Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 18.354
Filtrar
1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-8, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-213892

RESUMO

Background: The number of ex-prisoners worldwide has constantly been increasing in recent years. Currently, little is known about post-release daily adaptation, not to mention valid and reliable instruments for post-release daily routines pertinent to mental health. Objective: This study aims to develop and validate a self-report instrument, hereafter referred to as Post Release Living Inventory for Ex-prisoners (PORLI-ex). Methods: Three separate samples of ex-prisoners were recruited to complete an online survey (N=1,277, age range=17–89 years, 53.2% male, 72% white). Results: The final model evidenced acceptable goodness-of-fit and consisted of 45 items on nine dimensions, which loaded on three second-order factors: Consolidation (three dimensions; e.g., Institutional Routines), Replacement (two dimensions; e.g., Maladaptive Behaviors), and Addition (four dimensions; e.g., Socializing with Ex-prisoner Friends) (α=.695–.915). Convergent validity was demonstrated in the positive correlations with IADL, SOLI, MLQ, GSE-6, and MSPSS. Discriminant validity was demonstrated in the weak correlations with the LEC-5 and perceived social and personal cost of punishment. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated in the correlations with psychiatric symptoms and crime-related outcomes and incremental validity in the correlations with these measures independent of the scores on IADL, SOLI, MLQ, GSE-6, and MSPSS. Conclusion: This study calls for more resources on fostering psychological strengths and resilience through regularizing basic daily life experiences on top of traditional interventions for risk management among the ex-prisoners. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Saúde Mental , Prisioneiros , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
An. psicol ; 39(1): 153-166, Ene-Abr. 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-213849

RESUMO

La violencia de género es un proceso complejo en el cual intervienen variables individuales, relacionales y contextuales. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo explorar las estrategias de afrontamiento y dinámicas relacionales en situaciones conflictivas en condenados por violencia de género con sus parejas. Se realizaron grupos focales con condenados por violencia de género (12 participantes) y con profesionales de la psicología (4 participantes). Los datos se exploraron mediante análisis temático siguiendo el Modelo Ecológico Anidado. El grupo de condenados muestra roles de autoridad y superioridad sobre la mujer, sensación de vulnerabilidad y rechazo ante el marco jurídico existente, miedo a sufrir arrestos por querer continuar con la relación, la necesidad de control de la pareja impulsada por lo celos, la justificación o negación de responsabilidad en las situaciones violentas o instrumentalización de los hijos/as en común. Los profesionales señalan aspectos culturales que facilitan esquemas y roles violentos en la dinámica de pareja, problemas de comunicación, negación o baja conciencia del delito, entre otros temas. Los resultados son de especial interés tanto para los profesionales que deseen conocer o profundizar en la temática como para quienes trabajen en la intervención y/o prevención en violencia de género.(AU)


Intimate Partner Violence is a complex process in which indi-vidual, relational and contextual variables intervene. The aim of this study was to explore coping strategies and relational dynamics in conflict situa-tions involving people convicted of intimate partner violence with their partners. Focus groups were conducted with convicted intimate partner violence offenders (12 participants) and with psychology professionals (4 participants). The data were explored through thematic analysis following the Nested Ecological Model. The group of convicted perpetrators showed roles of authority and superiority over the woman, a feeling of vulnerability and rejection of the existing legal framework, fear of being arrested for wanting to continue the relationship, the need to control the partner driven by jealousy, justification or denial of responsibility in violent situations or instrumentalization of the children in common. The professionals point out cultural aspects that facilitate violent patterns and roles in the couple's dynamics, communication problems, denial or low awareness of the crime, among other issues. The results are of special interest both for profession-als who wish to learn or deepen their knowledge on the subject, as well as for those who work in intervention and/or prevention of intimate partner violence.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Violência de Gênero , Grupos Focais , Prisões , Adaptação Psicológica , Prisioneiros , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , Psicologia Forense
4.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 90(1): 18-21, 2023 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596602

Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Humanos
5.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278194, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656817

RESUMO

The contribution of mental illness, substance use, and appetitive aggression to recidivism has significant policy and practice implications. Offenders with untreated mental illness have a higher recidivism rate and a greater number of criminogenic risk factors than those without mental illness. Previous research has demonstrated that the likelihood of appetitive aggression increases in violent contexts where individuals perpetrate aggressive acts. Using the Ecological Systems Theory, this study investigated the association between mental health disorders and recidivism among incarcerated adult offenders in South Africa, and the intervening role of appetitive aggression and substance use. Using a cross-sectional quantitative research design, a sample of 280 incarcerated male and female adult offenders aged 18-35 with no known psychiatric disorders were sampled at a correctional facility in South Africa. The re-incarceration rate, mental health disorders, substance use, and appetitive aggression symptomology were assessed using the Hopkins symptoms checklist, the CRAFFT measure of substance use, and the appetitive aggression scale. Findings indicate a 32.4% recidivism rate (n = 82). Cluster analysis indicated that the combination of anxiety, depression, substance use, and appetitive aggression increased the likelihood of recidivism. Appetitive aggression median differences between clusters 2 and 3 played a key role in distinguishing recidivism risk among recidivist and non-recidivist participants. Chi-square analysis highlighted group differences in education levels among the established clusters [x2 (3, n = 217) = 12.832, p = .005, which is < .05] as well as group differences in the type of criminal offence [x2 (3, n = 187) = 24.362, p = .000, which is < .05] and cluster membership. Combined factors that increase the likelihood of recidivism provide a typology for classifying offenders based on particular recidivism risk determinants, which offers insights for developing tailored interventions that address a combination of factors.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Prisioneiros , Reincidência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Criminosos/psicologia , Saúde Mental , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Crime/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Análise por Conglomerados
6.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689249

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Looked after children (LAC) are criminalised at five times the rate of children in the general population. Children in contact with both child welfare and child justice systems have higher rates of neurodisability and substance use problems, and LAC in general have high rates of school exclusion, homelessness and unemployment. This study aims to understand whether these factors persist in LAC who are in prison as adults. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Administrative data collected by the Do-IT profiler screening tool in a prison in Wales, UK, were analysed to compare sentenced prisoners who were LAC (n = 631) to sentenced prisoners who were not LAC (n = 2,201). The sample comprised all prisoners who were screened on entry to prison in a two-year period. FINDINGS: Prisoners who were LAC scored more poorly on a functional screener for neurodisability (effect size = 0.24), and on four self-report measures capturing traits of dyslexia (0.22), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (0.40), autism spectrum disorders (0.34) and developmental co-ordination disorder (0.33). Prisoners who were LAC were more likely to have been to a pupil referral unit (0.24), have substance use problems (0.16), be homeless or marginally housed (0.18) and be unemployed or unable to work due to disability (0.13). ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study uniquely contributes to our understanding of prisoners who were LAC as a target group for intervention and support with re-integration into the community upon release. LAC in prison as adults may require additional interventions to help with employment, housing and substance use. Education programmes in prison should screen for neurodisability, to develop strategies to support engagement.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Prisões , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , País de Gales , Emprego
7.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 34(1): 58-70, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656092

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Women living with HIV are increasingly incarcerated and experience suboptimal HIV health outcomes post release from incarceration. Drawing on cohort data with cisgender and trans women living with HIV (Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS: Women's Longitudinal Needs Assessment), we used path analysis to investigate pathways from recent incarceration to optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. We tested direct effects between recent incarceration, mediating variables, and ART adherence, along with indirect effects between incarceration and ART adherence through each mediator. We assessed model fit using chi-square, root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA), and comparative fit index (CFI). Our hypothesized model fit well to the data (χ2(1)=1.100; p=.2943; CFI = 1.000; RMSEA = 0.007). Recent experiences of homelessness, criminalized substance use, and gender-based violence each fully mediated the pathway between recent incarceration and optimal ART adherence. Findings highlight the need for safe and supportive housing, supports for criminalized substance use, and trauma and violence-informed care and practice post release from incarceration.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Prisioneiros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação , Estabelecimentos Correcionais
8.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e061547, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36720572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study intended to examine the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among inmates in Kaliti Prison Centre, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 694 randomly selected inmates in Kaliti Federal Prison in Ethiopia. The depressive symptom was examined using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify correlates of depressive symptoms. A p value <0.05 was considered to declare statistical significance, and an adjusted OR (AOR) with the corresponding 95% CI was computed to determine the strength of association. Data were analysed using SPSS V.20. RESULT: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among prisoners in the current study was 56.6% (95% CI 53.2 to 60.8). Poor social support (AOR: 3.33, 95% CI 2.03 to 5.458), personal history of mental illness (AOR=3.16, 95% CI 1.62 to 6.14), physical abuse (AOR=2.31, 95% CI 1.41 to 3.78) and comorbid chronic medical illness (AOR=3.47, 95% CI 2.09 to 5.74) were independent correlates of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that around one in two prisoners screened positive for depressive symptoms. There should be a regular screening of depressive symptoms for prisoners, and those screened positive should be linked to proper psychiatric service for early diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Prisões , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
9.
Subst Use Misuse ; 58(3): 444-453, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683568

RESUMO

Background: Individuals scoring high on psychopathy engage in problematic patterns of alcohol and illicit substance use. However, our understanding regarding the association between psychopathy and nicotine use remains limited, which is surprising, given the detrimental consequences associated with such use. Previous studies have observed significant correlations between psychopathic traits (particularly Factor 2 scores assessing lifestyle/behavioral and antisocial traits from the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised [PCL-R]) and increased frequency of nicotine use. However, no study has investigated whether individuals scoring high on psychopathy are characterized by problematic patterns of nicotine use, including lifetime history of nicotine dependence.Objectives: The current study aimed to address this gap, specifically investigating whether PCL-R scores were associated with higher total scores from the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND).Results: Across both incarcerated men and women, PCL-R total, Factor 2, and Facet 3 (measuring lifestyle/behavioral psychopathic traits) scores were positively correlated with FTND total scores. Additionally, across both samples, hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed these same psychopathy scores remained associated with higher FTND total scores when controlling for additional covariate measures (e.g., age, severity of alcohol and illicit substance use, race, ethnicity, and IQ).Conclusions/Importance: Though associated with small effect sizes, our results support the notion that lifestyle/behavioral psychopathic traits represent a general risk factor for engaging in risky behavior associated with deleterious health consequences, including nicotine use. Our results hold implications for the development of treatment approaches, designed to reduce problematic levels of substance use among individuals scoring high on psychopathy.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Prisioneiros , Tabagismo , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Nicotina , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Etanol
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 20, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in prisons usually occurs at higher rates than in the general population, especially in developing countries. TB has been reported as the most common cause of death among prisoners. Studies have shown limitations for early detection of TB in prisons that seem to result from mistaken concepts about TB, delayed diagnosis mainly due to the naturalization of lack of healthcare for this population METHODS: A scoping review was performed using the methodology of the Joanna Briggs Institute to assess "What are the scientific evidences on the epidemiology of TB in the prison system?". Then, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the prevalence of TB (active and latent) TB in prisoners. The results are presented as prevalence, in percentage, through random effects models, with a confidence interval of 95%. RESULTS: Regarding active TB, the results of the metanalysis showed that countries with a high burden of TB had a prevalence of 3.54% [2.71; 4.63], countries not considered to be high burden TB countries had a prevalence of 1.43% [0.86; 2.37]. Latent TB had a prevalence of 51.61% [39.46; 63.58] in high TB burden countries and a prevalence of 40.24% [23.51; 59.61] in countries with low TB burden. In terms of development, in low- and lower-middle-income countries, the prevalence of active TB was 3.13% [1.84; 5.29] and in high- and upper-middle income countries the prevalence was 2.25% [1.70; 2.99]. The prevalence of latent TB in high- and middle-income countries was 43.77% [28.61; 60.18] and of 49.42% [45.91; 52.94] in low and lower middle-income countries. CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggests that TB, and probably other infectious diseases, find fertile ground in prisons where previous acquire social disadvantages seem to thrive-therefore, TB in prisons is a global public health problem and effective strategies are needed to control the disease are needed targeting the prison environment, including rapid health assessments to understand each context and to implement tailored and precision interventions.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente , Prisioneiros , Tuberculose , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Prisões
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(1): 37-48, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629577

RESUMO

The scope was to estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension (AHT) and associated risk factors among female prisoners. Data from the National Health Survey of the Female Prison Population and Prison Guards were used, investigating sociodemographic variables, prison characteristics, health behaviors and conditions. Information was collected through a self-administered questionnaire, and the magnitude of the association was estimated by the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Of the 1,327 prisoner participants, 24.4% were hypertensive, the majority were 31 years of age or older (54.6%), and 51.5% self-reported mixed race. After adjustment for associated risk factors in the bivariate analysis, a direct relationship between age and AHT was observed, in which age equal to/over 41 years was independently associated with a 7-fold greater chance of having AHT, compared to those under 25 years of age. Those who self-reported mixed race, had high cholesterol, were obese and were also independently associated with a higher prevalence of AHT. The greater the number of people with whom the inmate shares a cell was associated with a higher prevalence of AHT, but without a dose-response relationship. The conclusion drawn is that age, race, obesity, physical inactivity and stress are risk factors for AHT in female prisoners.


Objetivou-se estimar a prevalência de hipertensão arterial (HA) e os fatores de risco associados em mulheres presas. Utilizou-se dados do Inquérito Nacional de Saúde na População Penitenciária Feminina e em Servidoras Prisionais, investigando-se características sociodemográficas, fatores das prisões, comportamentos e condições de saúde. As informações foram coletadas por meio de questionário autoaplicado, sendo a magnitude da associação estimada por odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. Das 1.327 participantes, 24,4% eram hipertensas, a maioria tinha 31 anos ou mais (54,6%), 51,5% autorreferiram etnia/cor parda. Após mutual ajustamento pelos fatores de risco associados na análise bivariada, observou-se relação direta e com gradiente entre idade e HA, em que idade igual/maior a 41 anos foi associada independentemente com uma chance sete vezes maior de ter HA, se comparado a quem tem menos de 25 anos. Aquelas que autorreferiram etnia/cor negra apresentaram colesterol alto e estavam obesas, também foram associadas de forma independente com maior prevalência de HA. O maior número de pessoas com que a presa divide cela esteve associado à maior prevalência de há, sem uma relação dose-resposta. Conclui-se que idade, etnia/cor, obesidade, inatividade física e estresse são fatores de risco para HA em mulheres presas.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Obesidade , Prisões
12.
Subst Use Misuse ; 58(3): 320-330, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629127

RESUMO

Background: This study examined fidelity of implementation strategies used in an organizational process improvement intervention (OPII) designed to improve evidence-based practices related to assessments for drug-involved clients exiting incarceration. Leadership was studied as a moderating factor between fidelity and outcomes. Methods: A mixed-method cluster randomized design was used to randomize 21 sites to early- or delayed-start within 9 research centers. Parent study protocol was reviewed to develop fidelity constructs (i.e., responsiveness, dose, quality, adherence). Outcomes were site-level success in achieving goals and objectives completed during the OPII (e.g., percent goals achieved). Correlations, analyses of covariance, regressions and moderation analyses were performed. Qualitative interviews assessed facilitators/barriers to implementation. Results: Fidelity constructs related to outcomes. No differences were found in fidelity by early or delayed condition. At low levels of leadership, high staff responsiveness (i.e., engagement in the OPII) related to poorer outcome. Conclusions: It is important to consider contextual factors (e.g., leadership) that may influence implementation strategy fidelity when deploying evidence-based practices. Findings are relevant to researchers, clinicians, administrators and policy makers, and suggest that goal completion during implementation of evidence-based practices requires monitoring of leadership competence, fidelity to implementation strategies (i.e., staff responsiveness to strategies) and attendance to goal importance.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Prisioneiros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Liderança
13.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 242: 109730, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retention in opioid agonist treatment (OAT) following release from prison is associated with improved outcomes, however factors associated with post-release OAT discontinuation in Australia are poorly understood. We examined post-release OAT discontinuation in a cohort of men who engaged in approximately monthly injecting drug use (IDU) prior to imprisonment in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Longitudinal data were used to calculate incidence of first-event post-release OAT discontinuation among men released from prison receiving OAT, and single-event discrete-time survival methods were used to estimate associations with post-release OAT discontinuation. RESULTS: Among 110 participants, 55 OAT discontinuations were observed in the two years post-release, an overall crude incidence rate (IR) of 46 per 100 person-years (PY) (95 % confidence interval [95 %CI]: 36-60 per 100PY). Incidence was greatest between release from prison and first follow-up (IR: 84 per 100PY, 95 %CI: 62-116 per 100PY). Initiating OAT during index imprisonment (versus transitioning from community OAT; adjusted hazard rate [AHR]: 2.17, 95 %CI: 1.14-4.13) and identifying as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (AHR: 4.95, 95 %CI: 2.00-12.25) were associated with an increased hazard of OAT discontinuation. CONCLUSION: In a cohort of men with recent histories of IDU released from prison receiving OAT, half reported OAT discontinuation within two years of release from prison, with incidence of discontinuation greatest soon after prison-release. Targeted support for men who initiate OAT during episodes of imprisonment and Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples is necessary to reduce incidence of OAT discontinuation among people at greatest risk of discontinuation.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Masculino , Humanos , Prisões , Vitória , Analgésicos Opioides
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 907, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incarcerated people are at a disproportionate risk of contracting HIV. We estimated the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing among incarcerated people with a history of HIV-related high-risk behaviours in Iran. METHODS: Data for this analysis were obtained from three consecutive nationwide bio-behavioural surveillance surveys of a random sample of incarcerated people in 2009 (n = 5953), 2013 (n = 5490), and 2017 (n = 5785). History of testing for HIV in the last 12 months was the primary outcome variable. HIV testing was examined among those with a history of HIV-related high-risk behaviours (i.e., having multiple sex partnerships, injection drug use practices, or a history of having a tattoo). The outcome variable was divided into three categories: Never tested for HIV, ever tested for HIV inside the prison in the last 12 months, and ever tested for HIV outside the prison in the last 12 months. We used multivariable multinomial logistic regression models to examine factors associated with HIV testing. RESULTS: Overall, 8,553 participants with a history of HIV-related high-risk behaviors with valid responses to the HIV testing question were included in the analysis. Although HIV testing inside prison has increased (23% [2009], 21.5% [2013], and 50.3% [2017]: P-value < 0.001), the prevalence of HIV testing outside prison has decreased (7.7% [2009], 7.5% [2013], 4.1% [2017]: P-value < 0.001) over time. Our multivariable multinomial regression model showed older age (Relative-risk ratio [RRR]: 1.24, 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]: 1.05, 1.47), history of the previous incarceration (RRR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.71), currently receiving methadone maintenance therapy inside prison (RRR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.81, 2.43), having access to condoms inside prison (RRR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.20, 1.68) and sufficient HIV knowledge (RRR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.47, 2.05) were significantly associated with an increased probability of having an HIV test in the last 12 months inside prison. CONCLUSION: HIV testing among high-risk Iranian prisoners has increased from 2009 to 2017. However, HIV testing remains considerably low, and half of the incarcerated people with a history of HIV-related high-risk behaviours had never tested for HIV inside prison. Evidence-based programs are needed to optimize HIV testing inside and outside prisons and identify those at greater risk of HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Prisioneiros , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Assunção de Riscos , Prisões , Teste de HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações
16.
Forensic Toxicol ; 40(1): 119-124, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) are a class of varied compounds that mimic the effects of natural cannabinoids found in cannabis. Because they have a wide range of diverse structures, they vary widely in their potency. The abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in prisons was reported in many European countries and in the USA. In the present study, we have described the identification of SCRAs in 56 infused paper sheet samples, seized mainly in Brazilian prisons between 2016 and 2020. METHODS: The materials were seized by local or federal law enforcement and analyzed by São Paulo State Police or Brazilian Federal Police using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. RESULTS: Most of these samples (87.5%) were seized in 2019-2020; seven different SCRAs were identified in samples, and the most frequently identified substances were MDMB-4en-PINACA (23.6%) and 5F-MDMB-PICA (36.4%), the newest SCRAs emerging recently. CONCLUSIONS: As observed in Europe and the USA, Brazil also shows the prevalence of indazole-3-carboxamides and indole-3-carboxamides among SCRAs seizures in the prison system. This phenomenon is spreading all over the world at this moment. These data on the prevalence could help to alert judicial authorities to shutting down the introduction of NPS, including SCRAs, into prisons to ensure safety and security for avoiding health risks of prisoners and staff, leading to positive effects in this population. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of SCRAs smuggling into prisons in Latin America.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Prisões , Brasil/epidemiologia
17.
Tunis Med ; 100(7): 497-502, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571737

RESUMO

The involvement of physicians as an executive tool in the excesses of medical experimentation in prisons continues to raise questions and incomprehension. From the depths of the extermination camps under the Nazi regime to the iterative exploitation scandals after the Second World War, the ability of certain physicians to overstep the foundations of the Hippocratic Oath of «do no harm¼ and associate themselves with so many atrocities will always surprise. The answers to this question seem ambiguous because the excesses of medical experimentation in prisons should be reconsidered in their associated historical-political context. This history note, the second in a series on medical experimentation in prisons, aims to relieve the excesses attributed to physicians during medical experimentation on prisoners.


Assuntos
Médicos , Prisioneiros , Humanos , História do Século XX , Prisões , Socialismo Nacional/história
18.
Tunis Med ; 100(8-9): 572-577, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571724

RESUMO

Ethical foundations related to the use of human beings in medical research, already existed in the oldest texts. The historical evolution of regulations (in terms of texts and codes) had always drawn its legitimacy and its logic from the historical context. The main aim of these regulations was to satisfy a need to restore moral or physical prejudices, by hoping by means of the law, that these abuses would not be repeated. Although they were the main victims of medical experimentation, prisoners were rarely specifically identified in these legislations. This history note, the third in a series on medical experimentation on prisoners, aims to describe the major founding texts of ethics in medical experimentation, drawing attention to the historical context as well as the issues that shaped these documents.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Experimentação Humana , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(12): e2247146, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36520435

RESUMO

Importance: Diagnosis of mental disorder is prevalent among people who have been incarcerated. Nevertheless, community mental health services are often limited following release from prison, and reincarceration rates are high. The prevalence of mental disorders is growing among people who are incarcerated in British Columbia (BC), Canada, increasing the urgency of timely and accessible mental health services after release. Objective: To examine the association of mental health services access and timeliness of services access with reincarceration risk among people released from prison. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, mental disorder diagnoses were derived from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision codes in administrative health records. Data on prison release and reincarceration were retrieved from corrections records. Population-based health and corrections data were retrieved from the BC Provincial Overdose Cohort, which contains a 20% general population random sample of 1 089 677 BC residents. This study examined releases from provincial prisons between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2018, among people in the 20% random sample who had a mental disorder diagnosis in the year before their release. Analyses were performed from January to June 2022. Exposures: Mental health services access (primary care, emergency department visits, or hospitalization) and sociodemographic, health, and incarceration characteristics. Main Outcomes and Measures: A multistate modeling approach was taken. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by transition, from release to reincarceration, with and without mental health services access. A state arrival extended model examined the influence of timeliness of mental health services access on subsequent hazard of reincarceration. Results: A total of 4171 releases among 1664 people (3565 releases among male individuals [84.6%]; 2948 releases [70.7%] among people <40 years old; 2939 releases [70.5%] among people with concurrent substance use disorder diagnosis) were identified. The total study follow-up time was 2834.53 person-years, with a mean (SD) of 0.68 (0.93) years and median (IQR) of 0.25 (0.07-0.84) years per release. Mental health services access was associated with a reduction in the hazard of reincarceration (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.94). For each additional month between release and mental health services access, the hazard of reincarceration was increased by 4% (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of people with mental disorder diagnoses released from prison in BC, mental health services access was associated with reduced reincarceration risk. These findings suggest that these services may have the greatest impact on reducing reincarceration risk when they are available in a timely manner in the days and weeks immediately following release.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Prisioneiros , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prisões , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia
20.
Asclepio ; 74(2)dic. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-212897

RESUMO

El objetivo de este artículo es aproximarnos a la historia del gabinete antropométrico de la prisión Modelo de Barcelona entre 1895 y 1918. Será revisada la confluencia entre las nociones jurídicas, científicas y religiosas que los agentes correctores de la cárcel introdujeron en el gabinete, así como las discusiones, tensiones e interpretaciones que produjo su práctica. Para llevar a cabo este propósito la investigación girará en torno a las siguientes preguntas ¿cómo se consolidó la antropometría criminal en Barcelona? ¿Cuáles fueron las características de su proceso de apropiación? ¿las posturas vernáculas de los agentes correctores de la Modelo implicaron una transformación en el sistema antropométrico? y ¿cuáles fueron las consideraciones de los presos frente a este saber? Para responder estas preguntas, este artículo problematizará metodológicamente sobre las perspectivas enunciadas, primero, por la prensa local y los escritos de los representantes de la prisión Modelo, desde donde se interseccionó el ideal de prevención y corrección. Además, se hará un acercamiento a las experiencias escritas por los individuos antropometrizados, con las cuales se ofrecerá una constelación de representaciones microhistóricas y regresivas que develarán la criminalización del enemigo político, de las clases subalternas y el funcionamiento mismo del gabinete.(AU)


The aim of this article is to offer an approach to the history of the anthropometric cabinet for criminal identification at the Modelo Prison in Barcelona between 1895 and 1918, reviewing the confluence of legal, scientific and religious notions that prison correctional officers introduced into the cabinet. Based on these considerations, we will ask the following questions: how criminal anthropometry was consolidated in Barcelona? what were the characteristics of its appropriation process? did this imply a process of transformation of anthropometry by the vernacular postures of those who had access to it? and what were the considerations of the prisoners in relation to this knowledge? In order to answer these questions, this article will methodologically problematize around the perspectives enunciated, first, by the local press and the writings of the representatives of the Modelo prison, through which the ideal of prevention and correction was intersected. And secondly, by seeking a reading from the experiences written by anthropometrized individuals, which offers a constellation of representations conducive to discuss the criminalization of the political enemies, the subaltern classes and the operation itself at the cabinet.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Antropometria , Prisões , Prisioneiros , Reincidência , Criminosos , Espanha , Ciência/história , História da Medicina
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...