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1.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 31, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a call for sustainable, evidence-based interventions in schools to promote mental health in schoolchildren. Our primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness in vulnerable pupils of a school teacher training programme to teach mindfulness (".b" programme) as a part of compulsory class room teaching in Danish schools on the pupils' self-reported mental health at 6-month follow-up. Our secondary aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the school teacher training programme to teach the ".b"-programme as a part of compulsory class room teaching among the total pupil population on the pupils' self-reported mental health at 3 and 6 months after baseline. METHODS: The pragmatic cluster two-armed randomised controlled trial includes 110 municipal or private schools from all five regions in Denmark; 191 school teachers and approximately 2000 pupils at 11-15 years of age. Exclusion criteria; for schools: < 100 pupils; for pupils: parental opt out. Our intervention consists of (A) a school teacher training programme and (B) the ".b"-programme delivered as part of compulsory class room teaching in schools to pupils at the age of 11-15 years. The pupils in the control schools receive education as usual. Our primary study population is the vulnerable subgroup with a Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties score > 80% percentile at baseline (approximately 400 pupils). The primary outcome is change in the SDQ total score by the pupils. We also evaluate the effectiveness among the total pupil study population and in girls and boys, respectively and use other measures on mental health. Data will be analysed with repeated measurement models taken clusters into account. DISCUSSION: This large-scale trial will estimate the effectiveness of a population-based strategy on mental health in Danish schoolchildren. The trial evaluates the effect of a school teacher training programme, where teachers are trained in teaching the ".b" programme. The ".b" programme will be taught as a part of compulsory class room teaching. The intervention takes implementation issues into account. Effectiveness will be evaluated both in a vulnerable subgroup and among the total population. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04208113, registered December 23 2019, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04208113 .


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Professores Escolares , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 7190808, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521131

RESUMO

Background: Neck pain (NP) is a common work-related disorder, with high prevalence in the profession of teaching. The daily duties of a school teacher involve head-down postures while reading and writing, which expose them to the risk of developing NP. Deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscles have been reported to have lower endurance in patients with cervical impairment, which has additionally been associated with disability. There is limited evidence regarding the efficacy of training of DCF muscles in occupational NP. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of DCF muscle training on pain, muscle endurance, and functional disability using pressure biofeedback in school teachers with NP. Methods: Sixty-five teachers (age, 25-45 years) with more than 5 years of teaching experience participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental (E) and control (C) groups. In the E group, the subjects underwent DCF muscle training using pressure biofeedback in addition to conventional exercises for neck pain, while those in the C group underwent conventional exercises only. Pain, muscle endurance, and disability were measured at day 0 (before the treatment) and days 14 and 42 after the treatment. Endurance of DCF muscles was measured by the craniocervical flexion test using pressure biofeedback, pain intensity was measured using the numeric pain rating scale, and functional disability was assessed using the neck disability index questionnaire. This study was performed in accordance with CONSORT guidelines. Results: On day 0, there were no significant differences in the age, pain, muscle endurance, and disability levels between the groups. After initiating the intervention, although there were improvements in both groups, there was a statistically significant improvement in muscle endurance, pain, and disability in subjects who received additional training with pressure biofeedback. Conclusions: Besides increasing muscle endurance, specific training of DCF muscles in addition to conventional exercises can improve neck pain and functional disability. These results should be further correlated clinically. A dedicated time for exercises at school could help prevent the development of NP in teachers. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03537300 May 24, 2018 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Cervicalgia/fisiopatologia , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Professores Escolares , Adulto , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Dor Crônica/terapia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Postura
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(4): 136-140, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507890

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted in-person learning in the United States, with approximately one half of all students receiving online-only instruction since March 2020.* Discontinuation of in-person schooling can result in many hardships (1) and disproportionately affects families of lower socioeconomic status (2). Current evidence suggests that transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) schools might not significantly contribute to COVID-19 spread nationwide (3). During August 31-November 29, 2020, COVID-19 cases, spread, and compliance with mask use were investigated among 4,876 students and 654 staff members who participated in in-person learning in 17 K-12 schools in rural Wisconsin. School-attributable COVID-19 case rates were compared with rates in the surrounding community. School administration and public health officials provided information on COVID-19 cases within schools. During the study period, widespread community transmission was observed, with 7%-40% of COVID-19 tests having positive results. Masking was required for all students and staff members at all schools, and rate of reported student mask-wearing was high (>92%). COVID-19 case rates among students and staff members were lower (191 cases among 5,530 persons, or 3,453 cases per 100,000) than were those in the county overall (5,466 per 100,000). Among the 191 cases identified in students and staff members, one in 20 cases among students was linked to in-school transmission; no infections among staff members were found to have been acquired at school. These findings suggest that, with proper mitigation strategies, K-12 schools might be capable of opening for in-person learning with minimal in-school transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
4.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 26(2): 155-162, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-197251

RESUMO

For preventive interventions in school mental health to be effective, it is essential to have valid and reliable screening instruments that can detect students in need of more support. In order to do this, the present study is aimed at assessing the psychometric properties of the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation, an interview for teachers that measures school adjustment difficulties. The study evaluated 10,287 adolescents participating in a Chilean public program for improving mental health in schools. Of the total sample, 5,815 (56.5%) students were in 6th grade and were 12.91 years old on average (SD = 1.391). Exploratory factor analyses were used to identify four dimensions (behavioral, learning, social, and autonomyrelated difficulties), which were tested using structural equations. Reliability analyses show that all factors have high levels of internal consistency and differ according to age, grade, and extreme poverty. The article discusses the results obtained, their implications, and the importance of performing screening in schools through rigorously assessed psychometric instruments


Para que las intervenciones preventivas en salud mental escolar sean efectivas es esencial contar con instrumentos de detección válidos y confiables, que puedan identificar a los estudiantes que necesitan apoyo. Por ello, este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del Teacher Observation of Classroom, entrevista para maestros que mide las dificultades de ajuste escolar. El estudio evaluó a 10,287 adolescentes que participaban en un programa público chileno para mejorar la salud mental en las escuelas. Del total de la muestra, 5,815 (56.5%) estudiantes estaban en sexto grado y tenían un promedio de 12.91 años (DE = 1.391). Se llevaron a cabo análisis factoriales exploratorios para identificar cuatro dimensiones (dificultades relacionadas con el comportamiento, el aprendizaje, las relaciones sociales y la autonomía), las cuales fueron confirmadas a través de ecuaciones estructurales. Los análisis de confiabilidad mostraron que todos los factores tenían un elevado nivel de consistencia interna y diferían según la edad, el grado y la pobreza extrema. El manuscrito analiza los resultados obtenidos, sus implicaciones y la importancia de realizar pruebas de detección en las escuelas a través de instrumentos psicométricos rigurosamente evaluados


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Professores Escolares , Saúde Mental , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Psicometria , Chile
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316934

RESUMO

Maintaining and promoting teachers' work ability is essential for increasing productivity and preventing early exit from the teaching profession. This study aimed to identify the predictors of work ability among upper-secondary school teachers and examine the mediating role of burnout. A large and diverse group of Czech upper-secondary school teachers was surveyed to address this goal. The sample comprised 531 upper-secondary school teachers (50.0 ± 9.94 years, 19.9 ± 10.62 in the teaching profession, 57.6% females). Relatively greater empirical support was found for the effects of burnout, sense of coherence, work-life balance, and perceived relationships in the school environment on work ability than for the impact of age, homeroom teacher duties, workload, and caring for elderly relatives. Furthermore, burnout served as an important mediator of the relationship between sense of coherence and work ability. Teachers with a higher sense of coherence are thus better able to cope with adverse work circumstances and identify and mobilize internal and external resources to prevent professional exhaustion and the subsequent decline in work ability. The study can guide interventions on the work ability of teachers.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Estilo de Vida , Professores Escolares , Senso de Coerência , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348556

RESUMO

The teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model has been extensively used in a vast array of settings. However, few TPSR studies have focused on preschool settings. The purpose of this action research study was to analyze the experiences of a program leader, her preschool children, and their parents throughout a TPSR program focused on transference of responsibility model goals. The participants were 25 preschool children, six parents, and a program leader involved in a preschool setting located in the north of Portugal. Data were collected through reflexive journaling, participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and focus group interviews. Findings suggest the TPSR model could be a useful instructional model for preschool teachers focused on providing social and emotional learning opportunities to their students. In order to foster transference, parents played a pivotal role in this process and were included in the intervention, which appeared to enhance life skill transfer.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Responsabilidade Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Portugal
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333734

RESUMO

Children's relationships with teachers in kindergarten are crucial for academic and social success. Research shows that teacher-child relationships are predicated, in part, on children's temperament. The "INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament" intervention was intended to improve children's and teachers' understanding of their and others' temperament, and has been shown to improve children's social skills and self-regulation in urban, under-resourced schools. The current study is part of a replication of the effects of INSIGHTS with a sample in rural schools. The purpose was to test the effectiveness of INSIGHTS for promoting positive relationships between teachers and children in kindergarten. Two cohorts of kindergarten students (N = 127) and teachers (N = 30) were randomized into INSIGHTS or control conditions by school. Teachers reported on the quality of the teacher-child relationship before and after the INSIGHTS intervention (Time 1 and 2) using the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale: Short Form and provided a rating of children's temperament with the Teacher School-Age Temperament Inventory at Time 1. Data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling. Two significant findings emerged. First, INSIGHTS promoted more closeness between teachers and children, regardless of temperament. Second, the INSIGHTS intervention was protective against the development of conflictual teacher-child relationships for children with negative reactivity.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Professores Escolares , Criança , Humanos , Estudantes , Temperamento
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339201

RESUMO

This study analyses the relation between student misbehaviour and teacher coercion from a teacher perspective by taking further contextual variables into account. Our participants were 480 male/female secondary education and 351 primary education teachers from the Spanish Autonomous Community of Aragón (Spain). This study forms part of the 2017 Coexistence Study in Aragón Education Centres. According to the theoretical framework and the SEM (structural equation modeling), the results revealed a close relationship between student misbehaviour and teacher coercion, although other contextual variables also appeared in the regression equation: in coexistence rules and in teacher competence. We ultimately found a certain degree of difference between the primary and secondary education levels. On the secondary school level, teacher conflicts were associated with student misbehaviour, while coexistence rules and participative and inclusive activities predicted teacher coercion. Conversely, on the primary school level, participative and inclusive activities predict a lower frequency of student misbehaviour, while teacher competence predicts a lower frequency of teacher coercion.


Assuntos
Coerção , Professores Escolares , Terapia Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Estudantes
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339228

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically reduced physical activity (PA) behaviors of many people. Physical education (PE) is considered one of the privileged instruments to promote youths' PA. We aimed to investigate the effects of lockdown on PE teachers' behaviors promoting their students' out-of-school PA and differences between three European countries. A sample of 1146 PE teachers (59.5% females) from France, Italy, and Turkey answered an online questionnaire about guiding students to engage in out-of-school PA, helping them to set PA goals, encouraging in self-monitoring PA, the pedagogical formats of these behaviors and feedback asked to students. RM-MANCOVAs were performed with a two-time (before and during the lockdown), three country (France, Italy, Turkey), two gender factorial design, using teaching years and perceived health as covariates. A significant multivariate main effect time × country × gender (p < 0.001) was reported for the behaviors promoting students' PA, with French and Italian teachers increasing some behaviors, while Turkish teachers showing opposite trends. Significant multivariate main effects time × country were found for formats supporting the behaviors (p < 0.001) and for asked feedback formats (p < 0.001). The massive contextual change imposed by lockdown caused different reactions in teachers from the three countries. Findings are informative for PA promotion and PE teachers' education.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pandemias , Educação Física e Treinamento , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Turquia/epidemiologia
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013812, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the impact of COVID-19, national and subnational governments implemented a variety of measures in order to control the spread of the virus and the associated disease. While these measures were imposed with the intention of controlling the pandemic, they were also associated with severe psychosocial, societal, and economic implications on a societal level. One setting affected heavily by these measures is the school setting. By mid-April 2020, 192 countries had closed schools, affecting more than 90% of the world's student population. In consideration of the adverse consequences of school closures, many countries around the world reopened their schools in the months after the initial closures. To safely reopen schools and keep them open, governments implemented a broad range of measures. The evidence with regards to these measures, however, is heterogeneous, with a multitude of study designs, populations, settings, interventions and outcomes being assessed. To make sense of this heterogeneity, we conducted a rapid scoping review (8 October to 5 November 2020). This rapid scoping review is intended to serve as a precursor to a systematic review of effectiveness, which will inform guidelines issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). This review is reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist and was registered with the Open Science Framework. OBJECTIVES: To identify and comprehensively map the evidence assessing the impacts of measures implemented in the school setting to reopen schools, or keep schools open, or both, during the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic, with particular focus on the types of measures implemented in different school settings, the outcomes used to measure their impacts and the study types used to assess these. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, MEDLINE, Embase, the CDC COVID-19 Research Articles Downloadable Database for preprints, and the WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease on 8 October 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that assessed the impact of measures implemented in the school setting. Eligible populations were populations at risk of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2, or developing COVID-19 disease, or both, and included people both directly and indirectly impacted by interventions, including students, teachers, other school staff, and contacts of these groups, as well as the broader community. We considered all types of empirical studies, which quantitatively assessed impact including epidemiological studies, modelling studies, mixed-methods studies, and diagnostic studies that assessed the impact of relevant interventions beyond diagnostic test accuracy. Broad outcome categories of interest included infectious disease transmission-related outcomes, other harmful or beneficial health-related outcomes, and societal, economic, and ecological implications. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data from included studies in a standardized manner, and mapped them to categories within our a priori logic model where possible. Where not possible, we inductively developed new categories. In line with standard expectations for scoping reviews, the review provides an overview of the existing evidence regardless of methodological quality or risk of bias, and was not designed to synthesize effectiveness data, assess risk of bias, or characterize strength of evidence (GRADE). MAIN RESULTS: We included 42 studies that assessed measures implemented in the school setting. The majority of studies used mathematical modelling designs (n = 31), while nine studies used observational designs, and two studies used experimental or quasi-experimental designs. Studies conducted in real-world contexts or using real data focused on the WHO European region (EUR; n = 20), the WHO region of the Americas (AMR; n = 13), the West Pacific region (WPR; n = 6), and the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR; n = 1). One study conducted a global assessment and one did not report on data from, or that were applicable to, a specific country. Three broad intervention categories emerged from the included studies: organizational measures to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (n = 36), structural/environmental measures to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (n = 11), and surveillance and response measures to detect SARS-CoV-2 infections (n = 19). Most studies assessed SARS-CoV-2 transmission-related outcomes (n = 29), while others assessed healthcare utilization (n = 8), other health outcomes (n = 3), and societal, economic, and ecological outcomes (n = 5). Studies assessed both harmful and beneficial outcomes across all outcome categories. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We identified a heterogeneous and complex evidence base of measures implemented in the school setting. This review is an important first step in understanding the available evidence and will inform the development of rapid reviews on this topic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Pessoal Administrativo , Humanos , Professores Escolares , Estudantes
11.
Psychiatriki ; 31(4): 293-301, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361059

RESUMO

Historically, major public health issues, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, trigger abruptHistorically, major public health issues, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, trigger abruptand radical changes in daily life, thus causing severe psychological distress to the population.The ease with which the virus seems to be transmitted, combined with the exponentiallyrising number of new cases and the social distancing measures applied, create an atmosphereof fear and alarm. This, in turn, has a pivotal effect on the population's mental health. The aimof this study is to initially investigate the psychological effects of the new COVID-19 pandemic onsecondary school teachers, who in addition to the general aggravation take on the burden of forcedabstinence from their regular work duties and the simultaneous need to adapt themselves to the unprecedentedprocess of distance learning. This is a cross-sectional study in secondary school teachersand was conducted using simple random sampling at the beginning of the pandemic in Greece. Thex2 test was used to examine associations between psychological and other variables. 34% of teacherswere found to feel anxious and very anxious during the pandemic, while only 8% of teachers exhibitsevere depressive emotions. It is also clear that the educators as a professional group are predominantlypossessed by optimism about the outcome of the pandemic, as 71.5% was placed in the higherlevels of the relevant scale. Female gender was found to have a positive correlation to feelings of fear,depression, and a negative correlation to optimism. Furthermore, a negative correlation between theteachers' high educational level and their feelings of optimism emerged from the data. This optimismmay well be related with the large acceptance of the measures taken by the government to curb theexpansion of the pandemic. Finally, it was found that distance teaching, which was abruptly and unpreparedlyimplemented by educators on account of the pandemic, was not a major concern. Thefindings of our study indicate a specific profile of secondary school teachers characterized by mentalresilience, a quality that must be exploited and strengthened by the state with appropriate interventionsin order to maximize their complex, creative work.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Educação a Distância/métodos , Saúde Mental , Resiliência Psicológica , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , /prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Otimismo , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Estresse Psicológico
13.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 18(2): 227-243, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144719

RESUMO

Resumen (analítico) El objetivo de la investigación fue analizar las prácticas y cultura inclusiva de docentes en educación primaria para la atención de colectivos vulnerables en Hermosillo, Sonora, México. La metodología fue de corte cuantitativa no experimental y se aplicó el cuestionario Índice de inclusión a 124 profesores y profesoras. Los resultados obtenidos reportan que los tipos de vulnerabilidad más comunes en el aula corresponden a una situación económica baja, familia disfuncional y discapacidad. Se muestra una relación significativa bidireccional entre práctica y cultura inclusiva (.741) por lo que se requiere crear una comunidad colaborativa, implementar metodologías inclusivas y recursos de apoyo. El modelo estructural predice un 36 % la educación inclusiva de los colectivos vulnerables.


Abstract (analytical) The objective of this research was to analyze the practices and inclusive culture of primary school teachers who work with children from vulnerable population groups in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The methodology used was a non-experimental quantitative study. The Inclusion Index questionnaire was completed by 124 teachers. The results show that the most common types of vulnerability in the classroom correspond to poor economic situations, dysfunctional families and disabilities. There is a significant bidirectional relationship between teaching practices and inclusive culture (.741), which means that it is necessary to create a collaborative community, implement inclusive methodologies and support resources. The structural model predicts 36% inclusive education for students from vulnerable population groups.


Resumo (analítico) O objetivo da pesquisa foi analisar as práticas e cultura inclusiva de professores do ensino fundamental para a atenção de grupos vulneráveis em Hermosillo, Sonora, México. A metodologia foi de corte quantitativo não experimental e o questionário do Índice de Inclusão foi aplicado a 124 professores. Os resultados obtidos relatam que os tipos mais comuns de vulnerabilidade em sala de aula correspondem a uma baixa situação econômica, família disfuncional e incapacidade. Há uma relação bidirecional significativa entre a prática e a cultura inclusiva (.741); portanto, é necessário criar uma comunidade colaborativa, implementar metodologias inclusivas e recursos de apoio. O modelo estrutural prevê 36% de educação inclusiva para grupos vulneráveis.


Assuntos
Inquéritos e Questionários , Populações Vulneráveis , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Professores Escolares
14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161667

RESUMO

Every year number of eye diseases among children and adolescents is steadily increasing. The most possible causes of this process are sedentary life-style, computerization of society and school curriculum characteristics. The survey of 209 parents of children and adolescents was organized and carried out. The study established that modern children spend much more time at screens than it is recommended by regulatory documents. The pathology of eye was diagnosed in 46.9% of children, 39.2% of children are regularly observed by ophthalmologist. 53.6% of children are regularly observed by an ophthalmologist. Among parents whose children are monitored by ophthalmologist, 55.3% mentioned inaccessibility of medical appointments, that makes impossible regular corresponding medical check-ups and results in progressing of diseases present and development of new ones. The ophthalmologist plays key role in maintaining visual analyzer health. To effectively prevent visual organ pathology, it is necessary to achieve comprehensive interaction of ophthalmologist, teachers (preschool teachers), parents and children themselves.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Professores Escolares , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143180

RESUMO

In-service teachers have various emotional and motivational experiences that can influence their continuance intention towards online-only instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic, as a significant stress factor for their workplace. Derived from the Self-Determination Theory (SDT), Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R), and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the present research model includes technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) self-efficacy (SE), intrinsic (IM) and extrinsic (EM) work motivation, and occupational stress (OS) (i.e., burnout and technostress which have been examined in tandem) as key dimensions to explain the better continuance intention among in-service teachers to use online-only instruction (CI). Data for the research model were collected from 980 in-service teachers during the COVID-19 outbreak between April and May 2020. Overall, the structural model explained 70% of the variance in teachers' CI. Motivational practices were directly and indirectly linked through OS with CI. The findings showed that IM has the most directly significant effect on teachers' CI, followed by TPK-SE, and OS as significant, but lower predictors. IM was positively associated with TPK-SE and negatively associated with EM. The results offered valuable insights into how motivation constructs were related to OS and to a better understanding online instruction in an unstable work context, in order to support teachers in coping during working remotely.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Intenção , Motivação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação a Distância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estresse Fisiológico
17.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720967503, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146062

RESUMO

Teachers are vulnerable non-essential workers that continue to have significant misgivings about in-person school reopening. Dialogue around pandemic management has relatively neglected these concerns so far. This perspective offers a broad framework for risk assessment related to COVID-19 and in-person instruction. The accumulated general body of knowledge related to COVID-19 is particularized to the special dynamics of education. We highlight the impact of historic investments and underinvestment in education on the viability of adapting best practices to mitigate risk. Gaps in public health planning to supply educators with needed personal protective equipment and vaccination are explored. The challenges for low-income and minority-predominant districts receive special attention. We place these problems within the broader context of socioeconomic disparities and the societal consequences of the pandemic. The local level of community transmission, resources, and circumstances should dictate reopening dates. Without effective infection control, teachers are justified to fear infection. The transparency and scientific rigor that would allow teachers to assess their personal health risk and characterize the process for decision-making has been largely absent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Medo , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239838, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between preschool playground size, formalized physical activity (PA) policies, time spent outdoors and preschool teacher's levels of PA and children's objectively assessed levels of PA and sedentary time (ST) during preschool hours. METHODS: In total, 369 children and 84 preschool teachers from 27 preschools in Södermalm municipally, Stockholm Sweden wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer during 7 consecutive days. Preschool environmental and structural characteristics were measured via the Environment and Policy Evaluation Self-Report (EPAO-SR) instrument and time in- and outdoors was recorded by preschool teachers during the PA measurements. Weight and height of children were measured via validated scales and parents filled out a questionnaire on demographical and descriptive variables. Linear mixed models, nested on preschool level, were used to assess the association between predictors and outcomes. RESULTS: The mean child age was 4.7 years (SD 0.8) and 45% were girls. We found that children were more active in preschools with a formalized PA policy, compared to preschools without such a policy, but not less sedentary. The association between policy and activity seemed to be more pronounced when accounting for other environmental factors. Similar associations were found in children spent most time outdoors (uppermost quartile) compared with children spent least time outdoors (Lowermost quartile). Preschool teachers' light PA (LPA) (ß = 0.25, P = 0.004) and steps (ß = 0.52, P<0.001) were associated with children's LPA and steps while the preschool playground size showed no association with PA in children, when accounting for other environmental factors. CONCLUSION: The current study showed that preschool structural characteristics such as formalized PA policies and more time spent outdoors were positively associated with children's PA. These findings suggest that formalized PA policies and time outdoors may be of importance for promoting children's PA during preschool hours.


Assuntos
Creches/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Infantil , Creches/normas , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento/normas , Políticas , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Suécia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As part of a five year plan (2019-2023), the Informed Health Choices Project, is developing and evaluating resources for helping secondary school students learn to think critically about health claims and choices. We will bring together key stakeholders; such as secondary school teachers and students, our main target for the IHC secondary school resources, school administrators, policy makers, curriculum development specialists and parents, to enable us gain insight about the context. OBJECTIVES: To ensure that stakeholders are effectively and appropriately engaged in the design, evaluation and dissemination of the learning resources.To evaluate the extent to which stakeholders were successfully engaged. METHODS: Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method, we will identify a representative sample of secondary schools with varied characteristics that might modify the effects of the learning resources such as, the school location (rural, semi-urban or urban), ownership (private, public) and ICT facilities (under resourced, highly resourced). A sample of schools will be randomly selected from the schools in each stratum. We will aim to recruit a diverse sample of students and secondary school teachers from those schools. Other stakeholders will be purposively selected to ensure a diverse range of experience and expertise. RESULTS: Together with the teacher and student networks and the advisory panels, we will establish measurable success criteria that reflect the objectives of engaging stakeholders at the start of the project and evaluate the extent to which those criteria were met at the end of the project. CONCLUSION: We aim for an increase in research uptake, improve quality and appropriateness of research results, accountability and social justice.


Assuntos
Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 216-221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004718

RESUMO

Aim: According to the WHO, 16%-40% of children aged 6-12 years experience dental traumas. Long-term treatment success depends on immediate emergency care and early professional management after the injury occurred. The primary school teachers can play a crucial role in managing traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) because they are often in proximity to children and often need to assist when dental trauma occurs. The aim of the present study was to assess primary school teachers' knowledge and attitude regarding TDI and describe their behavior in emergency situations. Materials and Methods: A four-part anonymous questionnaire comprised questions on demographic data, attitude, knowledge toward TDI, and behavior in case of accident and self-assessment questions were distributed among 147 teachers from 16 schools. The data were obtained from 106 participants (72.1%). The Kruskal-Wallis and independent t-tests served for statistical analysis. Results: More than half of teachers (56.6%) have witnessed TDI. Almost all respondents (94.3%) indicated that in case of dental trauma is important to take emergency management as soon as possible. However, two-thirds of them (75.5%) thought that teachers cannot provide appropriate emergency management in case of TDI. In addition, teachers had little knowledge regarding TDI and the proper emergency management: 91.3% of participants do not know the right storage media for the avulsed tooth, 40.6% have thought that tooth replantation is impossible, and 17.1% would throw an avulsed tooth away, when it fells on the ground. Conclusion: The study revealed inappropriate knowledge and attitude regarding TDI among primary school teachers and their behavior in first-aid management.


Assuntos
Avulsão Dentária/terapia , Traumatismos Dentários/terapia , Criança , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas
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