psychosocial attitudes toward people perceived to have COVID-19 echo the discriminatory actions and attitudes that we continue to observe in HIV social sciences research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Preconceito , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Tex Med ; 116(6): 6, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872704

RESUMO

Unfortunately, risk-based testing introduces physician bias into decisionmaking, and can disproportionately target low-income, minority, and immigrant women. Simultaneously, physicians can overlook screening patients who are white and higher income, placing their infants at risk for drug withdrawal and birth defects. Universal screening has been touted by many physicians and providers because it eliminates risk for discriminatory practices, provides a basis for early detection and education of pregnant women, and directs physicians to provide resources for pregnant women to quit drug use during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Médicos/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/urina , Gestantes/psicologia , Preconceito , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/psicologia , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/urina
20.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(9): 392-398, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813571

RESUMO

Transgender women share more in common with cisgender women, with respect to sociocultural context and factors influencing HIV risk and outcomes, than they do with "men who have sex with men", a behavioral risk category in which they often are included. However, it is not yet clear whether both transgender and cisgender women would find integrated, all-women HIV programs and services desirable and beneficial. We Are All Women was a qualitative study conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area from April 2016 to January 2017, using a conceptual framework based on gender affirmation and trauma-informed care, to explore barriers and facilitators to inclusion of transgender women in HIV treatment and support services traditionally focused on cisgender women. Thirty-eight women (10 trans, 25 cis, and 3 "other" gender) participated in six semistructured, facilitated focus groups. In addition, five HIV care providers participated in semistructured, in-depth interviews. Both trans and cis women identified the desire for gender affirmation, a feeling of safety (specifically space without men), and potential community building within a care and healing context as powerful facilitators of an inclusive all-women care environment. At the same time, they recognized that tensions do exist between idealized visions of such an environment, deep-seated sentiments and behaviors among some cis women toward trans women, and the practical realities of creating the optimal spaces for all women. Opportunities for dialog between trans and cis women to mitigate gender-associated phobias and misperceptions are a valuable first step in creating HIV care environments that serve all women.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pessoas Transgênero , Transexualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preconceito , Pesquisa Qualitativa , São Francisco , Adulto Jovem
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