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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25245, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761719

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We compared the knowledge of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among the general public, parents of children with ADHD, and primary school teachers and identified factors associated with ADHD knowledge in each group, separately.Secondary data analysis was made on the pre-lecture data from those (122 from the general public, 64 parents of children with ADHD, and 515 primary school teachers) attending education lectures by the Department of Public Health, New Taipei City Government, Taiwan, 2014.ADHD onset age was least known in these 3 groups. Knowledge of ADHD was significantly better among teachers (test score, 75.3%) than among parents (65.5%) and the general public (59.2%). Among the general public, the test score significantly decreased with age and was worst in those who did not know their friends or relatives with ADHD. Among parents, service workers, and retired/unemployed knew significantly less about ADHD than housewife did. Among teachers, men knew significantly less than women; those who taught children with ADHD knew significantly more than those who did not.Primary school teachers knew more about ADHD than parents and the general public. Factors associated with ADHD knowledge varied among the 3 groups.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais , Professores Escolares , Percepção Social , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Professores Escolares/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 485, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to: 1) examine the maintenance of Physical Education and physical activity during the distance learning time, 2) determine the resources educators are utilizing to deliver PE curricula, and 3) understand the challenges experienced by educators during distance learning. METHODS: A survey was sent to a cohort of school-based fitness assessment software users. Respondents were largely school-based individuals including PE teachers (n = 1789), school (n = 62) and district administrators (n = 64), nurses (n = 3), and "other" (n = 522). RESULTS: Of 2440 respondents, most were from a city or suburb (69.7%), elementary or middle school (72.3%), and had Title 1 status (60.4%), an indicator of low socioeconomic status. Most campuses were closed during the COVID-19 pandemic (97.8%). Of the schools closed during the pandemic, only 2.8% had no prior PE requirements and that increased to 21% during the pandemic. In schools that remained open during the pandemic, 7.7% had no prior PE requirements and this increased to 60.5%. Importantly, 79% of respondents reported that students were either "significantly less" or "somewhat less" physically active during the closure. For closed schools, the most frequently cited challenges included "student access to online learning", "teacher/student communication" and "teacher remote work arrangements". For open schools, the most commonly reported challenges included "social distancing", "access to gymnasium/equipment", and "concern for personal health and wellbeing". CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused important reductions in PE requirements and time engaged in physical activity. Challenges experienced by teachers were identified for closed and open schools.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Educação Física e Treinamento/tendências , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes , Adulto , Criança , Currículo , Educação a Distância , Humanos , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since the start of non face-to-face learning classes in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers have been accumulating stress. Since then, the teaching staff have had to adapt to the new telematic classes, and in September 2020 they have had to return to face-to-face classes, taking different hygiene measures to prevent contagion. The changes in teaching methods and the lack of guidelines for the new teaching challenges have created a lot of uncertainty in this sector. The aim of the present study was to measure the levels of stress, anxiety and depression of teaching staff in the face of the reopening of schools and universities after 6 months of absence from face-to-face classes. METHODS: A total of 1,633 teachers from the Department of Education of the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC) took part, all of them professionals working in different educational centres, from early childhood education to university studies. The questionnaire, DASS-21, was applied to measure the symptomatology presented by the teaching staff in relation to the reopening of the centres. RESULTS: The results show that 32.2% of the participants had symptoms of depression, 49.4% had symptoms of anxiety and 50.6% had symptoms of stress. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that teachers have symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression. Therefore, it is important to take care of the mental health of teachers in order to take care of the mental health of students and the quality of teaching.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Docentes/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Espanha , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Universidades
4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e456-e468, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence is a leading global public health problem, and interventions in early childhood are important in the primary prevention of violence. We tested whether the Irie Classroom Toolbox, a violence-prevention teacher-training programme reduced violence against children by teachers and reduced class-wide child aggression in Jamaican preschools (catering to children aged 3-6 years). METHODS: We did a single-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial in 76 preschools in Kingston and St Andrew, randomly selected, using simple randomisation, from 120 eligible preschools. Inclusion criteria were two to four classes of children; at least ten children per class; and located in an urban area. We randomly assigned preschools (1:1) to either the Irie Classroom Toolbox intervention or waiting-list control that received no intervention, using a computer-generated randomisation sequence by an independent statistician masked to school identity. The Toolbox involved training teachers in classroom behaviour management and promoting child social-emotional competence. All assessors were masked to group assignment. All teachers and classrooms in the selected schools participated in the study. Within each school, we used simple randomisation to randomly select up to 12 children aged 4 years for evaluation of child outcomes. The Toolbox intervention was implemented from August to April the following year. Teacher and classroom measures were done at baseline (the summer school term; ie, May to June), post-intervention (after 8 months of intervention; ie, May to June of the following year), and 1-year follow-up (ie, May to June 2 years later). The primary outcomes were observations of violence against children (including physical violence and psychological aggression) by teachers occurring across one full school day, and class-wide child aggression occurring over five 20-min intervals on another school day, all measured at post-intervention and 1-year follow-up and analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN11968472. FINDINGS: Between June 22, 2015, and April 29, 2016, (after baseline measurements were completed), we assigned 38 preschools (with 119 teachers) to the Toolbox intervention and 38 preschools (with 110 teachers) to control. 441 children in the intervention schools and 424 in the control schools were included in the evaluation. All schools were included in the post-intervention and follow-up analyses. There were fewer counts of violence against children by teachers in the intervention schools compared with control schools at post-intervention (median counts 3 [IQR 0-11] vs 15 [3-35]; effect size -67·12%, 95% CI -80·71 to -53·52, p<0·0001) and 1-year follow-up (median counts 3 [IQR 0-9] vs 6 [1-16]; effect size -53·86, 95% CI -71·08 to -36·65, p<0·0001). No differences between groups were found for class-wide child aggression at post-intervention (effect size 0·07, 95% CI -0·16 to 0·29, p=0·72) or 1-year follow-up (-0·14, -0·42 to 0·16, p=0·72). INTERPRETATION: In Jamaican preschools, the Irie Classroom Toolbox effectively reduced violence against children by teachers. The Toolbox was designed for use with undertrained teachers working in low-resource settings and should be effective with early childhood practitioners in other LMICs. Additional research is needed to further develop the Toolbox to reduce class-wide child aggression. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, UK Aid, and the National Institute of Health Research.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Psicologia da Criança , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Capacitação de Professores/métodos , Violência/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Método Simples-Cego , Capacitação de Professores/organização & administração
5.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 27(1): 1-11, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199704

RESUMO

This study examines how teacher perceptions of student misbehaviour correlate with their perceptions of school climate and student self-reports, using multi-informant two-level multilevel modelling. School climate questionnaires completed by 4,055 teachers and 16,017 students (1rd to 4th year of compulsory secondary education from 187 schools) showed that teachers' characteristics are marginally related to perceived disruption. Fair rules and support of students' families acted as protective factors, while a lack of educational leadership was a risk factor. Furthermore, the student variable of pro-violence messages from parents acted as a moderator for leadership and rules, while perceived coercive treatment from teachers acted as a moderator for family support of teachers


Esta investigación examina en qué medida la percepción del profesorado sobre el comportamiento disruptivo correlaciona con la percepción del clima escolar y los autoinformes del alumnado, mediante una modelización multi-informante y multinivel. Los cuestionarios sobre el clima escolar, cumplimentados por 4,055 profesores y 16,017 estudiantes (de 1º a 4º curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria pertenecientes a 187 centros educativos), muestran que las características de los profesores se relacionan solo marginalmente con la disrupción percibida. La existencia de unas reglas justas y el apoyo de las familias de los estudiantes se mostraron como factores de protección, mientras que la ausencia de un adecuado liderazgo en el equipo directivo aparecía como factor de riesgo. Además, los mensajes que los alumnos reciben de sus padres a favor de la violencia actuaron como moderadores del liderazgo y las reglas, mientras que el trato coercitivo de los profesores que percibían los estudiantes actuó de moderador del apoyo de la familia hacia el profesorado


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meio Social , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Análise Multinível , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Percepção , Autorrelato , Liderança , Violência/psicologia
6.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 27(1): 13-20, ene. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199705

RESUMO

In this article we use children's drawings to discover which pupil-teacher interactions are represented as positive or negative by boys and girls of different school grades. We also explore whether there is a correspondence between these representations and teachers' evaluation of the relationship with their pupils. Participants were 245 primary school pupils (from 2nd to 5th grade, 7-11 years of age) and their teachers. Each child did two drawings (P and N, positive and negative situations) of him/herself with their teacher. Teachers compiled the Italian version of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS). The four categories identified in the drawings were subjected to non-parametric tests. Scores in the STRS were subjected to analyses of variance, in which the independent variables were the drawings categories. The results confirm the usefulness of drawing to access the point of view of pupils about their interactions with teachers, and demonstrate some convergence with teachers' point of view


En este artículo se utilizaron dibujos de niños para descubrir qué interacción alumno-maestro se representa como positiva o negativa por niños y niñas de diferentes niveles educativos. Además, exploramos si existía correspondencia entre las representaciones gráficas de los alumnos y la evaluación realizada por los profesores de su relación con los alumnos. Los participantes fueron 245 alumnos de primaria (2º a 5º de primaria, 7-11 años) y sus maestros. Cada niño elaboró dos dibujos (P y N, situación positiva y negativa) de él o ella con su maestro. Los profesores compilaron la versión italiana de la Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS). Las cuatro categorías identificadas en los dibujos fueron analizadas con pruebas no paramétricas. Los resultados del STRS se sometieron a un análisis de varianza en el cual las variables independientes eran las categorías de los dibujos. Los resultados de este estudio confirman la utilidad de los dibujos para entender el punto de vista de los alumnos sobre su interacción con el maestro, demostrando, a su vez, la confluencia de las representaciones gráficas de los niños con el punto de vista de los profesores


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Arte , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Etários , Percepção
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(4): 136-140, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507890

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted in-person learning in the United States, with approximately one half of all students receiving online-only instruction since March 2020.* Discontinuation of in-person schooling can result in many hardships (1) and disproportionately affects families of lower socioeconomic status (2). Current evidence suggests that transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) schools might not significantly contribute to COVID-19 spread nationwide (3). During August 31-November 29, 2020, COVID-19 cases, spread, and compliance with mask use were investigated among 4,876 students and 654 staff members who participated in in-person learning in 17 K-12 schools in rural Wisconsin. School-attributable COVID-19 case rates were compared with rates in the surrounding community. School administration and public health officials provided information on COVID-19 cases within schools. During the study period, widespread community transmission was observed, with 7%-40% of COVID-19 tests having positive results. Masking was required for all students and staff members at all schools, and rate of reported student mask-wearing was high (>92%). COVID-19 case rates among students and staff members were lower (191 cases among 5,530 persons, or 3,453 cases per 100,000) than were those in the county overall (5,466 per 100,000). Among the 191 cases identified in students and staff members, one in 20 cases among students was linked to in-school transmission; no infections among staff members were found to have been acquired at school. These findings suggest that, with proper mitigation strategies, K-12 schools might be capable of opening for in-person learning with minimal in-school transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244935, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411723

RESUMO

Fostering students' classroom engagement is a research hotspot in classroom teaching management. Enhancing classroom engagement requires consideration of the interactive effects of physical and interpersonal environments. Considering the characteristics of physical space, the teacher gives feedback on student engagement in terms of different seating positions. Further, near-seated peer group engagement has an impact, though previous research has found this to be inconsistent. The teacher and near-seated peer groups have different paths of influence on classroom engagement, and there is interplay between them. However, based on realistic classroom scenarios, it is difficult for traditional research methods to reveal how spatially heterogeneous and non-linear micro-interactions among teachers, students, and near-seated peer groups evolve into dynamic changes in macro-classroom engagement. Hence, this study utilized agent-based simulation to explore the non-linear dynamic mechanism underlying how teacher-student proximity, teacher feedback, and near-seated peer groups affect classroom engagement, thereby shedding light on the evolutionary features of classroom engagement. According to the results, the teacher's positive feedback promoted an S-shaped increase in classroom engagement, and the closer a student sat to the teacher, the greater the increase was. The level and homogeneity of near-seated peer group engagement were predictors of changes in classroom engagement. Moreover, the proximity of students to the teacher, teacher feedback, and near-seated peer groups had a joint effect on student engagement. The compensation effect of the teacher's positive feedback on the impact of low-engagement, near-seated peer groups was weaker than that of highly engaged, near-seated peer groups on the effects of the teacher's negative feedback. This suggests that the model of teacher-student proximity and teacher feedback effects differed from that of near-seated peer group influence, and the two interacted and showed asymmetry.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Conhecimento Psicológico de Resultados , Modelos Teóricos , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Análise Espacial
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348556

RESUMO

The teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model has been extensively used in a vast array of settings. However, few TPSR studies have focused on preschool settings. The purpose of this action research study was to analyze the experiences of a program leader, her preschool children, and their parents throughout a TPSR program focused on transference of responsibility model goals. The participants were 25 preschool children, six parents, and a program leader involved in a preschool setting located in the north of Portugal. Data were collected through reflexive journaling, participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and focus group interviews. Findings suggest the TPSR model could be a useful instructional model for preschool teachers focused on providing social and emotional learning opportunities to their students. In order to foster transference, parents played a pivotal role in this process and were included in the intervention, which appeared to enhance life skill transfer.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Responsabilidade Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Portugal
10.
Psychiatriki ; 31(4): 293-301, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361059

RESUMO

Historically, major public health issues, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, trigger abruptHistorically, major public health issues, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, trigger abruptand radical changes in daily life, thus causing severe psychological distress to the population.The ease with which the virus seems to be transmitted, combined with the exponentiallyrising number of new cases and the social distancing measures applied, create an atmosphereof fear and alarm. This, in turn, has a pivotal effect on the population's mental health. The aimof this study is to initially investigate the psychological effects of the new COVID-19 pandemic onsecondary school teachers, who in addition to the general aggravation take on the burden of forcedabstinence from their regular work duties and the simultaneous need to adapt themselves to the unprecedentedprocess of distance learning. This is a cross-sectional study in secondary school teachersand was conducted using simple random sampling at the beginning of the pandemic in Greece. Thex2 test was used to examine associations between psychological and other variables. 34% of teacherswere found to feel anxious and very anxious during the pandemic, while only 8% of teachers exhibitsevere depressive emotions. It is also clear that the educators as a professional group are predominantlypossessed by optimism about the outcome of the pandemic, as 71.5% was placed in the higherlevels of the relevant scale. Female gender was found to have a positive correlation to feelings of fear,depression, and a negative correlation to optimism. Furthermore, a negative correlation between theteachers' high educational level and their feelings of optimism emerged from the data. This optimismmay well be related with the large acceptance of the measures taken by the government to curb theexpansion of the pandemic. Finally, it was found that distance teaching, which was abruptly and unpreparedlyimplemented by educators on account of the pandemic, was not a major concern. Thefindings of our study indicate a specific profile of secondary school teachers characterized by mentalresilience, a quality that must be exploited and strengthened by the state with appropriate interventionsin order to maximize their complex, creative work.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Educação a Distância/métodos , Saúde Mental , Resiliência Psicológica , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , /prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Otimismo , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Estresse Psicológico
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143180

RESUMO

In-service teachers have various emotional and motivational experiences that can influence their continuance intention towards online-only instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic, as a significant stress factor for their workplace. Derived from the Self-Determination Theory (SDT), Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R), and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the present research model includes technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) self-efficacy (SE), intrinsic (IM) and extrinsic (EM) work motivation, and occupational stress (OS) (i.e., burnout and technostress which have been examined in tandem) as key dimensions to explain the better continuance intention among in-service teachers to use online-only instruction (CI). Data for the research model were collected from 980 in-service teachers during the COVID-19 outbreak between April and May 2020. Overall, the structural model explained 70% of the variance in teachers' CI. Motivational practices were directly and indirectly linked through OS with CI. The findings showed that IM has the most directly significant effect on teachers' CI, followed by TPK-SE, and OS as significant, but lower predictors. IM was positively associated with TPK-SE and negatively associated with EM. The results offered valuable insights into how motivation constructs were related to OS and to a better understanding online instruction in an unstable work context, in order to support teachers in coping during working remotely.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Intenção , Motivação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação a Distância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estresse Fisiológico
12.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720967503, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146062

RESUMO

Teachers are vulnerable non-essential workers that continue to have significant misgivings about in-person school reopening. Dialogue around pandemic management has relatively neglected these concerns so far. This perspective offers a broad framework for risk assessment related to COVID-19 and in-person instruction. The accumulated general body of knowledge related to COVID-19 is particularized to the special dynamics of education. We highlight the impact of historic investments and underinvestment in education on the viability of adapting best practices to mitigate risk. Gaps in public health planning to supply educators with needed personal protective equipment and vaccination are explored. The challenges for low-income and minority-predominant districts receive special attention. We place these problems within the broader context of socioeconomic disparities and the societal consequences of the pandemic. The local level of community transmission, resources, and circumstances should dictate reopening dates. Without effective infection control, teachers are justified to fear infection. The transparency and scientific rigor that would allow teachers to assess their personal health risk and characterize the process for decision-making has been largely absent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Medo , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As part of a five year plan (2019-2023), the Informed Health Choices Project, is developing and evaluating resources for helping secondary school students learn to think critically about health claims and choices. We will bring together key stakeholders; such as secondary school teachers and students, our main target for the IHC secondary school resources, school administrators, policy makers, curriculum development specialists and parents, to enable us gain insight about the context. OBJECTIVES: To ensure that stakeholders are effectively and appropriately engaged in the design, evaluation and dissemination of the learning resources.To evaluate the extent to which stakeholders were successfully engaged. METHODS: Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method, we will identify a representative sample of secondary schools with varied characteristics that might modify the effects of the learning resources such as, the school location (rural, semi-urban or urban), ownership (private, public) and ICT facilities (under resourced, highly resourced). A sample of schools will be randomly selected from the schools in each stratum. We will aim to recruit a diverse sample of students and secondary school teachers from those schools. Other stakeholders will be purposively selected to ensure a diverse range of experience and expertise. RESULTS: Together with the teacher and student networks and the advisory panels, we will establish measurable success criteria that reflect the objectives of engaging stakeholders at the start of the project and evaluate the extent to which those criteria were met at the end of the project. CONCLUSION: We aim for an increase in research uptake, improve quality and appropriateness of research results, accountability and social justice.


Assuntos
Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239838, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between preschool playground size, formalized physical activity (PA) policies, time spent outdoors and preschool teacher's levels of PA and children's objectively assessed levels of PA and sedentary time (ST) during preschool hours. METHODS: In total, 369 children and 84 preschool teachers from 27 preschools in Södermalm municipally, Stockholm Sweden wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer during 7 consecutive days. Preschool environmental and structural characteristics were measured via the Environment and Policy Evaluation Self-Report (EPAO-SR) instrument and time in- and outdoors was recorded by preschool teachers during the PA measurements. Weight and height of children were measured via validated scales and parents filled out a questionnaire on demographical and descriptive variables. Linear mixed models, nested on preschool level, were used to assess the association between predictors and outcomes. RESULTS: The mean child age was 4.7 years (SD 0.8) and 45% were girls. We found that children were more active in preschools with a formalized PA policy, compared to preschools without such a policy, but not less sedentary. The association between policy and activity seemed to be more pronounced when accounting for other environmental factors. Similar associations were found in children spent most time outdoors (uppermost quartile) compared with children spent least time outdoors (Lowermost quartile). Preschool teachers' light PA (LPA) (ß = 0.25, P = 0.004) and steps (ß = 0.52, P<0.001) were associated with children's LPA and steps while the preschool playground size showed no association with PA in children, when accounting for other environmental factors. CONCLUSION: The current study showed that preschool structural characteristics such as formalized PA policies and more time spent outdoors were positively associated with children's PA. These findings suggest that formalized PA policies and time outdoors may be of importance for promoting children's PA during preschool hours.


Assuntos
Creches/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Infantil , Creches/normas , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento/normas , Políticas , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Suécia
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21651, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Teaching has been found to be 1 of the most stressful occupations worldwide. Stress associated with teaching is more critical among teachers teaching children with special needs in general and those with autism specifically, partly due to the heterogeneous nature of the disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Occupational Health Coaching (REOHC) in minimizing job stress in teachers of children with autism (CWA). METHODS: A group-randomized waitlist control-trial design was adopted. A sample of 87 teachers of CWA who participated in the study was randomized into the immediate intervention group (IIG) and waitlist group (WLG). Participants were evaluated on 3 occasions: pretest, post-test and follow-up. Three instruments (Occupational Stress Index, Perceived Occupational Stress Scale and Stress Symptom Scale) were used to measure dimensions of job stress. After the pretest exercise, the IIG participated in a 2-hour REOHC programme weekly for a period of 12 weeks. Post- and follow-up evaluations were conducted respectively at 2 weeks and 3 months after the REOHC programme. Those in WLG were exposed to the REOHC after the follow-up assessment. Data collected were analysed using t-test statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance and bar charts. RESULTS: Results revealed that the perceived stress and stress symptoms of the REOHC group reduced significantly over WLG at post-test, and follow-up assessments. Changes in the occupational stress index scores across pre-, post- and follow-up measurements were minimal and could not account for a significant difference between the IIG and WLG. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that REOHC is effective in reducing subjective feelings and physiological symptoms of job stress, even when the objective stressors remain constant among teachers of CWA and other employees who work in stressful occupational environments.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Crianças com Deficiência/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899739

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic and subsequent public health measures were shown to impact negatively on people's mental health. In particular, women were reported to be at higher risk than men of developing symptoms of stress/anxiety/depression, and resilience was considered a key factor for positive mental health outcomes. In the present study, a sample of Italian female teachers (n = 66, age: 51.5 ± 7.9 years) was assessed with self-report instruments one month before and one month after the start of the Covid-19 lockdown: mindfulness skills, empathy, personality profiles, interoceptive awareness, psychological well-being, emotional distress and burnout levels were measured. Meanwhile, they received an 8-week Mindfulness-Oriented Meditation (MOM) course, through two group meetings and six individual video-lessons. Based on baseline personality profiles, analyses of variance were performed in a low-resilience (LR, n = 32) and a high-resilience (HR, n = 26) group. The LR and HR groups differed at baseline in most of the self-report measures. Pre-post MOM significant improvements were found in both groups in anxiety, depression, affective empathy, emotional exhaustion, psychological well-being, interoceptive awareness, character traits and mindfulness levels. Improvements in depression and psychological well-being were higher in the LR vs. HR group. We conclude that mindfulness-based training can effectively mitigate the psychological negative consequences of the Covid-19 outbreak, helping in particular to restore well-being in the most vulnerable individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Meditação , Saúde Mental , Atenção Plena , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico
17.
Br J Educ Psychol ; 90(4): 1062-1083, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On 20 March 2020, in response to COVID-19, UK schools were closed to most pupils. Teachers were required to put remote teaching and learning in place with only two days' notice from the government. AIMS: The current study explores teachers' experiences of this abrupt change to their working practices, and during the 5-6 weeks that followed. SAMPLE: Twenty-four teachers from English state schools were interviewed, representing mainstream primary and secondary schools and a range of years of experience and seniority. METHODS: Participants were asked to tell stories of three key scenes during the first 5-6 weeks of lockdown: a low point, a high point, and a turning point. A reflexive thematic analysis of their narratives was conducted. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Six themes were identified: uncertainty, finding a way, worry for the vulnerable, importance of relationships, teacher identity, and reflections. Teachers' narratives suggest that, after an initial period of uncertainty they settled into the situation and found a way forward, supported by strong relationships. However, they remain extremely worried about the most vulnerable pupils and want more joined-up thinking from the government on how to support them effectively, along with clarity from policymakers to enable planning ahead. Teachers reflected on how to use their learning during this period to improve pupils' experiences of education post-COVID-19, and on how aspects of shared teacher identity have worked as stressors and coping mechanisms. These initial interviews form the baseline for a longitudinal interview study of teachers' experiences of COVID-19 in England.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Educação a Distância , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931509

RESUMO

Effective and culturally appropriate hand-hygiene education is essential to promote health-related practices to control and prevent diseases such as Diarrhoea, Ebola and COVID-19. In this paper we outline and evaluate the Co-Creation processes underpinning a handwashing intervention for young children (A Germ's Journey) developed and delivered in India, Sierra Leone and the UK, and consider the implications surrounding Imperialist/Colonial discourse and the White Saviour Complex. The paper focuses both on the ways Co-Creation was conceptualised by our collaborators in all three countries and the catalysts and challenges encountered. Qualitative data have been drawn from in-depth interviews with five key stakeholders, focus group data from 37 teachers in Sierra Leone and responses to open-ended questionnaires completed by teachers in India (N = 66) and UK (N = 63). Data were analysed using thematic analysis and three themes, each with three constituent subthemes are presented. In the theme 'Representations of and Unique Approaches to Co-Creation' we explore the ways in which Co-Creation was constructed in relation to teamwork, innovative practice and more continuous models of evaluation. In 'Advantages of Co-Creation' we consider issues around shared ownership, improved outcomes and more meaningful insights alongside the mitigation of risks and short-circuiting of problems. In 'Challenges of Co-Creation' we discuss issues around timing and organisation, attracting and working with appropriate partners and understanding the importance of local context with inherent social, economic and structural barriers, especially in low-and-middle-income countries. We consider how theoretical elements of Co-Creation can inform effective international public health interventions; crucial during a global pandemic in which handwashing is the most effective method to control the transmission of COVID-19. Finally we reflect on some of the methodological challenges of our own work and in managing the potentially conflicting goals of the ethical and participatory values of Co-Creation with pragmatic considerations about ensuring an effective final 'product'.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Higiene das Mãos , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Índia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Serra Leoa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238990, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925981

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the main characteristics of a "good teacher" through the use of questionnaires designed to assess teaching skills and competences, considering the point of view of teachers, principals, and students. In total, 82 teachers, 14 principals, and 625 middle-school students from 5 public schools in São Paulo state participated in this study. Two questionnaires were applied, one designed for teachers and principals and the other for students. First, teachers and principals completed their specific questionnaire, after which the other questionnaire was applied to the students. Both questionnaires contained multiple choice questions related to eight distinct subsections. The questions were answered through the use of a Likert scale, varying from 1 ("totally disagree") to 5 ("totally agree"). The comparisons of the frequency of responses among all questionnaire subsections between teachers and principals were analyzed using a Chi-Square and the z-test, with P-values adjusted to the Bonferroni method. The statistical significance level was set as P < 0.05. The subsection "class atmosphere" presented the highest percentage of response "totally agree", closely followed by "professional engagement". Significant differences (P < 0.05) in responses were observed between teachers and principals for "teaching planning and practice", "use of time and material resources to develop classes", and "professional engagement" domains. In summary, it was demonstrated that some teaching characteristics might be more important than others, with some of these characteristics exhibiting significant differences between groups. Nevertheless, it is crucial to emphasize that all assessed educational domains may be recognized as critical teaching qualities, as all of them presented high levels of "totally agree" responses.


Assuntos
Professores Escolares/psicologia , Capacitação de Professores/métodos , Ensino/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Professores Escolares/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925591, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Beginning in the 2020 spring semester, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all school-age children in China were homeschooled via live/recorded broadcasts, online group communication, and software-based homework submission. This study assessed the effects of and proper preparation for this educational approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS The homeschooling behaviors and feelings of school-age children were assessed with 2010 online surveys obtained separately from students, parents, and teachers of grades 1-9 in 15 Chinese provinces. Answers were compared among low- (grades 1-3), middle- (grades 4-6), and high- (grades 7-9) grade groups. The chi-square test was used to identify significant differences between groups. RESULTS We found that 76% of the respondents thought the homeschooling style was acceptable. However, teachers were concerned that students' interest, focus, and academic performance would decline. Sixty-nine percent of the parents reported their children had more than 3 hours of daily screen time, and 82% of students had less than 2 hours of daily outdoor activity. Ninety-five percent of the parents were concerned about their children's eyesight. Additionally, 17.6% of the students were suspected to have emotional or behavioral problems according to the parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) results. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) results of parents and teachers showed higher levels of anxiety than usual. CONCLUSIONS Students should continue the going-to-school rhythm at home to cope with changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Integrated grade-specific approaches are needed. Because long screen time and insufficient outdoor activities can severely affect children's eyesight, appropriate eye-protection measures should be implemented.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Educação a Distância , Pandemias , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia da Criança , Quarentena/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
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