Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.603
Filtrar
1.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 23: e29, 2022 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574709

RESUMO

This position paper aims to increase awareness among primary care practitioners and policymakers about the specific and complex health needs of people who experience incarceration. We focus on the importance of primary care and of continuity of care between prison and community. We highlight what is known from the literature on the health of people who experience incarceration, on the organisation of prison health care, and on the role of primary care both during and after detention. We present three case descriptions of detainees' encounters with the organisation of prison health care in three European countries. Finally, we describe the position that the European Forum for Primary Care takes. Prisoners and ex-prisoners have a worse physical and mental health compared with a cross-section of the population. However, access to good quality treatment and care is often worse than in the outside situation. In particular, well-organised primary care in the prison context could benefit prisoners and, indirectly, society at large. Moreover, continuity of care between the community and the prison situation needs improvement.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Prisões , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Prisioneiros/psicologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7126, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504982

RESUMO

Dynamics of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are hypothesized to play a role in the emergence of interpersonal violence. In the present study, we examined continuous activities of the inhibitory parasympathetic pathway of the ANS through the root mean square of successive differences between normal heartbeats (RMSSD) in 22 male offenders who committed interpersonal violence and 24 matched controls from the general population across three successive phases: resting baseline, while performing an emotional Go/No-Go task, and post-task recovery. Results showed that across the three phases, the offender group presented lower RMSSD at baseline (pFDR = .003; Cohen's d = - 1.11), but similar levels during the task, attributed to a significant increase in their RMSSD level (pFDR = .027, Cohen's d = - 1.26). During recovery, while no distinction between the two groups was found, both groups showed signs of recovering toward baseline values. These findings suggest that violent incarcerated offenders can flexibly engage parasympathetic resources to meet environmental challenges. This underscores the necessity of considering parasympathetic dynamics and its respective mobilization/flexibility to better understand ANS profiles underlying interpersonal violence as well as its potential utility in designing more tailored interventions.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Prisioneiros , Agressão , Criminosos/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Prisioneiros/psicologia
3.
Rev Esp Sanid Penit ; 24(1): 23-32, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411909

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is currently sufficient evidence that health can be created through certain strategies combined and maintained long enough to produce measurable results: this is what is called health promotion. The World Health Organization has promoted programs based on healthy environments; among them we highlight healthy prisons. Living conditions in a penitentiary are extraordinarily specific, and involve limitations that can have significant health consequences. However, prisons can be environments for health, since there is the effective possibility of promoting it. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the implementation of health promotion in prisons in Catalonia. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective and observational cross-sectional multi-centre study, carried out on a sample of 29 nurses who worked in the closed-regime prisons in Catalonia between 2019 and 2020. The information collection instrument is made up of an ad-hoc questionnaire (Annex 1). A descriptive analysis of the socio-demographic variables and the variables of the study was carried out. A comparative analysis is performed using correlation and linear regression models. RESULTS: 82.8% of those surveyed state that a health promotion project is being carried out in the prison where they work, with mental health being the most carried out programs, followed by tobacco and drug cessation. DISCUSSION: The results show that health promotion policies are currently being developed in the Catalan prison environment.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Prisões , Estudos Transversais , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha
4.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 64(3): 166-172, 2022.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicidal behaviour is a global public health concern that disproportionately affects the most vulnerable members of society, including prisoners. AIM: To map the epidemiology and risk factors for suicidal behaviour in Belgian prisons, and make recommendations to improve its management and prevention. METHOD: A national case file analysis of all suicides in Belgian prisons over a 20-year period (2000-2019) and a large-scale survey study covering 13% of the prison population nationwide (n = 1326). RESULTS: Suicide accounts for one-third (33%) of all deaths in Belgian prisons. One in five (22%) prisoners in Belgium have attempted suicide in their lifetime, half of whom (10%) did so while incarcerated. Female prisoners have a higher prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts than their male counterparts. Risk factors for suicidal behaviour in prison include recent suicidal ideation, previous self-harm, psychiatric morbidity, environmental stressors, and aspects of the prison climate. CONCLUSION: In Belgium, suicidal behaviour is five times more common in prisoners compared to the general population. We propose an integrated prevention model that incorporates targeted interventions aimed at high-risk individuals in combination with population strategies that promote the health and wellbeing of all people in prison.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Ideação Suicida , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões , Fatores de Risco , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
5.
J Correct Health Care ; 28(2): 100-108, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262413

RESUMO

This study examined factors influencing health information and mental health support seeking among individuals in U.S. prisons using the 2014 data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies. Results showed that not only are age, race, health status, receiving health information (e.g., from health experts, friends, and other incarcerated individuals), and readiness to learn associated with health information seeking from the media, but so too are competencies such as literacy, numeracy, and problem-solving skills. Years of education moderated the association between social trust and seeking mental health support. In addition, gender, work duration, and attending substance abuse support groups, life skills groups, and religious groups are associated with seeking mental health support in prisons. Findings from this study may provide insight for correctional health stakeholders working in partnership to deliver more tailored health and mental health interventions in U.S. prison settings.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Saúde Mental , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0260920, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health is for everybody, but the individuals in prisons require more focus. Depression is a contributor to the global burden of disease and affects people in prisons in particular. There were limited studies on depression among prisoners. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the magnitude of depression and factors associated with it among prisoners in Wollega Zones Prisons, western Ethiopia. METHODS: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected 368 prisoners from June 1, 2019, up to August 1, 2019, in Wollega zones prisons. Data were collected by trained data collectors through interviewer-administered questionnaires. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Bivariable and Multivariable logistic regression model was computed to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms. In the final model, the strength of the association between independent variables and depression was measured using the Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with the corresponding 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Then, in the final model, variables having a p-value of less than 0.05 were considered factors significantly associated with depression. RESULTS: Of the total study respondents, 166/368 (45.1%) had symptoms of depression. Lack of job opportunity in prison (AOR = 6.64, 95%CI: 3.65, 12.06), not attending religious place at all (AOR = 3.51, 95%CI: 1.30,10.00), and Unsentenced for suspected crime (AOR = 7.36, 95%CI: 2.08, 26.04) were associated with depression. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: This finding showed that the magnitude of depression in prisons was high. Prisoners in the young age group, attending religious places, being married, prisoners who were sentenced for suspected crime on timely and prisoners performing work in prison were less likely to have depression. The prison institution needs to facilitate income-generating activities in prison, promoting prisoners to attend their religious places and promoting timely sentencing.


Assuntos
Depressão , Prisioneiros , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264145, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccine uptake rates have been historically low in correctional settings. To better understand vaccine hesitancy in these high-risk settings, we explored reasons for COVID-19 vaccine refusal among people in federal prisons. METHODS: Three maximum security all-male federal prisons in British Columbia, Alberta, and Ontario (Canada) were chosen, representing prisons with the highest proportions of COVID-19 vaccine refusal. Using a qualitative descriptive design and purposive sampling, individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with incarcerated people who had previously refused at least one COVID-19 vaccine until data saturation was achieved. An inductive-deductive thematic analysis of audio-recorded interview transcripts was conducted using the Conceptual Model of Vaccine Hesitancy. RESULTS: Between May 19-July 8, 2021, 14 participants were interviewed (median age: 30 years; n = 7 Indigenous, n = 4 visible minority, n = 3 White). Individual-, interpersonal-, and system-level factors were identified. Three were particularly relevant to the correctional setting: 1) Risk perception: participants perceived that they were at lower risk of COVID-19 due to restricted visits and interactions; 2) Health care services in prison: participants reported feeling "punished" and stigmatized due to strict COVID-19 restrictions, and failed to identify personal benefits of vaccination due to the lack of incentives; 3) Universal distrust: participants expressed distrust in prison employees, including health care providers. INTERPRETATION: Reasons for vaccine refusal among people in prison are multifaceted. Educational interventions could seek to address COVID-19 risk misconceptions in prison settings. However, impact may be limited if trust is not fostered and if incentives are not considered in vaccine promotion.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Alberta , Atitude , Colúmbia Britânica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Normas Sociais , Responsabilidade Social , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychiatr Serv ; 73(4): 463-466, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138116

RESUMO

A recent federal investigation of prisons in Massachusetts has presented findings on the criminal legal system's continued failure to provide humane care for incarcerated individuals with mental disorders. The findings show that people in mental health crisis are placed in restrictive housing, where they lack monitoring and mental health resources-a practice that has led to frequent instances of self-harm and suicide. Since the investigation, Massachusetts has vowed to stop its use of restrictive housing. Skepticism remains about whether the state's decision will result in meaningful change in carceral mental health practices. This column explores the investigation's process, findings, and implications.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Prisioneiros , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Direito Penal , Habitação , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões
10.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150213

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to identify the patient characteristics that may influence family involvement in a family-centered care program during detention. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Little is known about the needs of incarcerated adolescents and their families. This exploratory study used a cross-sectional design to collect data from incarcerated adolescents with conduct disorder followed in a French outpatient psychiatric department. Logistic regression models were used to identify the sociodemographic, clinical and family characteristics of these incarcerated adolescents that could predict family involvement in their care. FINDINGS: Among 44 adolescents with conduct disorder, the probability of family involvement during the adolescent's detention was 9.6 times greater (95% CI 1.2-14.4, p = 0.03) for adolescents with no than for those with cannabis substance use disorder, and family involvement decreased with the age of the adolescent (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.1-0.9, p = 0.04). RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Increased knowledge of the characteristics of these adolescents and their families is needed to develop programs that will increase family interventions by specialty treatment services during detention. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: No study has yet been published on French incarcerated adolescents with conduct disorder. As conduct disorder is one of the most important mental health disorders among delinquent adolescents, this study provides knowledge about these adolescents and the need to involve their parents in their care to prevent the further escalation of problem behaviors.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Prisioneiros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
11.
Int J Drug Policy ; 101: 103571, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are overrepresented among prisoner populations worldwide. This qualitative study used the psychological concept of "ego-depletion" as an exploratory framework to better understand the disproportionate rates of reincarceration among people with injecting drug use histories. The aim was to illuminate mechanisms by which prospects for positive post-release outcomes for PWID are enhanced or constricted. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a longitudinal cohort study, SuperMIX, in Victoria, Australia. Eligible participants were invited to participate in an in-depth interview. Inclusion criteria were: aged 18+; lifetime history of injecting drug use; incarcerated for >three months and released from custody <12 months previously. Analysis of 48 interviews examined how concepts relevant to the ego-depletion framework (self-regulation; standards; consequences and mitigators of ego-depletion) manifested in participants' narratives. RESULTS: Predominantly, participants aimed to avoid a return to problematic drug use and recidivism, and engaged in effortful self-regulation to pursue their post-release goals. Post-release environments were found to diminish self-regulation resources, leading to states of ego-depletion and compromising the capacity to self-regulate according to their ideals. Fatalism, stress, and fatigue associated with the transition period exacerbated ego-depletion. Strategies that mitigated ego-depletion included avoidance of triggering environments; reducing stress through opioid agonist therapy; and fostering positive affect through supportive relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Post-release environments are ego-depleting and inconducive to sustaining behavioural changes for PWID leaving prison. Corrections' behaviourist paradigms take insufficient account of the socio-structural factors impacting on an individual's self-regulation capacities in the context of drug dependence and desistance processes. Breaking the cycles of reincarceration among PWID requires new approaches that moderate ego-depletion and facilitate long-term goal-pursuit.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Ego , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/psicologia , Vitória
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With increase in the number of female prisoners, it seems necessary to follow up the conditions of pregnant women in prison in order to identify their needs and provide healthcare and social services to improve their health accordingly. Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to examine the needs of incarcerated pregnant women. METHODS: In this systematic review, we searched the databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochran Library. All studies including cross-sectional, retrospective, and prospective cohorts as well as case series, which addressed the needs and expectations of incarcerated pregnant women, were included in this review. Two reviewers independently evaluated the retrieved articles, the discrepancies were discussed, and a consensus was achieved. RESULTS: 31 eligible studies consisting of 5435 incarcerated pregnant women were included in the review. The needs of incarcerated pregnant women comprised six general categories: healthcare needs including prenatal, labor, delivery, and postpartum services; educational needs on pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting; the support needs to be provided by government agencies, social workers, and doula services; the need for psychological counseling services; nutritional needs during pregnancy; and the needs related to the substance abuse management. CONCLUSION: The needs of incarcerated pregnant women included healthcare, educational, supportive, counseling, and nutritional needs as well as those related to the substance abuse management. Identifying these needs can be useful in developing accurate and appropriate policies and programs to promote the health status of this vulnerable group.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parto , Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35099853

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This paper reports on insights from an evaluation of Birth Companions (BC) (a UK-based charity) perinatal support in two prison settings in England. The initiative involved the provision of group and/or one-to-one perinatal support and training women prisoners as peer supporters. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A mixed-methods study was undertaken that involved observations of support groups and peer support supervision sessions (n = 9); audio recorded interviews (n = 33) with prison and health-care staff, women in prison, peer supporters and BC staff; analysis of existing routinely collected data by BC and notes undertaken during regular meetings (n = 10) with the BC Project Manager. Thematic analysis was undertaken supported by MAXQDA qualitative data analysis software. FINDINGS: BC provided instrumental/practical support, emotional support, information support, signposting to services and advocating for women to the prison concerning their perinatal needs and rights. Key themes revealed that support had an impact on the lives of perinatal women by creating a safe place characterised by meaningful interactions and women-centred approaches that facilitated access to wider care and support. The service made a difference by empowering women and providing added value for peer supporters, prison, health-care and BC staff. Key enablers and strategies for the care of perinatal women and the delivery of perinatal support are also detailed. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Through longitudinal data and the involvement of a range of stakeholders, this study evidences the subtleties of support provided by BC and the potential it has to make a difference to perinatal women in prison and those volunteering or working within the prison system.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Prisões , Inglaterra , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Gravidez , Prisioneiros/psicologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 960, 2022 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35046470

RESUMO

The cross-sectional study assessed knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices toward COVID-19 disease of incarcerated people. A total of 685 subjects were surveyed. 94% were aware that respiratory droplets are involved in the transmission of COVID-19, and 77.2% that patients with chronic conditions are at risk of a more severe disease. Overall, 92.7% of respondents considered COVID-19 a more severe disease compared to influenza, and 85.4% believed that COVID-19 could cause serious consequences in their institution. Only 22.6% were self-confident about their ability to protect themselves from SARS-CoV-2 infection. This attitude was significantly higher in those who were involved in working activities in the institution, who did not report at least one common symptom compatible with COVID-19 in the previous 3 months, who did not show generalized anxiety symptoms, and did not need additional information. 63.9% of incarcerated people expressed willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Older subjects, who knew that a COVID-19 vaccination is available, believed that COVID-19 is more serious than influenza, and were self-confident about their ability to protect themselves from SARS-CoV-2 infection, were significantly more willing to undergo COVID-19 vaccination. Public health response to COVID-19 in prisons should address vaccine hesitancy to increase vaccine confidence among incarcerated people.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Prisioneiros/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 53, 2022 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) describes individuals who engage in repetitive aggressiveness, deceitfulness, impulsivity, and unlawful behavior. It has a broad impact on families, relationships, and social functioning, and also people with ASPD make heavy demands on the judicial system, social and mental health services. Even though ASPD is a common problem among incarcerated in prisons, it is not well studied in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of ASPD among incarcerated in prison in Dessie city correctional center. METHOD: A cross-sectional study design was conducted among 320 incarcerated in prison at Dessie correctional center, Ethiopia. The study subjects were selected by using a simple random sampling technique and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th text revision (DSM-5) was used to measure ASPD using face-to-face interviews. Social support was assessed using the Oslo social support scale (Oslo-3). The collected data were checked for completeness and entered into Epi-data Version 3.1 and then exported to SPSS version 26 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were done to identify factors related to antisocial personality disorder. In multivariable logistic regression variables with a p-value, less than 0.05 were considered significant and, adjusted OR (AOR) with 95% CI was used to present the strength of the association. RESULTS: The current study showed that the prevalence of ASPD was found to be 30.6% (95% CI:25.6,35.9). In a multivariable analysis, being single [AOR = 2.33; 95%CI (1.39,3.89)], monthly income of 1000-2000 ETB (Ethiopian Birr) [AOR = 2.12; 95%CI (1.163,3.45)], reconviction [AOR = 2.37; 95%CI (1.08,5.19)], and alcohol use [AOR = 2.00; 95% CI (1.16,3.45)] were discovered to be predictors of antisocial personality disorder. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that nearly one-third of incarcerated in prison were found to have an anti-social personality disorder. Being single, 1000-2000 ETB income, reconviction, and alcohol users were variables that are independent predictors of ASPD. A screening and intervention program is required and further research should be needed.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Prisões , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prisioneiros/psicologia
17.
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 17(1-2): 52-62, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541962

RESUMO

An evidence-based approach to research ethics is critical to ethical research but little is known about how trauma survivors-especially those from vulnerable populations-respond to laboratory-based trauma research. One hundred four incarcerated women (N = 64 rape survivors) reported their traumatic life experiences, listened to and responded to an audio recording of a dating interaction that culminates in a completed rape, and then reported their responses to their participation. Compared to the control group (N = 40), rape survivors (N = 64) had more posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and these symptoms were associated with more emotional responding. Both groups showed a positive benefit-cost ratio with regard to their participation did not differ on their overall reactions to research participation. These findings suggest that laboratory-based trauma research methods are associated with consistently positive experiences, which can help inform researchers and institutional review boards about the risks and benefits of such research.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Pesquisa , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia
18.
Int J Psychol ; 57(2): 295-305, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608645

RESUMO

By exposing individuals to trauma, wars can cause a host of psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to collect and compare the studies conducted to estimate the prevalence of depression among veterans, former prisoners of war (POWs) and military personnel in the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988). In this systematic review, a search was conducted using relevant keywords in major national and international databases, personal archives and national academic libraries. We screened 135 records using their abstracts and selected a total of 56 studies for full-text review. Eventually, 19 studies were included in our systematic review and meta-analysis. The estimated pooled prevalence of depression among Iranian veterans and POWs was 22.4% (95% confidence interval = 15.0-32.0). Although the results indicated disparities in the prevalence of depression among veterans and POWs, the aggregate estimated prevalence was much higher than what has been reported for military personnel. Effective policies and strategies are required for prevention and treatment of depression and related psychiatric complications among veterans and former POWs.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros de Guerra , Prisioneiros , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Iraque , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisioneiros de Guerra/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia
19.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 41(2): 457-466, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510627

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People released from prison have an increased risk of morbidity, including from nonfatal violence. We examined the incidence and predictors of violence-related morbidity after release from prison and investigated whether there are differences according to sex and Indigenous status. METHODS: Baseline data were collected from 1325 people within 6 weeks of release from prisons in Queensland, Australia, between 1 August 2008 and 31 July 2010. Data were linked to state-wide health (ambulance, emergency department and hospital) and prison records, and national death records until 31 July 2012. Predictors were identified using a multivariable Andersen-Gill model. Differences according to sex and Indigenous status were investigated using effect modification. RESULTS: A total of 225 (18.2%) people experienced 410 violence-related events that were recorded in health records. The incidence was 12.8 per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.7, 14.1]. Risk factors for violence-related morbidity included diagnosed mental illness [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.0, 95% CI 1.1, 3.8], substance use disorder (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.3) or dual diagnosis (HR = 3.2, 95% CI 2.2, 4.8); high-risk alcohol use (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.5, 2.8); being Indigenous (HR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2, 2.5); and two or more prison releases (HR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2, 2.6). Indigenous status modified the risk of violence-related morbidity, with Indigenous men having twice the risk of non-Indigenous men (HR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3, 2.8). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one in five people released from prisons in Queensland experienced violence-related morbidity. Coordinated and continuous mental health and substance use treatment from prison to the community may reduce the risk of violence-related morbidity in this population.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Prisões , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Masculino , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Violência
20.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 51(1): 75-92, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870777

RESUMO

The current study was designed to show the differentiation of narrative styles in individuals with high scores in Psychopathic deviate (Pd) scale and develop a method enabling identification of psychopathic personality traits based on linguistic indicators. 600 spontaneous narrations related to emotional topics have been examined for grammar, syntactic, and lexical indicators. The indicators have been selected based on a review related to language of psychopaths. The narrations were written by 200 persons who were also tested for psychopathic deviate and intelligence level, including prisoners diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. Independent judges identified the linguistic indicators which were then counted for each person with the use of computer software. The configuration profiles of the linguistic indicators/narrative styles were established using k-mean clustering method. Then, ANOVA was performed to show which clusters differentiate the levels of psychopathic deviate. The findings show there are two configurations of language features (important: single features were not examined) associated with high levels of psychopathic deviate patterns. Two narrative styles were identified, labelled demonstrative-digressive-egocentric-emotional-dogmatic and reserved-focused on the topic-repetitive, which indicate high psychopathic deviate traits. The ROC curves were applied to establish the prediction of the narrative styles for high psychopathic deviate scores.


Assuntos
Narração , Prisioneiros , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Emoções , Humanos , Linguística , Prisioneiros/psicologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...