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1.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 170-175, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141594

RESUMO

Background: Nutrition education in school may positively affect students' eating behaviour. Teachers need to be empowered to teach nutrition, but no studies have investigated teachers' views on this topic in Saudi Arabia. Aims: This study investigated the perspective of teachers on nutrition education and their confidence in teaching it in boys' public high schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: In 2015, 80 boys' public high schools were randomly selected from four areas of Riyadh, and 80 teachers (biological sciences, physical education and health education teachers) were interviewed using a validated questionnaire. A Fisher exact test was run to test the relationship between teachers' perspective and confidence level, and their subject taught. Results: Almost all the teachers (98%) agreed that the health education curriculum should be taught as a core subject for high-school students. Most of the teachers (89%) were interested in teaching nutrition. However, 64% indicated that they did not have adequate nutrition curricular materials and 70% considered that they had not received adequate training on nutrition education. However, 89% were confident that their students would be interested in nutrition and that such education would change their dietary behaviour. Science and health education teachers were more interested in teaching nutrition and were more confident in their ability to do so than physical education teachers (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Most of the teachers were interested in teaching nutrition but barriers existed, such as lack of training and teaching materials, which affected teachers' confidence in delivering nutrition education in their curricula.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Capacitação de Professores/organização & administração
2.
J Psychol ; 154(1): 38-59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373540

RESUMO

Despite the increasing body of research on workplace incivility, the relationship between supervisor incivility and employee job performance, as well as its intermediary mechanisms, has received relatively little attention from researchers. Drawing on the transactional model of stress and self-determination theory, we propose employees' job insecurity and amotivation as mediating mechanisms between supervisor incivility and employee job performance. The proposed serial-mediation model was tested through a multilevel analysis of two-wave surveys collected from kindergarten teachers and their principals. Our mediation analysis revealed that incivility perpetrated by kindergarten principals exerted a negative effect on teachers' job performance three months later by shaping job insecurity perceptions and amotivation. These findings have theoretical implications for the workplace incivility literature and managerial implications for practitioners.


Assuntos
Incivilidade , Satisfação no Emprego , Motivação , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Desempenho Profissional , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incerteza
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1668, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given today's high prevalence of common mental disorders and related sick leave among teachers, an urgent need exists for a more systematic approach to the management of social and organizational risk factors within schools. In 2015, we launched the first Swedish occupational health guideline to support a structured prevention of these risks at the workplace. The existence of guidelines does however not guarantee their usage, as studies show that guidelines are often underused. Knowledge is therefore needed on effective implementation strategies that can facilitate the translation of guidelines into practice. The primary aim of the randomized waiting list-controlled trial described in this study protocol is to compare the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy versus a single implementation strategy for implementing the Guideline for the prevention of mental ill-health at the workplace within schools. The effectiveness will be compared regarding the extent to which the recommendations are implemented (implementation effectiveness) and with regard to social and organisational risk factors for mental ill-health, absenteeism and presenteeism (intervention effectiveness). METHODS: The trial is conducted among primary schools of two municipalities in Sweden. The single implementation strategy is an educational strategy (an educational meeting). The multifaceted strategy consists of the educational meeting, an implementation team and a series of workshops. The outcome measure of implementation effectiveness is guideline adherence. The primary outcome of intervention effectiveness is exhaustion. Secondary outcomes include demands at work, work organization and job contents, interpersonal relations and leadership, presenteeism, work performance, recovery, work-life balance, work-engagement, self-reported stress, self-perceived health, sickness absence and psychosocial safety climate. Process outcomes as well as barriers and facilitators influencing the implementation process are assessed. Data will be collected at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months by mixed methods (i.e. survey, focus-group interviews, observation). DISCUSSION: The study described in this protocol will provide valuable knowledge on the effectiveness of implementation strategies for implementing a guideline for the prevention of common mental disorders within schools. We hypothesize that successful implementation will result in reductions in school personnel's perceived social and organizational risk factors, mental ill-health and sick-leave. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03322839 (trial registration: 09/19/2017).


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Absenteísmo , Cidades , Grupos Focais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1674, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830952

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of school-based physical activity (PA) programmes has proven to be difficult, particularly due to schools' focus on academic performance and lack of organisational support for PA interventions. However, physically active lessons (PA integrated into academic lessons) holds promise as a teaching method that increases children's PA levels without reducing academic time. Headteachers play a significant role in facilitating change in school, but little is known about headteachers' attitudes towards physically active lessons and their benefits. The purpose of this study was to explore headteachers' perceptions of physically active lessons, and identify factors affecting headteachers' acceptance or rejection of physically active lessons implementation. METHOD: A total of 29 semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with headteachers in primary and secondary schools in the city of Stavanger, Norway. Adopting a phenomenological approach, qualitative data were analysed using inductive content analysis. RESULTS: Although most of the headteachers believed that physically active lessons could contribute positively to pupils' health and learning, only four of 29 schools decided to proceed with implementation. Physically active lessons were more likely to be adopted when the intervention addressed a clearly defined priority area at the school. Change overload and lack of in-depth knowledge of physically active lessons' function and intent appeared to be the most important factors for choosing not to implement physically active lessons. CONCLUSION: One of the major challenges for headteachers was deciding which of the many proposed changes the school should prioritise. If physically active lessons was to be prioritised by headteachers it is very important to communicate thoroughly to the headteachers what the schools can achieve by implementing physically active lessons and how the innovation aligns with school policies and goals. Given the flexibility inherent in physically active lessons and the schools' differing needs and priorities, it was important to emphasise to headteachers that physically active lessons could be adapted to different local school contexts.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Educação Física e Treinamento/organização & administração , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1718, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Control of blood pressure among hypertensives is a major challenge around the world. Interventions for improving hypertension control in India are very limited. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial of efficacy of behavioural intervention on control of hypertension among school teachers in Kerala. METHODS: A total of 92 schools are randomised to intervention and control group in Kerala. A baseline survey was conducted in all schools to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among school teachers in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state, India. Teachers in both sets of schools will receive a leaflet containing details on the importance of controlling hypertension. With the objective of improving control of hypertension, the intervention schools will additionally receive self-management education and behavioural intervention programs delivered by trained intervention managers along with measurement of weight, waist circumference and blood pressure. This intervention program will be developed based on the findings of the baseline survey and selected components of successful models of hypertension control from previous research done in similar settings. The intervention will be given for 3 months after which a post-survey will be conducted among teachers of both control and intervention schools. The primary outcome is change in control of hypertension and secondary outcome is the change in behavioural risk factors of hypertension both in the control and intervention groups. DISCUSSION: This is the first comprehensive study looking at the efficacy of behavioural intervention on hypertension control among school teachers in Kerala, India. This study is likely to provide an upper estimate of behavioural intervention on hypertension control since teachers are reported to have one of the highest compliance rates of behavioural intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was prospectively registered with the Clinical Trials Registry of India [CTRI/2018/01/011402] on 18 January 2018.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1680, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to usable water, sanitation and hygiene provision in schools is included within indicators in the Sustainable Development Goals. Progress towards these indicators is dependent on developing an understanding of which intervention components are most effective to operate and maintain usable services. This study aimed to determine the impact of a school toilet operation and management intervention in the Philippines on toilet usability and student and teacher satisfaction, adjusted for clustering at school level. METHODS: In a non-blinded cluster randomised controlled trial, we compared improvements in usability and cleanliness of school toilets among those schools receiving a low-cost, replicable intervention. Toilet usability was measured based on Sustainable Development Goal indicators related to school sanitation defined by the UNICEF/WHO Joint Monitoring Programme for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Intervention schools received consumables, support kits, and structured tools designed to facilitate operation and maintenance of sanitation facilities. The primary outcome, toilet usability and cleanliness, was compared through a difference-in-difference analysis of toilet usability. Secondary outcomes of student and teacher satisfaction were measured through a survey at endline. All outcomes were adjusted for clustering at school level. RESULTS: 20 eligible schools in the Batangas region of the Philippines were randomly selected and allocated to either control or intervention group. We found that non-classroom toilets were 48% more likely to meet quality benchmarks in intervention schools, but this was not statistically significant. When including in-classroom toilets in the analysis, there were no significant differences in toilet usability - defined as accessible, functional, private and of high quality - between intervention and control schools. When stratified by toilet location, children in the intervention group clusters expressed a minor, but statistically significant increase in overall satisfaction with sanitation facilities (p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in schools focusing on operation and maintenance showed potential to improve toilet usability, but universal achievement of SDG targets may require additional efforts addressing toilet infrastructure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03204175, June 2017 prior to participant enrolment.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Toaletes/normas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Filipinas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saneamento/normas , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Abastecimento de Água/normas
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 805, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early Childhood Education Centre (ECEC) staff are strongly recommended to receive several immunizations including influenza and pertussis. However, evidence regarding the uptake is either old or lacking across all Australian States/Territories. This study aimed to explore the attitudes and barriers around ECEC staff vaccination and the immunisation policy/practices employed at their workplaces. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was undertaken of staff members (administrators and childcare center staff) in early 2017. We compared the individual's knowledge, attitude and practices as well as the centre's policy and practice variables between the vaccinated and unvaccinated respondents. A logistic model was used to identify the factors associated with uptake of the different vaccines. RESULTS: A total of 575 ECEC staff completed the survey. Sixty percent reported being aware of the recommendations about staff immunisation. While participants did acknowledge that they could spread diseases if unvaccinated (86%), 30% could not recall receiving a dTpa in the last 10 years. Private centres were less likely to provide free or onsite vaccination compared to other categories of centres. Less than half reported receiving any encouragement to get the influenza vaccine and only 33% reported that their centre provides onsite influenza vaccination. Regarding the introduction of mandatory policies, 69% stated that they would support a policy. CONCLUSION: Employers should consider supporting methods to maximize vaccination of their employees including providing free onsite vaccination. Participants were open to idea of mandatory vaccination; however, this needs to be explored further to determine how vaccine costs and access issues could be resolved.


Assuntos
Creches , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/economia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacina contra Coqueluche/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/economia , Local de Trabalho
8.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 116, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive health problems such as HIV, unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion among adolescents are closely linked to insufficient knowledge about sexuality and reproduction and lack of access to contraceptives. Supported by international agencies, Zambia has introduced an ambitious nation-wide program for comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) to be implemented into ordinary school activities by teachers. The curriculum is firmly based in a discourse of sexual and reproductive rights, not commonly found in the public debate on sexuality in Zambia. This paper explores how teachers perceive the curriculum and practice discretion when implementing the CSE in mid-level schools in Nyimba district in Zambia. METHODS: Using a case study design, data were collected through in-depth interviews with 18 teachers and analyzed thematically drawing upon theories of discretion and policy implementation. RESULTS: Individual teachers make decisions on their own regarding what and when to teach CSE. This discretion implies holding back information from the learners, teaching abstinence as the only way of preventing pregnancy or cancelling sexuality education sessions altogether. Teachers' choices about the CSE program were linked to lack of guidance on teaching of the curriculum, especially with regards to how to integrate sexuality education into existing subjects. Limited prioritization of CSE in the educational sector was observed. The incompatibility of CSE with local norms and understandings about adolescent sexuality combined with teacher-parent role dilemmas emerged as problematic in implementing the policy. Limited ownership of the new curriculum further undermined teachers' motivation to actively include CSE in daily teaching activities. Use of discretion has resulted in arbitrary teaching thus affecting the acquisition of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health knowledge among learners. CONCLUSION: The CSE had limited legitimacy in the community and was met with resistance from teachers tasked with its' implementation. In order to enhance ownership to the CSE program, local concerns about the contents of the curriculum and the parent-teacher role dilemma must be taken into consideration. Not addressing these challenges may undermine the policy's intention of increasing knowledge about sexuality and reproduction and empowering adolescents to access contraceptive services and avoid unwanted pregnancies.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , População Rural , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Educação Sexual/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Organizacional , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Zâmbia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547474

RESUMO

Using the Multicontext Stressors Scale (MSS), this study investigates which factorial structure should be used to measure teacher stressors, and the extent to which this factorial structure of MSS remains invariant across gender. Subsequently, grounded in self-determination theory, the present study also examines the extent to which stressors may differentially predict teachers' psychological functioning. Participants were 584 (Mage = 45.04; SD = 8.97) secondary school teachers. Goodness-of-fit indices and estimated parameters of the models, together with latent correlations between stressors, offered support for the six-factor structure, whereas the opposite was true for the one-factor structure of the MSS. Results also supported gender invariance of the MSS. Predictive findings showed that student misbehavior, lack of shared decision-making, and workload stressors are negatively related to basic psychological needs. Likewise, results noted the important role of basic psychological needs to reach optimal teachers' psychological functioning. The results are discussed, arguing the importance of assessing and analyzing teacher stressors using a multifactorial and invariant scale. From a more practical approach, it seems important for school leaders to be especially vigilant about all stressors. Nonetheless, if they desire to prevent detrimental psychological functioning in teachers, special attention should be placed on stressors related to student misbehavior, lack of shared decision-making, and workload.


Assuntos
Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Autonomia Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Carga de Trabalho
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1239, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary schools are valuable settings to implement healthy lifestyle (healthy eating and physical activity) interventions, aimed at targeting childhood obesity. This study explored school staff perceptions of factors that hinder and enable successful implementation and sustainability of healthy lifestyle interventions in primary schools. Qualitative data was pooled and analysed from two evaluations carried out in primary schools in North England: a feasibility study of a nutrition and physical activity educational programme (PhunkyFoods Feasibility Study), and an evaluation of a healthy eating programme (The Food Dudes Evaluation). METHODS: Sixty-five qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with head teachers, teachers, catering managers, designated school-based programme coordinators and programme staff supporting schools with programme delivery, at 14 schools involved in both evaluations. Thematic analysis was undertaken and emergent themes categorised using a framework for successful implementation by Durlak and Dupre (2008). RESULTS: Overall, all schools were delivering a range of healthy lifestyle programmes, often with overlapping content. Perceived challenges to implementation of individual programmes included: limited time, timing of implementation, limited training and support, insufficient resources, capacity and facilities, staff perceptions of intervention and perceived skill-proficiency (for cooking and physical activities). Short-term funding, lack of external and internal support were perceived to hinder sustainability. Staff recommendations for successful implementation of future programmes included: extended training and planning time, sufficient capacity, external support for delivery, good resources (interactive, practical and adaptable), and facilities for cooking, healthy eating, gardening and physical activities. Head teachers need to prioritise delivery of a few key healthy lifestyle programmes, in an overcrowded curriculum. Schools need to employ strategies to engage participation of staff, pupils and parents long term. CONCLUSIONS: Effective implementation of school-based healthy lifestyle programmes was thought to be aided by flexible and adaptable programmes, enabling good contextual fit, well-resourced programmes and effective leadership at multiple levels, pupil (pupils support delivery) and parent involvement. To facilitate sustainability, it was perceived that programmes need to be integrated within the curriculum and school policies long term, with sustained support from head teachers and staff. These findings are relevant to programme developers, policy makers and those involved in delivering interventions.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Criança , Inglaterra , Exercício , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 138, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual choices and practices of adolescents living in conservative societies, including Morocco, can be influenced either positively or negatively by the prevailing contextual and social norms. These norms not only limit the access to reproductive health information and services but also lead to abstinence among devout adolescents. Thus, identifying contextual risks and protective factors of risky sexual behaviors leading to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in adolescents, as well as exploring perceptions of adolescents, parents and teachers regarding effective intervention preferences could improve the sexual health of adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) based on the socio-ecological model as a theoretical framework. Sample groups of adolescents, parents, and teachers were selected from two public middle schools (disadvantaged and advantaged according to socio-economic level) in Taza city, Morocco, from May to July 2016. Participants were polled on protective factors and perceived facilitators of risky sexual behaviors leading to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in adolescents as well on their perception of intervention preferences to reduce the risks. Three sets of data were initially formed, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Seventeen FGDs were conducted, including 8 groups of adolescents (28 boys and 28 girls, 14-16 years old), 5 groups of parents (21 males and 5 females), and 4 groups of teachers (13 males and 5 females). Five overall themes seemed to influence risky sexual behaviors in adolescents: (1) risky sexual practices and STIs; (2) the adolescent's social domain; (3) the role of school; (4) media, including internet and social media; and (5) socio-cultural norms. Participants also suggested a number of possible interventions to improve the sexual health of adolescents and to reduce the risk of STIs, which could be applied at multiple levels. CONCLUSIONS: Successful intervention programs should target the multifaceted factors affecting the adolescent's sexual behaviors, from the individual to the societal level. Allowing parents, teachers, and adolescents to work together could help reduce the socio-cultural and personal barriers that prevent effective communication about sexuality. Furthermore, schools can play a vital role in reducing risky sexual behaviors and STI acquisition rates in adolescents by promoting sex education in school curriculum and encouraging adolescents to engage in extracurricular activities and awareness campaigns.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Fatores de Proteção , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Saúde Sexual/educação , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398923

RESUMO

Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), prior research has demonstrated that physical education (PE) teachers may have different reasons to engage in teaching. Although some person-centered studies have identified varied motivational profiles in PE teachers, none of these studies have included the three forms of motivation (i.e., autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation). This study aims to identify teachers' motivational profiles, using the three forms of motivation. Moreover, differences between the obtained profiles in terms of job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion were examined. A sample of 107 primary school PE teachers participated. Four distinct motivational profiles were identified: "relatively amotivated," "somewhat motivated," "autonomous-controlled motivated," and "relatively autonomously motivated." Results showed that the predominantly autonomously motivated PE teachers reported the most adaptive pattern of outcomes. Although PE teachers from the "relatively autonomously motivated" group did not differ in terms of job satisfaction when compared to those in the "autonomous-controlled motivated" group, the former displayed lower values of emotional exhaustion. These findings support SDT in that more motivation is not necessarily better if this additional motivation comes from controlled reasons. These results could raise awareness among school stakeholders about the importance of increasing PE teachers' autonomous motivation.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Motivação , Autonomia Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento/organização & administração , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412597

RESUMO

This study examines whether specific (matching) combinations of demands and resources exist in the prediction of both positive and negative outcomes (i.e., vitality and fatigue) in a university context. In addition, we test the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) Model's key principles in this context to study its relevance, validity, and generalizability. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 397 employees and 497 students at a Dutch university. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses among both employees and students showed matching combinations of demands and resources in the prediction of vitality and fatigue. Specifically, an increase in cognitive demands was particularly associated with more student cognitive vitality when cognitive resources were high. Furthermore, results showed that an increase in cognitive demands was related to less cognitive fatigue in both employees and students when cognitive resources were high. Findings partly confirm our hypotheses in showing the important role of matching resources in the relation between demands and vitality and fatigue in university staff and students. Our study reveals that a sustainable work environment is about maintaining a healthy balance between sufficient, matching resources and demands at work or study.


Assuntos
Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos
14.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4585-4594, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432310

RESUMO

The autism intervention literature focuses heavily on the concept of evidence-based practice, with less consideration of the acceptability, feasibility, and contextual alignment of interventions in practice. A survey of 130 special educators was conducted to quantify this "social validity" of evidence-based practices and analyze its relationship with knowledge level and frequency of use. Results indicate that knowledge, use, and social validity are tightly-connected and rank the highest for modeling, reinforcement, prompting, and visual supports. Regression analysis suggests that greater knowledge, higher perceived social validity, and a caseload including more students with autism predicts more frequent use of a practice. The results support the vital role that social validity plays in teachers' implementation, with implications for both research and practice.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Educação Especial/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 37: 32-38, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burnout in teachers has been linked to decreased effectiveness as educators, and suboptimal interactions with students. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the outcomes of a brief Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program for public school staff. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-arm, prospective trial involved an investigation of the effects of a brief SMART program on participant stress, anxiety, resilience, gratitude, happiness, life satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL). RESULTS: Significant improvements were noted in participant anxiety (P < 0.001), stress (P = 0.003), gratitude (P = 0.001), happiness (P < 0.001), life satisfaction (P < 0.001), and QOL (P < 0.001). Most participants reported that the skills learned positively affected interactions with students (77.2%) and coworkers (72.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The SMART program showed promising effectiveness for improving anxiety, stress, gratitude, happiness, life satisfaction and QOL. Given the prevalence and impact of teacher burnout, larger, controlled trials and broader dissemination of the intervention are warranted.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Ansiedade/terapia , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(2): 110-120, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433599

RESUMO

This study sought to establish the awareness, perception and implementation of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE), by 170 teachers in 11 secondary schools in Kisumu central sub-county, Kenya. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used. Quantitative data was collected using a self- administered questionnaire and an observation checklist, while qualitative data was collected through key informant interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. Qualitative data was analyzed using a thematic approach. The study found low awareness in key topics such as HIV/STIs, condom use, benefits of abstinence and contraception. Most teachers were not trained in CSE, and CSE is not included in the curriculum. Personal biases, opinions and values related to sexuality education threaten the delivery of CSE. Resource materials are also unavailable. The study concluded that teachers acknowledged the need for CSE. However, its delivery is severely inhibited by lack of training, non-inclusion of CSE in the curriculum, inadequate time allocation for CSE lessons, and lack of teaching resources.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Educação Sexual/métodos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Educação Sexual/organização & administração , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 49(3): 254-262, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the environmental factors affecting childhood obesity using photovoice from the perspectives of students, parents, and teachers in the community. METHODS: Six school students, seven parents, and seven school teachers completed an assignment requiring them to take 24 pictures and participate in group discussions. After training session, the participants were asked to take pictures associated with food and physical activity environments related to childhood obesity at home, school, and within their communities for two weeks and to submit the pictures with records. Each group had four sessions for discussion. RESULTS: School cafeteria, convenience stores near schools, instant food and fast food joints, food delivery, and high-calorie snacks comprised the food environmental factors. Lack of physical activity classes at school, commuting by car, barriers to physical activity, and use of smart-phone were environmental factors that inhibited physical activity. CONCLUSION: To reduce childhood obesity, the creation of a supportive environment for encouraging the consumption of healthy foods and enhancing physical activity should be considered. Modifications of and improvement to the obesogenic environment might be a good strategy to prevent and reduce childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Pediátrica/patologia , Fotografação , Mídias Sociais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 4974-4981, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Burnout is a state of vital exhaustion that is manifested on physical, cognitive, and emotional levels. Teachers work in a field where they are exposed daily to high job-related stressors, which can result in job change, a higher rate of unhappiness, and even earlier retirement. This study explored the relationship between job stressors, lifestyle, and burnout. MATERIAL AND METHODS Descriptive statistics were used to explore the burnout levels, together with t tests to compare between men and women, and regression analysis was performed to explore the relationship between the rates of burnout and lifestyle. RESULTS The overall sample size was 2394 teachers from primary schools. While males had higher emotional burnout, females reported higher physical burnout rates. We found that higher income was associated with less burnout, and a healthier lifestyle is associated with lower burnout rates. Teachers who take time for family and personal interests have significantly lower rates of burnout than those that do not. CONCLUSIONS Based on our results, we propose that teachers should be informed about the risk of burnout. We found that some teachers reported they do not know what burnout syndrome is. The primary aim should be to increase awareness. In fact, burnout is a major threat to those who are perfectionists and who tend to work overtime.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
19.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 18(2): 148-157, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282300

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of school principals and the experiences of disclosure amongst teachers living with HIV. Due to HIV/AIDS-related stigma being prevalent in many societies today, many infected people would rather not disclose their status than deal with negative labelling and stereotyping. This study utilised narrative inquiry as a qualitative research design that is known to be a way of understanding experiences. Data was elicited via narrative interviews from a purposeful sample of ten principals and eight teachers living with HIV who were selected through network sampling from Gauteng public urban schools. The study found that stigma, fear of job loss and gossip deterred teachers from disclosing their HIV status. In some instances, they disclosed due to needing support, which principals provided in the form of counselling, and also to explain absenteeism. Although principals supported disclosure of teachers' HIV status so that they could initiate care, confidentiality concerns showed that disclosure could further worsen stigma and the culture of discrimination and moral judgement that teachers living with HIV faced. The study recommends on-going development of caring relationships to deepen the understanding of the experiences of teachers living with HIV. Nondisclosure of HIV status stands in the way of building caring relationships between teachers and principals. There is still a need to create safe, supportive and empathetic environments in schools for teachers living with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Percepção , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Revelação , Medo , Feminino , HIV/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estigma Social , África do Sul , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Res Dev Disabil ; 92: 103433, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306871

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Whole Inclusive School Empowerment (WISE) project in supporting preschool children with diverse learning needs. METHOD: This study adopted a mixed method design. The quantitative section was a quasi-experiment comprising eight intervention preschools (378 students, 68 teachers) with a support team of an educational psychologist and a teacher coordinator, compared with eight control preschools (281 students, 61 teachers) without the support team. Teachers completed questionnaires on students' school readiness and behavior as well as their own teaching efficacy at pre-intervention, mid-intervention, and post-intervention. The qualitative part consisted of preschool principals and teachers participating in focus group discussions. RESULTS: The quantitative results indicated a significant interaction effect (group X time) for students' school readiness, behavior problem and prosocial behavior, as well as teachers' efficacy. Qualitative findings from principals and teachers also showed that the WISE project brought benefits to the preschools, teachers, students and parents. CONCLUSIONS: The results provided promising evidence on the effectiveness of the WISE project in supporting preschool children with diverse learning needs.


Assuntos
/métodos , Estudantes , Testes de Aptidão , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , /psicologia , Masculino , Pais , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Psicologia Educacional/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Ensino
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