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1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(1): 3-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918650

RESUMO

Parents' and Childcare Teachers' Agreement on Mental Health Problems, Psychosocial Ressources and Need for Action Young Children with mental health problems rarely receive professional help. Recognising a problem is one key factor for mental health care utilisation in kindergarten age. In this study psychosocial problems and ressources of 255 children (age 3,0-6,6 years) were assessed by parents and childcare teachers with the instrument "Verhaltensskalen für das Kindergartenalter" (VSK, Koglin u. Petermann, 2016). Subjective need for action was also measured. Teachers announced a need for action in 19.8 % of the children, while parents did so for 17.3 % of the children, but they agreed only for 18.9 % of these children. So agreement on need for action was low (κ = .16). Agreement was also low for psychosocial problems (Median ICC = .32), and very low with respect to the borderline/clinical range (κ = .13). No agreement was found for psychosocial ressources. Results underline the importance for Early Education and Care professionals to cooperate with institutions like social-pediatric centers to avoid blind spots in the identification of mental health problems in preschool age.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Saúde Mental , Professores Escolares , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pais
3.
Codas ; 32(1): e20180294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Verify the effects of a training program held with pre-school teachers to carry out specific strategies in shared reading and generalize these strategies in other daily activities of oral language motivation. METHODS: A total of 14 teachers from low socioeconomic level schools participated in the study. The teachers were randomly distributed in an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group attended training on how to use five strategies during shared reading in the classroom and discuss how to motivate their students towards oral language. To evaluate the effectiveness of training, two instruments were applied pre- and post-intervention. The Assessment Scale of Oral Language Teaching in School (EVALOE) was applied to analyze the teaching of oral language and the Checklist was used to characterize the behavioral changes of the teachers during shared reading. RESULTS: Overall, EVALOE data were higher at post-intervention analysis for 11 of the 13 participants. Checklist showed that 10 of the 13 teachers presented higher post-intervention total scores compared with their respective pre-intervention scores. CONCLUSION: The training program provided improvement in teacher behavior during shared reading activities and demonstrated to have a positive impact on the increase of interactions, previously identified in the literature as important for oral language motivation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Leitura , Professores Escolares , Capacitação de Professores/métodos , Educação Continuada , Humanos , Ensino
4.
Codas ; 32(1): e20180233, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851210

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize and to compare the perception of vocal fatigue in professors at the beginning and at the end of the school year. METHODS: Observational, analytical, prospective cohort study was carried out. A total of 115 professors participated with a mean age of 40 years old, 71 women and 44 men, employees of 28 higher education institutions in the south and southeast regions of Brazil. All answered to the Vocal Fatigue Index (VFI) at the beginning (February or March) and at the end (October or November) of the Brazilian school year. The VFI results for both assessed moments were statistically compared (p<0.05). RESULTS: The professors' mean scores obtained in the factors of tiredness of voice and avoidance of voice use (p<0.001) and improvement of symptoms with rest (p=0.001) increased at the end of the school year. CONCLUSION: Professors reported higher perception of vocal fatigue at the end of the school year, which influenced the avoidance of voice use and improvement of symptoms with the rest.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Distúrbios da Voz/diagnóstico , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estudos Prospectivos , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(4): 668-675, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800199

RESUMO

The problem of preserving the health of participants in the educational process and carrying out comprehensive diagnostic measures using laboratory and instrumental methods occupy a significant place in a number of biomedical research. The aim of the present study was to study the state of cellular factors of innate and adaptive immunity, IL-1ß, 1α, IFN-γ cytokines, hormones, vegetative regulation of heart rhythm in older teachers in the dynamics of the school year. The indices of the spectral analysis of the heart rhythm (n=50) at the beginning of the school year (background level), after 5 and 9 months, were studied. The state of cellular factors of innate and adaptive immunity was assessed by analyzing the functional activity of peripheral blood neutrophils by their ability to absorb latex particles, oxygen-dependent metabolism, and functional reserve; lymphocyte receptor landscape - used methods of flow cytofluorimetry; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; the calculation of the Shapiro-Wilk criterion, χ², one-sided Fisher exact test, t-Student criterion. A decrease in heart rate variability indicators characterizing the activity of the parasympathetic regulation, as well as immune homeostasis among older teachers in the dynamics of the school year, which confirms the need to implement a set of preventive measures aimed at maintaining health.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Imunidade Inata , Professores Escolares , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Idoso , Citocinas , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25014, jan.- dez. 2019. Quadros, Figura
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047792

RESUMO

Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo geral investigar as manifestações do fenômeno lazer entre trabalhadores docentes que integram o quadro funcional da Secretaria da Educação do Estado de São Paulo. Ao mesmo tempo, como objetivo específico, buscou identificar de que forma as oscilações relativas às distintas relações de trabalho, sobretudo a evidente condição de precariedade, influenciam o lazer da categoria em questão. É um estudo de caso, realizado com 29 trabalhadores docentes que atuam em escolas dessa rede de ensino. Utilizou-se da análise documental de legislações que versam sobre o trabalho docente, da aplicação do questionário sobre os usos do tempo e da realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Foi constatado que parte do tempo e espaço de lazer dos professores é permeada pelo trabalho. Ademais, foi possível identificar que condições mais precárias de trabalho tendem a refletir também em um lazer precário


The general goal of this study was to investigate leisure activities among teachers employed by the São Paulo State's Department of Education. At the same time, its specific goal was to find out how oscillations related to various employment relations, especially the clearly precarious working condition, influence their leisure. It is a case study conducted with 29 teachers from São Paulo public's schools. It conducted documentary analysis of laws on teaching work; it applied a questionnaire on use of time; and it conducted semi-structured interviews. It found that part of teachers' leisure time and space is pervaded by work. In addition, it was possible to see that more precarious working conditions tend to result in precarious leisure


Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo general investigar las manifestaciones del fenómeno ocio entre trabajadores docentes que integran el cuadro funcional de la Secretaría de Educación del Estado de São Paulo. Al mismo tiempo, como objetivo específico, buscó identificar de qué forma las oscilaciones relativas a las distintas relaciones de trabajo, principalmente la evidente condición de precariedad, influencian el ocio de la categoría investigada. Se trata de un estudio de caso, realizado con 29 trabajadores docentes que actúan en escuelas públicas del Estado de São Paulo. Se utilizó el análisis documental de legislaciones que versan sobre el trabajo docente, la aplicación del cuestionario sobre los usos del tiempo y la realización de entrevistas semiestructuradas. Se constató que parte del tiempo y espacio de ocio de los profesores está permeado por el trabajo. Además, fue posible identificar que condiciones más precarias de trabajo tienden a reflejar también un ocio precario


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Condições de Trabalho , Professores Escolares , Atividades de Lazer , Emprego
7.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25063, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047336

RESUMO

Há um sentimento de promessa não realizada quando se analisa o progresso do projeto crítico da Educação Física desde a virada da segunda década do século XXI. Estudos de qualidade continuam a emergir em torno da pedagogia crítica da Educação Física, evidenciando o prolongado comprometimento com sua promessa de fornecer aos aprendizes recursos pessoais e intelectuais que são necessários na orientação de produtivos futuros sadios num mundo cada mais complexo. Neste artigo nós discutimos destacados exemplos de investigações contemporâneas que demonstram as contínuas lutas em contextos práticos e revisita barreiras que continuam a restringir as aspirações dos estudos críticos. Focando na Educação Física como uma prática cultural e curricular nas escolas australianas, nós damos primazia aos modos pelos quais políticas diretivas podem ser melhor mobilizadas para capacitar a agenda crítica


There is a sense of unfulfilled promise as one reflects on the progress of the critical project in Physical Education (PE) at the turn of the second decade of the 21st century. Quality scholarship continues to emerge around critical pedagogy in PE, evidencing sustained commitment to its promise to provide learners with personal and intellectual resources needed in navigating productive healthy futures in an increasingly complex world. In this paper we discuss select examples of contemporary research to demonstrate ongoing struggles in practice-based contexts and revisit barriers that continue to restrict the translational aspirations of critical scholars. Focusing on PE as a cultural and curriculum practice in Australian schools, we give primacy to the ways in which policy directives might be better mobilised to enable the critical agenda


Hay un sentimiento de promesa no cumplida cuando se analiza el progreso del proyecto crítico de la Educación Física desde el giro de la segunda década del siglo XXI. Estudios de calidad continúan a emerger en torno a la pedagogía crítica de la Educación Física, evidenciando el prolongado compromiso con su promesa de ofrecer a los aprendices recursos personales e intelectuales que son necesarios en la orientación de productivos futuros saludables en un mundo cada vez más complejo. En ese artículo discutimos destacados ejemplos de investigaciones contemporáneas que demuestran las continuas luchas en contextos prácticos y revisita barreras que continúan restringiendo las aspiraciones de los discursos críticos. Con foco en la Educación Física como una práctica cultural y curricular en las escuelas australianas, priorizamos los modos por los cuales políticas directivas pueden ser mejor movilizadas para capacitar la agenda crítica


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Educação Física e Treinamento , Ensino , Currículo , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Professores Escolares
8.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 922-942, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682367

RESUMO

Teachers' professional misconduct is rarely researched but of great public concern, given the potential impact upon students. Further, international concern has been expressed regarding teachers' wellbeing, including their working conditions. This study investigates the relationship between teachers' wellbeing and professional misconduct. We conducted a thematic analysis of disciplinary cases from the New Zealand Teachers Disciplinary Tribunal (NZTDT) between 2017 and 2018. Of the 41 disciplinary decisions from this period, 34 included references to teachers' health and wellbeing, including psychological stress at work and in their personal lives; psychiatric diagnoses; use of alcohol and other drugs; and emotional maturity. Breach of professional boundaries and inappropriate use of force were the leading reasons for discipline. The analysis illuminates a complex relationship between teachers' wellbeing and discipline, whereby diminished wellbeing may contribute to misconduct and be further affected by the disciplinary proceedings. Preventive strategies could include health-based interventions as part of professional development.


Assuntos
Má Conduta Profissional , Professores Escolares , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1514, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer was the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide in 2012 and was the eighth most common cancer in 2014 and the eighth greatest cause of female cancer deaths in Hong Kong in 2015. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been clinically documented to have a high efficacy in reducing HPV-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia incidence. Therefore, receiving vaccination is a crucial public health measure to reduce disease burden. Significant others, such as schools and schoolteachers, have prominent influence in shaping adolescents' health perceptions and behavior. Therefore, the perspective of schools and schoolteachers regarding vaccination can significantly influence students' acceptance and accessibility of the vaccine. However, few studies have analyzed the perceptions of schoolteachers toward HPV vaccination, and even fewer have concerned how schoolteachers' perceptions influence their schools' motivation in implementing school-based HPV vaccination programs. This study was thus conducted to fill this literature gap. METHODS: With a Chinese community as the field site of this study, a qualitative approach of five focus group interviews was conducted with 35 schoolteachers from five primary and eight secondary schools in Hong Kong between July 2014 and January 2015. Thematic content analysis was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Perceptual, institutional, student and parental, and collaborator barriers interacted to discourage the sampled schoolteachers from organizing school-based HPV vaccination programs. Lack of knowledge regarding HPV vaccination, perception of HPV vaccination as inappropriate given the students' age, violation of traditional cultural values, lack of perceived needs and perceived risk, opposition from schools, low priority of HPV vaccination over other health education topics, lack of government support, lack of interest from parents and students, and lack of confidence in implementing organizations, all were the mentioned barriers. CONCLUSIONS: The sampled schoolteachers were demotivated to organize school-based HPV vaccination programs because of their perceptions and various social and cultural factors. As significant influencers of adolescent students, schoolteachers and schools should receive more support and information on organizing school-based HPV vaccination programs in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Criança , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Masculino , Motivação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Pais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Estudantes , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3174, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the contributions of the in situ simulation in the self-confidence of early childhood and elementary education teachers regarding the initial management of health complications in school. METHOD: this is a pre-post testing quasi-experimental study. Two pre and post in situ simulation instruments were applied to 76 teachers, namely: visual analogue scale of teachers' self-confidence in the management of health complications at school, and a questionnaire to assess their knowledge on the subject. The educational activity was composed of four scenarios of in situ simulation. The data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using univariate and multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: the comparison of results of pre and post in situ simulation self-confidence identified promotion of self-confidence (p<0.001), especially for those teachers with less professional experience (p=0.008), without previous similar experience (p=0.003) and who actively participated in the simulation (p=0.009). CONCLUSION: the teachers feel uncomfortable to handle health complications. The in situ simulation elevated the perception of self-confidence among teachers.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Professores Escolares , Autoimagem , Treinamento por Simulação , Adulto , Brasil , Educação Profissionalizante/métodos , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46823

RESUMO

Promovida pela Fiocruz, a Obsma é um projeto voltado aos alunos de escolas públicas e privadas de todo Brasil.


Assuntos
Educação , Comunicação e Divulgação Científica , Saúde Ambiental , Professores Escolares , Estudantes
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 805, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early Childhood Education Centre (ECEC) staff are strongly recommended to receive several immunizations including influenza and pertussis. However, evidence regarding the uptake is either old or lacking across all Australian States/Territories. This study aimed to explore the attitudes and barriers around ECEC staff vaccination and the immunisation policy/practices employed at their workplaces. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was undertaken of staff members (administrators and childcare center staff) in early 2017. We compared the individual's knowledge, attitude and practices as well as the centre's policy and practice variables between the vaccinated and unvaccinated respondents. A logistic model was used to identify the factors associated with uptake of the different vaccines. RESULTS: A total of 575 ECEC staff completed the survey. Sixty percent reported being aware of the recommendations about staff immunisation. While participants did acknowledge that they could spread diseases if unvaccinated (86%), 30% could not recall receiving a dTpa in the last 10 years. Private centres were less likely to provide free or onsite vaccination compared to other categories of centres. Less than half reported receiving any encouragement to get the influenza vaccine and only 33% reported that their centre provides onsite influenza vaccination. Regarding the introduction of mandatory policies, 69% stated that they would support a policy. CONCLUSION: Employers should consider supporting methods to maximize vaccination of their employees including providing free onsite vaccination. Participants were open to idea of mandatory vaccination; however, this needs to be explored further to determine how vaccine costs and access issues could be resolved.


Assuntos
Creches , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/economia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacina contra Coqueluche/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/economia , Local de Trabalho
13.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 116, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive health problems such as HIV, unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion among adolescents are closely linked to insufficient knowledge about sexuality and reproduction and lack of access to contraceptives. Supported by international agencies, Zambia has introduced an ambitious nation-wide program for comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) to be implemented into ordinary school activities by teachers. The curriculum is firmly based in a discourse of sexual and reproductive rights, not commonly found in the public debate on sexuality in Zambia. This paper explores how teachers perceive the curriculum and practice discretion when implementing the CSE in mid-level schools in Nyimba district in Zambia. METHODS: Using a case study design, data were collected through in-depth interviews with 18 teachers and analyzed thematically drawing upon theories of discretion and policy implementation. RESULTS: Individual teachers make decisions on their own regarding what and when to teach CSE. This discretion implies holding back information from the learners, teaching abstinence as the only way of preventing pregnancy or cancelling sexuality education sessions altogether. Teachers' choices about the CSE program were linked to lack of guidance on teaching of the curriculum, especially with regards to how to integrate sexuality education into existing subjects. Limited prioritization of CSE in the educational sector was observed. The incompatibility of CSE with local norms and understandings about adolescent sexuality combined with teacher-parent role dilemmas emerged as problematic in implementing the policy. Limited ownership of the new curriculum further undermined teachers' motivation to actively include CSE in daily teaching activities. Use of discretion has resulted in arbitrary teaching thus affecting the acquisition of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health knowledge among learners. CONCLUSION: The CSE had limited legitimacy in the community and was met with resistance from teachers tasked with its' implementation. In order to enhance ownership to the CSE program, local concerns about the contents of the curriculum and the parent-teacher role dilemma must be taken into consideration. Not addressing these challenges may undermine the policy's intention of increasing knowledge about sexuality and reproduction and empowering adolescents to access contraceptive services and avoid unwanted pregnancies.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , População Rural , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Educação Sexual/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Organizacional , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Zâmbia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547474

RESUMO

Using the Multicontext Stressors Scale (MSS), this study investigates which factorial structure should be used to measure teacher stressors, and the extent to which this factorial structure of MSS remains invariant across gender. Subsequently, grounded in self-determination theory, the present study also examines the extent to which stressors may differentially predict teachers' psychological functioning. Participants were 584 (Mage = 45.04; SD = 8.97) secondary school teachers. Goodness-of-fit indices and estimated parameters of the models, together with latent correlations between stressors, offered support for the six-factor structure, whereas the opposite was true for the one-factor structure of the MSS. Results also supported gender invariance of the MSS. Predictive findings showed that student misbehavior, lack of shared decision-making, and workload stressors are negatively related to basic psychological needs. Likewise, results noted the important role of basic psychological needs to reach optimal teachers' psychological functioning. The results are discussed, arguing the importance of assessing and analyzing teacher stressors using a multifactorial and invariant scale. From a more practical approach, it seems important for school leaders to be especially vigilant about all stressors. Nonetheless, if they desire to prevent detrimental psychological functioning in teachers, special attention should be placed on stressors related to student misbehavior, lack of shared decision-making, and workload.


Assuntos
Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Autonomia Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Carga de Trabalho
15.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180143, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531555

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the effects of vocal warm-up (VWU) and vocal cool-down (VCD) strategies on teachers. METHODS: A quasi-experimental exploratory blind-evaluator study with control group that included teachers from a public secondary school. Teachers assigned to the experimental group (EG) performed VW prior to classes and VCD after classes. Teachers in the control group (CG) did not perform VWU and simply got voice rest after classes. Intergroup (EG vs. CG) and intragroup (pre-test versus post-test) comparisons were drawn from an auditory-perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis, and self-reported discomfort. The mean acoustic and discomfort indicators and the percentage of improvement or worsening of vocal quality were calculated with a statistically significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS: EG and CG did not differ from each other in the intergroup analysis. The intragroup analysis showed that VWU improved voice quality and decreased the degree of body-related discomfort. VCD decreased both the fundamental frequency (f0) and the degree of discomfort, particularly in relation to the voice aspects. Vocal rest did not show any statistical difference. CONCLUSION: VWU showed positive effects on the auditory-perceptual evaluation and self-reported discomfort (body). VCD impacted f0 and self-reported discomfort (voice). Due to the exploratory nature of the research, the statistical power was not enough to demonstrate a difference in the comparison between EG and CG. However, the results indicate a potential for protecting teachers' voice and may be incorporated into daily work settings. Further controlled studies with random samples and greater numbers of participants should be conducted to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos , Distúrbios da Voz/prevenção & controle , Treinamento da Voz , Adulto , Brasil , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Setor Público , Professores Escolares , Autoavaliação , Medida da Produção da Fala , Inquéritos e Questionários , Qualidade da Voz
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1239, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary schools are valuable settings to implement healthy lifestyle (healthy eating and physical activity) interventions, aimed at targeting childhood obesity. This study explored school staff perceptions of factors that hinder and enable successful implementation and sustainability of healthy lifestyle interventions in primary schools. Qualitative data was pooled and analysed from two evaluations carried out in primary schools in North England: a feasibility study of a nutrition and physical activity educational programme (PhunkyFoods Feasibility Study), and an evaluation of a healthy eating programme (The Food Dudes Evaluation). METHODS: Sixty-five qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with head teachers, teachers, catering managers, designated school-based programme coordinators and programme staff supporting schools with programme delivery, at 14 schools involved in both evaluations. Thematic analysis was undertaken and emergent themes categorised using a framework for successful implementation by Durlak and Dupre (2008). RESULTS: Overall, all schools were delivering a range of healthy lifestyle programmes, often with overlapping content. Perceived challenges to implementation of individual programmes included: limited time, timing of implementation, limited training and support, insufficient resources, capacity and facilities, staff perceptions of intervention and perceived skill-proficiency (for cooking and physical activities). Short-term funding, lack of external and internal support were perceived to hinder sustainability. Staff recommendations for successful implementation of future programmes included: extended training and planning time, sufficient capacity, external support for delivery, good resources (interactive, practical and adaptable), and facilities for cooking, healthy eating, gardening and physical activities. Head teachers need to prioritise delivery of a few key healthy lifestyle programmes, in an overcrowded curriculum. Schools need to employ strategies to engage participation of staff, pupils and parents long term. CONCLUSIONS: Effective implementation of school-based healthy lifestyle programmes was thought to be aided by flexible and adaptable programmes, enabling good contextual fit, well-resourced programmes and effective leadership at multiple levels, pupil (pupils support delivery) and parent involvement. To facilitate sustainability, it was perceived that programmes need to be integrated within the curriculum and school policies long term, with sustained support from head teachers and staff. These findings are relevant to programme developers, policy makers and those involved in delivering interventions.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Criança , Inglaterra , Exercício , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484296

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to assess the eye health needs of school teachers in the Asutifi districts of Ghana. Presenting distance visual acuity was measured in each eye. Those with visual acuity of <6/12 in one or both eyes had subjective refraction. All underwent basic eye examination and near functional vision was assessed for teachers aged ≥35 years using the Near Activity Visual Questionnaire (NVAQ). Teachers with uncorrected presbyopia were given a near correction and NVAQ was assessed again at two weeks. Three hundred teachers were examined with mean (SD) age of 36.5 (9.7) years, 54.3% were male and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8 to 9.8%) had a presenting acuity of <6/12 in one or both eyes. The estimated prevalence of moderate visual impairment was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.08 to 2.4%). Lens opacities (50%) and refractive error (18%) were the main causes of visual loss. Seventy-five out of 136 (55.1%, 95% CI: 46.6 to 63.4%) of teachers aged ≥35 years were presbyopic, 45.3% (95% CI: 36.9 to 53.7%) of whom had presbyopic correction. Lack of awareness was the major barrier to presbyopic correction. Median Rasch score for teachers given presbyopic correction (n = 39) decreased by 60.6% from 46.0 (IQR: 10.7 to 72.8) to 18.1 (IQR: 0 to 58.9) and overall satisfaction with near vision improved at follow up. Prevalence of presbyopia was high, and spectacles improved satisfaction with near vision.


Assuntos
Presbiopia/epidemiologia , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Catarata/epidemiologia , Óculos , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
18.
Indian J Dent Res ; 30(3): 363-367, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397409

RESUMO

Introduction: Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. Awareness of orthodontic treatment varies in different regions. Undergoing orthodontic treatment to correct malocclusion would be very beneficial to children as it could help eliminate bullying by peers regarding facial appearance. This kind of bullying by peers could affect the child psychologically. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in Karad Taluka in Maharashtra. A total of 378 subjects were selected. The schools were randomly selected. A questionnaire including general information, knowledge, and awareness of orthodontic treatment was prepared, and the teachers were given 15 min to fill it. Since it was a short period of time to gather information from other sources, the participants answered the questionnaire using their own knowledge. The purpose of this questionnaire, which consisted of 12 questions in both English and Marathi was to evaluate the level of knowledge the teachers had about orthodontic treatment. The purpose of the study and questionnaire forms were explained by the examiner. The responses of the teachers to the questions were recorded on a 2-point Likert scale {YES or NO}. Results: Simple descriptive statistics was applied to describe the study variables. A Chi-square test of independence was performed to check independence between answers and gender for each question. Conclusion: Within limits of this study, it may be concluded that knowledge of available treatments was more in males compared to females in rural areas.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Professores Escolares , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398923

RESUMO

Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), prior research has demonstrated that physical education (PE) teachers may have different reasons to engage in teaching. Although some person-centered studies have identified varied motivational profiles in PE teachers, none of these studies have included the three forms of motivation (i.e., autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation). This study aims to identify teachers' motivational profiles, using the three forms of motivation. Moreover, differences between the obtained profiles in terms of job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion were examined. A sample of 107 primary school PE teachers participated. Four distinct motivational profiles were identified: "relatively amotivated," "somewhat motivated," "autonomous-controlled motivated," and "relatively autonomously motivated." Results showed that the predominantly autonomously motivated PE teachers reported the most adaptive pattern of outcomes. Although PE teachers from the "relatively autonomously motivated" group did not differ in terms of job satisfaction when compared to those in the "autonomous-controlled motivated" group, the former displayed lower values of emotional exhaustion. These findings support SDT in that more motivation is not necessarily better if this additional motivation comes from controlled reasons. These results could raise awareness among school stakeholders about the importance of increasing PE teachers' autonomous motivation.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Motivação , Autonomia Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento/organização & administração , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 524, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Teachers' misconception on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in general and the implementation of effective educational strategies for children with this problem in particular is one obstacle that largely impacts the academic and overall success of school children with this problem. In Ethiopia, despite there are thousands of school children with this ADHD, no studies have been conducted to examine school teachers' understanding about problem. This research was therefore aimed to investigate primary school teachers' misconceptions about ADHD in Western Ethiopia. RESULT: In this study, 76.2% of respondents had misconception on general awareness of ADHD. More than half (62.7%) of them had misconceptions on the diagnosis and on 81% had misconceptions regarding treatment of the problem. Concerning teachers' misconception on the contemporarily recommended educational placement of students with ADHD, 141 (68.3%) have said that such students should be placed in part time special education. The findings of this research have clearly indicated that primary school teachers have a wide range of misconceptions about the ADHD. It also reflects the need of equipping teachers with basic knowledge of ADHD which also enables them provide effective support for students with this exceptionality.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Professores Escolares , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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