Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.791
Filtrar
1.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(8): 3275-3284, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331255

RESUMO

What makes a task hard or easy? The question seems easy, but answering it has been hard. The only consensus has been that, all else being equal, easy tasks can be performed by more individuals than hard tasks, and easy tasks are usually preferred over hard tasks. Feghhi and Rosenbaum (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 45, 983-994, 2019) asked whether task difficulty might reflect a single amodal quantity. Based on their subjects' two-alternative forced-choice data from tasks involving choices of tasks with graded physical and mental challenges, the authors showed that the difficulty of passing through a narrow gap rather than a wide gap was psychologically equivalent to memorizing an extra .55 digits. In the present study, we extended this approach by adding new arguments for the hypothesis that task difficulty might reflect a single amodal quantity (inspired by considerations of physics, economics, and the common code hypothesis for the study of perception and action), and we tested narrower gaps than before to see whether we would find a larger equivalent memory-digit. Consistent with our prediction, we obtained a value of .95. We suggest that our multi-modal two-alternative forced-choice procedure can pave the way toward a better understanding of task difficulty.


Assuntos
Psicologia Experimental , Humanos
2.
Salud bienestar colect ; 5(1): 64-71, ene.-abr. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352367

RESUMO

La tesis central sostenida en este breve escrito es que la autonomización de la psicología respecto de la filosofía no se debió fundamentalmente a razones epistémicas, esto es, a la delimitación de un objeto de investigación propio, ni al empleo del método experimental. La automatización de la psicología se debió fundamentalmente a razones políticas que luego hicieron posible que pueda reclamar para sí misma ese objeto y ese método. Kurt Danziger permite sostener esta afirmación a partir de la identificación de tres condiciones históricas de posibilidad para dicha autonomización: a) la definición un objeto de estudio, b) el establecimiento de un método de investigación y c) la institucionalización de la relación entre ese objeto y ese método. Estas tres condiciones, a su vez, pueden ser interpretadas en dos niveles de análisis considerando la crítica que formula el filósofo chileno Carlos Pérez a la superioridad del conocimiento científico sostenida por Imre Lakatos. En un primer nivel, de carácter epistémico, se pueden ubicar las dos primeras condiciones históricas que refieren únicamente a las diversas formas de relación entre objetos y métodos. En un segundo nivel, de carácter político, se puede ubicar la tercera condición histórica que refiere a las instituciones que producen esas diversas formas de relación entre objetos y métodos. Junto a Pérez se puede sostener que históricamente la psicología, así como el resto del conocimiento científico, fundará su superioridad frente a otras formas de conocimiento psicológico a partir de su rápida institucionalización y consecuente control sobre la producción del saber psicológico.


The central thesis of brief writing is that the autonomization of psychology to philosophy was not due fundamentally to epistemic reasons -that is, to the delimitation of an object of own research, nor the use of the experimental method. The autonomization of psychology was fundamentally due to political reasons that later made it possible to claim that object and that method for itself. Kurt Danziger allows to sustain this statement by identifying three historical conditions of possibility for said autonomization: a) the definition of an object of study; b) the establishment of a research method; and c) the institutionalization of the relationship between that object and that method. These three conditions, in turn, can be interpreted at two levels of analysis, considering the critique of the Chilean philosopher Carlos Pérez to the superiority of scientific knowledge sustained by Imre Lakatos. At a first level -of an epistemic nature, the first two historical conditions can be located that refer only to the various forms of relationship between objects and methods. At a second level -of a political nature, the third historical condition can be located, which refers to the institutions that produce these various forms of relationship between objects and methods. Along with Pérez, it can be argued that historically psychology -as well as the rest of scientific knowledge, founded its superiority over other forms of psychological knowledge based on its rapid institutionalization and consequent control over the production of psychological knowledge.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , História do Século XIX , Psicologia/história , Psicologia Social , Política , Teoria Psicológica , Psicologia Experimental/história , Conhecimento
3.
Psychol Methods ; 26(3): 295-314, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673043

RESUMO

When designing experimental studies with human participants, experimenters must decide how many trials each participant will complete, as well as how many participants to test. Most discussion of statistical power (the ability of a study design to detect an effect) has focused on sample size, and assumed sufficient trials. Here we explore the influence of both factors on statistical power, represented as a 2-dimensional plot on which iso-power contours can be visualized. We demonstrate the conditions under which the number of trials is particularly important, that is, when the within-participant variance is large relative to the between-participants variance. We then derive power contour plots using existing data sets for 8 experimental paradigms and methodologies (including reaction times, sensory thresholds, fMRI, MEG, and EEG), and provide example code to calculate estimates of the within- and between-participants variance for each method. In all cases, the within-participant variance was larger than the between-participants variance, meaning that the number of trials has a meaningful influence on statistical power in commonly used paradigms. An online tool is provided (https://shiny.york.ac.uk/powercontours/) for generating power contours, from which the optimal combination of trials and participants can be calculated when designing future studies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Psicologia Experimental , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tamanho da Amostra
4.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 28(2): 454-475, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159244

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence powered by deep neural networks has reached a level of complexity where it can be difficult or impossible to express how a model makes its decisions. This black-box problem is especially concerning when the model makes decisions with consequences for human well-being. In response, an emerging field called explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) aims to increase the interpretability, fairness, and transparency of machine learning. In this paper, we describe how cognitive psychologists can make contributions to XAI. The human mind is also a black box, and cognitive psychologists have over 150 years of experience modeling it through experimentation. We ought to translate the methods and rigor of cognitive psychology to the study of artificial black boxes in the service of explainability. We provide a review of XAI for psychologists, arguing that current methods possess a blind spot that can be complemented by the experimental cognitive tradition. We also provide a framework for research in XAI, highlight exemplary cases of experimentation within XAI inspired by psychological science, and provide a tutorial on experimenting with machines. We end by noting the advantages of an experimental approach and invite other psychologists to conduct research in this exciting new field.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Cognição , Psicologia Experimental , Humanos
5.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 177: 107361, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307181

RESUMO

Spontaneous recognition memory tasks explore thewhat,whereandwhencomponents of recognition memory. These tasks are widely used in rodents to assess cognitive function across the lifespan. While several neurodevelopmental and mental disorders present symptom onset in early life, very little is known about how memories are expressed in early life, and as a consequence how they may be affected in pathological conditions. In this review, we conduct an analysis of the studies examining the expression of spontaneous recognition memory in young rodents. We compiled studies using four different tasks: novel object recognition, object location, temporal order recognition and object place. First, we identify major sources of variability between early life spontaneous recognition studies and classify them for later comparison. Second, we use these classifications to explore the current knowledge on the ontogeny of each of these four spontaneous recognition memory tasks. We conclude by discussing the possible implications of the relative time of onset for each of these tasks and their respective neural correlates. In compiling this research, we hope to advance on establishing a developmental timeline for the emergence of distinct components of recognition memory, while also identifying key areas of focus for future research. Establishing the ontogenetic profile of rodent spontaneous recognition memory tasks will create a necessary blueprint for cognitive assessment in animal models of neurodevelopmental and mental disorders, a first step towards improved and earlier diagnosis as well as novel intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Psicológico , Animais , Cognição/fisiologia , Camundongos , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , Ratos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia
6.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(1): 463-474, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251561

RESUMO

The Simon effect is a stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the spatial dimension of the stimulus is task-irrelevant. This effect is often larger in reaction time (RT) for the stimulus located on the dominant-hand side of participants, for most of which it is the right hand, due to dominant-hand keypress responses being faster than non-dominant-hand responses. Experiment 1 demonstrated that pedal-press responses with the left and right feet show a similar asymmetry, favoring the right response for right-footed persons. The asymmetric pattern for keypress responses was absent in results of Wallace (Journal of Experimental Psychology, 93, 163-168, 1972) when participants were not permitted to see the response keys or their hands placed on the keys at any time during the experiment, whereas we found the asymmetric pattern in a recent study when participants placed their hands on the keys prior to their being covered up. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that the Simon effect asymmetry for RT was evident even when participants were prevented from seeing the response device and their responding hands or feet. Although both hands and feet showed a Simon effect asymmetry in RT, consideration of incorrect responses suggested that whereas the asymmetry for hands is not due to a response bias, that for the feet may be due at least in part to such bias. Regardless, our results suggest that the Simon effect asymmetry is mainly an artifact of comparing conditions for which one response is made by the faster dominant right effector and the other with the slower non-dominant left effector.


Assuntos
Psicologia Experimental , Desempenho Psicomotor , Lateralidade Funcional , Mãos , Humanos , Personalidade , Tempo de Reação
7.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 150(4): 700-709, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969684

RESUMO

When the outcome is binary, psychologists often use nonlinear modeling strategies such as logit or probit. These strategies are often neither optimal nor justified when the objective is to estimate causal effects of experimental treatments. Researchers need to take extra steps to convert logit and probit coefficients into interpretable quantities, and when they do, these quantities often remain difficult to understand. Odds ratios, for instance, are described as obscure in many textbooks (e.g., Gelman & Hill, 2006, p. 83). I draw on econometric theory and established statistical findings to demonstrate that linear regression is generally the best strategy to estimate causal effects of treatments on binary outcomes. Linear regression coefficients are directly interpretable in terms of probabilities and, when interaction terms or fixed effects are included, linear regression is safer. I review the Neyman-Rubin causal model, which I use to prove analytically that linear regression yields unbiased estimates of treatment effects on binary outcomes. Then, I run simulations and analyze existing data on 24,191 students from 56 middle schools (Paluck, Shepherd, & Aronow, 2013) to illustrate the effectiveness of linear regression. Based on these grounds, I recommend that psychologists use linear regression to estimate treatment effects on binary outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Modelos Lineares , Psicologia Experimental , Análise de Regressão , Projetos de Pesquisa , Viés , Causalidade , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos
8.
Behav Res Ther ; 135: 103732, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007544

RESUMO

This special issue celebrates the 100th anniversary of the Little Albert study, published in February 1920, which marked the birth of human fear conditioning research. The collection of papers in this special issue provides a snapshot of the thriving state of this field today. In this Editorial, we first trace the historical roots of the field and then provide a conceptual analysis of the many ways in which human fear conditioning is currently used in theory and treatment development, with special reference to the contributions in this special issue. Ivan P. Pavlov allegedly claimed that "If you want new ideas, read old books". We could not agree more; it is our conviction that tracing the roots of our field illuminates current trends and will contribute to shaping new directions for the next 100 years of research.


Assuntos
Behaviorismo/história , Psicologia Experimental/história , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Condicionamento Psicológico , Medo , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Terapia Implosiva , Pesquisa
9.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 73(12): NP1-NP8, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985938

RESUMO

In the effort to determine the cognitive processes underlying the identification of faces, the dissimilarities between images of different people have long been studied. In contrast, the inherent variability between different images of the same face has either been treated as a nuisance variable that should be eliminated from psychological experiments or it has not been considered at all. Over the past decade, research efforts have increased substantially to demonstrate that this within-person variation is meaningful and can give insight into various processes of face identification, such as identity matching, face learning, and familiar face recognition. In this virtual special issue of the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, we explain the importance of within-person variability for face identification and bring together recent relevant articles published in the journal.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Psicologia Experimental , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Reconhecimento Psicológico
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235249, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649696

RESUMO

Online experiments are growing in popularity. This study aimed to determine the timing accuracy of web technologies and investigate whether they can be used to support high temporal precision psychology experiments. A dynamic sinusoidal grating and flashes were produced by setInterval, CSS3, and requestAnimationFrame (hereafter, rAF) technologies. They were run at normal or real-time priority processing in Chrome, Firefox, Edge, and Internet Explorer on Windows, macOS, and Linux. Timing accuracies were compared with that of Psychtoolbox which was chosen as gold standard. It was found that rAF with real-time priority had the best timing accuracy compared to the other web technologies and had a similar timing accuracy as Psychtoolbox in traditional experiments in most cases. However, rAF exhibited poor timing accuracy on Linux. Therefore, rAF can be used as technical basis for accuracy of millisecond timing sequences in online experiments, thereby benefiting the psychology field.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/instrumentação , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Psicologia Experimental/instrumentação , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Navegador , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 23-34, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189158

RESUMO

In a countermeasures experiment, we examined to what extent liars who learn about the Model Statement tool and about the proportion of complications (complications/complications + common knowledge details + self-handicapping strategies) can successfully adjust their responses so that they sound like truth tellers. Truth tellers discussed a trip they had made; liars fabricated a story. Participants were of Lebanese, Mexican, and South-Korean origin. Prior to the interview they did or did not receive information about (I) the working of the Model statement and (II) three types of verbal detail: complications, common knowledge details and self-handicapping strategies. We found no evidence that liars sounded like truth tellers after being informed about the Model Statement and/or types of detail we examined. Actually, veracity differences were similar across experimental conditions, with truth tellers reporting more detail and more complications and obtaining a higher proportion of complications score than liars


En un experimento de contramedidas examinamos hasta qué punto los mentirosos que reciben información sobre la Declaración modelo y la proporción de complicaciones que presenta (complicaciones / complicaciones + detalles de conocimiento general + estrategias de autoobstaculización) pueden ajustar sus respuestas con éxito para que parezca que dicen la verdad. Los que dicen la verdad declararon sobre un viaje que habían hecho; los mentirosos inventaron una historia. Los participantes eran de origen libanés, mexicano y surcoreano. Antes de la entrevista habían recibido o no información sobre (I) el funcionamiento de la Declaración modelo y (II) tres tipos de detalles verbales: complicaciones, detalles de conocimiento general y estrategias de autoobstaculización. No encontramos evidencia de que los mentirosos se parecieran a los que dicen la verdad después de ser informados sobre la Declaración modelo y los tipos de detalle que examinamos. En realidad, las diferencias de veracidad fueron semejantes en todas las condiciones experimentales: los que decían la verdad informaron con mayor detalle y de más complicaciones y obtuvieron una mayor puntuación en la proporción de complicaciones que los mentirosos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , Detecção de Mentiras/psicologia , Revelação da Verdade , Coleta de Dados/classificação , Entrevistas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Processos Mentais/classificação , Estudantes/psicologia
12.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 35-42, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189159

RESUMO

Statement Validity Assessment (SVA) proposes that baseline statements on different events can serve as a within-subject measure of a witness' individual verbal capabilities when evaluating scores from Criteria-based Content Analysis (CBCA). This assumes that CBCA scores will generally be consistent across two accounts by the same witness. We present a first pilot study on this assumption. In two sessions, we asked 29 participants to produce one experience-based and one fabricated baseline account as well as one experience-based and one fabricated target account (each on different events), resulting in a total of 116 accounts. We hypothesized at least moderate correlations between target and baseline indicating a consistency across both experience-based and fabricated CBCA scores, and that fabricated CBCA scores would be more consistent because truth-telling has to consider random event characteristics, whereas lies must be constructed completely by the individual witness. Results showed that differences in correlations between experience-based CBCA scores and between fabricated CBCA scores took the predicted direction (cexperience-based = .44 versus cfabricated =.61) but this difference was not statistically significant. As predicted, a subgroup of event-related CBCA criteria were significantly less consistent than CBCA total scores, but only in experience-based accounts. The discussion considers methodological issues regarding the usage of total CBCA scores and whether to measure consistency with correlation coefficients. It is concluded that more studies are needed with larger samples


El Statement Validity Assessment (SVA) propone que las declaraciones sobre diferentes eventos pueden servir como una línea base intrasujeto de la medida de las capacidades verbales individuales de un testigo al evaluar las puntuaciones del Criteria Based Content Analysis (CBCA). Esto implica que las puntuaciones del CBCA serán congruentes en dos relatos del mismo testigo. Presentamos un primer estudio piloto sobre este supuesto. Se pidió a 29 participantes en dos sesiones que elaboraran un relato verdadero (línea base) y otro inventado, además de un relato verdadero y otro inventado (cada uno en situaciones diferentes), arrojando un total de 116 relatos. Se planteó la hipótesis de una correlación al menos moderada entre la declaración fabricada y la verdadera, que indicaría una consistencia entre las puntuaciones en el CBCA de relatos inventados y experimentados y que las puntuaciones en el CBCA inventadas serían más consistentes porque la verdad incluye las características aleatorias de los hechos, mientras que las mentiras las construye totalmente el testigo. Los resultados mostraron que las diferencias en las correlaciones entre las puntuaciones en el CBCA de relatos experimentados y fabricados iban en la dirección predicha (cvivido = .44 frente a cinventado = .61), pero esta diferencia no fue significativa. Como se predijo, un subgrupo de criterios de CBCA relacionados con los hechos fue menos congruente que las puntuaciones totales de CBCA, pero sólo en los relatos de hechos experimentados. Se discuten las implicaciones metodológicas relacionadas con el uso de las puntuaciones totales del CBCA y si se debe medir la consistencia mediante el coeficiente de correlación. Se concluye que se necesitan otros estudios con muestras más grandes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , Detecção de Mentiras/psicologia , Revelação da Verdade , Coleta de Dados/classificação , Entrevistas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Processos Mentais/classificação , Comportamento Verbal/classificação , Testes de Hipótese
13.
J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn ; 46(2): 99-100, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212773

RESUMO

The Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning & Cognition (JEP:ALC) has always been the most prestigious journal for researchers investigating basic mechanisms of animal learning, cognition, and behavior. It is with great humility and honor that I currently take on the role of editor. Since its inception our discipline has been deeply interested in exploring the psychological mechanisms involved in learning, cognition, and behavior in an effort to better understand how adaptive behavior and various cognitive capacities have evolved. All in all, I am excited to serve the discipline as the next editor of JEP:ALC and very much look forward to handling many interesting articles. I also wish to thank the community, in advance, for their hard work not only in reviewing for JEP:ALC but also for conducting their high-quality research, which will ultimately make its way into the pages of the journal. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição , Aprendizagem , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Psicologia Experimental , Animais
14.
J Neurogenet ; 34(1): 178-183, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024408

RESUMO

Behavior genetics, and specifically the study of learning and memory, has benefitted immensely from the development of powerful forward- and reverse-genetic methods for investigating the relationships between genes and behavior. Application of these methods in controlled laboratory settings has led to insights into gene-behavior relationships. In this perspective article, we argue that the field is now poised to make significant inroads into understanding the adaptive value of heritable variation in behavior in natural populations. Studies of natural variation with several species, in particular, are now in a position to complement laboratory studies of mechanisms, and sometimes this work can lead to counterintuitive insights into the mechanism of gene action on behavior. We make this case using a recent example from work with the honey bee, Apis mellifera.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Polimorfismo Genético/fisiologia , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , Animais , Abelhas , Técnicas Genéticas
15.
Ciênc. cogn ; 24(2): 245-264, 29 fev. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292691

RESUMO

O modelo dimensional das emoções tem sido utilizado em investigações no âmbito da psicologia experimental. Este estudo utilizou a pontuação nas dimensões da escala SAM (Self Assesment Manikin) para emparelhar estímulos considerando o valor afetivo. O objetivo foi realizar um levantamento das dimensões afetivas em um conjunto de 122 imagens relacionadas com alimentos para utilização em tarefas experimentais entre adultos, com o intuito de permitir o emparelhamento de estímulos nas dimensões afetivas, em conjuntos de imagens de alimentos saudáveis (SD), não saudáveis (NS) e objetos comuns do dia a dia (OB). Participaram como juízes 87 estudantes universitários, 43 (49,4%) do sexo feminino e 44 (50,6%) do sexo masculino. O controle emocional dos estímulos contribui para aumentar a validade ecológica dos estudos através do melhor controle dos estímulos que possuem relevância afetiva. Este trabalho propiciou a criação de um banco de imagens relacionadas a alimentos saudáveis e não saudáveis e um conjunto de imagens de objetos para comparação ou pareamento. O material desenvolvido possibilita a manipulação e controle de estímulos com relevância emocional em estudos relacionados ao comportamento alimentar em humanos.


The dimensional model of emotions has been previously used for research in experimental psychology. In the current study, the score in the dimensions of SAM scale (Self-Assessment Manikin) was used to pair the stimuli in level of arousal elicited. The objective was to survey the affective dimensions of a set of 122 images related to food for its use in experimental tasks among adults, in order to allow pairing of stimuli in the emotional dimensions, in sets of health food images (SD) unhealthy (NS) and common objects of everyday life (OB). Participants were 87 college students of both genders, 43 (49.4%) were female and 44 (50.6%) were male. The criterion used allowed the choice of 12 pairs of SD-OB images and 12 NS-B pairs, matched in the arousal scale. Emotional control of the stimuli is relevant to increase the ecological validity of the studies through better control of stimuli with emotional relevance. This work led to the creation of a bank of images related to healthy and unhealthy foods, as well as a set of pictures of objects pictures. The material developed enables the manipulation and control of stimuli with emotional significance in studies related to eating behavior.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Psicologia Experimental , Emoções , Alimentos , Universidades , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto
17.
Psychol Bull ; 146(4): 355-375, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971408

RESUMO

Affect inductions have become essential for testing theories of affect and for conducting experimental research on the effects of mood and emotion. The current review takes stock of the vast body of existing literature on affect induction procedures (AIPs; also referred to as mood inductions) to evaluate the effectiveness of affect inductions as research tools and to test theories of affect (e.g., the bipolarity hypothesis, negativity bias, positivity offset, and theories of emotionality and gender) using meta-analytic data. In doing so, we seek to address whether AIPs are effective for inducing affective states, what conditions maximize their effectiveness, for which emotions they are most effective, for whom they are most effective, and whether affect induction findings can provide insight into theories of affect. A meta-analysis of 874 samples and 53,509 participants suggests that affect inductions are effective on average (δ = 1.32), but this effectiveness varies with the type of affect induction, the emotion being induced, and the gender of the participants. Further, results indicate coupled activation where the induction of positive (negative) emotions leads to a corresponding reduction in negative (positive) emotions, which provides support for the bipolar continuum of positive and negative affect. Results also revealed a negativity bias in which individuals display stronger reactions to negative stimuli than positive stimuli. A practical guide in the choice of affect induction procedures for researchers is presented and implications for emotion theory are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto , Controle Comportamental/métodos , Emoções , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , Humanos
18.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 73(1): 1-19, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724919

RESUMO

Like many other areas of science, experimental psychology is affected by a "replication crisis" that is causing concern in many fields of research. Approaches to tackling this crisis include better training in statistical methods, greater transparency and openness, and changes to the incentives created by funding agencies, journals, and institutions. Here, I argue that if proposed solutions are to be effective, we also need to take into account human cognitive constraints that can distort all stages of the research process, including design and execution of experiments, analysis of data, and writing up findings for publication. I focus specifically on cognitive schemata in perception and memory, confirmation bias, systematic misunderstanding of statistics, and asymmetry in moral judgements of errors of commission and omission. Finally, I consider methods that may help mitigate the effect of cognitive constraints: better training, including use of simulations to overcome statistical misunderstanding; specific programmes directed at inoculating against cognitive biases; adoption of Registered Reports to encourage more critical reflection in planning studies; and using methods such as triangulation and "pre mortem" evaluation of study design to foster a culture of dialogue and criticism.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Cognição , Psicologia Experimental , Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/normas , Viés , Humanos , Probabilidade , Viés de Publicação , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 15(1): 117-132, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711365

RESUMO

James J. Gibson, the founder of ecological psychology, introduced a radical empiricist approach to perception and action centered on direct perception in naturalistic environments that was counter to popular representational views of his time. This direct perception approach and the associated introduction of the affordance concept have been extremely influential in several fields of study. However, since its inception, the affordance concept has evolved in a manner such that it now deviates significantly from Gibson's original intention. This review follows use of the affordance concept by four sets of influential experimental psychologists: Gibson, Donald Norman, Mike Tucker and Rob Ellis, and Daniel Bub and Michael Masson. Particular attention is paid to the manner in which they applied the concept and the contributions provided by each set of researchers. The primary goal of this review is to determine what cognitive psychologists can take away from developments within the field and what considerations should be taken into account when using the term affordance. Having a more thorough understanding of the factors that led to the concept of affordance and its recent reformulations will better equip cognitive psychologists and, by extension, human factors researchers to further advance the study of perception-action relations.


Assuntos
Ciência Cognitiva , Percepção , Teoria Psicológica , Psicologia Experimental , Humanos
20.
Hist Psychol ; 23(1): 26-39, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973237

RESUMO

After Johannes Kepler's supposition of inverted and reversed retinal images and Christoph Scheiner's anatomical demonstration of such an inversion, the question arose whether this inversion is necessary and how it is possible to see an upright world based on an inverted image. The answer to this question is commonly attributed to the American psychologist George M. Stratton, who produced, in 1896, upright retinal images by means of lenses and showed that after a phase of inverted perception, upright vision is restored. However, prior to 1886, the Italian philosopher Roberto Ardigò had already performed optical experiments with a prism, obtaining a similar result. The intend of his optical investigation was essentially psychological, in opposition to contemporary physiological approaches. He accepted Hermann von Helmholtz's basic assumptions, but interpreted the results of his experiments in the framework of a more detailed theory of perception. The present article aims to analyze Ardigò's experiments and compare them with Stratton's in order to give them the place they deserve in the history of experimental psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Psicologia Experimental/história , Retina/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Lentes , Fenômenos Ópticos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...