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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180362, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059141

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Teaching Model for Critical Thinking in a first aid course for undergraduate nursing students. Method: a clinical, randomized, single blind and parallel trial, conducted at the Federal University of Viçosa (Brazil) in November 2016 with 102 undergraduate nursing students divided into experimental group and control group. In the experimental group, the Problem Based Learning methodology associated with the Active Teaching Model for Critical Thinking was used and, in the control group, only the Problem Based Learning methodology was employed to assess the difference in the average knowledge level of the groups, a test with 25 questions was applied before and after the educational intervention. To identify the effect of the measurement factors on the tests, the analysis of variance was used. Result: a significant interaction effect was observed (F1.100=11.138; p=0.001), indicating that the experimental group showed an improvement in the mean value of the grades between the pre- and post-test, with a high magnitude (d=1.10) Conclusion: the teaching model was effective, being demonstrated by the performance of the experimental group, which presented significantly higher results in terms of knowledge. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials, number U1111-1176-5343.


RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad del Modelo de Enseñanza Activa para el Pensamiento Crítico en un curso de primeros auxilios para estudiantes universitarios de enfermería. Método: ensayo clínico, aleatorizado, ciego simple y paralelo, realizado en la Universidad Federal de Viçosa (Brasil) en noviembre de 2016, con 102 estudiantes universitarios de enfermería, divididos en un grupo y uno de control. En el grupo experimental se utilizó la metodología del Problem Based Learning asociada al Modelo de Enseñanza Activa para el Pensamiento Crítico y, en el grupo de control, se utilizó solamente la metodología del Problem Based Learning. Para evaluar la diferencia del nivel de conocimiento medio entre los grupos se aplicó una prueba con 25 preguntas, antes y después de la intervención educativa. Para identificar el efecto de los factores de medida de las pruebas se utilizó el análisis de varianzas. Resultado; se observó un efecto de interacción significativo (F1,100=11,138; p=0,001), lo que indica que el grupo experimental presentó una mejoría en la media de las notas entre antes y después de la prueba, con una magnitud elevada (d=1,10). Conclusión: el modelo de enseñanza fue efectivo, lo que quedó demostrado por el desempeño del grupo experimental, que presentó resultados significativamente mayores en términos de conocimiento. Registro Brasileño de Ensayos Clínicos, número U1111-1176-5343.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a efetividade do Modelo de Ensino Ativo para o Pensamento Crítico em um curso de primeiros socorros para estudantes de graduação em enfermagem. Método: ensaio clínico, randomizado, unicego e paralelo, realizado na Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Brasil). Em novembro de 2016, com 102 estudantes de graduação em enfermagem divididos em grupo experimental e grupo controle. No grupo experimental, foi utilizada a metodologia do Problem Based Learning associada ao Modelo do Ensino Ativo para o Pensamento Crítico e, no grupo controle, foi utilizada apenas a metodologia do Problem Based Learning. Para avaliar a diferença do nível de conhecimento médio dos grupos, foi aplicado teste com 25 questões, antes da intervenção educativa e após. Para identificar o efeito dos fatores de medida nos testes, foi utilizado análise de variância. Resultado: foi observado efeito de interação significativo (F1,100=11,138; p=0,001), indicando que o grupo experimental apresentou melhora na média das notas entre o pré e pós-teste, com elevada magnitude (d=1,10). Conclusão: o modelo de ensino foi efetivo, sendo demonstrado pelo desempenho do grupo experimental, que apresentou resultados significativamente maiores em termos de conhecimento. Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos número U1111-1176-5343.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Enfermagem , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Educação em Enfermagem , Primeiros Socorros , Estudantes , Ensino , Ensaio Clínico
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5259-5262, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019170

RESUMO

Gastric ablation is emerging as a potential therapy for electrical dysrhythmias associated with gastric disorders. Thermal conduction properties of gastric tissue during ablation have not yet been defined, but are necessary for optimizing the technique and translating ablation to clinical therapy. We developed custom needle-based transmural temperature probes to quantify the temperature of gastric tissue during ablation. These probes were applied in vivo in pigs (n=5), during gastric ablation (70 °C, 10 s duration), at distances of 2.5 - 20 mm from the ablation catheter tip. Thermal response of the tissue was non-linear; the maximum temperature increase from baseline (33.3 ± 1.0 °C) was observed at the closest temperature probe to the catheter tip (2.5 mm, 14.9 °C), and temperature change decreased with distance from the catheter tip. Probes positioned between 5 -20 mm from the catheter tip recorded temperature increases of less than 5.6 °C. This study provides methods for monitoring temperature during in vivo ablation, and demonstrates that functional temperature increases from ablation were restricted to within approximately 5 mm of the catheter. These methods can now be applied to optimize effective ablation parameters, and to inform models of gastric ablation.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter , Animais , Primeiros Socorros , Suínos , Temperatura , Condutividade Térmica
3.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 105, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma has a major impact on the mental health and wellbeing of people globally. Friends, family and members of the public are often well positioned to provide initial assistance if someone is experiencing extreme distress following a potentially traumatic event. Expert consensus guidelines for high income, Western countries on how to do this were published in 2008. The aim of the current study was to re-develop these guidelines to ensure they are current and reflect best practice. METHODS: The Delphi consensus method was used to determine which helping statements should be included in the guidelines. Helping statements were derived from a systematic search of literature that considered how a member of the public could help someone experiencing extreme distress following a potentially traumatic event. Two expert panels, comprising 28 mental health professionals with expertise in managing trauma and 26 consumer advocates, rated each statement. Statements were accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed by at least 80% of each panel. RESULTS: Out of 183 statements, 103 were endorsed as appropriate helping actions in providing assistance to someone experiencing extreme distress following a potentially traumatic event. These statements were used to form the re-developed guidelines. CONCLUSION: This study has resulted in a more comprehensive set of guidelines than the original version, with the endorsement of 103 helping actions, compared to 65 previously. The updated guidelines better represent the complexities of experiencing trauma and the considered approach required when providing first aid after a potentially traumatic event. The additional guidance on providing initial assistance, talking about the trauma, offering short-term assistance and seeking appropriate professional help reflects current knowledge. A notable addition is the inclusion of content on how a first aider can assist after a disclosure of abuse. The guidelines are available to the public and will inform future updates of Mental Health First Aid training courses.


Assuntos
Primeiros Socorros , Guias como Assunto , Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(8. Vyp. 2): 65-72, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The article presents an analysis of pre-hospital diagnosis of stroke in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pediatric Stroke Center of Morozov Children's City Clinical Hospital (Center) for the period from October 2018 to December 2019, 502 cases of hospitalization of children by the First aid Station to the Center with directing diagnoses of ischemic stroke (IS), haemorrhagic stroke (HS), transient ischemic attack (TIA), vertebrobasilar syndrome (VBS) were analysed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: TIA was the most prevalent diagnosis made by the First aid station, with the lowest rate of confirmation after further examination in the hospital (7.8%). The higher rates of confirmation were observed for VBS (31.5%), IS (11.2%) and HI (9.1%). The so-called «masks of stroke¼ were diagnosed in 84.3% cases of hospitalizations that was in line with earlier studies, which reported 50 to 93%. Based on the data on the frequency of symptoms, their combinations and specificity, a screening scale for pre-hospital diagnosis of stroke in children was suggested.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Criança , Primeiros Socorros , Hospitalização , Humanos , Moscou/epidemiologia
5.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1 ed; 20200900. 9 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1121873

RESUMO

La publicación describe las pautas metodológicas como parte del acompañamiento psicosocial que se le brinda a una persona en estado de crisis; también contiene estrategias de afrontamiento funcionales frente a la crisis, es decir, desarrollar o fortalecer aquellos modos de pensar y actuar que facilitan la resolución de una situación percibida como demandante.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Saúde Mental , Guias como Assunto , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Primeiros Socorros
6.
Med Lav ; 111(4): 326-327, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869769

RESUMO

The risk of transmission of COVID-19 or other serious respiratory infections during a pandemic event can dissuade lay rescuers from practicing resuscitation maneuvers; this may result in a reduction in efficacy in the treatment of the subject with cardiorespiratory arrest; this can also happen in occupational settings for the "designed first aid worker". In this letter we propose some considerations on the adaptation of the guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation to pandemic events and on the protection of workers designated to first aid.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Primeiros Socorros , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
7.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 182-187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820730

RESUMO

Background: Snakebite and envenomation remains a public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2010 developed guidelines for the prevention and management of snakebite in Africa. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the pattern of first aid treatment among children presenting with snakebite/envenomation with the 2010 WHO guideline for the prevention and clinical management of snakebite in Africa. Patients and Methods: All children who presented with snakebite over a 7-year period in a teaching hospital in Enugu, Nigeria. The first aid treatment given to these children was obtained and was compared with the provisions of the WHO guideline for the prevention and clinical management of snakebite in Africa (2010). Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: Five (71.4%) of the snakebites occurred in the rainy season and in the dark involving the lower limbs in 85.7% of cases. Six (87.5%) of the patients received one form of first aid before presentation to a health facility. None received first aid interventions in line with the WHO recommendation. Topical application of herbal concoctions to the site of the bite (37.5%) was the most common intervention. One (14.3%) of the children was promptly brought to the health facility following snakebite. The interval from bite to presentation to the health facility ranged from 1 to 12 h (median 5 h: 43 min). Conclusion: Huge gaps still exist in the first aid treatment given to snakebite victims compared to the WHO guidelines.


Assuntos
Primeiros Socorros/métodos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827380

RESUMO

The organization of accounting frequency, scope and effectiveness of first medical aid measures could significantly affect improvement of the first aid system in the Russian Federation. According to the score of severity of injury - Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS-90) and the Injury Severity Scale (ISS) and experts review 23.4% of road accident victims who died before the arrival of emergency medical care had survival probability of more than 50%. The total number of first aid cases before the arrival of the ambulance is only 4.4% of all victims of road traffic crashes. More than 60% of victims needed first aid care and treatment. All reporting statistical forms in force in the Russian Federation at the moment do not provide data for accounting cases of first aid. The developed and tested new registration form "First Aid Registration Card", containing necessary indicators of first aid effectiveness, permits quickly to fill out main indicators data of the victim condition and to complete first aid measures. Also it allows to assess the impact of first aid on mortality, disability and timing of temporary disability loss.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito , Ambulâncias , Primeiros Socorros , Federação Russa
9.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(7): 850-853, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the people's cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) ability in Hunan Province and whether there are differences in the skill level of CPR among respondents of different ages and education levels. METHODS: A self-made questionnaire was conducted to survey people in Hunan Province by means of WeChat from May 2018 to April 2019. The questionnaire referred to 2016 National consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation in China issued by Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Specialized Committee of Chinese Research Hospital Association and 2017 version of American Heart Association (AHA) CPR operational guide, and combined with the CPR assessment scale of Hunan Provincial People's Hospital. The contents of the survey included the basic information of the subjects, the common knowledge and skills of first aid, the willingness to learn CPR skills and implement CPR, and the operational requirements of high quality CPR, etc. RESULTS: A total of 6 563 people received the on-site first aid knowledge questionnaire, and 4 355 people completed and submitted the questionnaire. The recovery rate was 66.36%, of which 3 602 valid questionnaires were from IP in Hunan Province, and the qualified rate was 82.71%. Among the subjects, 1 532 were men (42.53%) and 2 070 were women (57.47%). The majority aged group from 19 to 30 (59.41%) and from 31 to 50 (36.70%). 307 were rural (8.52%) and 3 295 were urban (91.48%); and the majority levels of education were senior or technical secondary school (38.26%) and undergraduate or junior college (44.50%). Of the 3 602 respondents, 39.09% indicated that they had been exposed to CPR knowledge and only 0.36% indicated that they did not wish to participate in CPR training. 69.93% of the respondents said they would actively to help if they wet cardic arrest, and 97.92% of those were willing to do so if the patients were relatives or friends. The survey results showed that only 8.91% of respondents chose relatively high-quality CPR options (chest compressions were performed first, the pressing point was located in the sternum of the midpoint of bilateral nipple line, the pressing frequency was 100-120 times/min, pressing depth was 5-6 cm, the ratio of chest compression to artificial ventilation was 30:2). Among these people, the correct rate was higher in the ages of 31-50 years old and ≤ 18, 19-30 than those ≥ 51 years old (12.71% vs. 0%, 6.87%, 8.70%, χ2 = 41.420, P < 0.01). The correct rate of education at graduate level and above was higher than those in junior middle school and below, high school or technical secondary school, undergraduate or junior college (19.57% vs. 2.07%, 3.41%, 13.72%, χ2 = 152.262, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The public in Hunan Province have a strong sense of first aid, and some of the theoretical knowledge of CPR. People between 31 years old and 50 years old of age and with graduate education and above know more about CPR, but the overall mastery of CPR skills is poor. It is necessary to further improve the ability of the public as the first witness by teaching various skills of CPR in various forms.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Adulto , China , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
10.
Toxicon ; 186: 160-167, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822734

RESUMO

In the Brazilian Amazon, snakebites are a significant problem, especially for populations in rural areas, particularly in forests, where victims are a considerable distance from hospital care. Several factors are associated with the severity of the accident, such as the size and age of the snake. This study aims to compare the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory aspects of envenomation to the size of Bothrops atrox snakes. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory variables were collected from patients bitten by B. atrox and who were admitted to a hospital in the city of Cruzeiro do Sul (western Brazilian Amazon). When the two punctures of the teeth were present in the bite sign, the distance between these was measured. When taken to the hospital, the snake was measured; otherwise, its size was estimated via interviews with patients. In 92 cases, the size of the snake was estimated, and most of these were caused by small snakes. Bites of small snakes occur mainly on the feet, while larger specimens reach the legs or higher regions. Small snakes were associated primarily with mild and moderate snakebites, with more presence of hemorrhagic manifestations, while larger snakes were responsible for severe cases and characterized by local effects (necrosis, edema, flictena, compartment syndrome, and infection) and patients were treated with a higher amount of antivenom and for a longer period of hospitalization. The distance of the punctures was related to the size of the snake and the severity of the local envenomation. The observation of the distance between puncture marks when present, which is correlated with the length of the specimen, as well as the estimation of the snake size by the patient, may provide more support for the health professional on the prognosis of envenomation. The use of boots in activities in rural areas and forests could contribute to a lower rate of cases of snakebites, and health education on preventive measures and first aid for populations is fundamental.


Assuntos
Bothrops , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Animais , Antivenenos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Edema , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros , Humanos , Masculino , Necrose , Mordeduras de Serpentes/patologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Serpentes
11.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200700. 34 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1103051

RESUMO

El documento contiene los procedimiento técnicos de los primeros auxilios psicológicos como intervención en personas, familias y comunidad ante una crisis.


Assuntos
População , Saúde Mental , Guias como Assunto , Primeiros Socorros
12.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-07-22. (PAHO/NMH/MN/20-0019).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52495

RESUMO

This is a revision of an illustrated booklet developed by the Pan American Health Organization and the Caribbean Development Bank. It is meant as a tool to help the general population of the Caribbean care for themselves and their communities during crisis situations. The booklet explains in a simple language with the help of graphics, the main elements of psychological first aid (PFA), a humane, supportive, and practical response to a fellow human being who is suffering and may need support. The revised edition includes special safety and disease prevention considerations due to the COVID-19 pandemic while providing PFA.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Apoio Social , Ansiedade , Depressão , Segurança , Desastres , Primeiros Socorros , Técnicas Psicológicas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008334, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Snakebite envenoming causes 81,000-138,000 annual human deaths and pain, terror, or disability in 4.5-5.4 million victims. Accurate community-based epidemiological data is scarce. Our objective was to assess snakebite incidence, mortality, and health-seeking behavior, in an affected health district of Cameroon. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional multicluster household survey in Akonolinga health district, Centre Region, Cameroon, from October to December 2016. Using probability-proportional-to-size, 20 villages were randomly selected, then, all inhabited households were systematically selected. Annual incidence and adjusted odds-ratio for predictors were estimated. FINDINGS: Among the 9,924 participants, 66 suffered a snakebite during the past year: the resulting incidence is 665 (95%CI: 519-841) per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Victims were aged 5-75y (median: 34y), 53% were male and 57% farmer-cultivators. Two children died (case-fatality rate: 3%); 39 (59%) presented severity signs, including 2 (3%) neurotoxic syndromes, 20 (30%) systemic digestive syndromes, and 17 (26%) severe cytotoxic syndromes. Non-severe cases included 20 (30%) mild cytotoxic syndromes and 7 (11%) dry bites. Only two victims (3%) received antivenom. 59 (89%) used family traditional practices, 25 (38%) traditional healers, and 31 (47%) consulted health facilities. Median delays to these three care-options were 5, 45, and 60 minutes, respectively. Traditional treatments included incisions (n = 57; 86%), tourniquets (n = 51; 77%) and black-stones (n = 44; 67%). The two last procedures were also used in health facilities (n = 18). Consulting traditional healers was associated with severity (adjusted-OR: 19.6 (2.5-156), p = 0.005) and complications (aOR: 17.3, 2.4-123, p = 0.004). Long-term disabilities were subjective psychological trauma (n = 47; 71%), finger amputation (n = 1; 2%), ankylosis (n = 1; 2%) and chronic pain (n = 1; 2%). CONCLUSIONS: We observed alarming levels of snakebite incidence, mortality, antivenom scarcity, and use of traditional medicine. It could represent several thousands of victims at national level. We suggested conducting a country-wide study, and improving antivenom supply, first-aid training, for traditional healers and health professionals.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivenenos/administração & dosagem , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Mordeduras de Serpentes/prevenção & controle , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 28(7): 2027-2035, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524164

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It was the primary purpose of the present systematic review to identify the optimal protection measures during COVID-19 pandemic and provide guidance of protective measures for orthopedic surgeons. The secondary purpose was to report the protection experience of an orthopedic trauma center in Wuhan, China during the pandemic. METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Google Scholar was performed for studies about COVID-19, fracture, trauma, orthopedic, healthcare workers, protection, telemedicine. The appropriate protective measures for orthopedic surgeons and patients were reviewed (on-site first aid, emergency room, operating room, isolation wards, general ward, etc.) during the entire diagnosis and treatment process of traumatic patients. RESULTS: Eighteen studies were included, and most studies (13/18) emphasized that orthopedic surgeons should pay attention to prevent cross-infection. Only four studies have reported in detail how orthopedic surgeons should be protected during surgery in the operating room. No detailed studies on multidisciplinary cooperation, strict protection, protection training, indications of emergency surgery, first aid on-site and protection in orthopedic wards were found. CONCLUSION: Strict protection at every step in the patient pathway is important to reduce the risk of cross-infection. Lessons learnt from our experience provide some recommendations of protective measures during the entire diagnosis and treatment process of traumatic patients and help others to manage orthopedic patients with COVID-19, to reduce the risk of cross-infection between patients and to protect healthcare workers during work. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Ortopedia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina/métodos , Filtros de Ar , Betacoronavirus , China , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Emergências , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Primeiros Socorros , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Transporte de Pacientes , Centros de Traumatologia
15.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(2): 76-82, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought new knowledge by further developing a model of using calculations in the simulation of a first-aid task. The purpose of this study was to develop the model to investigate the performance of tourniquet use in its component steps. METHODS: We aimed to design an experiment on a desktop computer by mathematically manipulating simulated data in tourniquet use. A time factor of tourniquet use was ranged widely through time challenges in five degrees from ideal to worst performances. Redesigning the task was assessed by time costs and blood losses. RESULTS: The step of tourniquet application took 17% of the trial time and securing the tourniquet after bleeding control took the longest amount of the trial time, 31%. A minority of the time (48% [17% + 31%] to apply tourniquet plus secure it) was spent after the tourniquet touched the patient, whereas most of the time (52%) was spent before the tourniquet touched the patient. The step of tourniquet application lost 14% of the total blood lost, whereas no blood was lost during securing the tourniquet, because that was the moment of bleeding control despite securing the tourniquet taking much time (31%). Most (86%) of blood lost occurred before the tourniquet touched the patient. But blood losses differed 10-fold, with a maximum of 2,434mL, which, when added to a pretask indication blood loss of 177mL, summed to 2,611mL. Before redesigning the task, costs of donning gloves and calling 9-1-1 included uncontrolled bleeding, but gloving mitigated risk of spreading pathogens among people. By step and person, redesigns of the task altered the risk-benefit profile. CONCLUSIONS: The model was useful because it simulated where most of the bleeding occurred before the tourniquet touched the patient. Modeling simulated redesigns of the task, which showed changes in the task's risk-benefit profile by step and among persons. The model generated hypotheses for future research, including the capability to screen candidate ideas among task designs.


Assuntos
Primeiros Socorros , Hemorragia/terapia , Torniquetes , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(2): 116-122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573747

RESUMO

The American College of Surgeons' "Stop the Bleed" (STB) campaign emphasizes how to apply the Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT), a device adopted by the military to control extremity hemorrhage. However, multiple commercially available alternatives to the CAT exist, and it would be helpful for instructors to be knowledgeable about how these other models compare. A PubMed search from January 2012 to January 2020 cross-referenced with a Google search for "tourniquet" was performed for commercially available tourniquets that had been trialed against the CAT. Windlass-type models included the Special Operations Forces Tactical Tourniquet (SOFT-T), the SOFT-T Wide (SOFFT-W), the SAM-XT tourniquet, the Military Emergency Tourniquet (MET), and the Tactical Medical Tourniquet (TMT). Elastic-type tourniquets included were the Stretch, Wrap, And Tuck Tourniquet (SWAT-T), the Israeli Silicone Tourniquet (IST), and the Rapid Activation Tourniquet System (RATS). Ratchet-type tourniquets included were the Ratcheting Medical Tourniquet (RMT) and TX2/TX3 tourniquets, and pneumatic-type tourniquets were the Emergency and Military Tourniquet (EMT) and Tactical Pneumatic Tourniquet (TPT). This review aims to describe the literature surrounding these models so that instructors can help laypeople make more informed purchases, stop the bleed, and save a life.


Assuntos
Primeiros Socorros , Hemorragia/terapia , Torniquetes , Humanos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233675, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520938

RESUMO

STUDY AIM: Rates of out of hospital cardiac arrest are higher in deprived communities. Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (BCPR) can double the chance of survival but occurs less often in these communities in comparison to more affluent communities. People living in deprived communities are, therefore, doubly disadvantaged and there is limited evidence to explain why BCPR rates are lower. The aim of this paper is to examine the barriers to administering BCPR in deprived communities. METHOD: Mixed method qualitative study with ten single sex focus groups (n = 61) conducted in deprived communities across central Scotland and 18 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders from the UK, Europe and the USA. RESULTS: Two key themes related to confidence and environmental factors were identified to summarise the perceived barriers to administering BCPR in deprived communities. Barriers related to confidence included: self-efficacy; knowledge and awareness of how, and when, to administer CPR; accessing CPR training; having previous experience of administering BCPR; who required CPR; and whether the bystander was physically fit to give CPR. Environmental barriers focused on the safety of the physical environment in which people lived, and fear of reprisal from gangs or the police. CONCLUSIONS: Barriers to administering BCPR identified in the general population are relevant to people living in deprived communities but are exacerbated by a range of contextual, individual and environmental factors. A one-size-fits-all approach is not sufficient to promote 'CPR readiness' in deprived communities. Future approaches to working with disadvantaged communities should be tailored to the local community.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/psicologia , Primeiros Socorros/psicologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Medo , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Características de Residência , Segurança , Escócia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 1297-1298, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570627

RESUMO

In order to assist parents in providing rapid first aid to children in case of emergency, a mobile emergency application was developed. The children's emergency app works with intuitive graphics and checklists and combines several functions such as tips for preventing accidents, easy-to-understand instructions for first-aid actions and a search function for the next pediatrician or hospital. This app is not intended to be a substitute, but rather an addition to first aid courses.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Criança , Primeiros Socorros , Humanos , Pais
20.
Washington, D.C; OPS; 2020-05-14. (OPS/NMH/MH/20-0007).
em Francês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52149

RESUMO

Cette brochure a été élaborée par l'Organisation Panaméricaine de la Santé et la Banque de Développement des Caraïbes comme un outil pour vous aider à prendre soin de vous et de votre communauté durant les situations de crise. Elle est réalisée grâce aux Premiers Secours Psychologiques (PSP). C’est une réponse simple, solidaire et pratique pour apporter le soutien nécessaire à un autre être humain en souffrance. Dans cette brochure, notre “assistant PFA” vous guidera à travers les trois principes de base de PSP: regarder (Look), écouter (Listen) et créer un lien (Link). Cela vous aidera à approcher les personnes affectées, à écouter et à comprendre leurs besoins et à les relier en leur fournissant un soutien et des informations pratiques. Il attirera également votre attention sur les besoins des groupes spécifiques, notamment les hommes, les femmes, les enfants et les adolescents et les personnes handicapées, entre autres. Tout adulte peut être assistant PSP. Profitez de la brochure, relisez-la de temps en temps, partagez-la avec vos amis, votre famille et les membres de votre communauté, et diffusez le message: “Plus forts ensemble”.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Técnicas Psicológicas , Primeiros Socorros , Desastres , Segurança , Depressão , Ansiedade , Apoio Social
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