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1.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(1): 1-9, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218583

RESUMO

Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is the most common surgical treatment of localized prostate cancer. The ideal procedure would achieve maximum oncological efficacy while minimizing associated side effects, such as erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence. Surgeon experience and surgical technique affect RARP outcomes. Here, the authors review RARP technical modifications aimed at optimizing cancer control and postoperative urinary and sexual function.


Assuntos
Prostatectomia/métodos , Prostatectomia/normas , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos
2.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(1): 11-23, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218585

RESUMO

Radical prostatectomy has undergone many adaptations since its inception, including the Retzius-sparing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy approach. In this article, we review the origins of radical prostatectomy, the theoretic basis for Retzius-sparing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy, and outline the key steps of the procedure. To date, there have been 9 studies comparing the outcomes of Retzius-sparing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy with standard robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy, which have demonstrated improved continence outcomes for Retzius sparing robotic assisted radical prostatectomy within the first year and equivalent oncologic efficacy out to 18 months. Further research is needed to evaluate sexual function outcomes as well as long-term oncologic outcomes.


Assuntos
Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Fáscia , Fasciotomia , Previsões , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/história , Prostatectomia/tendências , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/tendências , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária/prevenção & controle
3.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925860, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Biomarkers predicting the efficacy of treatment for locally limited prostate cancer are greatly needed. This knowledge could improve the classification of patients for different methods of treatment and enable better recognition of groups with higher risk of biological recurrence. We prospectively assessed serial blood levels of apoptotic biomarkers and correlated them with response to treatment and clinical factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS Blood was collected from 25 patients with prostate cancer before and after surgery, 16 healthy volunteers with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and 14 patients with metastasized disease. Immunoenzymatic methods were used to determine circulating apoptotic and inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), type I receptor (TNFRI), and type II receptor (TNFRII); FAS ligand (FasL); TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRIAL); caspase 8 (Cas8); caspase 9 (Cas9); DNA methylation (metDNA); P-selectin; and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The total circulating fragments of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) were measured directly in serum. RESULTS Peripheral serum prostate-specific antigen increased rapidly together with cfDNA. A negative correlation was noted between tumor volume and TNFRI and TNFRII. Postsurgery P-selectin level was decreased, and metDNA and TNFRII levels were increased. Three comparisons were made between patient groups: surgical vs. BPH; surgical vs. palliative; and palliative vs. BPH. TNFRI, TNFRII, metDNA, P-selectin, Cas8, and FasL were shown to have significant roles. CONCLUSIONS The study indicated significant roles for cfDNA, both TNF receptors, metDNA, and P-selectin as serum biomarkers in patients with prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Metilação de DNA , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Selectina-P/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/sangue , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/sangue , Idoso , Apoptose , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Medição de Risco/métodos
4.
Arch Esp Urol ; 73(9): 784-793, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144532

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Open prostatectomy is an efficacious treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), but its complication rates and risk factors for these might vary due to the characteristics of populations and health systems. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of complications and the risk factors for these, in the first three months after open prostatectomy in a hospital in Medellín (Colombia). METHODS: This is a cohort study in which patients undergoing retropubic open prostatectomy were taken. Medical records were reviewed to obtain demographic, preoperative, and intraoperative data. The main outcome was the incidence of complications in the first three postoperative months and this was divided into early (day 1 to 7 post-surgery) and late (day 8 to 90 post-surgery) complications. Risk factors were determined by estimating Relative Risks (RR). RESULTS: 191 patients with a median age of 70 years were included. The frequency of complications was 34.5%,14.6% occurred early and 19.9% late. Risk factors were dyslipidemia (RR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.25 to 4.47), irrigation time (RR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.67) and duration of the postsurgical catheter (RR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.12); general anesthesia was a protective risk factor compared to spinal (RR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.91). CONCLUSION: The frequency of complications of open prostatectomy with a retropubic approach was within the figures reported in the literature. The risk factors found could be modifiable and considered for the prevention of adverse outcomes. This study provides an updated basis for future comparisons with alternative treatments for BPH.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Prostática , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Masculino , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia
5.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 218, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To observe cumulative morbidity of postoperative inguinal hernia (PIH) and identify risk factors associated with its development in patients who underwent retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), laparoscopic prostatectomy (LRP) or robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) operation. METHODS: From June 2009 to September 2016, 756 patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer who had undergone RRP, LRP or RALP in our center were included in this study. Patients with PIH were retrospectively investigated in such factors as age, BMI, previous abdominal operations, diabetes mellitus history, hypertension history, prostate volume, previous hernia, operative methods, operative approach, preoperative Gleason, clinical T-stage, PLND situation, operative time, and estimated blood loss. Univariate and multivariate cox hazard regressions analysis were utilized to identify risk factors predisposing to PIH. RESULTS: A total of 53 of 751(7.1%) patients developed PIH at a median follow-up period of 43 months. PIH rate in RRP was significantly higher compared to LRP and RALP group (RRP: 15.3%, LRP: 6.7%, RALP:1.9%, P = 0.038). Right side (69.8%) and indirect (88.8%) PIH were dominant type in hernia group. Univariate and multivariate cox hazard regressions analysis indicated that age and RRP approach were identified to be implicated to PIH [adjusted hazard ratio7.39(1.18-46.39), 2.93(95% CI 1.47-5.84)]. CONCLUSIONS: RRP technique and older age, especially patients over 80 years, are associated with higher incidence for PIH development. Appropriate prophylaxis during the operation should be evaluated for those in high-risk.


Assuntos
Hérnia Inguinal/epidemiologia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Incidência , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
BMJ ; 371: m3503, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess treatment related changes in quality of life up to 15 years after diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. DESIGN: Population based, prospective cohort study with follow-up over 15 years. SETTING: New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 1642 men with localised prostate cancer, aged less than 70, and 786 controls randomly recruited from the New South Wales electoral roll into the New South Wales Prostate Cancer Care and Outcomes Study (PCOS). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: General health and disease specific quality of life were self-reported at seven time points over a 15 year period, using the 12-item Short Form Health Survey scale, University of California, Los Angeles prostate cancer index, and expanded prostate cancer index composite short form (EPIC-26). Adjusted mean differences were calculated with controls as the comparison group. Clinical significance of adjusted mean differences was assessed by the minimally important difference, defined as one third of the standard deviation (SD) from the baseline score. RESULTS: At 15 years, all treatment groups reported high levels of erectile dysfunction, depending on treatment (62.3% (active surveillance/watchful waiting, n=33/53) to 83.0% (non-nerve sparing radical prostatectomy, n=117/141)) compared with controls (42.7% (n=44/103)). Men who had external beam radiation therapy or high dose rate brachytherapy or androgen deprivation therapy as primary treatment reported more bowel problems. Self-reported urinary incontinence was particularly prevalent and persistent for men who underwent surgery, and an increase in urinary bother was reported in the group receiving androgen deprivation therapy from 10 to 15 years (year 10: adjusted mean difference -5.3, 95% confidence interval -10.8 to 0.2; year 15: -15.9; -25.1 to -6.7). CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving initial active treatment for localised prostate cancer had generally worse long term self-reported quality of life than men without a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Men treated with radical prostatectomy faired especially badly, particularly in relation to long term sexual outcomes. Clinicians and patients should consider these long term quality of life outcomes when making treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios , Braquiterapia , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Braquiterapia/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Humanos , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/epidemiologia , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Risco Ajustado , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238814, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881970

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) cells become castrate-resistant after initial tumor regression following castration-based lowering of testosterone (T). De-novo intra-tumoral steroid synthesis is a suggested biological mechanism of castration resistant PCa, but the regulators are unknown. Testicular T production is controlled by the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR). To elucidate the influence of LHCGR on PCa development the presence and effects of LHCGR in PCa and whether LHCGR in serum holds prognostic information in PCa patients is investigated. LHCGR expression was investigated by RT-PCR, WB, IHC, qPCR in PCa cell lines and prostatic tissue. Steroid production was measured in media from cell lines with LC-MS/MS and expression of steroidogenic enzymes with qPCR. Serum LHCGR (sLHCGR) was measured with ELISA in PCa patients (N = 157). Presence of LHCGR was established in prostatic tissue and PCa cell lines. Cell proliferation increased by 1.29-fold in LNCaP (P = 0.007) and 1.33-fold in PC-3 cells (P = 0.0007), when stimulated by luteinizing hormone. Choriogonadotropin stimulation decreased proliferation 0.93-fold in DU145 cells (P = 0.05), but none of the treatments altered steroid metabolite secretion. Low sLHCGR concentration was associated with a higher risk of biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (HR = 3.05, P = 0.06) and castration resistance (HR = 6.92, P = 0.004) compared to high sLHCGR concentration. LHCGR is expressed in PCa and may exert a growth regulatory role in PCa derived cell lines. A potential prognostic role of sLHCGR for determining recurrence risk in PCa patients is found in this pilot study but needs verification in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia , Receptores do LH/metabolismo , Idoso , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Humanos , Luteinização/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Próstata/patologia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013641, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is widely used to surgically treat clinically localized prostate cancer. It is typically performed using an approach (standard RALP) that mimics open retropubic prostatectomy by dissecting the so-called space of Retzius anterior to the bladder. An alternative, Retzius-sparing (or posterior approach) RALP (RS-RALP) has been described, which is reported to have better continence outcomes but may be associated with a higher risk of incomplete resection and positive surgical margins (PSM). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of RS-RALP compared to standard RALP for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. SEARCH METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, three other databases, trials registries, other sources of the grey literature, and conference proceedings, up to June 2020. We applied no restrictions on publication language or status. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included trials where participants were randomized to RS-RALP or standard RALP for clinically localized prostate cancer. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently classified and abstracted data from the included studies. Primary outcomes were: urinary continence recovery within one week after catheter removal, at three months after surgery, and serious adverse events. Secondary outcomes were: urinary continence recovery six and 12 months after surgery, potency recovery 12 months after surgery, positive surgical margins (PSM), biochemical recurrence-free survival (BCRFS), and urinary and sexual function quality of life. We performed statistical analyses using a random-effects model. We rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Our search identified six records of five unique randomized controlled trials, of which two were published studies, one was in press, and two were abstract proceedings. There were 571 randomized participants, of whom 502 completed the trials. Mean age of participants was 64.6 years and mean prostate-specific antigen was 6.9 ng/mL. About 54.2% of participants had cT1c disease, 38.6% had cT2a-b disease, and 7.1 % had cT2c disease. Primary outcomes RS-RALP probably improves continence within one week after catheter removal (risk ratio (RR) 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41 to 2.14; I2 = 0%; studies = 4; participants = 410; moderate-certainty evidence). Assuming 335 per 1000 men undergoing standard RALP are continent at this time point, this corresponds to 248 more men per 1000 (137 more to 382 more) reporting continence recovery. RS-RALP may increase continence at three months after surgery compared to standard RALP (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.68; I2 = 86%; studies = 5; participants = 526; low-certainty evidence). Assuming 750 per 1000 men undergoing standard RALP are continent at this time point, this corresponds to 224 more men per 1000 (41 more to 462 more) reporting continence recovery. We are very uncertain about the effects of RS-RALP on serious adverse events compared to standard RALP (RR 1.40, 95% CI 0.47 to 4.17; studies = 2; participants = 230; very low-certainty evidence). Secondary outcomes There is probably little to no difference in continence recovery at 12 months after surgery (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.04; I2 = 0%; studies = 2; participants = 222; moderate-certainty evidence). Assuming 982 per 1000 men undergoing standard RALP are continent at this time point, this corresponds to 10 more men per 1000 (29 fewer to 39 more) reporting continence recovery.  We are very uncertain about the effect of RS-RALP on potency recovery 12 months after surgery (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.80; studies = 1; participants = 55; very low-certainty evidence).  RS-RALP may increase PSMs (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.19 to 3.20; I2 = 0%; studies = 3; participants = 308; low-certainty evidence) indicating a higher risk for prostate cancer recurrence. Assuming 129 per 1000 men undergoing standard RALP have positive margins, this corresponds to 123 more men per 1000 (25 more to 284 more) with PSMs. We are very uncertain about the effect of RS-RALP on BCRFS compared to standard RALP (hazard ratio (HR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.60; I2 = 32%; studies = 2; participants = 218; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this review indicate that RS-RALP may result in better continence outcomes than standard RALP up to six months after surgery. Continence outcomes at 12 months may be similar. Downsides of RS-RALP may be higher positive margin rates. We are very uncertain about the effect on BCRFS and potency outcomes. Longer-term oncologic and functional outcomes are lacking, and no preplanned subgroup analyses could be performed to explore the observed heterogeneity. Surgeons should discuss these trade-offs and the limitations of the evidence with their patients when considering this approach.


Assuntos
Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Incontinência Urinária/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangue , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/efeitos adversos , Ereção Peniana , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia
9.
J Altern Complement Med ; 26(8): 738-742, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609534

RESUMO

Objectives: Nonconductive irrigation fluids used during transurethral resection (TUR) of the prostate can cause fluid overload and dilutional hyponatremia. TUR syndrome is generally defined as serum sodium at or below 125 mmol/L with cardiovascular and neurologic symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Goreisan, a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, on serum sodium levels and the occurrence of TUR syndrome in patients undergoing TUR of the prostate. Design: This was a randomized-controlled trial. Settings/Location: This trial was conducted at the Osaka Medical College Hospital and Keneikai Sanko Hospital. Subjects: Fifty patients scheduled for TUR of the prostate were included. Interventions: Patients in the Goreisan group (n = 23) received 2.5 g Goreisan orally on the night before surgery and on the morning of surgery. The control group (n = 27) did not receive Goreisan. Surgical procedures, perioperative management, and patient monitoring were otherwise the same in both groups. Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was occurrence of TUR syndrome. The secondary outcome was serum sodium level. Results: Serum sodium remained above 125 mmol/L in all patients, so none of the patients met the criteria for TUR syndrome. However, the Goreisan group had significantly higher intraoperative sodium levels (p < 0.001) and significantly higher intraoperative (p = 0.008) and postoperative (p = 0.02) hemoglobin levels than the control group. Conclusions: These findings indicate that preoperative Goreisan administration can help maintain serum sodium levels in patients undergoing TUR of the prostate.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Hiponatremia/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Humanos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/métodos , Sódio/sangue , Síndrome , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata/métodos
10.
J Sex Med ; 17(9): 1723-1728, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After radical prostatectomy (RP), climacturia is a prevalent and distressing problem. To date, no specific predictors have been identified. AIM: In this analysis, we sought to find associated pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters. METHODS: We identified all men in our departmental database who (i) had climacturia post-RP, ≥3 episodes; (ii) underwent a pre-RP endorectal MRI; (iii) had no radiation or androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Soft tissue and bony dimensions were measured by 2 raters blinded to clinical and pathological data. OUTCOMES: MRI parameters included the following: maximum height, width, and depth of prostate, prostate volume, urethral width and length, lower conjugate of pelvis, bony femoral width, outer and inner levator distances and thickness. Point-biserial correlations were run on univariate associations. Logistic regression was used for the multivariable model. RESULTS: 194 consecutive pre-RP MRI studies were reviewed (56 men with and 138 without climacturia). Mean age was 60 ± 7 years, average time post-RP at assessment, 7 ± 7 months. Of MRI parameters, urethral width (r = 0.13, P = .03) and lower conjugate (r = 0.12, P = .05) were associated with presence of persistent climacturia. 2 others met criteria for multivariable analysis, prostate depth and outer levator distance. Of the non-MRI parameters, none were significantly related to climacturia and only body mass index (BMI) met criteria for multivariable analysis. On multivariable analysis, only urethral width was associated with climacturia (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.01-1.49, P = .04); the wider the urethra, greater the chance of climacturia. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Improved ability to predict the occurrence of orgasm-associated incontinence in the preoperative setting. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: Limitations include the fact that the MRI endorectal probe may have distorted pelvic tissues during imaging and that our study population size was small. However, prospective data collection, blinded measurements by 2 trained readers, and rigorous statistical analysis should be considered strengths. CONCLUSION: By identifying preoperative risk factors, such as urethral width on MRI, we may be able to better understand the pathophysiology of this condition and furthermore may permit us to better counsel men regarding this postoperative outcome. Sullivan JF, Ortega Y, Matsushita K, et al. Climacturia After Radical Prostatectomy: MRI-Based Predictors. J Sex Med 2020;17:1723-1728.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios , Neoplasias da Próstata , Idoso , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD006590, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer but is oftentimes slow growing. When confined to the prostate, radical prostatectomy (RP), which involves removal of the prostate, offers potential cure that may come at the price of adverse events. Deferred treatment, involving observation and palliative treatment only (watchful waiting (WW)) or close monitoring and delayed local treatment with curative intent as needed in the setting of disease progression (active monitoring (AM)/surveillance (AS)) might be an alternative. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of RP compared with deferred treatment for clinically localised prostate cancer. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Library (including CDSR, CENTRAL, DARE, and HTA), MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, Web of Science, LILACS, Scopus, and OpenGrey. Additionally, we searched two trial registries and conference abstracts of three conferences (EAU, AUA, and ASCO) until 3 March 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared RP versus deferred treatment in patients with localised prostate cancer, defined as T1-2, N0, M0 prostate cancer. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of references and extracted data from included studies. The primary outcome was time to death from any cause; secondary outcomes were: time to death from prostate cancer; time to disease progression; time to metastatic disease; quality of life, including urinary and sexual function; and adverse events. We assessed the certainty of evidence per outcome using the GRADE approach.  MAIN RESULTS: We included four studies with 2635 participants (average age between 60 to 70 years). Three multicentre RCTs, from Europe and USA, compared RP with WW (n = 1537), and one compared RP with AM (n = 1098). Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting RP probably reduces the risk of death from any cause (hazard ratio (HR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.90; 3 studies with 1537 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on overall mortality at 29 years, this corresponds to 764 deaths per 1000 men in the RP group compared to 839 deaths per 1000 men in the WW group. RP probably also lowers the risk of death from prostate cancer (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.73; 2 studies with 1426 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on prostate cancer-specific mortality at 29 years, this corresponds to 195 deaths from prostate cancer per 1000 men in the RP group compared with 316 deaths from prostate cancer per 1000 men in the WW group. RP may reduce the risk of progression (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.35-0.54; 2 studies with 1426 participants; I² = 54%; low-certainty evidence); at 19.5 years, this corresponds to 391 progressions per 1000 men for the RP group compared with 684 progressions per 1000 men for the WW group) and probably reduces the risk of developing metastatic disease (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.46-0.70; 2 studies with 1426 participants; I² = 0%; moderate-certainty evidence); at 29 years, this corresponds to 271 metastatic diseases per 1000 men for RP compared with 431 metastatic diseases per 1000 men for WW. General quality of life at 12 years' follow-up is probably similar for both groups (risk ratio (RR) 1.0, 95% CI 0.85-1.16; low-certainty evidence), corresponding to 344  patients with high quality of life per 1000 men for the RP group compared with 344 patients with high quality of life per 1000 men for the WW group. Rates of urinary incontinence may be considerably higher (RR 3.97, 95% CI 2.34-6.74; low-certainty evidence), corresponding to 173 incontinent men per 1000 in the RP group compared with 44 incontinent men per 1000 in the WW group, as are rates of erectile dysfunction (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.63-4.38; low-certainty evidence), corresponding to 389 erectile dysfunction events per 1000 for the RP group compared with 146 erectile dysfunction events per 1000 for the WW group, both at 10 years' follow-up. Radical prostatectomy versus active monitoring Based on one study including 1098 participants with 10 years' follow-up, there are probably no differences between RP and AM in time to death from any cause (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.65-1.33; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on overall mortality at 10 years, this corresponds to 101 deaths per 1000 men in the RP group compared with 108 deaths per 1000 men in the AM group. Similarly, risk of death from prostate cancer probably is not different between the two groups (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.21-1.89; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on prostate cancer-specific mortality at 10 years, this corresponds to nine prostate cancer deaths per 1000 men in the RP group compared with 15 prostate cancer deaths per 1000 men in the AM group. RP probably reduces the risk of progression (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.27-0.56; moderate-certainty evidence; at 10 years, this corresponds to 86 progressions per 1000 men for RP compared with 206 progressions per 1000 men for AM) and the risk of developing metastatic disease (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.21-0.73; moderate-certainty evidence; at 10 years, this corresponds to 24 metastatic diseases per 1000 men for the RP group compared with 61 metastatic diseases per 1000 men for the AM group).The general quality of life during follow-up was not different between the treatment groups. However, urinary function (mean difference (MD) 8.60 points lower, 95% CI 11.2-6.0 lower) and sexual function (MD 14.9 points lower, 95% CI 18.5-11.3 lower) on the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26) instrument, were worse in the RP group. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on long-term follow-up, RP compared with WW probably results in substantially improved oncological outcomes in men with localised prostate cancer but also markedly increases rates of urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. These findings are largely based on men diagnosed before widespread PSA screening, thereby limiting generalisability. Compared to AM, based on follow-up to 10 years, RP probably has similar outcomes with regard to overall and disease-specific survival yet probably reduces the risks of disease progression and metastatic disease. Urinary function and sexual function are probably decreased for the patients treated with RP.


Assuntos
Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Conduta Expectante , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Progressão da Doença , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia
12.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of penile rehabilitation in restoring erectile function in patients submitted to anterior resection of the rectum (ARR) or radical prostatectomy (RP), comparing the results between these two groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a unicenter retrospective cohort study, on patients evaluated in our multidisciplinary oncosexology consultation, between January 2015 and January 2018, submitted to RP or ARR (males) and presenting sexual dysfunction. We evaluate the patient and oncologic characteristics, the type of sexual dysfunction, marital status, assessed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) on the first and last consultation and the therapeutic approach. A statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients were included, 60% (33) performed ARR and 40% (22) RP. Regarding the sexual dysfunction after surgery, erectile dysfunction (ED) was found in the majority of patients (>95%). On the initial IIEF-5 scoring, ARR and RP patients had, most frequently, severe or moderate ED (score 5-11), 78.8% and 59.1% respectively. When reassessed the IIEF-5 scoring of each patient during follow-up, there was an improvement in 69.7% of ARR patients and 72.7% of RP patients (p=0.81). Regarding the therapeutic approach, 84.8% of ARR patients used phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5I) exclusively, 3% used Alprostadil injection, while RP patients used 63.6% and 31.8%, respectively (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the technical differences of these surgeries, from the sexual point of view these patients benefit with a penile rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Alprostadil/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Erétil/reabilitação , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ereção Peniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Reto , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Curr Urol Rep ; 21(8): 30, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506179

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the evidence regarding the usage of suprapubic tube (SPT) versus indwelling urethral catheter (IUC) after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). RECENT FINDINGS: Available data on the use of SPT for urinary drainage after RARP is somewhat limited mostly because of the variations of study designs and non-standardized outcomes. Although it may provide some mild benefit in terms of catheter-related pain and discomfort, the benefit seems not to be clinically significant. The evidence in the literature so far does not support routine usage of SPT as the primary urinary drainage method after RARP. Further higher-quality studies that can show clinically significant advantages over IUC are still needed to justify its usage.


Assuntos
Drenagem/métodos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Cateterismo Urinário/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Uretra , Cateterismo Urinário/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Urinários/efeitos adversos
14.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1236-1241, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568605

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior studies suggest that nationally endorsed quality measures for prostate cancer care are not linked closely with outcomes. Using a prospective, population based cohort we measured clinically relevant variation in structure, process and outcome measures in men undergoing radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (CEASAR) Study enrolled men with clinically localized prostate cancer diagnosed from 2011 to 2012 with 1,069 meeting the final inclusion criteria. Quality of life was assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC-26) and clinical data by chart review. Six quality measures were assessed, including pelvic lymphadenectomy with risk of lymph node involvement 2% or greater, appropriate nerve sparing, negative surgical margins, urinary and sexual function, treatment by high volume surgeon, and 30-day and 1-year complications. Receipt of high quality care was compared across categories of race, age, surgeon volume and surgical approach via multivariable analysis. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in quality across race, age or surgeon volume strata, except for worse urinary incontinence in Black men. However, robotic surgery patients experienced fewer complications (3% vs 9.3% short-term and 11% vs 16% long-term), were more likely to be treated by a high volume surgeon (47% vs 25%) and demonstrated better sexual function. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort we did not identify meaningful variation in quality of care across racial groups, age groups and surgeon volume strata, suggesting that men are receiving comparable quality of care across these strata. However, we did find variation between open and robotic surgery with fewer complications, improved sexual function and increased use of high volume surgeons in the robotic group, possibly reflecting differences in quality between approaches, differences in practice patterns and/or biases in patient selection.


Assuntos
Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ereção Peniana/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/normas , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/normas , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
15.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(5): 1529-1537, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442334

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study is to ascertain whether an early three-month treatment with electrotherapy and biofeedback restores continence in urinary incontinence patients after radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: Design: The study performed a randomized, controlled trial of parallel and open groups. Configuration: Secondary care, urology department of a university hospital complex. PARTICIPANTS: Patients sent for RP due to prostate cancer (n = 60), 47 patients finally completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: The treatment group (TG) received physiotherapy consisting of electrotherapy and biofeedback, 3 days a week for 3 months, while the control group (CG) received no specific treatment. Both groups received a guide to perform pelvic floor exercises at home. The measurement instruments used were the 1- and 24-hour pad tests and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short-Form. The recording method used was a micturition (urinary) diary. RESULTS: The results of the 1-hour pad test (PT) show statistically significant differences between groups at 3 months (P = .001) and 6 months (P = .001), in favor of those in the TG. Sixty-four percent of patients in the TG recovered continence as against 9.1% in the CG after 3 months in the 1-hour PT, in line with the objective of this study. CONCLUSIONS: An early physiotherapy program helps RP patients with urinary incontinence recover continence after 3 months. Moreover, they lead a better quality life.


Assuntos
Diafragma da Pelve/fisiopatologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Incontinência Urinária/terapia , Idoso , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/métodos , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária/fisiopatologia
16.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(5): 1538-1542, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449543

RESUMO

AIMS: Measuring the urethral circumference accurately during artificial urethral sphincter (AUS) placement is an important technical aspect to optimize the selection of cuff size. Differing methods exist for this step with some experts recommending measurement with no urethral catheter in place. In this prospective observational trial, we compared urethral measurements with and without an indwelling catheter to determine if the presence of a catheter affects the circumferential measurement. METHODS: With IRB approval, we prospectively collected data on consecutive cases of transperineal male AUS implantation. Urethral circumference was measured with no urethral catheter (0 French [Fr]), 12Fr, and 16Fr Foley catheters in the urethra. The final measurements and cuff size chosen were recorded. A comparison was made between each measurement using Spearman's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: A total of 54 patients were included, the majority of whom (92.6%) underwent AUS placement for postprostatectomy incontinence. The three urethral circumference measurements were highly correlated (0Fr vs 12Fr, ρ = 0.96, P < .001, mean difference 1 mm) (0Fr vs 16Fr, ρ = 0.94, P < .001, mean difference 2 mm) (12Fr vs 16Fr, ρ = 0.96, P < .001, mean difference 1 mm). Patients with a history of radiation had a lower mean urethral circumference than those who had never been radiated (4.78 cm vs 5.3 cm, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Urethral circumference measurement during AUS implantation is not influenced by the presence of a 12 or 16Fr Foley catheter when compared to no catheter in the urethra. Measurement of the urethral circumference can, therefore, be accurately performed with or without a catheter in place, depending on the surgeon's preference.


Assuntos
Uretra/cirurgia , Cateterismo Urinário , Cateteres Urinários , Incontinência Urinária/cirurgia , Esfíncter Urinário Artificial , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Reoperação , Bexiga Urinária , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
17.
J Urol ; 204(5): 956-961, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379565

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the multi-institutional safety of same day discharge for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy within a single health care system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 358 patients undergoing planned same day discharge for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy at 6 French centers. Primary outcomes were same day discharge failure, and 30-day complication and readmission rates. Secondary outcomes included preoperative characteristics, perioperative parameters, Chung score and pain visual analogue scale at discharge, pathological features and followup. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 64.7 years. Mean operative time and blood loss were 147.5 minutes and 228 ml, respectively. Concomitant lymph node dissection and nerve sparing procedures were performed in 43% and 62% of cases, respectively. No patient required transfusion or conversion. The same day discharge failure, complication and readmission rates were 4.2%, 16.8% and 2.8%, respectively. The most frequent complications were low grade complications including urinary infection (6.4%) and ileus (2.8%). Blood loss, lymph node dissection and pain visual analogue scale were significantly correlated with same day discharge failure. Same day discharge failure was reported in 7.8% of patients with pelvic lymph node dissection compared with only 1.5% of patients who did not undergo lymph node dissection (p=0.003). ASA® score was the only factor significantly associated with postoperative complications (p=0.023). The only factor correlated with readmission was the pain visual analogue scale at discharge (p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: This first multi-institutional evaluation confirms the safety of same day discharge robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in a single health care system and identifies for the first time factors associated with same day discharge failure and readmission. These findings may help physicians anticipate ideal same day discharge candidates and adapt postoperative followup.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/efeitos adversos , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada/normas , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/normas , Estudos de Viabilidade , França , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo/efeitos adversos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Excisão de Linfonodo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Alta do Paciente/normas , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/normas , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/métodos , Prostatectomia/normas , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 39(5): 1417-1422, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a major component of the post radical prostatectomy (RP) trifecta. Surgical treatments are sub-urethral slings, artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) and adjustable peri-urethral balloons (PUB) ProACT. All options are imperfect at best and persistent SUI is challenging when AUS is not manageable. AIMS: This study analyzed the cumulate experience of our 2 centers with offering PUB implantation for SUI post RP in patients with insufficient improvement from slings. MATERIALS & METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed all patients implanted with second line ProACT. The primary endpoint was continence, defined as 0 pads per day (PPD). The secondary endpoints were 50% decrease in PPD and increases in the Incontinence Quality of Life score (IQOL). Refilling and complications were reported. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2016, 26 patients were implanted. Five patients have had adjuvant radiotherapy (18%). The mean follow-up was 36 months (±20; min 14-max 128). All patient presented with persistent SUI, using 2.3 PPD (±1; min 1-max 6), and only one sling was removed due to infection. After ProACT with an average 3 mL refilling (±1.2 min 2-max 6), 18 patients (66.7%) were continent. Eight of the remaining patients (29.6%) were improved; their number of PPD decreased from 2.6 to 1. The average IQOL score of those 8 patients increased by 20 points, from 53.4 up to 74.2 (P = .005). Overall 26 patients (96.3%) were improved. The remaining patient was not implanted because of an intraoperative urethral injury and is considered a failed case (3.7%). He had instead an AUS implantation. Three patients (14.8%) needed PUB replacement. CONCLUSION: The limited population of patients from both our centers who presented with persistent SUI after RP, despite sling placement, improved with PUB ProACT implantations without significant complications.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Slings Suburetrais , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/terapia , Esfíncter Urinário Artificial , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Uretra/fisiopatologia , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/psicologia
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