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1.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 12-19, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229022

RESUMO

La pandemia del COVID-19 ha llevado a los países a adoptar severas y prolongadas medidas que —junto con el alto número de contagios y muertes y la continua información negativa— ha afectado la salud mental de las personas. Este estudio analiza el impacto de la crisis sanitaria del COVID-19 en España explorando el rol moderador de la eficacia percibida de las medidas de contención en la relación que establece la percepción del riesgo del COVID-19 con el estrés y la depresión. Un total de 478 adultos residentes en España (un 66.9% mujeres; Medad = 36.30, DT = 15.32) completaron un cuestionario con escalas concebidas para medir el riesgo percibido del COVID-19, la eficacia percibida de las medidas de protección, el estrés y la depresión entre el 16 de mayo y el 6 de junio de 2021. Los resultados confirmaron el rol moderador de la eficacia percibida, la cual actuó como un factor protector del estrés y la depresión al disminuir el impacto negativo que la percepción de riesgo del COVID-19 tiene en ambas variables relacionadas con el distrés mental. La percepción que tienen los individuos sobre la efectividad de las medidas de protección parece ser un factor protector relevante en relación con la salud mental durante una pandemia. Se subraya la relevancia de intervenciones psicológicas y de políticas gubernamentales que mejoren la comunicación positiva del riesgo y la información adecuada sobre la eficacia de las medidas de protección.(AU)


The pandemic situation caused by COVID-19 led countries to adopt harsh and prolonged (over time) measures that—along with the high number of infections and deaths and continuous negative information—have affected the mental health of individuals. In this study, the impact on mental health of the COVID-19 health crisis in Spain was explored through the perceived efficacy of pandemic containment measures as a moderator of the relationship that COVID-19 perceived risk establishes with stress and depression. A questionnaire composed of scales conceived to measure COVID-19 perceived risk, perceived efficacy of COVID-19 prevention measures, stress, and depression was completed by 478 adults living in Spain (66.9% females, Mage= 36.30, SD= 15.32) between May 16, 2021, and June 6, 2021. The results confirmed the moderating role of per-ceived efficacy. Perceived efficacy acted as a protective factor for stress and depression by decreasing the negative impact that perceived risk had on both variables related to mentaldistress. Also, the perception that par-ticipants had about the effectiveness of prevention measures appeared to be a relevant protective factor regarding mental health during the pandem-ic. This study highlights the relevance of psychological interventions and government policies that improve positive risk communication and pro-vide adequate information regarding the effectiveness of health-prevention measures.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , /prevenção & controle , Saúde Mental , Estresse Psicológico , Depressão , Medidas de Segurança , /psicologia , Espanha , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 20-30, Ene-Abri, 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229023

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivos: Aunque se consideraba que los jóvenes estaban menos expuestos a contraer una forma severa de la infección, los efectos que ellos más resintieron fueron los psicosociales. El presente artículo se propone comprobar el papel mediador de los afectos negativos y de las estrategias evasivas, primero en la relación entre el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 y el estrés percibido, y luego entre la amenaza percibida y el estrés. Diseño: Se utilizó un diseño transversal. Métodos: Se empleó una muestra de 669 estudiantes de grado (18 - 28 años) durante la cuarta oleada de coronavirus, cuando la variante delta era la dominante. Resultados: Se observaron asociaciones positivas entre el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 y el estrés percibido (r = .485; p<.001), por un lado, y entre la amenaza percibida y el estrés (r = .283; p< .001), por otro lado. Los datos estadísticos demuestran que los afectos negativos y las estrategias evasivas actúan como mediadores seriales (efecto indirecto = .3349, 95% CI, [.2858; .3852] / (efecto indirecto = .2072, 95% CI, [.1515; .2624]). Consecuentemente, el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 (β = .137; 95% CI [.0019; .0045]) y la amenaza percibida (β = .069; 95% CI [.0007; .0046]) aumentan el estrés no sólo de manera directa, sino también indirecta, intensificando los afectos negativos. Esto genera una propensión hacia el uso específico de estrategias evasivas de afrontamiento. Conclusiones: El estudio subraya algunos mecanismos explicativos en cuanto a las relaciones entre variables que afectan la salud mental durante la pandemia COVID-19.(AU)


Background and objectives:Although young adults were considered to face a lower risk of severe coronavirus infection, they were at higher risk for adverse psychosocial effects. The aim of this study was to test the me-diating roles of negative affect and avoidant coping, firstly in the relation-ship between COVID-19 impact and perceived stress, and then in the rela-tionship between perceived coronavirus threat and perceived stress. Design:Cross-sectional design. Methods: We conducted the study on a sample of 669 university students (aged between 18-28), during the critical fourth wave, when the delta variant was the dominant strain. Results: The results indicate significant positive associations between the impact of COVID-19 and perceived stress (r = .485; p<.001), and between perceived corona-virus threat and perceived stress (r= .283; p<.001). Our findings demon-strate that negative affect and avoidant coping serially mediate these rela-tionships (total indirect effect = .3349, 95% CI, [.2858; .3852] / (total indi-rect effect = .2072, 95% CI, [.1515; .2624]). Thus, the impact of COVID-19 (β= .137; 95% CI [.0019; .0045]) and perceived coronavirus threat (β= .069; 95% CI [.0007; .0046]) induce an increase in stress not only directly, but also indirectly, through amplified negative affect, which in turn in-creases the specific-oriented use of avoidant coping strategies. Conclusions:Our results highlighted some new explanatory relationships between varia-bles that affect mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Estresse Psicológico , /psicologia , Impacto Psicossocial , Saúde Mental , Saúde do Estudante , Romênia , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , /epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais
3.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 31-37, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229024

RESUMO

Background/Objective: The Dark Future Scale (DFS) is a self-report instrument which assesses the tendency to think about the future with anxiety, fear, and uncertainty. Although it has been applied in different populations, instrumental studies are scarce, and there is no validated Spanish version. The aim was therefore to develop a Spanish version of the scale (DFS-S) and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of young adults. Method: Participants were 1,019 individuals aged from 18 to 24 years. They completed the DFS-S and the IPIP-BFM-20. Validity evidence based on the internal structure, including measurement invariance across gender, as well as on relationships with personality traits was obtained. Reliability and gender differences in DFS-S scores were also examined. Results: Results supported a single-factor structure, χ2(5) = 10.79, CFI = .999, RMSEA = .034, SRMR = .016, that was invariant across gender. Reliability of test scores was satisfactory (ω = .92). In the correlation analysis, future anxiety showed a strong positive correlation with neuroticism (.42) and a moderate negative correlation with extraversion (-.25). Females scored higher than males on future anxiety. Conclusions: The DFS-S has satisfactory psychometric properties and it is an adequate tool for measuring future anxiety among young adults.(AU)


Antecedentes/Objetivo: La Dark Future Scale (DFS) evalúa la ten-dencia a pensar en el futuro con ansiedad, miedo e incertidumbre. Aunque ha sido usadaen diferentes poblaciones, los estudios instrumentales son es-casos y no hay una versión adaptada al español. El objetivo del estudio fue adaptarla al español (DFS-S) y analizar sus propiedades psicométricas en una muestra de adultos jóvenes. Método:Participaron 1.019 jóvenes entre 18 y 24 años. Completaron la DFS-S y el IPIP-BFM-20. Se analizan evidencias de validez basadas en la estructura interna, incluyendo la invarianza de me-dida según el género, y basadas en las relaciones con rasgos de personali-dad, así como análisis de la fiabilidad y de las diferencias de género. Resulta-dos:Los resultados apoyaron una estructura de un solo factor, χ2(5) = 10.79, CFI = .999, RMSEA = .034, SRMR = .016, con invarianza respecto al gé-nero, y con coeficiente de fiabilidad satisfactorio (ω= .92). Se encontró co-rrelación positiva fuerte entre ansiedad futura y neuroticismo (.42) y una correlación negativa moderada con extraversión (-.25). Las puntuaciones en ansiedad futura fueron mayores en las mujeres. Conclusiones:Los resultados muestran propiedades psicométricas satisfactorias delaDFS-S, siendo un instrumento adecuado para medir la ansiedad futura en adultos jóvenes.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Escala de Ansiedade Frente a Teste , Psicometria , Incerteza , Medo , Espanha , Saúde Mental , Ansiedade , Psicologia , Psicologia Social
4.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 44-53, Ene-Abri, 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229026

RESUMO

La educación superior puede ser extremadamente transformadora para los estudiantes y tiene un papel importante en la formación del capital humano, en la innovación y en el desarrollo social, cultural y ambiental de la sociedad. La expansión de la educación superior promovió el acceso de una mezcla de estudiantes más heterogénea, pero garantizar el acceso no garantiza el éxito académico. Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar los predictores de desempeño académico en 447 estudiantes de primer año en el 1er y 2do semestre, considerando variables como sexo, edad, nivel educativo de los padres y calificaciones al ingresar a la educación superior, junto con los niveles de compromiso académico e autoeficacia de los estudiantes tras algunas semanas en la universidad. Los resultados muestran trayectorias estadísticamente significativas para sexo, edad y GPA hasta el desempeño del primer semestre, para los niveles educativos de los padres hasta la autoeficacia percibida, para la implicación académica de los estudiantes hasta el desempeño del primer semestre y el desempeño del primer semestre hasta el desempeño del segundo semestre La participación académica de los estudiantes también tuvo un efecto indirecto en el desempeño del segundo semestre. La correlación entre compromiso académica y autoeficacia fue positiva, fuerte y estadísticamente significativa. El modelo explicó el 35.2% de la varianza del rendimiento académico en el segundo semestre y el 15.0% de la varianza del rendimiento académico en el primer semestre. El conocimiento sobre los predictores del rendimiento académico y la importancia del compromiso y la autoeficacia respaldará las intervenciones oportunas, promoviendo el éxito y previniendo el fracaso y el abandono.(AU)


Higher education can be hugely transformative for students and has an important role in empowering human capital, innovation, and socie-ty’s social, cultural, and environmental development. The expansion of higher education has promoted access for a more heterogeneous mix of students, but ensuring access does not guarantee academic success. This paper aims to analyse predictors of academic achievement in 447 first-year students in their 1stand 2ndsemesters, considering variables including sex, age, parents’ educational level and grades on entering higher education, along with levels of students’ academic engagement and self-efficacy after some weeks at university. Results show statistically significant paths for sex, age, and GPA to 1st-semester achievement, for parent’s educational levels to perceived self-efficacy, for students’ academic engagement to 1st-semester achievement, and 1st-semester achievement to 2nd-semester achievement. Students’ academic engagement also had an indirect effect on the 2nd-semester achievement. The correlation between academic engage-ment and self-efficacy was positive, strong, and statistically significant. The model explained 35.2% of the variance in 2nd-semester achievement and 15.0% of the variance in 1st-semester achievement. Knowledge about pre-dictors of academic achievement and the importance of engagement and self-efficacy will support timely interventions, promoting success and pre-venting failure and dropout.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico , Autoeficácia , Universidades , Sucesso Acadêmico , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , Psicologia Educacional
5.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 69-75, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229028

RESUMO

Para frenar la propagación del COVID-19, el gobierno español aplicó medidas restrictivas, como el cierre escolar. Aunque los efectos de la pandemia en el bienestar emocional de los niños han sido estudiados, faltan estudios que examinen la adaptación escolar tras la pandemia y el papel que la infección ha tenido en el proceso de adaptación. El objetivo es analizar la relación entre los eventos estresantes relacionados con la escuela y la adaptación escolar después del confinamiento, incluyendo la ansiedad como mediadora. Los participantes fueron 219 padres de niños y adolescentes españoles de entre 3 y 18 años que completaron encuestas sobre la ansiedad de sus hijos (Spanish Brief Child Version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale), los eventos estresantes vividos relacionados con la escuela (Stressful Eventos relacionados con el Inventario de Pandemia), y la adaptación escolar (Escala de Ajuste de los Niños después del Cierre Escolar de la Pandemia). Los resultados mostraron mayor prevalencia en el evento estresante distancia social (87%). Tener COVID-19 y sufrir acoso escolar se relacionó directamente con una mayor ansiedad. Los niños que disminuyeron el contacto social y sufrieron acoso escolar mostraron peor adaptación escolar, siendo la ansiedad un mediador indirecto. Los hallazgos destacan la importancia de supervisar la adaptación escolar y promover estrategias para prevenir problemas emocionales en jóvenes expuestos a situaciones estresantes.(AU)


Aiming to mitigate the COVID-19 spread, the government of Spain applied restrictive measures, like schools’ closure. Although the ef-fects of the pandemic on children's emotional well-being have been stud-ied, there is a lack of studies examining school adjustment following the pandemic and the role that the infection has played in the adjustment pro-cess. The objective is to analyze the relationship between stressful events related to school experienced by children and their adjustment to school after the home confinement, including anxiety as a mediator variable. Par-ticipants were the parentsof 219 Spanish children and adolescents aged 3 and 18 years who completed a survey about their children’s anxiety (Span-ish Brief Child Version of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale), the stress-ful events experienced related to school (Stressful Events related to Pan-demic Inventory), and the adjustment to school (Adjustment of Children after Pandemic School Closure Scale). Results showed that social distance was the most reported stressful event (87%). Having COVID-19 and expe-riencing bullying were directly related to a high level of anxiety. Children ́s who decreased social contact and experienced bullying showed a worse ad-justment to school. Anxiety was an indirect mediator of this relationship. Findings highlight the importance of supervising school adaptation and promoting strategies to prevent emotional problems when the youths are exposed to stressful situations.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , /psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Saúde do Estudante , Estresse Psicológico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ansiedade , /epidemiologia , Psicologia , Saúde Mental , Psicologia Social , Ajustamento Social , Psicologia Educacional
6.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 103-109, Ene-Abri, 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229032

RESUMO

Objetivos: Con frecuencia se ha informado que la adicción al teléfono móvil (MPA) está correlacionada con trastornos psicológicos como la depresión, el estrés y la ansiedad entre la población joven. Sin embargo, el grado en que estos factores se correlacionan con el AMP y el mecanismo potencial subyacente a esas relaciones son concluyentes. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre el nivel de AMP y la ansiedad social entre adolescentes chinos y examinó el efecto de mediación de los problemas interpersonales entre ellos. Métodos: Una muestra de 1027 estudiantes escolares seleccionados mediante un método de muestreo aleatorio por conglomerados estratificados respondió a cuestionarios sobre el índice MPA, la escala de ansiedad por interacción social, el inventario de problemas interpersonales y variables demográficas. Se realizaron análisis de correlación de Spearman y de regresión lineal múltiple para investigar el alcance de la asociación entre la AMP y la ansiedad social, y la prueba de Sobel y el muestreo de arranque confirmaron el papel mediador de los problemas interpersonales. Resultados: De todos los estudiantes de nuestro estudio, el 5,9% tenían AMP, y la puntuación de AMP se correlacionó positivamente con la ansiedad social después de controlar las variables demográficas en el modelo ajustado. El análisis de regresión de mediación múltiple reveló que el problema interpersonal era un mediador parcial significativo entre la AMP y la ansiedad social. Conclusión: Los adolescentes del AMP fueron un subgrupo de población que necesita prestar más atención para prevenir la ansiedad social. Mejorar los problemas interpersonales podría ser un enfoque eficaz para abordar la ansiedad social inducida por el AMP en los adolescentes.(AU)


Objectives:Mobile phone addiction (MPA) has frequently report-ed to be correlated with psychological disorders such as depression, stress and anxiety among young population. However, the extent to which these factors are correlated with MPA and the potential mechanism underlying those relationships are conclusive. This study aimed to investigate the as-sociation between MPA level and social anxiety among Chinese adoles-cents, and examined the mediation effect of interpersonal problems be-tween them.Methods:A sample of 1027 school-based students selected by a stratified-cluster random sampling method responded to questionnaires re-garding MPA Index, Social Interaction Anxiousness Scale, Interpersonal Problems Inventory, and demographic variables. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the extent of the association between MPA and social anxiety, and Sobel test and bootstrapping sampling confirmed the mediating role ofinterpersonal problems.Results:Of all students in our study, 5.9% were MPA, and MPA score was positively correlated with social anxiety after controlled for de-mographic variables in the adjusted model. Multiple mediation regression analysis revealed that the interpersonal problem was a significant partial mediator between MPA and social anxiety.Conclusion:The MPA adoles-cents were a subgroup population who need to pay more attention to pre-vent social anxiety. Improving interpersonal problems might be aneffec-tive approach to deal with MPA-induced social anxiety in adolescents.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Ansiedade , Relações Interpessoais , Depressão , Estresse Psicológico , Psicologia do Adolescente , China , Psicologia , Psicologia Social
7.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 150-162, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229037

RESUMO

Este estudio presenta distintos tipos de evidencias de validez y confiabilidad de la Escala de Autenticidad (AS) en una muestra de Brasil y Portugal. El estudioconsiste en una encuesta con 1.077 brasileños y 622 portugueses. Se testó el modelo con tres factores correlacionados (autoalienación, vivir auténtico y aceptación de la influencia externa), el modelo unidimensional y el modelo bifactorial. Se retuvo el modelo con tres factores correlacionados, con las tres subescalas alcanzando confiabilidad moderada a buena. Análisis factorial confirmatorio multigrupo sugirió invariancia escalar para cultura, género, edad, educación, ocupación y preocupación e impacto relacionados con Covid. Los ítems fueron evaluados por graded response model(GRM), sugiriendo que las tres subescalas no discriminan las personas con altos rasgos de autenticidad. GRM y estadísticas descriptivas indican que la escala de puntuación es inapropiada, particularmente para la subescala vivir auténtico, que es afectada por efecto techo. Las asociaciones con presencia de sentido mostraron evidencia adicional de validez. A pesar de las limitaciones, la AS es una medida adecuada para evaluar la autenticidad en diferentes grupos. Se discuten posibles modificaciones para el aprimoramiento de la AS.(AU)


This study introduces distinct types of validity and reliability evidence of the Authenticity Scale (AS) in a sample from Brazil and Portugal. It consists of an online survey with 1,077 Brazilian citizens and 622 Portuguese citizens. The study tested the model with three correlated factors (self-alienation, authentic living, and accepting external influence), the unidimensional model, and the bifactor model. The model with three correlated factors was retained, with the three subscales demonstrating moderate to good reliability. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis suggested scalar invariance across culture, gender, age, education, occupation, and Covid-related concern and impact. The items were assessed by graded response model (GRM), which suggested that the three subscales are not able to distinguish respondents with high authenticity traits. GRM and descriptive statistics indicated that the rating-scale is inappropriate, particularly for authentic living subscale, which is affected by ceiling effect. Associations with presence of meaning showed additional validity evidence. Despite the limitations, the AS is an effective measure to assess authenticity across different groups. Potential modifications for the improvement of the AS are discussed.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Autoimagem , 35111 , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Valor da Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Brasil , Portugal , Análise Fatorial
8.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 163-170, Ene-Abri, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229038

RESUMO

Recientemente se ha incrementado significativamente el número de estudios psicométricos junto a avances estadísticos cruciales para evaluar las evidencias defiabilidad y validez de los testsy escalas de medida. Dada la importancia de proporcionar procedimientos más exactos tanto en la metodología como en la interpretación de las puntuaciones, los editores de la revista Anales de Psicología proponen esta guía para abordar los tópicos más relevantes en el campo de la psicometría aplicada. Con esta finalidad, el presente manuscrito analiza los tópicos principales de la TeoríaClásica de Tests (e.g., análisis factorial exploratorio/confirmatorio, fiabilidad, validez, sesgo, etc.) con vistas a sintetizar y clarificarlas aplicaciones prácticas, y mejorar los estándares de publicación de estos trabajos.(AU)


In recent years,there has been a significant rise in the number of psychometric studies, together with crucial statistical advances for validity and reliability measures. Given the importance of providingaccurate procedures both in methodology and score interpretationof tests and/or measurement scales, the editors-in-chie fof the journal Annals of Psychology have draftedthis guide to address the most relevant issues in the field of applied psychometry. To this end, the present manuscript analyses the main topics under the Classical Test Theory framework (e.g., exploratory/confirmatory factor analysis; reliability, bias, etc.) aimingto synthesizeand clarifythe best practical applications;and improve publication standards.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial , Psicologia , Psicologia Social
9.
Pap. psicol ; 45(1): 11-18, Ene-Abr, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229711

RESUMO

En prisión existen programas específicos de tratamiento para condenados por agresión sexual a menores; sin embargo, quienes además tienen pedofilia, requieren una atención específica. El objetivo del presente estudio es doble: primero, ofrecer una propuesta de intervención específica para pedofilia en el entorno penitenciario basada en la evidencia científica disponible y complementaria al Programa de Control de la Agresión Sexual y después, justificar dicha propuesta a través del caso de un interno con pedofilia. En concreto, proponemos una intervención individual y centrada en personas con pedofilia; trabajando la baja autoestima, evaluando la ideación suicida y reestructurando las distorsiones cognitivas con menores, facilitando la creación de relaciones personales funcionales con adultos, evaluando la polivictimización pasada y su posible influencia sobre la conducta sexual posterior, proporcionar a los internos psicoeducación sobre pedofilia; atender de forma específica las fantasías sexuales con menores, evitando las conductas disexuales y la eliminación del consumo de material abusivo.(AU)


There are specific treatment programs in prisons for those convicted of sexually assaulting minors; however, those who also have pedophilia require specific attention. The aim of this study is twofold: first, to offer a specific intervention proposal for pedophilia in the prison setting based on the available scientific evidence, and complementary to the Sexual Assault Control Program, and second, to justify this proposal through the case of an inmate with pedophilia. Specifically, we propose an individual intervention focused on people with pedophilia; working on low self-esteem, assessing suicidal ideation and restructuring cognitive distortions with minors, facilitating the creation of functional personal relationships with adults, assessing past polyvictimization and its possible influence on subsequent sexual behavior, providing inmates with psychoeducation on pedophilia; specifically addressing sexual fantasies with minors, avoiding dyssexual behavior, and eliminating the consumption of abusive material.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Pedofilia/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais , Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Prisões , Psicologia , Psicologia Social
10.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297075, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359021

RESUMO

Previously observed negative correlations between sample size and effect size (n-ES correlation) in psychological research have been interpreted as evidence for publication bias and related undesirable biases. Here, we present two studies aimed at better understanding to what extent negative n-ES correlations reflect such biases or might be explained by unproblematic adjustments of sample size to expected effect sizes. In Study 1, we analysed n-ES correlations in 150 meta-analyses from cognitive, organizational, and social psychology and in 57 multiple replications, which are free from relevant biases. In Study 2, we used a random sample of 160 psychology papers to compare the n-ES correlation for effects that are central to these papers and effects selected at random from these papers. n-ES correlations proved inconspicuous in meta-analyses. In line with previous research, they do not suggest that publication bias and related biases have a strong impact on meta-analyses in psychology. A much higher n-ES correlation emerged for publications' focal effects. To what extent this should be attributed to publication bias and related biases remains unclear.


Assuntos
Psicologia Social , Tamanho da Amostra , Viés de Publicação , Viés
11.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296852, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359053

RESUMO

Both the basic human values approach and the economic preference approach have been developed and applied to represent fundamental drivers of human behavior in various domains by measuring people's underlying preferences and motivations. Both of them have been used, however, in isolation from each other, the former primarily in social psychology studies and the latter mainly in economic studies. But how similar are they? Finding that they differ may suggest that combining them to explain human behavior might be beneficial. To the best of our knowledge, only a few studies have attempted to explore and empirically examine the theoretical and empirical link between variables in both approaches. The current study tries to fill this gap by examining relations between basic human values and major economic preferences. We examine the associations between the values of self-transcendence, self-enhancement, openness to change and conservation, and the economic preferences of risk aversion (or seeking), altruism, trust, and positive and negative reciprocity. We propose mechanisms as to how they may be associated with one another. For example, we expect an association between conservation and risk aversion as both are motivated by attributing importance to stability and the status quo, or between self-transcendence and altruism, as both are motivated by concern for others. For the empirical analysis we employed convenience samples collected in Poland and Germany. Results in both samples support our expectations: several values and economic preferences are linked in theoretically predictable ways, but only to a weak or moderate extent. We conclude that they are not mutually exclusive but may rather be complementary, and therefore likely both relevant for investigations into explaining behavior.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Psicologia Social , Humanos , Confiança , Motivação , Alemanha
12.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 33(1): 29-42, Ene. 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229637

RESUMO

Objective: The present study analyzed the Virtual-PRO program’s efficacy in preventing peer sexual harassment by promoting the bystanders’ active intervention and incorporating a virtual reality (VR) component. The impact of the program on sexist attitudes, moral disengagement, the intention to intervene as bystanders, and the involvement in sexual aggression and victimization was tested. Method: Virtual-PRO is a VR-enhanced sexual harassment curricular prevention program of six one-hour sessions. The evaluation comprised a pre-test, a post-test after the intervention, and a follow-up measure at three months. In the study, 579 Spanish adolescent students aged between 12 and 17 years (M = 14.76, SD = 0.88; 47.1% boys) were randomly grouped into experimental (n = 286) and control (n = 293) conditions. Results: The Virtual-PRO program effectively controlled participants’ levels of sexism and reduced moral disengagement in the experimental group compared to the control group three months after the intervention. The program also showed positive results in changing bystander behavior, increasing the intention to intervene when the victim was not a friend. Finally, visual/verbal and online victimization decreased in the experimental group and increased in the control group. No differences were found for physical sexual victimization and sexual aggression. Conclusions: The first trial of the Virtual-PRO program is promising and highlights the use of VR as a sexual harassment prevention tool. Follow-up measures are essential to determine the impact of interventions accurately.(AU)


Objetivo: El presente estudio analiza la eficacia del programa Virtual-PRO en la prevención del acoso sexual entre iguales promoviendo la intervención activa de los espectadores mediante el uso de la realidad virtual (RV). Se comprobó el impacto del programa en las actitudes sexistas, la desconexión moral, la intención de intervenir como espectadores y la implicación en agresión y victimización sexual. Método: Virtual-PRO es un programa curricular compuesto por seis unidades que incorpora la RV para mejorar la prevención del acoso sexual. La evaluación incluyó una medida pre-test, un post-test después de la intervención y una medida de seguimiento a los tres meses. En el estudio participaron 579 estudiantes españoles de entre 12 y 17 años (M = 14.76, DT = 0.88, 47.1% chicos), agrupados aleatoriamente en grupo experimental (n = 286) y control (n = 293). Resultados: El programa Virtual-PRO controló eficazmente los niveles de sexismo y redujo la desconexión moral en el grupo experimental en comparación con el grupo de control tres meses después de la intervención. También mostró resultados positivos en el cambio del comportamiento de los espectadores, mejorando la intención de intervenir cuando la víctima no era amigo o amiga. Por último, la victimización visual/verbal y online disminuyó en el grupo experimental y aumentó en el grupo control. No se encontraron diferencias en victimización sexual física y agresión sexual. Conclusiones: El primer ensayo del programa Virtual-PRO es prometedor y pone de relieve el uso de la RV como herramienta eficaz para la prevención del acoso sexual. Las medidas de seguimiento son esenciales para determinar con precisión el efecto de las intervenciones.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Psicologia do Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Assédio Sexual , Realidade Virtual , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Cyberbullying , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , Psicologia Clínica , Vítimas de Crime , Espanha , Saúde do Adolescente
13.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 60(1): e22292, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38259245

RESUMO

The US Army employed organizational and behavioral sciences in the context of the emerging Postindustrial political economy to shape its new strategic thought in the 1980s. This article examines how a group of military intellectuals in the Army applied ideas from these sciences to promote officer decision-making and decentralization while maintaining the Army's culture and ethics. They had significant reservations about bringing new ideas from the social sciences into the Army because Robert McNamara's modern cybernetic strategy had scarred the Army's morale and sense of self during the Vietnam War. Instead, the intellectuals carefully adapted ideas into the Army with an unsentimental attitude as it emerged from its post-Vietnam decline so it could fight complex maneuver warfare. Their strategic thought in the late Cold War made the Army a flexible global-spanning force for the unipolar moment in the 1990s and early 2000s.


Assuntos
Ciências do Comportamento , Militares , Humanos , Psicologia Social , Moral , Cicatriz
14.
PeerJ ; 12: e16763, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38250729

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic review of conference papers in social psychology at two large psychology conferences in Japan: the Japanese Psychological Association and the Japanese Society for Social Psychology. The conference papers were effectively not subjected to peer review; hence, they were suitable for testing if psychologists selectively reported statistically significant findings without pressure from journal editors and reviewers. We investigated the distributions of z-values converted from the p-values reported in the articles presented at the 2013 and 2018 conferences. The z-curve analyses suggest the existence of selective reporting by the authors in 2013. The expected discovery rate (EDR) was much lower than the observed discovery rate (ODR; 7% vs. 76%, respectively), and the 95% confidence interval (CI) did not include the ODR. However, this does not mean that the set of studies completely lacked evidential value. The expected replication rate (ERR) was 31%; this is significantly higher than 5%, which was expected under the null hypothesis of no effect. Changes were observed between 2013 and 2018. The ERR increased (31% to 44%), and the EDR almost doubled (7% to 13%). However, the estimation of the maximum false discovery rate (FDR; 68% in 2013 and 35% in 2018) suggested that a substantial proportion of the reported findings were false positives. Overall, while social psychologists in Japan engaged in selective reporting, this does not mean that the entire field was covered with false positives. In addition, slight signs of improvement were observed in how they reported their findings. Still, the evidential value of the target studies was weak, even in 2018, allowing for no optimism.


Assuntos
Revisão por Pares , Psicologia Social , Japão , Existencialismo , Otimismo
15.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296421, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165965

RESUMO

Psychological researchers often identify with psychological disciplines, such as social or clinical psychology. The current study analyzed Google Scholar profiles from 6,532 international scientists who attracted more than 100 citations in 2019 and self-identified with at least one of 10 common psychological disciplines (psychoanalysis; clinical psychology; (cognitive) neuroscience; developmental psychology; educational psychology; experimental psychology; biological psychology/psychophysiology; mathematical psychology/psychometrics; social psychology; personality psychology). Results indicated that almost half of all psychologists self-identified with either social psychology or cognitive neuroscience. There were 487 topics that were endorsed at least five times, ranging from highly discipline-specific topics to more integrative ones, such as emotion and personality. We also factor-analyzed frequencies of topical endorsement across disciplines and found two factors, which we interpreted as reflecting correlational and experimental research traditions (with social psychology being the largest discipline within the former tradition and cognitive neuroscience being the largest discipline within the latter tradition). Differences in productivity and impact were also found, with researchers identifying with psychometrics being the most productive and researchers identifying with personality psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and multidisciplinary psychology as the most impactful in terms of citation increases per additional output. Recommendations for promoting cross-fertilization across psychological disciplines are formulated.


Assuntos
Psicologia Experimental , Ferramenta de Busca , Psicologia Social , Personalidade , Psicofisiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 18(12): e0294676, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38051711

RESUMO

Recent works in the field of Social Psychology have shown the importance of studying subjective social mobility from different perspectives. In the literature about subjective societal mobility, most of the research is focused on the mobility-immobility framing. However, several authors suggested studying social mobility beliefs effects differentiating according to mobility's trajectory, that is, upward (i.e., improving status over time) and downward (i.e., getting worse in status over time). The present research was motivated by the lack of measures that discriminate between beliefs in upward and downward societal mobility. Across two studies using different samples of the Spanish adult population, we examined both dimensions of social mobility beliefs and tested their predictive validity on other related constructs. In Study 1 (N = 164), with an EFA, we corroborated the independence between the two types of mobility. The internal structure was confirmed by a CFA in Study 2 (N = 400). Furthermore, it was shown that upward and downward mobility beliefs are differently related to other related constructs. The results from Studies 1-2 showed good convergent validity. In all correlations with the different constructs (attitudes towards inequality, meritocratic beliefs, justification of the economic system, and status anxiety) we found opposite direction effects for both types of societal mobility (upward and downward). The development of this new instrument can help to deepen our understanding of the psychosocial consequences of subjective social mobility, as well as to differentiate two processes that may have different consequences.


Assuntos
Atitude , Mobilidade Social , Psicologia Social , Ansiedade
17.
Subj. procesos cogn. ; 27(2): 127-142, dic. 12, 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1519644

RESUMO

Este estudo se propõe a mostrar que o francês Michel Foucault, em todas as suas obras, oferece ferramentas para que sejam compreendidos, sob diferentes óticas, os problemas da sociedade por meio de interpretações sobre o viver humano. O objetivo dessa revisão de literatura é entender de que forma o discurso organiza as vozes dos sujeitos, como reelabora os discursos proferidos e os faz circular segundo Foucault. Apresenta-se conceitos básicos da Análise de Discurso iniciada na França por Michel Pêcheuxem 1969. O estudo percorre as obras em idas e vindas, com apoio em vários autores como Pêcheux e Mainguineauque ajudam na compreensãoe na aproximação entre método, teoria e prática.Conclui-se que a obra de Michel Foucault assinala que tudo o que é criado como saber oferece inúmeras possibilidades de recriação e está em permanente processo de transformação AU


Este estudio tiene como objetivo mostrar que el francés Michel Foucault, en todas sus obras, ofrece herramientas para comprender, desde diferentes perspectivas, los problemas de la sociedad a través de interpretaciones del vivir humano. El objetivo de esta revisión de la literatura comprender cómo el discurso organiza las voces de los sujetos, cómo reelabora los discursos pronunciados y los hace circular según Foucault. Presenta conceptos básicos del Análisis del Discurso iniciado en Francia por Michel Pêcheux en 1969. El estudio recorre las obras, con el apoyo de varios autores como Pêcheux y Mainguineau que ayudan a comprender y unir método, teoría y práctica. Se concluye que la obra de Michel Foucault destaca que todo lo creado como conocimiento ofrece innumerables posibilidades de recreación y se encuentra en un permanente proceso de transformación AU


This study aims to show that French Foucault, in all his works, offers tools to understand, from different perspectives, the problems of society, through interpretations of human living. The objective of this literature review is to understand how discourse organizes the subjects' voices, how it reworks the speeches given and makes them circulate according to Foucault. It presents basic concepts of Discourse Analysis initiated in France by Michel Pêcheux in 1969. The study goes back and forth through the works, with support from several authors such as Pêcheux and Mainguineau who help in understanding and bringing together method, theory and practice. It is concluded that Michel Foucault's work highlights that everything created as knowledge offers countless possibilities for recreation and is in a permanent process of transformation AU


Assuntos
Fala , Psicologia Social , Linguística
18.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 39(3): 121-130, Dic. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-228567

RESUMO

In talent management, predicting high potential (HP) is one of the most important questions human resources professionals face. The main goal of this study was to analyze which competences predict employees’ HP and whether these competences differ by gender. The study analyzed 806 employees in the Spanish branch of a multinational service firm that employs over 6,000 employees. Participants, were classified as HP using a questionnaire about eight competences identified as key to the firm’s talent management (TM) and divided into two categories: cognitive-intrapersonal and emotional-interpersonal, and assessment interviews of supervisors. Results indicate that the competences in the cognitive-intrapersonal category contribute greater weight in predicting HP. More specifically, competences of Initiative, Appetite for learning, and Thinking beyond boundaries were significantly related to the HP criterion. The competences that were significant by gender were also analyzed. Application of these results, as well as the study’s limitations and recommendations for future research, are discussed.(AU)


En la gestión del talento, predecir un alto potencial (AP) es una de las cuestiones más importantes a las que se enfrentan los profesionales de recursos humanos. El objetivo principal de este estudio ha sido analizar qué competencias predicen el AP de los empleados y si estas competencias difieren en función del género. El estudio analiza a 806 empleados de la sucursal española de una empresa multinacional de servicios que emplea a más de 6,000 trabajadores. Los participantes fueron clasificados como AP mediante un cuestionario sobre ocho competencias identificadas como clave para la gestión del talento de la empresa y entrevistas de evaluación a supervisores, y divididas en dos categorías: cognitivo-intrapersonal y emocional-interpersonal. Los resultados indican que las competencias de la categoría cognitivo-intrapersonal aportan un mayor peso en la predicción del AP. Más concretamente, las competencias de iniciativa, hambre de aprender y pensar más allá de los límites se relacionaban significativamente con el criterio de AP. También se analizaron las competencias que resultaron significativas en función del género. Se discute la aplicación de estos resultados, así como las limitaciones del estudio y las recomendaciones para futuras investigaciones.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Aptidão , Relações Trabalhistas , /psicologia , Organizações , Emprego , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , Esgotamento Profissional , Desempenho Profissional
19.
An. psicol ; 39(3): 345-353, Oct-Dic, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-224936

RESUMO

La Autolesión No Suicida (ANS) se define como un dolor auto-infligido que se utiliza como un mecanismo para aliviar la angustia psicoló-gica. Aunque ANS es común en el trastorno límite de la personalidad (TLP), también es un problema creciente en estudiantes universitarios. Si bien la desregulación emocional y la urgencia negativa están asociadas con ANS, poco se sabe sobre las dimensiones específicas que predicen la moti-vación (funciones) y la frecuencia de las autolesiones. Se exploró la relación entre la desregulación emocional, la urgencia negativa, y ANS en 86 adultos jóvenes, divididos en tres grupos: estudiantes universitarios con ANS, pa-cientes TLP con ANS y un grupo de control sano sin ANS. Realizamos análisis de regresión múltiple para predecir las funciones y frecuencia de ANS. La no aceptación de las emociones, una dimensión especifica de la desregulación emocional, predijo de manera única las funciones intraperso-nales de ANS, pero no las funciones interpersonales. Por último, la falta de estrategias de regulación emocional predijo la frecuencia de ANS solo en individuos con una alta urgencia negativa, es decir, individuos que tienden a actuar impulsivamente cuando experimentan emociones negativas, pero no en aquellos con una baja urgencia negativa. Los hallazgos resaltan las moti-vaciones subyacentes a la autolesión y revelan facetas de la desregulación emocional relevantes para el tratamiento de ANS.(AU)


Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is defined as self-inflicted pain, and it is used as a mechanism to alleviate psychological distress. Although NSSI is prevalent in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), it is also an increasing concern among college student populations. While emotion dysregulation and negative urgency are associated with NSSI, little is known about which dimensions specifically predict the motivations (NSSI-functions) and frequency of self-harm. The current study explored the rela-tionship between emotion dysregulation, negative urgency, and NSSI in 86 young adults, divided into three groups: college students with NSSI, BPD patients with NSSI, and a healthy control group without NSSI. We con-ducted multiple regression analyses to predicted NSSI-functions and NSSI-frequency. Non-acceptance of emotions, a specific dimension of emotion dysregulation, uniquely predicted intrapersonal NSSI-functions (e.g., regu-lating distressing emotions), but not interpersonal NSSI-functions (e.g., communicating distress). Lastly, poor emotion regulation strategies pre-dicted NSSI-frequency only in individuals with high negative urgency, that is, individuals who tend to act impulsively when experiencing negative emotions, but not in those with low negative urgency. Findings shed light on the underlying motivations for engaging in self-injury, and they reveal facets of emotion dysregulation relevant for NSSI treatment.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Autocontrole , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Saúde Mental , Psicologia Social , Psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Psiquiatria
20.
An. psicol ; 39(3): 364-373, Oct-Dic, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-224938

RESUMO

Antecedentes: Diversos estudios demuestran la relevancia del per-dón interpersonal tras una ofensa para mejorar la salud y el bienestar. A pe-sar de su importancia, es evidente la falta de instrumentos de evaluación del perdón adaptados al contexto español. El Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI-30) es el instrumento que operacionaliza uno de los modelos teóricos más asentados y reconocidos en el área del perdón a nivel mundial. El obje-tivo del presente estudio es adaptar el EFI-30 a la población española y re-visar suspropiedades psicométricas. Método: 426 estudiantes de grado y más-ter (98 hombres y 328 mujeres) con edades entre 18 y 30 años (M= 21.24; DE= 2.91), completaron el EFI-30 tras su adaptación, así como Trans-gression Related Interpersonal Motivations Inventory (TRIM-18), Reme-dial Strategies Scale (RSS) y Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Resultados: El Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio indicó buen ajuste a la estructura original de seis factores (CFI=.91, TLI=.90, IFI=.91, RMSEA= .067). La fiabilidad de las subescalas y del instrumento general fue buena, similar a la versión original. Los resultados mostraron adecuada validez convergente y de criterio. Conclusiones:EFI-30 muestra adecuadas propiedades psicométricas en un contexto español, siendo una medida apropiada para evaluar el perdón interpersonal de una ofensa especifica en al ámbito de la investigación e intervención clínica.(AU)


Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated the im-portance of interpersonal forgiveness after a specific offense for improving the health and well-being of individuals. Despite its importance, there is an evident lack of forgiveness evaluation instruments adapted to the Spanish context. The Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI-30) is the questionnaire that implements one of themost establishedand recognized theoretical models in thearea offorgiveness. The aim of the present study is to adapt the EFI-30 for the Spanish population and evaluate its psychometric prop-erties. Method: A sample of 426 undergraduate and graduate students (98 men, 328 women) aged from 18 to 30 years (M= 21.24; SD=2.91), com-pleted the EFI-30 after its adaptation to the Spanishcontext, as well as the Transgression Related Interpersonal Motivations Inventory (TRIM-18), the Remedial Strategies Scale (RSS) and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed a good fit tothe original six-factor structure (CFI=.91, TLI=.90, IFI=.91, RMSEA= .067). The reliability of these subscales and the instrument was similar to the original version. The results showed adequate criteria and convergent validity. Conclusions:The EFI-30 shows adequatepsycho-metric properties within the Spanish context and is an appropriate instru-ment for evaluating interpersonal forgiveness of a specific offense in re-search and clinical intervention.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Perdão , Seguridade Social/psicologia , Seguridade Social/tendências , Psicometria , Relações Interpessoais , Espanha , Estudos de Validação como Assunto , Psicologia Social
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