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3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1379237, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706549

RESUMO

Introduction: Studies on human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) infection are scarce in incarcerated population. Therefore, this study estimated the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection among prisoners of the major penitentiary complex of Goiás State, Central-West Brazil, comparing it with available data from other Brazilian regions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 910 prisoners of the major penitentiary complex in the State of Goiás, Central-West Brazil. All participants were interviewed, and their serum samples were tested for anti-HTLV-1/2 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Murex HTLV-I + II, DiaSorin, Dartford, UK). Seropositive samples were submitted for confirmation by a line immunoassay (INNO-LIA HTLV I/II, Fujirebio, Europe N.V., Belgium). Results: The majority of participants were males (83.1%), between 25 and 39 years old (56.1%; mean age: 31.98 years), self-reported brown ethnicity (56.2%) and reported 9 years or less of formal education (41.4%). Most reported using non-injectable illicit drugs and various sexual behaviors that present risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The prevalence of anti-HTLV-1/2 was 0.33% (95% CI: 0.07-0.96), HTLV-1 (0.22%) and HTLV-2 (0.11%). The two HTLV-1 seropositive prisoners reported high-risk sexual behaviors, and the HTLV-2 seropositive individual was breastfed during childhood (> 6 months) by her mother and three other women. Conclusion: These data revealed a relatively low seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 in prisoners in Central-West Brazil, and evidence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 circulation in the major penitentiary complex of Goiás State. Given the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors, there is a crucial need to intensify education and health programs in prisons to effectively control and prevent HTLV-1/2 and other STIs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HTLV-I , Infecções por HTLV-II , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HTLV-I/epidemiologia , Adulto , Infecções por HTLV-II/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Adulto Jovem
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e249965, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728036

RESUMO

Importance: Although people released from jail have an elevated suicide risk, the potentially large proportion of this population in all adult suicides is unknown. Objective: To estimate what percentage of adults who died by suicide within 1 year or 2 years after jail release could be reached if the jail release triggered community suicide risk screening and prevention efforts. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort modeling study used estimates from meta-analyses and jail census counts instead of unit record data. The cohort included all adults who were released from US jails in 2019. Data analysis and calculations were performed between June 2021 and February 2024. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcomes were percentage of total adult suicides within years 1 and 2 after jail release and associated crude mortality rates (CMRs), standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), and relative risks (RRs) of suicide in incarcerated vs not recently incarcerated adults. Taylor expansion formulas were used to calculate the variances of CMRs, SMRs, and other ratios. Random-effects restricted maximum likelihood meta-analyses were used to estimate suicide SMRs in postrelease years 1 and 2 from 10 jurisdictions. Alternate estimate was computed using the ratio of suicides after release to suicides while incarcerated. Results: Included in the analysis were 2019 estimates for 7 091 897 adults (2.8% of US adult population; 76.7% males and 23.3% females) who were released from incarceration at least once, typically after brief pretrial stays. The RR of suicide was 8.95 (95% CI, 7.21-10.69) within 1 year after jail release and 6.98 (95% CI, 4.21-9.76) across 2 years after release. A total of 27.2% (95% CI, 18.0%-41.7%) of all adult suicide deaths occurred in formerly incarcerated individuals within 2 years of jail release, and 19.9% (95% CI, 16.2%-24.1%) of all adult suicides occurred within 1 year of release (males: 23.3% [95% CI, 20.8%-25.6%]; females: 24.0% [95% CI, 19.7%-36.8%]). The alternate method yielded slightly larger estimates. Another 0.8% of adult suicide deaths occurred during jail stays. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort modeling study found that adults who were released from incarceration at least once make up a large, concentrated population at greatly elevated risk for death by suicide; therefore, suicide prevention efforts focused on return to the community after jail release could reach many adults within 1 to 2 years of jail release, when suicide is likely to occur. Health systems could develop infrastructure to identify these high-risk adults and provide community-based suicide screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Suicídio , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Prisões Locais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Risco
6.
BMC Med Ethics ; 25(1): 62, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respect for human rights and bioethical principles in prisons is a crucial aspect of society and is proportional to the well-being of the general population. To date, these ethical principles have been lacking in prisons and prisoners are victims of abuse with strong repercussions on their physical and mental health. METHODS: A systematic review was performed, through a MESH of the following words (bioethics) AND (prison), (ethics) AND (prison), (bioethics) AND (jail), (ethics) AND (jail), (bioethics) AND (penitentiary), (ethics) AND (penitentiary), (prison) AND (human rights). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and after PRISMA, 17 articles were included in the systematic review. RESULTS: Of the 17 articles, most were prevalence studies (n.5) or surveys (n.4), followed by cross-sectional studies (n.3), qualitative studies (n.1), retrospective (n.1) and an explanatory sequential mixed-methods study design (n.1). In most cases, the studies associated bioethics with prisoners' access to treatment for various pathologies such as vaccinations, tuberculosis, hepatitis, HIV, it was also found that bioethics in prisons was related to the mental health of prisoners, disability, ageing, the condition of women, the risk of suicide or with the request for end-of-life by prisoners. The results showed shortcomings in the system of maintaining bioethical principles and respect for human rights. CONCLUSIONS: Prisoners, in fact, find it difficult to access care, and have an increased risk of suicide and disability. Furthermore, they are often used as improper organ donors and have constrained autonomy that also compromises their willingness to have end-of-life treatments. In conclusion, prison staff (doctors, nurses, warders, managers) must undergo continuous refresher courses to ensure compliance with ethical principles and human rights in prisons.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Prisioneiros , Prisões , Humanos , Respeito , Temas Bioéticos , Bioética , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/ética
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(5)2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incarcerated mothers are a marginalised group who experience substantial health and social disadvantage and routinely face disruption of family relationships, including loss of custody of their children. To support the parenting role, mothers and children's units (M&Cs) operate in 97 jurisdictions internationally with approximately 19 000 children reported to be residing with their mothers in custody-based settings. AIM: This rapid review aims to describe the existing evidence regarding the models of service delivery for, and key components of, custodial M&Cs. METHOD: A systematic search was conducted of four electronic databases to identify peer-reviewed literature published from 2010 onwards that reported quantitative and qualitative primary studies focused on custody-based M&Cs. Extracted data included unit components, admission and eligibility criteria, evaluations and recommendations. RESULTS: Of 3075 records identified, 35 met inclusion criteria. M&Cs accommodation was purpose-built, incorporated elements of domestic life and offered a family-like environment. Specific workforce training in caring for children and M&Cs evaluations were largely absent. Our systematic synthesis generated a list of key components for M&C design and service delivery. These components include timely and transparent access to information and knowledge for women, evaluation of the impact of the prison environment on M&C, and organisational opportunities and limitations. CONCLUSION: The next generation of M&Cs requires evidence-based key components that are implemented systematically and is evaluated. To achieve this, the use of codesign is a proven method for developing tailored programmes. Such units must offer a net benefit to both mothers and their children.


Assuntos
Mães , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Prisioneiros , Atenção à Saúde , Custódia da Criança , Prisões
9.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 77(2): e20230246, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to understand the Generalized Resistance Deficits of people deprived of liberty with hypertension in a Brazilian prison unit. METHOD: qualitative research, anchored in Salutogenesis, carried out with 38 people with hypertension from a Brazilian prison unit, from February to July 2022, with a semi-structured interview with open-ended questions, whose analysis was thematic, explaining the limitations to health in prison. RESULTS: 13 Generalized Resistance Deficits were reported, mostly related to the prison environment and, to a lesser extent, to the social group and the individual, respectively. Living in prison for people with hypertension implies living with a high number of Generalized Resistance Deficits, accentuating the movement towards the disease pole. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: knowing Generalized Resistance Deficits allows directing health promotion to support the use of available Generalized Resistance Resources and contributes to the expansion of intersectoral policies.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Prisioneiros , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Brasil , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/normas , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos
10.
J Hist Ideas ; 85(2): 185-208, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708646

RESUMO

This article examines Thomas Hobbes's notorious claim that "fear and liberty are consistent" and therefore that agreements coerced by threat of violence are binding. This view is to a surprising extent inherited from Aristotle, but its political implications became especially striking in the wake of the English Civil War, and Hobbes recast his theory in far-reaching ways between his early works and Leviathan to accommodate it. I argue that Hobbes's account of coercion is both philosophically safe from the most common objections to it and politically superior to the seemingly commonsensical alternatives that we have inherited from Hobbes's critics.


Assuntos
Coerção , Militares , Militares/história , Prisioneiros/história , Prisioneiros/psicologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , História do Século XIX , Violência/história , Violência/psicologia , Inglaterra
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 25(5): 553-562, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing and ageing prison population in England makes accurate cancer data of increasing importance for prison health policies. This study aimed to compare cancer incidence, treatment, and survival between patients diagnosed in prison and the general population. METHODS: In this population-based, matched cohort study, we used cancer registration data from the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service in England to identify primary invasive cancers and cervical cancers in situ diagnosed in adults (aged ≥18 years) in the prison and general populations between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2017. Ministry of Justice and Office for National Statistics population data for England were used to calculate age-standardised incidence rates (ASIR) per year and age-standardised incidence rate ratios (ASIRR) for the 20-year period. Patients diagnosed with primary invasive cancers (ie, excluding cervical cancers in situ) in prison between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2017 were matched to individuals from the general population and linked to hospital and treatment datasets. Matching was done in a 1:5 ratio according to 5-year age group, gender, diagnosis year, cancer site, and disease stage. Our primary objectives were to compare the incidence of cancer (1998-2017); the receipt of treatment with curative intent (2012-17 matched cohort), using logistic regression adjusted for matching variables (excluding cancer site) and route to diagnosis; and overall survival following cancer diagnosis (2012-17 matched cohort), using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for matching variables (excluding cancer site) and route to diagnosis, with stratification for the receipt of any treatment with curative intent. FINDINGS: We identified 2015 incident cancers among 1964 adults (1556 [77·2%] men and 459 [22·8%] women) in English prisons in the 20-year period up to Dec 31, 2017. The ASIR for cancer for men in prison was initially lower than for men in the general population (in 1998, ASIR 119·33 per 100 000 person-years [95% CI 48·59-219·16] vs 746·97 per 100 000 person-years [742·31-751·66]), but increased to a similar level towards the end of the study period (in 2017, 856·85 per 100 000 person-years [675·12-1060·44] vs 788·59 per 100 000 person-years [784·62-792·57]). For women, the invasive cancer incidence rate was low and so ASIR was not reported for this group. Over the 20-year period, the incidence of invasive cancer for men in prison increased (incidence rate ratio per year, 1·05 [95% CI 1·04-1·06], during 1999-2017 compared with 1998). ASIRRs showed that over the 20-year period, overall cancer incidence was lower in men in prison than in men in the general population (ASIRR 0·76 [95% CI 0·73-0·80]). The difference was not statistically significant for women (ASIRR 0·83 [0·68-1·00]). Between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2017, patients diagnosed in prison were less likely to undergo curative treatment than matched patients in the general population (274 [32·3%] of 847 patients vs 1728 [41·5%] of 4165; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0·72 [95% CI 0·60-0·85]). Being diagnosed in prison was associated with a significantly increased risk of death on adjustment for matching variables (347 deaths during 2021·9 person-years in the prison cohort vs 1626 deaths during 10 944·2 person-years in the general population; adjusted HR 1·16 [95% CI 1·03-1·30]); this association was partly explained by stratification by curative treatment and further adjustment for diagnosis route (adjusted HR 1·05 [0·93-1·18]). INTERPRETATION: Cancer incidence increased in people in prisons in England between 1998 and 2017, with patients in prison less likely to receive curative treatments and having lower overall survival than the general population. The association with survival was partly explained by accounting for differences in receipt of curative treatment and adjustment for diagnosis route. Improved routine cancer surveillance is needed to inform prison cancer policies and decrease inequalities for this under-researched population. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health and Care Research, King's College London, and Strategic Priorities Fund 2019/20 of Research England via the University of Surrey.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
AMA J Ethics ; 26(5): E399-407, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700524

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat that inequitably affects minoritized populations, including Black, Latinx, and Indigenous people-especially in carceral settings-and is largely driven by inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing practices. People whose identities are minoritized are more likely to be incarcerated, and people who are incarcerated experience higher disease risk than people who are not incarcerated. This article draws on a case of dental infection suffered by a woman who is incarcerated to consider key ethical and clinical complexities of antimicrobial prescribing in carceral settings.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Humanos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/ética , Feminino , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prisioneiros , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Prisões , Adulto
14.
J Law Med ; 31(1): 42-69, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761389

RESUMO

People are sent to prison as punishment and not to experience additional punishment. Nevertheless, this principle is habitually violated in Australia: prisoners frequently receive health care that is inferior to health care that is available in the general community. Numerous official inquiries have identified deficiencies in prisoner health services, notwithstanding the apparent intention of legislative provisions and non-statutory guidelines and policies in various jurisdictions to ensure prisoners receive appropriate health care. This article proposes law reforms to address this human rights crisis. It recommends the passage of uniform legislation in all Australian jurisdictions that stipulates minimum prison health care service standards, as well as mechanisms for ensuring they are implemented. The article also suggests that, in the short-term, until prison health care is significantly improved, substandard health care for prisoners should be treated as a potentially mitigating sentencing factor that can reduce the length of a defendant's prison term.


Assuntos
Direitos Humanos , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Prisioneiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Austrália , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Prisões/legislação & jurisprudência , Atenção à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
15.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0288182, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are 10 million admissions to U.S. prisons and jails each year. More than half of those admitted have mental health problems. The goal of this article is to inform: (1) implementation of evidence-based mental health treatments in prisons and jails, an important effort that needs more evidence to guide it; (2) psychotherapy and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) training efforts, especially in low-resource settings. METHODS: A randomized hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial of group IPT for major depressive disorder (MDD) in state prisons found that IPT increased rates of MDD remission and lowered posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms relative to prison treatment as usual. The trial used prison counselors, only some of whom had prior psychotherapy training/experience, to deliver IPT. IPT treatment adherence was high (96%), but trial training and supervision were too costly to be scalable outside the trial. The current article reports results from a planned qualitative analysis of 460 structured implementation and supervision documents in that trial to describe training and supervision processes and lessons learned, inform training recommendations, and facilitate future work to optimize training and supervision for under-resourced settings. RESULTS: Themes identified in implementation and supervision process notes reflected: work on psychotherapy basics (reflective listening, focusing on emotions, open-ended questions, specific experiences), IPT case conceptualization (forming a conceptualization, what is and is not therapeutic work, structure and limit setting, structure vs. flexibility), IPT techniques (enhancing social support, role plays, communication analysis), psychotherapy processes (alliance repair, managing group processes), and managing difficult situations (avoidance, specific clients, challenging work settings). Counselors were receptive to feedback; some relied on study supervisors for support in managing stressful prison working conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Findings can be used to make future training and supervision more efficient. Based on our results, we recommend that initial and refresher training focus on IPT case conceptualization, steps for addressing each IPT problem area, and reflective listening. We also recommend supervision through at least counselors' first two rounds of groups. More low-cost, scalable training methods are needed to get mental health treatment to individuals who need it most, who are often served in challenging, low-resource settings such as prisons. This is a mental health access and equity issue. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01685294).


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Psicoterapia Interpessoal , Prisões , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Psicoterapia/métodos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 31: e2024022, 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775523

RESUMO

This article uses the medical records of six women admitted to the Manicomio Nacional de Leganés, Madrid (Spain), in which, in addition to medical notes, there are letters and other personal documents. These unsent letters allow us to read about their complaints towards the institution, as well as to recover the voices of the inmates and their resistance to being treated like insane people. This analysis leads us to explore the double marginalization: being "women" and being "mentally ill"; it also brings us closer to building a story from the patient's point of view. The time frame is Franco's dictatorship, during which the implementation of a national-Catholic system undoubtedly reinforced the female hegemonic model of the regime.


El presente trabajo utiliza los historiales clínicos de seis mujeres internadas en el Manicomio Nacional de Leganés, Madrid (España), en los que, además de las anotaciones médicas, existen cartas y otros documentos personales. El control sobre estas cartas no enviadas nos permite escuchar las denuncias sobre la institución, así como recuperar las voces de las internas y sus resistencias a ser tratadas como locas. Este análisis nos lleva a explorar la doble marginación: ser "mujeres" y "enfermas mentales" y nos aproxima a construir una historia desde el punto de vista del paciente. El marco temporal es el franquismo, régimen dictatorial que implantó un modelo hegemónico femenino dictado por una moral nacional-católica.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Espanha , Feminino , Humanos , História do Século XX , Prisioneiros/história , Correspondência como Assunto/história
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(13): S41-S48, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561639

RESUMO

Serratia marcescens is an environmental gram-negative bacterium that causes invasive disease in rare cases. During 2020-2022, an outbreak of 21 invasive Serratia infections occurred in a prison in California, USA. Most (95%) patients had a history of recent injection drug use (IDU). We performed whole-genome sequencing and found isolates from 8 patients and 2 pieces of IDU equipment were closely related. We also identified social interactions among patients. We recovered S. marcescens from multiple environmental samples throughout the prison, including personal containers storing Cell Block 64 (CB64), a quaternary ammonium disinfectant solution. CB64 preparation and storage conditions were suboptimal for S. marcescens disinfection. The outbreak was likely caused by contaminated CB64 and propagated by shared IDU equipment and social connections. Ensuring appropriate preparation, storage, and availability of disinfectants and enacting interventions to counteract disease spread through IDU can reduce risks for invasive Serratia infections in California prisons.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Desinfetantes , Prisioneiros , Infecções por Serratia , Humanos , Serratia marcescens/genética , Infecções por Serratia/epidemiologia , Prisões , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , California/epidemiologia
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(13): S56-S61, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561865

RESUMO

Increasing vaccination knowledge is effective in addressing hesitancy and is particularly important in populations deprived of liberty who may not routinely have access to health information, ensuring health equity. RISE-Vac is a European Union-funded project aiming to promote vaccine literacy, offer, and uptake in prisons in Europe. We consulted persons living in prisons in the United Kingdom (through the Prisoner Policy Network), France, and Moldova to determine their vaccination knowledge gaps, the information they would like to receive, and how they would like to receive it. We received 344 responses: 224 from the United Kingdom, 70 from France, and 50 from Moldova. Participants were particularly interested in learning about the effectiveness, side effects, and manufacturing of vaccines. Their responses guided the development of educational materials, including a brochure that will be piloted in prisons in Europe. Persons with experience of imprisonment were involved at every stage of this project.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Vacinas , Humanos , Prisões , Reino Unido , França
20.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 41(5): 468-470, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556759

RESUMO

The United States (US) has one of the highest rates of incarceration in the world. Due to the aging of the US population as a whole and limited opportunities for early release, the proportion of older people in prison continues to rise. Some correctional health systems have adopted geriatric and palliative care principles to better care for this aging population, many of whom die in prison. However, not everyone who grows old in prison will die behind bars. In this article, we explore existing literature that highlights the unique physical, cognitive, and psychosocial challenges that formerly incarcerated patients face. We proceed to argue that palliative care providers should screen for a history of incarceration to identify and address the needs of this patient population. We also offer strategies to create a safe, welcoming environment to discuss past traumas related to these patients' time in prison.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Idoso , Prisões , Encarceramento
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