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1.
Pap. psicol ; 45(1): 11-18, Ene-Abr, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229711

RESUMO

En prisión existen programas específicos de tratamiento para condenados por agresión sexual a menores; sin embargo, quienes además tienen pedofilia, requieren una atención específica. El objetivo del presente estudio es doble: primero, ofrecer una propuesta de intervención específica para pedofilia en el entorno penitenciario basada en la evidencia científica disponible y complementaria al Programa de Control de la Agresión Sexual y después, justificar dicha propuesta a través del caso de un interno con pedofilia. En concreto, proponemos una intervención individual y centrada en personas con pedofilia; trabajando la baja autoestima, evaluando la ideación suicida y reestructurando las distorsiones cognitivas con menores, facilitando la creación de relaciones personales funcionales con adultos, evaluando la polivictimización pasada y su posible influencia sobre la conducta sexual posterior, proporcionar a los internos psicoeducación sobre pedofilia; atender de forma específica las fantasías sexuales con menores, evitando las conductas disexuales y la eliminación del consumo de material abusivo.(AU)


There are specific treatment programs in prisons for those convicted of sexually assaulting minors; however, those who also have pedophilia require specific attention. The aim of this study is twofold: first, to offer a specific intervention proposal for pedophilia in the prison setting based on the available scientific evidence, and complementary to the Sexual Assault Control Program, and second, to justify this proposal through the case of an inmate with pedophilia. Specifically, we propose an individual intervention focused on people with pedophilia; working on low self-esteem, assessing suicidal ideation and restructuring cognitive distortions with minors, facilitating the creation of functional personal relationships with adults, assessing past polyvictimization and its possible influence on subsequent sexual behavior, providing inmates with psychoeducation on pedophilia; specifically addressing sexual fantasies with minors, avoiding dyssexual behavior, and eliminating the consumption of abusive material.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Pedofilia/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais , Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Prisões , Psicologia , Psicologia Social
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 94, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308259

RESUMO

Compared to men inmates, women display decreased prevalence of severe mental disorder but increased occurrence of substance use disorders (SUD) and higher rates of previous contacts with mental health services. The group of women in detention is highly heterogeneous according to the status of incarceration (pre-trial detention (PTD), sentence execution (SE) and court ordered treatments (COT)). Studies focusing on the comparison of sociodemographic patterns, detention-related and clinical variables between these groups are still lacking. We explored these parameters in 136 women admitted for acute psychiatric care in the sole Geneva forensic unit during a nine year period (2014-2023). Sociodemographic and detention-related data included age, nationality, marital status, presence of children, education attainment, most frequently speaking language, social support, employment before conviction and type of offenses. Clinical variables included the main ICD-10 diagnosis, presence of concomitant SUD, type of personality disorders, presence of suicidal thoughts and attempts at admission, as well as number and mean duration of stays. PTD and SE women had at least 9 years of formal education in 38.9% and 30.3% of cases. Most women in PTD (77.7%), SE (56.6%) and COT (56.2%) groups were Swiss or European citizens. The level of French knowledge was excellent in most of the cases. 43.8% of COT women had at least one child and this percentage is even higher for PTD and SE cases. The employment rate before conviction was also quite high, mainly for PTD and SE (61.1% and 60.6%) and, in a lesser degree, for COT (43.8%) women. Significant social support was present in the vast majority of women without any significant group difference. The distribution of type of offenses did not differ between the three types of detention with a predominance of physical violence, and drug trafficking. The number of stays during the period of reference was significantly higher in COT compared to both SE and PTD women. History of previous inpatient care was also significantly more frequent in COT that SE and PTD women. Adjustment and affective disorders were more often found in SE and PTD cases, these diagnoses were absent in the COT group. In contrast, a main diagnosis of psychotic disorders was found in 62.5% of COT cases compared to only 21.2% in SE and 24.1% in PTD cases. The number of stays, history of inpatient care and diagnosis of psychosis were independent predictors of COT status. In conclusion, the present data reveal the good social integration and emotional support of women needing acute psychiatric care in prison independently of the type of detention. Clinically, women in PTD and SE display more often emotional distress whereas those in COT suffer from acute psychotic symptoms with previous history of psychiatric care and multiple inpatient stays.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Prisioneiros , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Feminino , Humanos , Etnicidade , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Prisioneiros/psicologia
3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 95, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health disorders are common among people in prison, but their prevalence in the Scandinavian prison population remain unclear. In this multinational register study, we examined the prevalence of mental health disorders and the comorbidity of substance use disorders (SUDs) with other mental health disorders in this population. Further, we investigated how the prevalence of mental disorders at prison entry had changed in Norway, Denmark, and Sweden over the study period. METHODS: The three study cohorts included all individuals, aged 19 or older, whom had been imprisoned in Norway (2010-2019), Denmark (2011-2018), and Sweden (2010-2013). Mental disorders were defined as ICD-10 diagnoses (F-codes) registered in the national patient registers. The study prevalence was estimated based on recorded diagnoses during the entire study follow-up period in each respective country. The one-year prevalence of mental disorders was estimated for each calendar year for individuals entering prison during that year. RESULTS: The Scandinavian prison cohorts included 119 507 individuals released 191 549 times during the study period. Across all three countries a high proportion of both women (61.3%-74.4%) and men (49.6%-57.9%) had at least one mental health disorder during the observation period. The most prevalent disorders were SUDs (39.1%-44.0%), depressive disorder (8.1%-17.5%), and stress related disorder (8.8%-17.1%). Women (31.8%-41.1%) had higher levels of mental health and substance use comorbidities compared to men (20.8%-27.6%). The one-year prevalence of any mental health disorder increased over time with a 33% relative increase in Norway, 8% in Denmark, and 10% in Sweden. The proportion of individuals entering prison with a comorbid SUD and other mental disorder had also increased. CONCLUSIONS: While the incarceration rate has been decreasing during the past decade in the Scandinavian countries, an increasing proportion of people entering prison have a diagnosed mental health disorder. Our results suggest that prisons should provide adequate treatment and scale up services to accommodate the increasing proportion of people with complex health needs among incarcerated people.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Prisioneiros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Saúde Mental , Prisões , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Comorbidade
4.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297518, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354166

RESUMO

For the millions of people incarcerated in United States' prisons and jails during the COVID-19 pandemic, isolation took many forms, including medical isolation for those sick with COVID-19, quarantine for those potentially exposed, and prolonged facility-wide lockdowns. Incarcerated people's lived experience of isolation during the pandemic has largely gone undocumented. Through interviews with 48 incarcerated people and 27 staff at two jails and one prison in geographically diverse locations in the United States, we document the implementation of COVID-19 isolation policies from the perspective of those that live and work in carceral settings. Incarcerated people were isolated from social contact, educational programs, employment, and recreation, and lacked clear communication about COVID-19-related protocols. Being isolated, no matter the reason, felt like punishment and was compared to solitary confinement-with resultant long-term, negative impacts on health. Participants detailed isolation policies as disruptive, detrimental to mental health, and dehumanizing for incarcerated people. Findings point to several recommendations for isolation policy in carceral settings. These include integrating healthcare delivery into isolation protocols, preserving social relationships during isolation, promoting bidirectional communication about protocols and their effect between facility leadership and incarcerated people. Most importantly, there is an urgent need to re-evaluate the current approach to the use of isolation in carceral settings and to establish external oversight procedures for its use during pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Prisões , Prisioneiros/psicologia
5.
Riv Psichiatr ; 59(1): 35-42, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362787

RESUMO

Mental health interventions for Italian prisoners with mental disorder remain a problematic issue, despite radical changes in psychiatric care and a 2008 major government reform transferring mental health care in prison to the National Health Service. Indeed, prison has increasingly become a place of severe psychological distress, where also serious mental illnesses sometimes occur. In this contribution, we commented on the recommendations recently proposed by the Emilia-Romagna Region on how structuring mental healthcare interventions in all regional jails. Moreover, starting from the findings reported in recent epidemiological studies examining the prevalence of mental disorders in Emilia-Romagna prisons, we proposed a new treatment model for mental health and pathological addictions in jail, which took into account the current incidence of inmates with severe mental illness, psychological distress due to incarceration, and substance use disorder. Perhaps, this new intervention model (specifically centered on clinical psychology and case management by intramural mental health professionals) requires a vision able to overcome the classical "medical-centered" approach, which still too often permeates many sectors of public mental healthcare services. In our opinion, if we decide to look at the moon, we shouldn't dwell too much on the finger pointing to it.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Prisões , Saúde Mental , Medicina Estatal , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Itália/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296947, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236802

RESUMO

Several factors impact successful reintegration after incarceration. We sought to better understand these factors such as pre-release preparedness or access to financial resources in provincial correctional facilities in Ontario, Canada with an underlying focus on the role of personal identification (PID) among people at risk of homelessness. We conducted a qualitative study with one-on-one telephone interviews. Eligibility criteria included having been released from a provincial correctional facility in the preceding 2 years, being over the age of 18, speaking English and having telephone access. Participants were recruited between February 2021 and July 2021. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Data was analyzed using a thematic analysis framework along with strategies from grounded theory research. We interviewed 12 individuals and identified six key themes including 1) Degree of Preparedness Pre-Release 2) Managing Priorities Post-Release 3) Impact of Support Post-Release 4) Obstacles with Accessing Services 5) Influence of Personal Identification 6) Emotions and Uncertainty. We found that people with mental health and addiction challenges are uniquely at risk post-release. Solutions must include comprehensive and proactive case management that bridges the pre-release and post-release periods, simplified processes for obtaining PID, better connections to health and social services, and improved pre-release planning for community support.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões , Ontário , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 34(1): 66-78, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For adolescents who have criminal convictions, achieving a positive progress including desistance from offending may depend on a sense of well-being. Factors associated with growth in well-being are not widely researched, but there is some work that suggests that qualities in other internal states as well as in the environment may foster well-being. AIMS: To examine the well-being of young male incarcerated offenders, and its relationship with frequency of contacts with the family, perceptions of socio-educational environment, feelings about the future and self-efficacy. METHODS: Participants were recruited from three secure education institutions in the Federal District of Brasília, Brazil, under the management of the Secretariat of Justice. They were invited to complete anonymous self-report questionnaires, which included the Psychological Well-Being Scale, the Perception of the Socio-Educational Environment Scale, the Feelings about the Future Scale and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Self-Efficacy, and to provide limited sociodemographic data. RESULTS: 195 young male offenders participated and their mean age was 16.8 years (SD = 1.58, range 14-20). There was a positive correlation between well-being and perceptions of the socio-educational environment, positive feelings about the future and self-efficacy self-ratings. Multiple linear regression analyses confirmed that the frequency of family contacts, positive perceptions of the socio-educational environment, positive feelings about the future, and self-efficacy in leisure and social activities independently contributed to the well-being of young offenders. CONCLUSION: Although well-being has been associated with desistance from committing crimes, the factors that may predispose to well-being have been researched less and never before examined among inmates in Brazil. While longitudinal work is needed to be certain of the direction of the relationship, the fact that the results are broadly consistent with a similar study carried out on the other side of the world is encouraging in terms of indicating ways forward in rehabilitation. It is necessary to develop interventions that support family relationships and promote personal relationships and personal development, not only of useful skills but also of personal confidence in those skills.


Assuntos
Adolescente Institucionalizado , Criminosos , Prisioneiros , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296078, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170719

RESUMO

Screening for vulnerability factors associated with historic suicidality and self-harm on entry to prison is critical to help prisons understand how to allocate extremely limited mental health resources. It has been established that having previous suicide attempts increases odds of future suicidality and self-harm in prison. We utilised administrative screening data from 665 adult male prisoners on entry to a category B prison in Wales, UK, collected using the Do-IT Profiler. This sample represents 16% of all prisoners who entered that prison during a 26-month period. 12% of prisoners reported a history of attempted suicide, 11% reported historic self-harm, and 8% reported a history of both. Historic traumatic brain injury and substance use problems were associated with a 3.3- and 1.9- times increased odds of a historic suicide attempt, respectively, but no significant increased risk of historic self-harm (95% CI: 1.51-6.60 and 1.02-3.50). However, those who were bullied at school had 2.7 times increased odds of reporting a history of self-harm (95% CI: 1.63-6.09). The most salient risk factors associated with both historic suicide and self-harm were higher levels of functional neurodisability (odds ratio 0.6 for a 1 standard deviation change in score, 95% CI: 0.35-0.75), and mood disturbance (odds ratio 2.1 for a 1 standard deviation change in score, 95% CI: 1.26-3.56). Therefore, it could be beneficial for prisons to screen for broader profiles of needs, to better understand how to provide appropriate services to prisoners vulnerable to suicide and self-harm. Multidisciplinary care pathways for prisoner mental health interventions are important, to account for complex multimorbidity. Adaptations may be needed for mental health interventions to be appropriate for, for example, a prisoner with a brain injury. Understanding this broad profile of vulnerability could also contribute to more compassionate responses to suicide and self-harm from prison staff.


Assuntos
Bullying , Prisioneiros , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , País de Gales
11.
Enferm. glob ; 23(73): 491-513, ene. 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-228902

RESUMO

en aumento en comparación con otros grupos. Los problemas de salud mental en los reclusos mayores pueden ser causados por la duración del período de detención, la separación de la familia y las parejas, y los conflictos que ocurren entre los reclusos en prisión que empeoran las condiciones de salud mental de los reclusos mayores. La investigación sobre los problemas de salud mental en los reclusos mayores también es todavía limitada. Método: Se utilizó un diseño de estudio de revisión de alcance. Artículos buscados a través de PubMed, EBSCO, ProQuest, Sage Journal y Google Scholar. Artículos publicados desde 2000 hasta 2023. Las palabras clave utilizadas en inglés son “Elderly”, “Mental Health Problems” y “Prisoners. Resultados: De los nueve artículos analizados, encontramos que los problemas de salud mental de los adultos mayores reclusos fueron ansiedad, agorafobia, depresión, trastorno bipolar, trastornos de personalidad, trastorno de estrés postraumático, riesgo de suicidio, trastornos del estado de ánimo, trastornos del espectro psicosis o esquizofrenia y abuso de alcohol o dependencia. Conclusión: Sobre la base de varios hallazgos, se recomienda que la investigación adicional se centre en brindar intervenciones apropiadas para los reclusos mayores que experimentan problemas de salud mental, así como en identificar el alcance de los servicios de salud mental para los reclusos mayores (AU)


Introduction: Elderly prisoners are a minority in the prison population but their number is increasing compared to other groups. Mental health problems in elderly prisoners can be caused by the length of the detention period, being separated from family and partners, and conflicts that occur between inmates in prison which worsen the mental health conditions of elderly prisoners. Research on mental health problems in elderly prisoners is also still limited. Method: A scoping review study design was used. Articles searched through PubMed, EBSCO, ProQuest, Sage Journal, and Google Scholar. Articles published from 2000 to 2023. The keywords used in English are “Elderly”, “Mental Health Problems”, and “Prisoners. Results: Of the nine articles analyzed, we foundthe mental health problems of elderly prisoners were anxiety, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar, personality disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicide risk, mood disorders, psychosis spectrum disorders or schizophrenia, and alcohol abuse or dependence.Conclusions: Based on several findings, it is recommended for further research focus on providing appropriate interventions for elderly prisoners who experience mental health problems, as well as identifying the extent of mental health services for elderly prisoners (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde do Idoso , Prisioneiros/psicologia
12.
J Correct Health Care ; 30(1): 22-32, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38117682

RESUMO

Reentry is a difficult juncture for young adults (ages 18-24 years), who simultaneously face challenges of emerging adulthood. Although their health-related needs may be substantial, little is reported on young adults' reentry health care and social service needs. Furthermore, empirical measurements of factors affecting their engagement in reentry services after jail are lacking. We sought to describe health needs and predictors of linkages to reentry services for the 2,525 young adult participants in the Whole Person Care-LA Reentry program (WPC Reentry). Descriptive statistics were calculated and chi-square tests, t tests, and logistic regression were performed to identify factors associated with linkage to WPC Reentry postrelease compared with only engaging with WPC Reentry prerelease. Most participants (72.6%) were male, 80.2% were Hispanic or Black, and 60.9% had been unhoused. Mental health (57.2%) and substance use disorders (45.8%) were common, physical health was overall good (mean Charlson Comorbidity Index score 0.53), and social needs, especially housing, were high (40.7%). Older age (i.e., closer to 25 years) and history of being unhoused were associated with higher postrelease engagement in WPC Reentry (age: odds ratio [OR] = 1.06, p = .01; history of being unhoused: OR = 1.18, p = .05). Attentiveness to younger clients and to addressing housing needs may be key for successful reentry care linkages.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Feminino , Prisões Locais , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Serviço Social
13.
Epidemiology ; 35(1): 74-83, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38032802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incarceration is associated with negative impacts on mental health. Probation, a form of community supervision, has been lauded as an alternative. However, the effect of probation versus incarceration on mental health is unclear. Our objective was to estimate the impact on mental health of reducing sentencing severity at individuals' first adult criminal-legal encounter. METHODS: We used the US National Longitudinal Survey on Youth 1997, a nationally representative dataset of youth followed into their mid-thirties. Restricting to those with an adult encounter (arrest, charge alone or no sentence, probation, incarceration), we used parametric g-computation to estimate the difference in mental health at age 30 (Mental Health Inventory-5) if (1) everyone who received incarceration for their first encounter had received probation and (2) everyone who received probation had received no sentence. RESULTS: Among 1835 individuals with adult encounters, 19% were non-Hispanic Black and 65% were non-Hispanic White. Median age at first encounter was 20. Under hypothetical interventions to reduce sentencing, we did not see better mental health overall (Intervention 1, incarceration to probation: RD = -0.01; CI = -0.02, 0.01; Intervention 2, probation to no sentence: RD = 0.00; CI = -0.01, 0.01) or when stratified by race. CONCLUSION: Among those with criminal-legal encounters, hypothetical interventions to reduce sentencing, including incremental sentencing reductions, were not associated with improved mental health. Future work should consider the effects of preventing individuals' first criminal-legal encounter.


Assuntos
Jurisprudência , Saúde Mental , Prisioneiros , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Etnicidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Brancos , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Adulto Jovem , Prisioneiros/psicologia
14.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2183, 2023 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37936162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the implementation of various measures within closed institutions like prisons to control the spread of the virus. Analyzing the impact of these measures on the health of inmates is crucial from a public health perspective. This study aimed to explore inmates' subjective perception of the COVID-19 lockdown, the implemented measures, their physical self-perception, and their views on the vaccination process. METHOD: Between April 2021 and January 2022, 27 semi-structured individual interviews and 1 focus group were conducted with inmates in a prison located in northwest Spain. The interviews were conducted in person and audio-recorded. Thematic content analysis was employed, utilizing methodological triangulation to enhance the coherence and rigor of the results. RESULTS: The analysis revealed two main themes and nine subthemes. The first theme focused on inmates' perception of the implementation of protective measures against COVID-19 within the prison and its impact on their well-being. The second theme explored the pandemic's emotional impact on inmates. All participants reported negative consequences on their health resulting from the measures implemented by the institution to contain the pandemic. However, they acknowledged that measures like lockdowns and mass vaccination helped mitigate the spread of the virus within the prison, contrary to initial expectations. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 and related measures have directly affected the health of inmates. To improve their health and minimize the impact of pandemic-induced changes, community participation and empowerment of individuals are essential tools, particularly within closed institutions such as prisons.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Prisões , Europa (Continente)
15.
Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery ; 11(4): 257-269, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37901187

RESUMO

Background: Motherhood in prison is a topic of growing importance and concern in the field of criminal justice. Incarcerated mothers face unique challenges that can have profound psychological impacts. The purpose of this study was to gain a deep understanding of pregnant prisoners' lived experiences of motherhood. Methods: This qualitative research was carried out using descriptive-interpretive phenomenology via interviews with 11 pregnant or early postpartum women in prison. The participants were purposefully selected from incarcerated pregnant women in a prison in Iran from 2019 to 2021. The MAXQDA software version 10 was used for data analysis, using Van Manen's six-step phenomenological approach. Results: The main theme of "living in a dichotomous world "consisting of two subthemes of "moving between unity and separation" and "being subject to ambiguity and uncertainty" emerged in this study. Motherhood in prison is just like living in a shaky and chaotic world, in which mothers are confused between reaching to and separating from their children. They are ambivalent about motherhood and experience mixed emotions of attachment and abandonment to their child and cannot be confident regarding the future of themselves and their children. Conclusion: Incarcerated mothers experience mixed emotions of attachment and abandonment towards their children, which leaves them uncertain about the future. It is recommended that security personnel of the prisons and families offer care and support to incarcerated mothers through constructive communications and empathy to enhance their well-being. It also seems crucial to adopt a community-centered approach that provides empathetic support and implements inclusive policies.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Prisioneiros , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Prisões , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Empatia
16.
Adm Policy Ment Health ; 50(6): 966-975, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37733128

RESUMO

Jails and prisons in the United States house people with elevated rates of mental health and substance use disorders. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the frequency of racial/ethnic differences in the self-report of mental illness and psychiatric medication use at jail entry. Our sample included individuals who had been incarcerated between 2016 and 2020 at the Middlesex Jail & House of Correction, located in Billerica, MA. We used data from the "Offender Management System," the administrative database used by the jail containing data on people who are incarcerated, and COREMR, the electronic medical record (EMR) used in the Middlesex Jail & House of Correction. We evaluated two primary outcomes (1) self-reported mental illness history and (2) self-reported use of psychiatric medication, with the primary indicator of interest as race/ethnicity. At intake, over half (57%) of the sample self-reported history of mental illness and 20% reported the use of psychiatric medications. Among people who self-reported a history of mental illness, Hispanic (AOR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90), Black (AOR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.43-0.64), Asian/Pacific Islander (Non-Hispanic) people (AOR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.13-0.74), and people from other racial/ethnic groups (AOR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11-0.93) all had decreased odds of reporting psychiatric medications. Mental illness was reported in about one-half of people who entered jail, but only 20% reported receiving medications in the community prior to incarceration. Our findings build on the existing literature on jail-based mental illness and show racial disparities in self-report of psychiatric medications in people who self-reported mental illness. The timing, frequency, and equity of mental health services in both the community and the jail setting deserves further research, investment, and improvement.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Prisões Locais , Autorrelato , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Raciais , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Prisioneiros/psicologia
17.
Psychol Assess ; 35(12): 1152-1157, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37707475

RESUMO

This study sought to assess whether two scales from a criminal thinking inventory displayed bipolar properties such that high scores on these scales reflect a risk effect and low scores a promotive effect. To test this hypothesis, the proactive criminal thinking (PCT) and reactive criminal thinking (RCT) scales from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) were organized into three categories-top 25% of scores (high group), the middle 50% of scores (intermediate group), and bottom 25% of scores (low group)-and crossed with preincarceration (prior convictions and age at first conviction), peri-incarceration (total and aggressive institutional infractions), and postincarceration (revocation and rearrest) outcome indicators. Participants for this study were 3,039 male inmates who completed the PICTS while confined in a medium-security federal prison. Results showed that the PCT and RCT each achieved a mixed (risk and promotive) effect for four out of six outcomes. Of the four unipolar effects, PCT achieved a promotive effect but not a risk effect for the two preincarceration outcomes, whereas RCT produced a risk but not promotive effect for the two postincarceration outcomes. These results provide support for the notion that PCT and RCT are primarily bipolar dimensional constructs in which high scores are associated with negative criminal justice outcomes and low scores with positive criminal justice outcomes, although there may be unipolar aspects to each scale as well. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Criminosos , Prisioneiros , Masculino , Humanos , Criminosos/psicologia , Pensamento , Crime/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia
18.
Rev Esp Sanid Penit ; 25(2): 57-61, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37552274

RESUMO

OBTECTIVES: A descriptive study was carried out to establish the levels of psychological distress amongst female inmates at a high-security prison in Lima in November 2020, after the first wave of COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The Brief Symptoms Inventory-18 (BSI-18) was applied to a representative sample of 314 female inmates who agreed to participate in the study. RESULTS: Results showed that 34.6% of the inmates could be considered as cases of psychological distress. Moreover, the depression subscale had the highest score, followed by the anxiety and the somatisation subscales. The most prevalent symptom was "feeling blue". DISCUSSION: The prevalence of distress symptoms was analyzed, taking into account the effects of the first wave of COVID-19, the suspension of family visits, the restriction of treatment and leisure activities, etc. Gender aspects were also taken into consideration.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Prisioneiros , Angústia Psicológica , Humanos , Feminino , Prisões , Prisioneiros/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia
19.
J Forensic Nurs ; 19(3): 197-203, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37590942

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Canine-assisted interventions are a promising approach to help address substance use and mental health issues in prisons. However, canine-assisted interventions in prisons have not been well explored in relation to experiential learning (EL) theory, despite canine-assisted interventions and EL aligning in many ways. In this article, we discuss a canine-assisted learning and wellness program guided by EL for prisoners with substance use issues in Western Canada. Letters written by participants to the dogs at the conclusion of the program suggest that such programming can help shift relational dynamics and the prison learning environment, benefit prisoners' thinking patterns and perspectives, and help prisoners generalize and apply key learnings to recovery from addiction and mental health challenges. Implications are discussed in relation to clinicians' practices, prisoners' health and wellness, and prison programming.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões , Saúde Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Canadá
20.
PLoS One ; 18(7): e0288187, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37494407

RESUMO

The continued use of solitary confinement has sparked international public health and human rights criticisms and concerns. This carceral practice has been linked repeatedly to a range of serious psychological harms among incarcerated persons. Vulnerabilities to harm are especially dire for persons with preexisting serious mental illness ("SMI"), a group that is overrepresented in solitary confinement units. Although there have been numerous calls for the practice to be significantly reformed, curtailed, and ended altogether, few strategies exist to minimize its use for people with SMI and histories of violence against themselves or others. This case study describes the "Oregon Resource Team" (ORT), a pilot project adapted from a Norwegian officer-led, interdisciplinary team-based approach to reduce isolation and improve outcomes for incarcerated persons with SMI and histories of trauma, self-injury, and violence against others. We describe the ORT's innovative approach, the characteristics and experiences of incarcerated people who participated in it, its reported impact on the behavior, health, and well-being of incarcerated persons and correctional staff, and ways to optimize its effectiveness and expand its use.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Prisioneiros , Humanos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Oregon , Projetos Piloto , Direitos Humanos
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