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1.
J Vis Exp ; (206)2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709077

RESUMO

Most in vitro models lack the capacity to fully probe bacterial phenotypes emerging from the complex interactions observed in real-life environments. This is particularly true in the context of hard-to-treat, chronic, and polymicrobial biofilm-based infections detected in the airways of individuals living with cystic fibrosis (CF), a multiorgan genetic disease. While multiple microbiome studies have defined the microbial compositions detected in the airway of people with CF (pwCF), no in vitro models thus far have fully integrated critical CF-relevant lung features. Therefore, a significant knowledge gap exists in the capacity to investigate the mechanisms driving the pathogenesis of mixed species CF lung infections. Here, we describe a recently developed four-species microbial community model, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Prevotella melaninogenica grown in CF-like conditions. Through the utilization of this system, clinically relevant phenotypes such as antimicrobial recalcitrance of several pathogens were observed and explored at the molecular level. The usefulness of this in vitro model resides in its standardized workflow that can facilitate the study of interspecies interactions in the context of chronic CF lung infections.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Fibrose Cística , Fenótipo , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Streptococcus sanguis/fisiologia , Prevotella melaninogenica/genética
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 19: 3861-3890, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708178

RESUMO

Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections persistent to antibiotics. Methods: To eradicate pseudomonal biofilms, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded with quorum-sensing-inhibitor (QSI, disrupting bacterial crosstalk), coated with chitosan (CS, improving internalization) and immobilized with alginate lyase (AL, destroying alginate biofilms) were developed. Results: SLNs (140-205 nm) showed prolonged release of QSI with no sign of acute toxicity to A549 and Calu-3 cells. The CS coating improved uptake, whereas immobilized-AL ensured >1.5-fold higher uptake and doubled SLN diffusion across the artificial biofilm sputum model. Respirable microparticles comprising SLNs in carbohydrate matrix elicited aerodynamic diameters MMAD (3.54, 2.48 µm) and fine-particle-fraction FPF (65, 48%) for anionic and cationic SLNs, respectively. The antimicrobial and/or antibiofilm activity of SLNs was explored in Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference mucoid/nonmucoid strains as well as clinical isolates. The full growth inhibition of planktonic bacteria was dependent on SLN type, concentration, growth medium, and strain. OD measurements and live/dead staining proved that anionic SLNs efficiently ceased biofilm formation and eradicated established biofilms, whereas cationic SLNs unexpectedly promoted biofilm progression. AL immobilization increased biofilm vulnerability; instead, CS coating increased biofilm formation confirmed by 3D-time lapse confocal imaging. Incubation of SLNs with mature biofilms of P. aeruginosa isolates increased biofilm density by an average of 1.5-fold. CLSM further confirmed the binding and uptake of the labeled SLNs in P. aeruginosa biofilms. Considerable uptake of CS-coated SLNs in non-mucoid strains could be observed presumably due to interaction of chitosan with LPS glycolipids in the outer cell membrane of P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: The biofilm-destructive potential of QSI/SLNs/AL inhalation is promising for site-specific biofilm-targeted interventional CF therapy. Nevertheless, the intrinsic/extrinsic fundamentals of nanocarrier-biofilm interactions require further investigation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Biofilmes , Quitosana , Lipossomos , Nanopartículas , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Humanos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Quitosana/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Lipídeos/química , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Alginatos/química
3.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 173, 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The persistent surge in antimicrobial resistance represents a global disaster. The initial attachment and maturation of microbial biofilms are intimately related to antimicrobial resistance, which in turn exacerbates the challenge of eradicating bacterial infections. Consequently, there is a pressing need for novel therapies to be employed either independently or as adjuvants to diminish bacterial virulence and pathogenicity. In this context, we propose a novel approach focusing on vitamin D and vitamin K1 as potential antibiofilm agents that target Gram-negative bacteria which are hazardous to human health. RESULTS: Out of 130 Gram-negative bacterial isolates, 117 were confirmed to be A. baumannii (21 isolates, 17.9%), K. pneumoniae (40 isolates, 34.2%) and P. aeruginosa (56 isolates, 47.9%). The majority of the isolates were obtained from blood and wound specimens (27.4% each). Most of the isolates exhibited high resistance rates to ß-lactams (60.7-100%), ciprofloxacin (62.5-100%), amikacin (53.6-76.2%) and gentamicin (65-71.4%). Approximately 93.2% of the isolates were biofilm producers, with 6.8% categorized as weak, 42.7% as moderate, and 50.4% as strong biofilm producers. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of vitamin D and vitamin K1 were 625-1250 µg mL-1 and 2500-5000 µg mL-1, respectively, against A. baumannii (A5, A20 and A21), K. pneumoniae (K25, K27 and K28), and P. aeruginosa (P8, P16, P24 and P27) clinical isolates and standard strains A. baumannii (ATCC 19606 and ATCC 17978), K. pneumoniae (ATCC 51503) and P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PAO14. Both vitamins significantly decreased bacterial attachment and significantly eradicated mature biofilms developed by the selected standard and clinical Gram-negative isolates. The anti-biofilm effects of both supplements were confirmed by a notable decrease in the relative expression of the biofilm-encoding genes cusD, bssS and pelA in A. baumannii A5, K. pneumoniae K28 and P. aeruginosa P16, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the anti-biofilm activity of vitamins D and K1 against the tested Gram-negative strains, which emphasizes the potential of these vitamins for use as adjuvant therapies to increase the efficacy of treatment for infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains and biofilm-forming phenotypes. However, further validation through in vivo studies is needed to confirm these promising results.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Biofilmes , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Vitamina D , Vitamina K 1 , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Vitamina K 1/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/fisiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 26(5): 858-869, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38687259

RESUMO

Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a disinfectant with broad-spectrum antibacterial properties, yet despite its widespread use and detection in the environment, the effects of BAC exposure on microorganisms remain poorly documented. Herein, the impacts of BAC on a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain Jade-X were systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of BAC against strain Jade-X was 64 mg L-1. Exposure to BAC concentrations of 8, 16, 32, and 64 mg L-1 significantly augmented biofilm formation by 2.03-, 2.43-, 2.96-, and 2.56-fold respectively. The swimming and twitching abilities, along with the virulence factor production, were inhibited. Consistently, quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays revealed significant downregulation of genes related to flagellate- and pili-mediated motilities (flgD, flgE, pilB, pilQ, and motB), as well as phzA and phzB genes involved in pyocyanin production. The results of disk diffusion and MIC assays demonstrated that BAC decreased the antibiotic susceptibility of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, and tetracycline. Conversely, an opposite trend was observed for polymyxin B and ceftriaxone. Genomic analysis revealed that strain Jade-X harbored eleven resistance-nodulation-cell division efflux pumps, with mexCD-oprJ exhibiting significant upregulation while mexEF-oprN and mexGHI-opmD were downregulated. In addition, the quorum sensing-related regulators LasR and RhlR were also suppressed, implying that BAC might modulate the physiological and biochemical behaviors of strain Jade-X by attenuating the quorum sensing system. This study enhances our understanding of interactions between BAC and P. aeruginosa, providing valuable insights to guide the regulation and rational use of BAC.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Compostos de Benzalcônio , Biofilmes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(5): e0028624, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624196

RESUMO

Host-parasite interactions are highly susceptible to changes in temperature due to mismatches in species thermal responses. In nature, parasites often exist in communities, and responses to temperature are expected to vary between host-parasite pairs. Temperature change thus has consequences for both host-parasite dynamics and parasite-parasite interactions. Here, we investigate the impact of warming (37°C, 40°C, and 42°C) on parasite life-history traits and competition using the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (host) and a panel of three genetically diverse lytic bacteriophages (parasites). We show that phages vary in their responses to temperature. While 37°C and 40°C did not have a major effect on phage infectivity, infection by two phages was restricted at 42°C. This outcome was attributed to disruption of different phage life-history traits including host attachment and replication inside hosts. Furthermore, we show that temperature mediates competition between phages by altering their competitiveness. These results highlight phage trait variation across thermal regimes with the potential to drive community dynamics. Our results have important implications for eukaryotic viromes and the design of phage cocktail therapies.IMPORTANCEMammalian hosts often elevate their body temperatures through fevers to restrict the growth of bacterial infections. However, the extent to which fever temperatures affect the communities of phages with the ability to parasitize those bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the impact of warming across a fever temperature range (37°C, 40°C, and 42°C) on phage life-history traits and competition using a bacterium (host) and bacteriophage (parasite) system. We show that phages vary in their responses to temperature due to disruption of different phage life-history traits. Furthermore, we show that temperature can alter phage competitiveness and shape phage-phage competition outcomes. These results suggest that fever temperatures have the potential to restrict phage infectivity and drive phage community dynamics. We discuss implications for the role of temperature in shaping host-parasite interactions more widely.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/virologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Fagos de Pseudomonas/fisiologia , Fagos de Pseudomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Características de História de Vida , Temperatura
6.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 170(4)2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38687006

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance poses an escalating global threat, rendering traditional drug development approaches increasingly ineffective. Thus, novel alternatives to antibiotic-based therapies are needed. Exploiting pathogen cooperation as a strategy for combating resistant infections has been proposed but lacks experimental validation. Empirical findings demonstrate the successful invasion of cooperating populations by non-cooperating cheats, effectively reducing virulence in vitro and in vivo. The idea of harnessing cooperative behaviours for therapeutic benefit involves exploitation of the invasive capabilities of cheats to drive medically beneficial traits into infecting populations of cells. In this study, we employed Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing cheats to drive antibiotic sensitivity into both in vitro and in vivo resistant populations. We demonstrated the successful invasion of cheats, followed by increased antibiotic effectiveness against cheat-invaded populations, thereby establishing an experimental proof of principle for the potential application of the Trojan strategy in fighting resistant infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Percepção de Quorum , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
7.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647527

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a cause of chronic respiratory tract infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prolonged infection allows the accumulation of mutations and horizontal gene transfer, increasing the likelihood of adaptive phenotypic traits. Adaptation is proposed to arise first in bacterial populations colonizing upper airway environments. Here, we model this process using an experimental evolution approach. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, which is not airway adapted, was serially passaged, separately, in media chemically reflective of upper or lower airway environments. To explore whether the CF environment selects for unique traits, we separately passaged PAO1 in airway-mimicking media with or without CF-specific factors. Our findings demonstrated that all airway environments-sinus and lungs, under CF and non-CF conditions-selected for loss of twitching motility, increased resistance to multiple antibiotic classes, and a hyper-biofilm phenotype. These traits conferred increased airway colonization potential in an in vivo model. CF-like conditions exerted stronger selective pressures, leading to emergence of more pronounced phenotypes. Loss of twitching was associated with mutations in type IV pili genes. Type IV pili mediate surface attachment, twitching, and induction of cAMP signalling. We additionally identified multiple evolutionary routes to increased biofilm formation involving regulation of cyclic-di-GMP signalling. These included the loss of function mutations in bifA and dipA phosphodiesterase genes and activating mutations in the siaA phosphatase. These data highlight that airway environments select for traits associated with sessile lifestyles and suggest upper airway niches support emergence of phenotypes that promote establishment of lung infection.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Biofilmes , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Pulmão/microbiologia , Fímbrias Bacterianas/genética , Fímbrias Bacterianas/metabolismo , Sistemas do Segundo Mensageiro , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Camundongos , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , GMP Cíclico/análogos & derivados , Mutação , Fenótipo
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9354, 2024 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38653744

RESUMO

Phage-antibiotic combinations to treat bacterial infections are gaining increased attention due to the synergistic effects often observed when applying both components together. Most studies however focus on a single pathogen, although in many clinical cases multiple species are present at the site of infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-biofilm activity of phage-antibiotic/antifungal combinations on single- and dual-species biofilms formed by P. aeruginosa and the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. The Pseudomonas phage Motto in combination with ciprofloxacin had significant anti-biofilm activity. We then compared biofilms formed by P. aeruginosa alone with the dual-species biofilms formed by bacteria and C. albicans. Here, we found that the phage together with the antifungal fluconazole was active against 6-h-old dual-species biofilms but showed only negligible activity against 24-h-old biofilms. This study lays the first foundation for potential therapeutic approaches to treat co-infections caused by bacteria and fungi using phage-antibiotic combinations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Biofilmes , Candida albicans , Ciprofloxacina , Fagos de Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/virologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fagos de Pseudomonas/fisiologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(4): e1012031, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669236

RESUMO

With the generation of spatially resolved transcriptomics of microbial biofilms, computational tools can be used to integrate this data to elucidate the multi-scale mechanisms controlling heterogeneous biofilm metabolism. This work presents a Multi-scale model of Metabolism In Cellular Systems (MiMICS) which is a computational framework that couples a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction (GENRE) with Hybrid Automata Library (HAL), an existing agent-based model and reaction-diffusion model platform. A key feature of MiMICS is the ability to incorporate multiple -omics-guided metabolic models, which can represent unique metabolic states that yield different metabolic parameter values passed to the extracellular models. We used MiMICS to simulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulation of denitrification and oxidative stress metabolism in hypoxic and nitric oxide (NO) biofilm microenvironments. Integration of P. aeruginosa PA14 biofilm spatial transcriptomic data into a P. aeruginosa PA14 GENRE generated four PA14 metabolic model states that were input into MiMICS. Characteristic of aerobic, denitrification, and oxidative stress metabolism, the four metabolic model states predicted different oxygen, nitrate, and NO exchange fluxes that were passed as inputs to update the agent's local metabolite concentrations in the extracellular reaction-diffusion model. Individual bacterial agents chose a PA14 metabolic model state based on a combination of stochastic rules, and agents sensing local oxygen and NO. Transcriptome-guided MiMICS predictions suggested microscale denitrification and oxidative stress metabolic heterogeneity emerged due to local variability in the NO biofilm microenvironment. MiMICS accurately predicted the biofilm's spatial relationships between denitrification, oxidative stress, and central carbon metabolism. As simulated cells responded to extracellular NO, MiMICS revealed dynamics of cell populations heterogeneously upregulating reactions in the denitrification pathway, which may function to maintain NO levels within non-toxic ranges. We demonstrated that MiMICS is a valuable computational tool to incorporate multiple -omics-guided metabolic models to mechanistically map heterogeneous microbial metabolic states to the biofilm microenvironment.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Modelos Biológicos , Estresse Oxidativo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Transcriptoma , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Biologia Computacional , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Desnitrificação
10.
Langmuir ; 40(17): 9134-9143, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636482

RESUMO

Wound healing has been a persistent clinical challenge for a long time. Electrical stimulation is an effective therapy with the potential to accelerate wound healing. In this work, the self-powered electrospun nanofiber membranes (triples) were constructed as multifunctional wound dressings with electrical stimulation and biochemical capabilities. Triple was composed of a hydrolyzable inner layer with antiseptic and hemostatic chitosan, a hydrophilic core layer loaded with conductive AgNWs, and a hydrophobic outer layer fabricated by self-powered PVDF. Triple exhibited presentable wettability and acceptable moisture permeability. Electrical performance tests indicated that triple can transmit electrical signals formed by the piezoelectric effect to the wound. High antibacterial activities were observed for triple against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with inhibition rates of 96.52, 98.63, and 97.26%, respectively. In vitro cell assays demonstrated that triple cells showed satisfactory proliferation and mobility. A whole blood clotting test showed that triple can enhance hemostasis. The innovative self-powered multifunctional fibers presented in this work offer a promising approach to addressing complications and expediting the promotion of chronic wound healing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Nanofibras , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Cicatrização , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanofibras/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Quitosana/química , Humanos , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Viruses ; 16(4)2024 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38675985

RESUMO

The phage PRR1 belongs to the Leviviridae family, a group of ssRNA bacteriophages that infect Gram-negative bacteria. The variety of host cells is determined by the specificity of PRR1 to a pilus encoded by a broad host range of IncP-type plasmids that confer multiple types of antibiotic resistance to the host. Using P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 as a host, we analyzed the PRR1 infection cycle, focusing on cell lysis. PRR1 infection renders P. aeruginosa cells sensitive to lysozyme approximately 20 min before the start of a drop in suspension turbidity. At the same time, infected cells start to accumulate lipophilic anions. The on-line monitoring of the entire infection cycle showed that single-gene-mediated lysis strongly depends on the host cells' physiological state. The blockage of respiration or a reduction in the intracellular ATP concentration during the infection resulted in the inhibition of lysis. The same effect was observed when the synthesis of PRR1 lysis protein was induced in an E. coli expression system. In addition, lysis was strongly dependent on the level of aeration. Dissolved oxygen concentrations sufficient to support cell growth did not ensure efficient lysis, and a coupling between cell lysis initiation and aeration level was observed. However, the duration of the drop in suspension turbidity did not depend on the level of aeration.


Assuntos
Bacteriólise , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/virologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Fagos de Pseudomonas/fisiologia , Fagos de Pseudomonas/genética , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Bacteriófagos/genética , Escherichia coli/virologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Muramidase/metabolismo
12.
Microb Pathog ; 190: 106624, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492828

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is widely associated with biofilm-mediated antibiotic resistant chronic and acute infections which constitute a persistent healthcare challenges. Addressing this threat requires exploration of novel therapeutic strategies involving the combination of natural compounds and conventional antibiotics. Hence, our study has focused on two compounds; cuminaldehyde and ciprofloxacin, which were strategically combined to target the biofilm challenge of P. aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cuminaldehyde and ciprofloxacin was found to be 400 µg/mL and 0.4 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI = 0.62) indicated an additive interaction prevailed between cuminaldehyde and ciprofloxacin. Subsequently, sub-MIC doses of cuminaldehyde (25 µg/mL) and ciprofloxacin (0.05 µg/mL) were selected for an array of antibiofilm assays which confirmed their biofilm inhibitory potential without exhibiting any antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, selected doses of the mentioned compounds could manage biofilm on catheter surface by inhibiting and disintegrating existing biofilm. Additionally, the test combination of the mentioned compounds reduced virulence factors secretion, accumulated reactive oxygen species and increased cell-membrane permeability. Thus, the combination of cuminaldehyde and ciprofloxacin demonstrates potential in combating biofilm-associated Pseudomonal threats.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Benzaldeídos , Biofilmes , Ciprofloxacina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Benzaldeídos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência , Cimenos/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
13.
Cell ; 187(8): 1874-1888.e14, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518773

RESUMO

Infections of the lung cause observable sickness thought to be secondary to inflammation. Signs of sickness are crucial to alert others via behavioral-immune responses to limit contact with contagious individuals. Gram-negative bacteria produce exopolysaccharide (EPS) that provides microbial protection; however, the impact of EPS on sickness remains uncertain. Using genome-engineered Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains, we compared EPS-producers versus non-producers and a virulent Escherichia coli (E. coli) lung infection model in male and female mice. EPS-negative P. aeruginosa and virulent E. coli infection caused severe sickness, behavioral alterations, inflammation, and hypothermia mediated by TLR4 detection of the exposed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in lung TRPV1+ sensory neurons. However, inflammation did not account for sickness. Stimulation of lung nociceptors induced acute stress responses in the paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei by activating corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons responsible for sickness behavior and hypothermia. Thus, EPS-producing biofilm pathogens evade initiating a lung-brain sensory neuronal response that results in sickness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Pulmão , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Biofilmes , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Hipotermia/metabolismo , Hipotermia/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/patologia , Nociceptores/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473902

RESUMO

The increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics in recent years demands innovative strategies for the detection and combating of biofilms, which are notoriously resilient. Biofilms, particularly those on contact lenses, can lead to biofilm-related infections (e.g., conjunctivitis and keratitis), posing a significant risk to patients. Non-destructive and non-contact sensing techniques are essential in addressing this threat. Digital holographic tomography emerges as a promising solution. This allows for the 3D reconstruction of the refractive index distribution in biological samples, enabling label-free visualization and the quantitative analysis of biofilms. This tool provides insight into the dynamics of biofilm formation and maturation on the surface of transparent materials. Applying digital holographic tomography for biofilm examination has the potential to advance our ability to combat the antibiotic bacterial resistance crisis. A recent study focused on characterizing biofilm formation and maturation on six soft contact lens materials (three silicone hydrogels, three hydrogels), with a particular emphasis on Staphylococcus epidermis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, both common culprits in ocular infections. The results revealed species- and time-dependent variations in the refractive indexes and volumes of biofilms, shedding light on cell dynamics, cell death, and contact lens material-related factors. The use of digital holographic tomography enables the quantitative analysis of biofilm dynamics, providing us with a better understanding and characterization of bacterial biofilms.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Humanos , Bactérias , Antibacterianos , Hidrogéis , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia
15.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 10(1): 30, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521769

RESUMO

Biofilms are surface-associated communities of bacteria that grow in a self-produced matrix of polysaccharides, proteins, and extracellular DNA (eDNA). Sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MIC) of antibiotics induce biofilm formation, potentially as a defensive response to antibiotic stress. However, the mechanisms behind sub-MIC antibiotic-induced biofilm formation are unclear. We show that treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with multiple classes of sub-MIC antibiotics with distinct targets induces biofilm formation. Further, addition of exogenous eDNA or cell lysate failed to increase biofilm formation to the same extent as antibiotics, suggesting that the release of cellular contents by antibiotic-driven bacteriolysis is insufficient. Using a genetic screen for stimulation-deficient mutants, we identified the outer membrane porin OprF and the ECF sigma factor SigX as important. Similarly, loss of OmpA - the Escherichia coli OprF homolog - prevented sub-MIC antibiotic stimulation of E. coli biofilms. Our screen also identified the periplasmic disulfide bond-forming enzyme DsbA and a predicted cyclic-di-GMP phosphodiesterase encoded by PA2200 as essential for biofilm stimulation. The phosphodiesterase activity of PA2200 is likely controlled by a disulfide bond in its regulatory domain, and folding of OprF is influenced by disulfide bond formation, connecting the mutant phenotypes. Addition of reducing agent dithiothreitol prevented sub-MIC antibiotic biofilm stimulation. Finally, activation of a c-di-GMP-responsive promoter follows treatment with sub-MIC antibiotics in the wild-type but not an oprF mutant. Together, these results show that antibiotic-induced biofilm formation is likely driven by a signaling pathway that translates changes in periplasmic redox state into elevated biofilm formation through increases in c-di-GMP.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases , Dissulfetos/metabolismo
16.
J Innate Immun ; 16(1): 143-158, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upon infection, mucosal tissues activate a brisk inflammatory response to clear the pathogen, i.e., resistance to disease. Resistance to disease is orchestrated by tissue-resident macrophages, which undergo profound metabolic reprogramming after sensing the pathogen. These metabolically activated macrophages release many inflammatory factors, which promote their bactericidal function. However, in immunocompetent individuals, pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella evade this type of immunity, generating communities that thrive for the long term. SUMMARY: These organisms develop features that render them less susceptible to eradication, such as biofilms and increased tolerance to antibiotics. Furthermore, after antibiotic therapy withdrawal, "persister" cells rapidly upsurge, triggering inflammatory relapses that worsen host health. How these pathogens persisted in inflamed tissues replete with activated macrophages remains poorly understood. KEY MESSAGES: In this review, we discuss recent findings indicating that the ability of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and Salmonella to evolve biofilms and antibiotic tolerance is promoted by the similar metabolic routes that regulate macrophage metabolic reprogramming.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Biofilmes , Macrófagos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Animais , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/imunologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Evasão da Resposta Imune
17.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 34(4): 795-803, 2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303126

RESUMO

Microorganisms usually coexist as a multifaceted polymicrobial community in the natural habitats and at mucosal sites of the human body. Two opportunistic human pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus commonly coexist in the bacterial infections for hospitalized and/or immunocompromised patients. Here, we observed that autolysis of the P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing (QS) mutant (lasRmvfR) was suppressed by the presence of the S. aureus cells in vitro. The QS mutant still displayed killing against S. aureus cells, suggesting the link between the S. aureus-killing activity and the autolysis suppression. Independent screens of the P. aeruginosa transposon mutants defective in the S. aureus-killing and the S. aureus transposon mutants devoid of the autolysis suppression revealed the genetic link between both phenotypes, suggesting that the iron-dependent metabolism involving S. aureus exoproteins might be central to both phenotypes. The autolysis was suppressed by iron treatment as well. These results suggest that the interaction between P. aeruginosa and S. aureus might be governed by mechanisms that necessitate the QS circuitry as well as the metabolism involving the extracellular iron resources during the polymicrobial infections in the human airway.


Assuntos
Ferro , Mutação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Percepção de Quorum , Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Humanos , Bacteriólise , Interações Microbianas , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis
18.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338303

RESUMO

The development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms is a major global health concern. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in antimicrobial peptides as a therapeutic option. This study aimed to evaluate the triple-action (broad-spectrum antibacterial, anti-biofilm, and anti-quorum sensing activities) of melittin, a membrane-active peptide present in bee venom. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the melittin were determined using the microdilution method and agar plate counting. Growth curve analysis revealed that melittin showed a concentration-dependent antibacterial activity. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed that melittin treatment altered the morphology. Confocal laser scanning microscope revealed that melittin increased the membrane permeability and intracellular ROS generation in bacteria, all of which contribute to bacterial cell death. In addition, the crystal violet (CV) assay was used to test the anti-biofilm activity. The CV assay demonstrated that melittin inhibited biofilm formation and eradicated mature biofilms. Biofilm formation mediated by quorum sensing (QS) plays a major role in this regard, so molecular docking and molecular dynamics analysis confirmed that melittin interacts with LasR receptors through hydrogen bonds, and further evaluates the anti-QS activity of melittin through the production of virulence factors (pyocyanin, elastase, and rhamnolipid), exopolysaccharides secretion, and bacterial motility, that may be the key to inhibiting the biofilm formation mechanism. The present findings highlight the promising role of melittin as a broad-spectrum antibacterial, anti-biofilm agent, and potential QS inhibitor, providing a new perspective and theoretical basis for the development of alternative antibiotics.


Assuntos
Meliteno , Percepção de Quorum , Meliteno/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Biofilmes , Antibacterianos/química , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia
19.
Microb Pathog ; 188: 106562, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307370

RESUMO

Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) can package and deliver virulence factors into host cells, which is an important mechanism mediating host-pathogen interactions. It has been reported that small RNAs (sRNAs) can be packed into OMVs with varying relative abundance, which might affect the function and/or stability of host mRNAs. In this study, we used OptiPrep density gradient ultra-high-speed centrifugation to purify OMVs from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Next, the sequences and abundance of sRNAs were detected by using Small RNA-Seq. In particular, sRNA4518698, sRNA2316613 and sRNA809738 were the three most abundant sRNAs in OMVs, which are all fragments of P. aeruginosa non-coding RNAs. sRNAs were shielded within the interior of OMVs and remained resistant to external RNase cleavage. The miRanda and RNAhybrid analysis demonstrated that those sRNAs could target a large number of host mRNAs, which were enriched in host immune responses by the functions of GO and KEGG enrichment. Experimentally, we demonstrated that the transfection of synthetic sRNA4518698, sRNA2316613, or sRNA809738 could reduce the expression of innate immune response genes in RAW264.7 cells. Together, we demonstrated that P. aeruginosa OMVs sRNAs can regulate innate immune responses. This study uncovered a mechanism in which the OMVs regulate host responses by transferring bacterial sRNAs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Imunidade Inata , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
20.
Viruses ; 16(1)2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38275975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inovirus Pf4 is a lysogenic bacteriophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa). People with Cystic Fibrosis (pwCF) experience chronic airway infection with Pa and a significant proportion have high numbers of Pf4 in their airway secretions. Given the known severe damage in the airways of Pa-infected pwCF, we hypothesized a high Pf4 burden can affect airway healing and inflammatory responses. In the airway, basal epithelial cells (BCs) are a multipotent stem cell population critical to epithelium homeostasis and repair. We sought to investigate the transcriptional responses of BCs under conditions that emulate infection with Pa and exposure to high Pf4 burden. METHODS: Primary BCs isolated from pwCF and wild-type (WT) donors were cultured in vitro and exposed to Pf4 or bacterial Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) followed by transcriptomic and functional assays. RESULTS: We found that BCs internalized Pf4 and this elicits a strong antiviral response as well as neutrophil chemokine production. Further, we found that BCs that take up Pf4 demonstrate defective migration and proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are highly suggestive of Pf4 playing a role in the pathogenicity of Pa in the airways. These findings provide additional evidence for the ability of inoviruses to interact with mammalian cells and disrupt cell function.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Animais , Humanos , Sistema Respiratório , Células Epiteliais , Epitélio , Proliferação de Células , Antivirais , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Mamíferos
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