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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130628, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343807

RESUMO

A spectrophotometric method based on diazo-coupling reaction for nitrite analysis was established and validated, including inter-laboratory validation, linearity, accuracy, precision, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The time-saving and high-recovery method was established by examining the filtration step, colorimetric process and concentration range of the calibration curve. This method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999) in the range of 0.025-1.0 µg/mL. The three-level recoveries were between 86.7% and 108.6%, with the coefficient of variation (CV) below 5.8%. Mean nitrite concentration ranges in processed foods were ND-33.47 mg/kg. The mean nitrite intake was 0.8% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI, 0.07 mg/kg bw/day) for all children and adolescents and 2.8% for the consumer group. The major contributors for all subjects and consumers were ham, sausage and bacon. These results indicated that the improved method was suitable for analyzing nitrite in processed foods and the nitrite exposure levels were safe.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Nitritos , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta , Exposição Dietética , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Nitritos/análise , República da Coreia
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130663, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343810

RESUMO

Effects of high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) stabilized by egg yolk-modified starch complex on the gelling properties of chicken gels with or without sodium chloride (NaCl)/sodium tripolyphosphate (TP) were studied. The addition of 30 % HIPE increased the hardness from 376 g to 590 g. The NaCl addition further improved textural and viscoelastic properties compared with the gels without NaCl. 30 % HIPE-filled gels with salts (NaCl and TP) has the highest hardness (3562 g) and the lowest cooking loss (3.41 %). Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) revealed that salts, especially TP, could promote the transition of α-helices to ß-sheets structure. Moreover, the chicken gels with TP had higher acyl chain disorder. In summary, the co-addition of HIPE and salt (NaCl/TP) has a positive effect on the formation of chicken gel, thereby providing potential applications in comminuted meat products.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Produtos da Carne , Animais , Emulsões , Géis , Produtos da Carne/análise , Sais
3.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4037-4044, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467537

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fatty acid saturation (oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid) on water distribution, migration, and gel properties of pork salt-soluble protein, by detected indicators that are Low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), water-holding capacity (WHC), and gel strength. These results suggested that the WHC and gel strength decreased with the decrease of fatty acid saturation (p < 0.05). LF-NMR analysis revealed that the relaxation time T21 and T22 decrease (p < 0.05) with the decrease of fatty acid saturation. Results also showed that the T21 increased and T23 decreased in linolenic acid group compared with oleic acid group. Meanwhile, the peak area ratio of P21 and P22 decreased (p < 0.05), while P23 increased (p < 0.05). Therefore, the saturation of fatty acids had a great influence on the gel properties of protein. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: It provides a theoretical basis for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids emulsified gel meat products and promotes the development of meat processing industry.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Géis , Carne de Porco , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Géis/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne de Porco/análise , Suínos , Água
4.
Food Chem ; 365: 130619, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407490

RESUMO

There is an increase in demand for sausages in developing countries, however, accessibility and cost of binders are a challenge. Amaranth and quinoa flours were evaluated for use as alternative binders to corn-starch. Proximate composition, functional and thermal properties of the flours were determined. Water holding capacity (WHC) and cooking losses of the sausages made with the flours as binders were also evaluated. To determine acceptability, sensory evaluation was carried out using a 9-point hedonic scale. Flours showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) on protein, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, and fat content. There were also significantly different on functional properties except emulsion stability and pH. Thermal properties of flours also had a significant difference (p < 0.05). Quinoa and corn-starch sausages were compared and amaranth aroma was disliked. As such, it was concluded that quinoa and amaranth can be used as alternative binders in sausage production.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Produtos da Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Culinária , Farinha/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Amido
5.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 3939-3950, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355398

RESUMO

Sodium reduction influences the quality of processed meat products that, in turn, affect consumer acceptance. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the texture, color, and sensory acceptability of reduced-sodium Vienna sausage. A three-component mixture design (0-65% NaCl; 35-100% KCl; 0-20% glycine [Gly]) was performed to obtain an optimal salt mixture based on 14 sausage formulations. Mixture response surface plots revealed the optimal reduced-sodium Vienna sausage containing 20.13-65.00% NaCl, 35.00-60.15% KCl, and 0.00-20.00% Gly (this salt mixture constituted 1.35% of the formulation). One optimal laboratory-scale sausage, formulated with 21.43% NaCl, 59.71% KCl, and 18.86% Gly, was further selected for commercial scale-up production (a 25-kg batch). Both laboratory-scale and scale-up products were comparably acceptable (5.9-6.6 vs. 5.9-6.7) for overall liking, flavor, saltiness, and texture, and contained 315.4-333.5 mg sodium/100 g, hence having >25% sodium reduction compared to the control (569.5 mg/100 g) according to US Food and Drugs Administration regulation. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a scale-up production of acceptable reduced-sodium Vienna sausage formulated with a salt mixture of NaCl/KCl/Gly. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Processed meat products are one of the major sources of daily dietary sodium in the form of sodium chloride. Recently, there is an increased demand by consumers for healthier meat products. Of particular interest is finding solutions for sodium reduction in meat products while maintaining sensory properties and consumer acceptance. This study demonstrated that a mixture of KCl and Gly could be used as partial NaCl substitution in the commercial scale-up of Vienna sausages without drastically compromising sensory acceptability.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Produtos da Carne , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Comportamento do Consumidor , Aromatizantes , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Paladar
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10321-10328, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436881

RESUMO

The halal food market is globally growing along with the increased risk of adulteration. We proposed an amplification-free and mix-to-read CRISPR-Cas12-based nucleic acid analytical strategy allowing rapid identification and analysis of pork components, thus enriching the toolbox for ensuring halal food authenticity. We designed and optimized guide RNA (gRNA) targeting the pork cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene. gRNA allowed specific identification of the target Cyt b gene from pork components followed by activation of Cas12 protein to abundantly cleave single-stranded DNA probes with terminally labeled fluorophore and quencher groups, thus turning on fluorescence. The presence of the pork Cyt b gene thus can be mix-and-read- and only-one-step-detected, which may indicate the risk of halal food adulteration. The method allowed specific discrimination of pork meat from beef, mutton, and chicken and yielded a detection limit of 2.7 ng/µL of total DNA from pork meat. The reliability of the method was tested using the following processed meat products: halal foods beef luncheon meat and spiced beef and non-halal foods sausage and dried pork slices. The CRISPR-Cas12-based nucleic acid test strategy is promising for rapid food authentication.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Bovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110431, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399448

RESUMO

Partial fat replacement in cooked salamis was formulated using organogels made with canola oil, ethylcellulose (EC; 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 14%) and three types of surfactants; i.e., glycerol monostearate (GMS), stearyl alcohol/stearic acid (SOSA) and soybean lecithin (Lec). Texture profile analysis (TPA) and back extrusion tests indicated that increasing EC polymer concentration leads to harder gels regardless of the surfactant used. However, using GMS resulted in the hardest gel, whereas Lec did not strengthen the gel (mechanical stress test), but plasticized it. In general, gel hardness had a distinct effect on the binding of the organogel particle to the meat matrix, with softer gels adhering better under progressive compression. Substituting animal fat with organogel did not affect the main TPA parameters in most salami formulations, and canola oil by itself was also not significantly different from the pork and beef fat control. Using canola oil resulted in very small oil globules compared to the animal fat control, while structuring the oil yielded a microstructure with larger fat particles/globules, similar to the control. Color evaluation revealed a shift to yellow of the treatments with organogels compared to the control, but lightness and redness were not altered. The results demonstrate the potential use of structured vegetable oil to manufacture coarse ground meat products with lower saturated fat and a more favorable nutritional profile while resembling the traditional ground products.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Culinária , Manipulação de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Óleo de Brassica napus
8.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110434, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399449

RESUMO

In this study, the benefits of using avocado peel extract (APE), rich in phenolic compounds, to reduce the oxidation and formation of harmful compounds resulting from cooking, were investigated. Beef and soy-based burgers with the addition of APE (0.5% and 1%) were studied after pan frying concerning proximate and physicochemical characteristics, inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], hexanal, and carbonyls), heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) and acrylamide formation. Sensory analysis was additionally performed. APE-affected proximate composition, protein, fat, and ash contents (%) were found to be markedly higher in APE-incorporated burgers (~28.32 ± 0.29, ~14.00 ± 0.01, and ~1.57 ± 0.05, respectively), compared with the controls (~26.55 ± 0.51, ~12.77 ± 0.32, and ~1.48 ± 0.16, respectively). Lower concentrations of TBARS, hexanal, and carbonyls were observed in APE-treated burgers on Days 1 and 10, post-cooking, compared to controls. Overall, it was found that APE had a greater protective effect than the positive control (sodium ascorbate incorporated) in beef burgers. In soy burgers, the positive control demonstrated pro-oxidant activity. The addition of 0.5% APE was found to inhibit HAs and acrylamide formation in beef and soy burgers. Although the addition of APE affected the color of both meat and soy burgers, it did not impact consumer preference. It was therefore concluded that APE extract might be a suitable clean-label alternative to synthetic antioxidants, and that it can protect and increase the nutritional value of meat and meat-free burgers.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Persea , Animais , Bovinos , Culinária , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais
9.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110476, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399472

RESUMO

Amine-negative lactic acid bacteria can prevent excess biogenic amines from accumulating in sausage. In this study, the amine-negative Pediococcus pentosaceus 30-7 and 30-15 with good fermentation properties and biogenic amine removal ability were isolated for tilapia sausage production. P. pentosaceus 30-7 improved the physical characteristics such as gel strength and hardness in tilapia sausage, while P. pentosaceus 30-15 significantly enhanced the contents of umami and sweet free amino acids. The microbial metabolic network revealed that the dominant microbial community in the fermentation process including Pediococcus and Lactococcus contributed to the physicochemical formation of sausage. The significant decrease of biogenic amine contents after addition of P. pentosaceus strains mainly resulted from their ability to remove biogenic amines and to inhibit the growth of amine-producing Enterobacter, Citrobacter, and Streptococcus. This study provides an effective method for directionally improving the physicochemical properties and safety in fermented tilapia sausage.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Microbiota , Tilápia , Animais , Produtos da Carne/análise , Pediococcus , Pediococcus pentosaceus
10.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110551, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399528

RESUMO

Currently, consumers' interest in healthy products has attracted the attention of academia and the meat industry, which has focused mainly on incorporating ingredients with healthier properties. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the social representation of original burgers and burgers with mushroom addition considering different sexes and body mass indexes (BMIs) of individuals. Thus, 209 Brazilians answered a word association task followed by a word classification based on their importance and valence for original burgers and burgers with the addition of mushrooms. To obtain the structure of social representation, the words were positioned into four distinct zones based on their frequency of elicitation and importance. Also, the polarity index was used to give a connotation to the words. Three groups of consumers were identified. The first group (consumers with class-1 obesity of both sexes) associated the original burger with positive categories (cheese, juicy, seasoned, food, tasty, joy, salad and delicious). The second one (female consumers with pre-obesity and class-1 obesity) associated the burger with the addition of mushrooms with the elements price, different, vegetarian, flavor, gourmet and healthy. Finally, the third group (men and women for both stimuli and with a wide range of BMI) characterized burgers with sensory attributes, feelings and moments of consumption. In conclusion, the social representation of the original burger and the burger with the addition of mushrooms differed among consumers, suggesting that the main associations can be the main motivations for the consumption of a certain product.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Produtos da Carne , Feminino , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , Produtos da Carne/análise , Paladar
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 354: 109322, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247021

RESUMO

During spontaneous meat fermentation, diverse microbial communities develop over time. These communities consist mainly of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), of which the species composition is influenced by the fermentation temperature and the level of acidification. Recent development and application of amplicon-based high-throughput sequencing (HTS) methods have allowed to gain deeper insights into the microbial communities of fermented meats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different fermentation temperatures and acidification profiles on the CNS communities during spontaneous fermentation, using a previously developed amplicon-based HTS method targeting both the 16S rRNA and tuf genes. Spontaneous fermentations were performed with five different lots of meat to assess inter-lot variability. The process influence was investigated by fermenting the meat batters for seven days at different fermentation temperatures (23 °C, 30 °C, and 37 °C) and in the absence or presence of added glucose to simulate different acidification levels. Additionally, the results were compared with a starter culture-initiated fermentation process. The data revealed that the fermentation temperature was the most influential processing condition in shaping the microbial communities during spontaneous meat fermentation processes, whereas differences in pH were only responsible for minor shifts in the microbial profiles. Furthermore, the CNS communities showed a great level of variability, which depended on the initial microbial communities present and their competitiveness.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Produtos da Carne , Microbiota , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
J Food Sci ; 86(8): 3563-3573, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268771

RESUMO

Microstructural factors associated with surface iridescence in cooked, cured pork products were investigated. Meat iridescence is a commonly observed physical phenomenon in raw meat and meat products that consist of intact muscle tissue. Since the purchase decision of consumers is mainly driven by the first impression of meat color and appearance, products showing colorful iridescence may be rejected. Four different muscles (RF: M. rectus femoris, BF: M. biceps femoris, ST: M. semitendinosus, and LD: M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum) were brine-injected, cooked, sliced, and iridescence was evaluated by digital image analysis and sensory analysis. Sarcomere lengths, fiber diameters, and surface microstructure were analyzed in iridescent and noniridescent sections. Highest iridescence extent by image analysis was found in LD (37.3 ± 16.4%), and highest overall iridescence score (extent and intensity, 6.11 ± 1.78) was observed in BF. Sarcomere lengths did not differ significantly between iridescent (1.05 ± 0.09 µm LD) and noniridescent areas (1.08 ± 0.94 µm LD) within muscles (p > 0.05). Iridescent sections showed smooth and ordered surface structures with cross-sectioned myofibers, whereas in noniridescent sections, surfaces were more unstructured and myofibers obliquely cut. The results of the study indicate that the sarcomere length and fiber diameters may thus be only of minor importance for the explanation of meat iridescence in cooked meat products and are rather related to multiple scattering and absorption effects on smaller structural entities such as the myofilament lattice or larger entities such as fiber bundles. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Iridescence can be a problem for the meat industry due to consumers concerns about green-iridescent colors in meat. The underlying mechanisms and structures have not yet been fully clarified, and thus no practical solutions to eliminate iridescence have been found so far. This research presents new insights into the structural attributes that are interrelated with meat iridescence and shows that iridescence is rather influenced by cutting angle of muscle fibers and surface homogeneity than by muscle fiber diameters or sarcomere lengths. This should be considered by the industry when seeking for ways to reduce the potential problem of iridescence.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Humanos , Iridescência , Carne , Músculo Esquelético , Sarcômeros , Suínos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281032

RESUMO

Dry-cured sausages are traditional in Mediterranean countries, and Paio do Alentejo (PA) is one of the most popular in South Portugal. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of combined starters on the safety and quality of PA preserving its sensory quality. Physicochemical parameters, namely pH and water activity (aW), microbiological parameters, biogenic amines, color, texture, and sensory attributes were assessed. Three starter cultures were used, namely Staphylococcus equorum S2M7 and Lactobacillus sakei CV3C2, both separate and combined with the 2RB4 yeast strain at a concentration of 106 cfu/g. Dextrose 0.25% was added to the meat batter. Starters had a significant effect on the reduction of aW values (0.845 to 0.823). The treatment with L. sakei as well as the co-inoculation of L. sakei with S. equorum effectively reduced the L. monocytogenes counts to undetectable levels. Sausages co-inoculated with S. equorum S2M7/L. sakei CV3C2 showed a significant reduction in the content of vasoactive amines, namely tryptamine (26.21 to 15.70) and ß-phenylethylamine (4.80 to 3.69). Regarding texture, control PA showed higher hardness values, and the starters promoted the cohesiveness of the batter while reducing chewiness. The studied starters did not compromise the sensory characteristics of PA.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus sakei , Produtos da Carne , Aminas Biogênicas , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Portugal , Staphylococcus
14.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279391

RESUMO

Alternative technologies, which have been developed in order to meet the consumers' demand for nourishing and healthy meat and meat products, are followed by the food industry. In the present study, it was determined, using the HPLC method, that green tea contains a high level of epicatechin (EP) under optimal conditions and that pomegranate peel contains a high level of punicalagin (PN). Green tea, pomegranate peel, EP and PN were added to meatballs at different concentrations in eight groups. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were measured. The antimicrobial activity was examined for 72 h using three different food pathogens. The highest level of antimicrobial activity was achieved in the 1% punicalagin group, whereas the minimum inhibition concentration (L. monocytogenes, S. typhimurium) was found to be 1.87 mg/mL. A statistically significant decrease was found in FFA, POV and TBARS levels of meatballs on different days of storage (p < 0.05). When compared to the control group, the bioactive compounds preserved the microbiological and chemical properties of meatballs during storage at +4 °C (14 days). It was concluded that the extracts with high EP and PN concentrations can be used as bio-preservative agents for meat and meat products.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Catequina/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Produtos da Carne/normas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Romã (Fruta)/química , Carne Vermelha/normas , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299415

RESUMO

Chemical characteristics of raw and processed Istarski prsut (PDO) produced from two different pig genotypes were studied with special emphasis on amino and fatty acid composition and factors of lipid stability. Raw hams of Large White (LW)xLandrace (L), and (LWxL)xDuroc (D) pig genotypes were used in the study (20 hams of each genotype). All left raw hams from each carcass were processed in accordance with the PDO specification of Istarski prsut, and other half (the right ones) of LWxL)xD genotype were used for analyses of raw hams (fresh muscles). Istarski prsut was evaluated on the basis of the chemical parameters of the raw and matured lean ham. The process of dry curing significantly influenced the chemical properties of Istarski prsut. Despite the higher content of intramuscular fat and polyunsaturated fatty acids, the fat of (LWxL)xD ham was much more resistant to hydrolysis and oxidation, suggesting that fatty acid profile and other factors, also play a significant role. Significant differences between pig genotypes in the amino acid and fatty acid profiles were found. The analyzed Istarski prsut may be distinguished by prints of multivariate chemometric statistical analysis, based on their amino acid and fatty acid compositions.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Lipídeos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carne de Porco/análise , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Genótipo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Suínos/classificação , Suínos/genética
16.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(3): 105-111, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219098

RESUMO

The diazotization method is used for nitrite determination in meat products. In this method, it is known that the presence of reducing substances such as ascorbic acid and cysteine in the sample interferes with nitrite determination. We speculated that soy sauce, fish sauce and mirin, which are used in meat products, might be the reducing substances, so investigated meat products which contain soy sauce and other ingredients. The results showed that quantitative disturbance was observed in soy sauce and fish sauce, and the recovery in spiked samples of these products decreased in proportion to the increase in soy sauce and fish sauce content. However the antioxidant of soy sauce and fish sauce depending on manufacturing methods, so quantitative disturbance dose not be observed each time, so nitrite determination in meat products, and to conduct simultaneous determination using different sample amounts to confirm whether there is any difference in the quantitative values.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Alimentos de Soja , Animais , Antioxidantes , Produtos da Carne/análise , Nitritos
17.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210093

RESUMO

The development of plant-based functional food ingredients has become a major focus of the modern food industry as a response to changes in consumer attitudes. In particular, many consumers are switching to a plant-based diet because of their concerns about animal-derived foods on the environment, human health, and animal welfare. There has therefore been great interest in identifying, isolating, and characterizing functional ingredients from botanical sources, especially waste streams from food and agricultural production. However, many of these functional ingredients cannot simply be incorporated into foods because of their poor solubility, stability, or activity characteristics. In this article, we begin by reviewing conventional and emerging methods of extracting plant-based bioactive agents from natural resources including ultrasound-, microwave-, pulsed electric field- and supercritical fluid-based methods. We then provide a brief overview of different methods to characterize these plant-derived ingredients, including conventional, chromatographic, spectroscopic, and mass spectrometry methods. Finally, we discuss the design of plant-based delivery systems to encapsulate, protect, and deliver these functional ingredients, including micelles, liposomes, emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, and microgels. The potential benefits of these plant-based delivery systems are highlighted by discussing their use for incorporating functional ingredients into traditional meat products. However, the same technologies could also be employed to introduce functional ingredients into plant-based meat analogs.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Indústria Alimentícia , Alimento Funcional , Produtos da Carne , Nanopartículas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Humanos , Lipossomos
18.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202027

RESUMO

At present, a wide variety of analytical methods is available to measure antioxidant capacity. However, this great diversity is not reflected in the analysis of meat and meat products, as there are a limited number of studies on determining this parameter in this complex food matrix. Despite this, and due to the interest in antioxidants that prevent oxidation reactions, the identification of antioxidants in meat and meat products is of special importance to the meat industry. For this reason, this review compiled the main antioxidant capacity assays employed in meat and meat products, to date, describing their foundations, and showing both their advantages and limitations. This review also looked at the different applications of antioxidant properties in meat and meat products. In this sense, the suitability of using these methodologies has been demonstrated in different investigations related to these foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Humanos
19.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101305, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274569

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of frozen storage of turkey meat on the processing properties into raw sausages was investigated. For this purpose, meat from the Musculus pectoralis of male turkeys was frozen in 3 independent runs for 12 and 24 wk at -18°C and -80°C. After thawing, the meat was examined physicochemically and microbiologically and processed into raw sausages. The sausages were examined on d 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of storage. The parameters L*, a*, b*, pH-value and aw-value did not show any relevant significances between the experimental groups. The analysis of TBARS of the sausages made from frozen meat showed significantly higher values on d 14 and 28 compared to the unfrozen control group. Frozen storage also reduced the growth of Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Produtos da Carne , Animais , Congelamento , Masculino , Carne , Produtos da Carne/análise , Temperatura
20.
Food Chem ; 364: 130439, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186477

RESUMO

Plant-based meat analogs are likely to have different gastrointestinal fates than real meat products due to differences in their compositions and structures. Here, we compared the gastrointestinal fate of ground beef and ground beef analogs using the INFOGEST in vitro digestion model, focusing on differences in microstructure, physicochemical properties, lipid digestion, and protein digestion in different regions of the model gut. The presence of dietary fibers in the beef analogs increased their apparent shear viscosity in the gastrointestinal fluids, which may have inhibited lipid digestion in the small intestine. The proteins in the beef analogs were digested more rapidly in the stomach but less rapidly in the small intestine, which may have been due to differences in protein type (globular soy versus fibrous beef proteins), structural organization, and the presence of dietary fibers in the meat analogs.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Carne/análise
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