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1.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 129-144, ene.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1155519

RESUMO

Este estudo tem por objetivo discutir a atuação clínica da Psicologia em um serviço de apoio ao estudante universitário dentro de uma Instituição de Ensino Superior pública, por meio de um relato de experiência. Apresenta-se uma breve descrição do serviço, a implementação de um processo de triagem, a relação terapeuta e paciente, a psicoterapia breve, algumas queixas mais recorrentes no serviço, bem como limitações e potencialidades da atuação. Assim, entende-se que o trabalho psicoterapêutico de caráter breve, ainda que seja atravessado por desafios institucionais de ordem burocrática e administrativa, consegue ser efetivo e é valorizado pela comunidade acadêmica. Evidencia-se que a atuação clínica no contexto da educação superior é um campo profissional que pode ser mais explorado pela Psicologia.


In this article, we aim to discuss the clinical performance of Psychology in support service for university students within a Public Higher Education Institution, through an experience report. We present a brief description of the service, the implementation of a screening process, the relationship between therapist and patient, brief psychotherapy, more recurring complaints in the service, as well as limitations and potentialities of performance. Thus, we understand that psychotherapeutic work of a brief nature, even though it is traversed by institutional bureaucratic and administrative challenges, manages to be effective and is valued by the academic community. It is evident then that clinical practice in the context of College Education is a professional field that can be further explored by Psychology.


En este artículo, nuestro objetivo es discutir el desempeño clínico de la Psicología en un servicio de apoyo para estudiantes universitarios dentro de una institución pública de educación superior, a través de un informe de experiencia. Presentamos una breve descripción del servicio, la implementación de un proceso de detección, la relación entre terapeuta y paciente, psicoterapia breve, quejas más frecuentes en el servicio, así como limitaciones y potencialidades de desempeño. Así, entendemos que el trabajo psicoterapéutico breve, aunque esté atravesado por desafíos institucionales burocráticos y administrativos, logra ser efectivo y es valorado por la comunidad académica. Es evidente entonces que la práctica clínica en el contexto de la Educación Superior es un campo profesional que la Psicología puede seguir explorando.


Assuntos
Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Psicoterapia Breve , Serviços de Saúde para Estudantes , Estudantes , Universidades , Trabalho , Educação Superior
2.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 98-113, ene.-jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1155517

RESUMO

Os grupos, a despeito de seu potencial para a Psicologia, ainda são pouco considerados pela Psicologia Analítica e escolas dissidentes. Buscou-se, assim, identificar pesquisas que discorressem sobre grupos na perspectiva da Psicologia Analítica e da Escola Arquetípica em programas de pós-graduação brasileiros. O levantamento de dados incluiu trabalhos publicados de 1997 a 2019, considerando-se dados concernentes à autoria, orientação, instituição de ensino superior (IES), programa de pós-graduação, região do país, ano, delineamento metodológico e instrumentos utilizados. Notou-se aumento dos trabalhos entre 2016 e 2018, predominância de autoria feminina, maior concentração de IES no Nordeste e Sudeste, foco em pesquisas empíricas qualitativas, com entrevistas ou grupo como instrumento de coleta de dados, demonstrando os benefícios do grupo como recurso terapêutico.


The groups, despite their potential for Psychology, are still little considered by Analytical Psychology and dissident schools. Thus, we sought to identify research that discussed groups from the perspective of Analytical Psychology and the Archetypal School in Brazilian postgraduate programs. The data survey included works published from 1997 to 2019, considering data concerning authorship, guidance, higher education institution (HEI), postgraduate program, the region of the country, year, methodological design, and instruments used. There was an increase in work between 2016 and 2018, the predominance of female authorship, a higher concentration of HEIs in the Northeast and Southeast, focus on qualitative empirical research, with interviews or group as a data collection instrument, demonstrating the benefits of the group as a therapeutic resource.


Los grupos, a pesar de su potencial para la Psicología, todavía son poco considerados por la Psicología Analítica y las escuelas disidentes. Así, buscamos identificar investigaciones que discutieran grupos desde la perspectiva de la Psicología Analítica y la Escuela Arquetípica en programas de posgrado brasileños. La encuesta de datos incluyó trabajos publicados de 1997 a 2019, considerando datos de autoría, orientación, institución de educación superior (IES), programa de posgrado, región del país, año, diseño metodológico e instrumentos utilizados. Hubo un aumento del trabajo entre 2016 y 2018, predominio de la autoría femenina, mayor concentración de IES en el Noreste y Sudeste, enfoque en la investigación empírica cualitativa, con entrevistas o grupo como instrumento de recolección de datos, demostrando los beneficios del grupo como recurso terapéutico.


Assuntos
Teoria Psicanalítica , Psicologia , Pesquisa , Autoria , Bibliometria , Coleta de Dados , Teoria Junguiana
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To focus on the first feelings, attitudes, and planned reactions of psychiatric workers in Hungary to the news of the appearance of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to examine any differences between psychiatrists/psychologists and nurses/other professionals regarding these attitudes. METHODS: Hungarian psychiatric workers (N = 119) including psychiatrists/psychologists (n = 78) and nurses/other professionals (n = 41) participated in the study. To measure attitudes, a questionnaire was designed consisting of 7 questions and filled out within 1-3 days after the declaration of emergency in response to COVID-19 in Hungary on March 11, 2020. RESULTS: Psychiatric workers, especially psychiatrists/psychologists, regarded information gathering from valid sources as important. When examining the first feelings, we found that the psychiatrists/psychologists group tended to feel higher extent of anxiety, while the nurses/other professionals group showed higher extent of hope. When investigating willingness to work in the pandemic situation, a lower percentage of Hungarian psychiatric workers (58%) would choose to continue working compared to previous research. Answers to open-ended questions revealed that denial was the most frequent coping reaction. CONCLUSIONS: These differences could be attributed to the finding that psychiatrists/psychologists, who had faced the reality of the virus situation via the news, tended to have more realistic attitudes toward the virus, while nurses/other professionals, who had avoided valid information, tended to have less realistic attitudes.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , COVID-19 , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Psiquiatria , Psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade , Feminino , Esperança , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , SARS-CoV-2 , Serviço Social em Psiquiatria , Assistentes Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012423, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) includes any violence (physical, sexual or psychological/emotional) by a current or former partner. This review reflects the current understanding of IPV as a profoundly gendered issue, perpetrated most often by men against women. IPV may result in substantial physical and mental health impacts for survivors. Women affected by IPV are more likely to have contact with healthcare providers (HCPs) (e.g. nurses, doctors, midwives), even though women often do not disclose the violence. Training HCPs on IPV, including how to respond to survivors of IPV, is an important intervention to improve HCPs' knowledge, attitudes and practice, and subsequently the care and health outcomes for IPV survivors. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of training programmes that seek to improve HCPs' identification of and response to IPV against women, compared to no intervention, wait-list, placebo or training as usual. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and seven other databases up to June 2020. We also searched two clinical trials registries and relevant websites. In addition, we contacted primary authors of included studies to ask if they knew of any relevant studies not identified in the search. We evaluated the reference lists of all included studies and systematic reviews for inclusion. We applied no restrictions by search dates or language. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing IPV training or educational programmes for HCPs compared with no training, wait-list, training as usual, placebo, or a sub-component of the intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures outlined by Cochrane. Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility, undertook data extraction and assessed risks of bias. Where possible, we synthesised the effects of IPV training in a meta-analysis. Other analyses were synthesised in a narrative manner. We assessed evidence certainty using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 19 trials involving 1662 participants. Three-quarters of all studies were conducted in the USA, with single studies from Australia, Iran, Mexico, Turkey and the Netherlands. Twelve trials compared IPV training versus no training, and seven trials compared the effects of IPV training to training as usual or a sub-component of the intervention in the comparison group, or both. Study participants included 618 medical staff/students, 460 nurses/students, 348 dentists/students, 161 counsellors or psychologists/students, 70 midwives and 5 social workers. Studies were heterogeneous and varied across training content delivered, pedagogy and time to follow-up (immediately post training to 24 months). The risk of bias assessment highlighted unclear reporting across many areas of bias. The GRADE assessment of the studies found that the certainty of the evidence for the primary outcomes was low to very low, with studies often reporting on perceived or self-reported outcomes rather than actual HCPs' practices or outcomes for women. Eleven of the 19 included studies received some form of research grant funding to complete the research. Within 12 months post-intervention, the evidence suggests that compared to no intervention, wait-list or placebo, IPV training: · may improve HCPs' attitudes towards IPV survivors (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.71, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.03; 8 studies, 641 participants; low-certainty evidence); · may have a large effect on HCPs' self-perceived readiness to respond to IPV survivors, although the evidence was uncertain (SMD 2.44, 95% CI 1.51 to 3.37; 6 studies, 487 participants; very low-certainty evidence); · may have a large effect on HCPs' knowledge of IPV, although the evidence was uncertain (SMD 6.56, 95% CI 2.49 to 10.63; 3 studies, 239 participants; very low-certainty evidence); · may make little to no difference to HCPs' referral practices of women to support agencies, although this is based on only one study (with 49 clinics) assessed to be very low certainty; · has an uncertain effect on HCPs' response behaviours (based on two studies of very low certainty), with one trial (with 27 participants) reporting that trained HCPs were more likely to successfully provide advice on safety planning during their interactions with standardised patients, and the other study (with 49 clinics) reporting no clear impact on safety planning practices; · may improve identification of IPV at six months post-training (RR 4.54, 95% CI 2.5 to 8.09) as in one study (with 54 participants), although three studies (with 48 participants) reported little to no effects of training on identification or documentation of IPV, or both. No studies assessed the impact of training HCPs on the mental health of women survivors of IPV compared to no intervention, wait-list or placebo. When IPV training was compared to training as usual or a sub-component of the intervention, or both, no clear effects were seen on HCPs' attitudes/beliefs, safety planning, and referral to services or mental health outcomes for women. Inconsistent results were seen for HCPs' readiness to respond (improvements in two out of three studies) and HCPs' IPV knowledge (improved in two out of four studies). One study found that IPV training improved HCPs' validation responses. No adverse IPV-related events were reported in any of the studies identified in this review. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Overall, IPV training for HCPs may be effective for outcomes that are precursors to behaviour change. There is some, albeit weak evidence that IPV training may improve HCPs' attitudes towards IPV. Training may also improve IPV knowledge and HCPs' self-perceived readiness to respond to those affected by IPV, although we are not certain about this evidence. Although supportive evidence is weak and inconsistent, training may improve HCPs' actual responses, including the use of safety planning, identification and documentation of IPV in women's case histories. The sustained effect of training on these outcomes beyond 12 months is undetermined. Our confidence in these findings is reduced by the substantial level of heterogeneity across studies and the unclear risk of bias around randomisation and blinding of participants, as well as high risk of bias from attrition in many studies. Further research is needed that overcomes these limitations, as well as assesses the impacts of IPV training on HCPs' behavioral outcomes and the well-being of women survivors of IPV.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adulto , Viés , Odontólogos/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Corpo Clínico/educação , Tocologia/educação , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/educação , Psicologia/educação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Assistentes Sociais/educação , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e26282, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frontline health care workers are experiencing a myriad of physical and psychosocial challenges amid the COVID-19 pandemic. There is growing recognition that digital technologies have the potential to improve the well-being of frontline workers. However, there has been limited development of wellness interventions using mobile health (mHealth) technology. More importantly, little research has been conducted on how frontline workers perceive mHealth-based support to promote their well-being. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore frontline workers' experience of conventional psychological wellness programs and their perceptions of the usefulness of mHealth apps and features for promoting well-being. It also sought to identify factors that could potentially influence uptake and retention of an mHealth-based wellness program. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews using purposive sampling with frontline workers involved in the COVID-19 response. Various visual materials, collated from existing mHealth app features, were presented to facilitate discussion. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis based on grounded theory was undertaken. Themes were subsequently mapped to key nudge strategies-those commonly used for mHealth development-to assess participants' preferences for particular features and their reasoning. RESULTS: A total of 42 frontline workers participated in 12 one-on-one interviews or focus group discussions. Frontline workers generally had a limited ability to identify their own psychological problems and liked the reminders functionality of the app to track their mood over time. A personalized goal-setting feature (ie, tailoring) and in-app resources were generally valued, while frequent coaching and messages (ie, framing) were seen as a distraction. The majority of participants desired a built-in chat function with a counselor (ie, guidance) for reasons of accessibility and protection of privacy. Very few participants appreciated a gamification function. Frontline workers commonly reported the need for ongoing social support and desired access to an in-app peer support community (ie, social influence). There were, however, concerns regarding potential risks from virtual peer interactions. Intrinsic motivational factors, mHealth app technicality, and tangible rewards were identified as critical for uptake and retention. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the potential of mHealth apps with relevant features to be used as wellness tools by frontline health care workers. Future work should focus on developing a nonintrusive and personalized mHealth app with in-app counseling, peer support to improve well-being, and tangible and extrinsic rewards to foster continued use.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Couns Psychol ; 68(3): 247-258, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043372

RESUMO

Fifteen years have passed since the publication of a landmark issue of the Journal of Counseling Psychology on qualitative and mixed methods research (Haverkamp et al., 2005), which signaled a methodological shift in counseling psychology and related fields. At the time, qualitative research was certainly less popular in the field and arguably less respected than it is now. This special issue charts advances in qualitative and mixed methods research since the publication of that issue, reflects on how these diverse approaches are conducted today, and points toward new methodological frontiers. The articles in this special issue include a range of methodological tools and theoretical perspectives that extend thinking about the ethics, practice, evaluation, and implications of psychological research. Notably, the articles are linked by a shared commitment to conducting psychological research critically-that is, to both critique dominant norms in the discipline and to sensitize psychological methods to power and inequality-and to advancing social justice. In this introduction, the guest editors survey authors' contributions and synthesize their insights to offer recommendations for future qualitative and mixed methods work in the field, particularly in terms of interdisciplinarity, methodological rigor, critical psychology, and social justice. They propose that counseling psychologists should cultivate a "qualitative imagination" with respect to all forms of empirical research (qualitative and quantitative) and offer specific guidance for enhancing methodological sophistication and sensitivity to power. Accordingly, this special issue is an important opportunity to set an agenda for the next decade-plus of critical inquiry in counseling psychology. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Aconselhamento/métodos , Humanos , Imaginação , Masculino , Psicologia/métodos , Justiça Social/psicologia
7.
J Couns Psychol ; 68(3): 259-270, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043373

RESUMO

Decolonization harbors great potential as a transformative methodological innovation for advancing social justice in counseling psychology. One domain of colonized knowledge with relevance for the field is therapeutic expertise in American Indian communities. In this article, I draw extensively on vignettes from the life narrative of a historical Aaniiih-Gros Ventre medicine man to reveal various facets of his healing practices. I do so as an illustrative case example of a decolonial reclamation of Indigenous therapeutic traditions for the discipline. In discussing method, power, and process in association with decolonization, I first summarize emergent divergences between Indigenous traditional healing and modern counseling based on excerpted vignettes. Then, I observe that method in pursuing decolonization through Indigenous therapeutic reclamation is currently open to various forms of qualitative inquiry, that power in pursuit of Indigenous therapeutic reclamation must appraise the role of therapeutic regimes in the creation of modern subjects, and that process in pursuit of Indigenous therapeutic reclamation must allow for decolonization to extend to the repatriation of Indigenous relationships to land. Finally, I gesture beyond the consideration of Indigenous therapeutic traditions to trace the profound implications of a decolonization agenda for knowledge, practice, and training in counseling psychology. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Nativos Estadunidenses , Aconselhamento/métodos , Conhecimento , Psicologia/métodos , Nativos Estadunidenses/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Justiça Social
8.
J Couns Psychol ; 68(3): 271-285, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043374

RESUMO

While counseling psychologists made substantial proposals to advance qualitative research since the special issue on related methods was published 15-years ago (Haverkamp, Morrow, & Ponterotto, 2005), the field continues to demonstrate an overreliance on quantitative methods. Though important for producing knowledge we can depend on, excessive use of these methods poses a barrier for counseling psychologists to address the needs of the communities that are at the core of our discipline's values-those who are marginalized and underserved in society. In alignment with our values of social justice, advocacy, and empowerment, we propose counseling psychologists adopt a methodology within a critical paradigm to better address issues of inequality and inequity when working with underrepresented communities, such as digital storytelling. Rooted in a movement to increase access to art for marginalized communities in the 1970s and 1980s, digital storytelling is an arts-based research methodology that captures first-person narrated accounts of peoples' lives through the use of stories, photos, and videos, and empowers communities to be a part of research to create social change. We provide recommendations for using digital storytelling in counseling psychology research as outlined through 5 phases, including Phase I) digital storytelling's critical paradigm, Phase II) project development, Phase III) implementation, Phase IV) data analysis, and Phase V) dissemination. While doing so, we draw on examples from 2 digital storytelling projects we are familiar with, Immigrant Stories and OrigiNatives, providing a framework for a digital frontier in counseling psychology research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Narração , Psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Justiça Social
9.
J Couns Psychol ; 68(3): 331-343, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043377

RESUMO

Qualitative research in counseling psychology in the last 2 decades has been characterized by the introduction and use of a range of methods and corresponding paradigms and conceptual frameworks. The action-project research method, described and updated in this article, is based on an understanding of human action as goal-directed and enacted in context: contextual action theory. We summarize this framework, prior to describing the method's procedures for conceptualizing research problems and questions, collecting and analyzing data from dyads of participants, and presenting research findings. We also discuss recent adaptations to the procedures and how the method addresses core issues in counseling psychology; that is, methodological integrity, culture, ethics, and power. We proceed to describe how the method relates to other qualitative methods and the kinds of research questions asked by the discipline and how the action-project method connects to professional practice issues. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Aconselhamento/métodos , Humanos , Motivação , Psicologia/métodos , Tamanho da Amostra
10.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2021-05-12.
Não convencional em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-53939

RESUMO

Com o crescimento sem precedentes das emergências humanitárias nos últimos anos, um número cada vez maior de pessoas está enfrentando condições de vida adversas e risco de desenvolver problemas de saúde mental. Recentemente, a OMS buscou atender às necessidades das pessoas incapacitadas pelo sofrimento mental ao publicar a intervenção Enfrentando Problemas Mais (EP+): Atendimento psicológico individual para adultos com angústia em comunidades expostas à adversidade. A característica basilar da intervenção descrita deste manual – que foi desenvolvida para ajudar uma pessoa por vez – é que ela visa apoiar adultos com sofrimento, independentemente do problema de saúde mental específico que estejam enfrentando. Isso significa que mais pessoas poderão ser ajudadas por meio de uma única intervenção psicossocial breve. Em segundo lugar, o manual compreende estratégias baseadas em evidências adaptadas de modo que possam ser implementadas por prestadores não especializados, com supervisão e após um breve treinamento. Isso é fundamental se quisermos reduzir a lacuna entre os problemas de saúde mental e o acesso ao cuidado eficaz. Em muitos meios onde o sofrimento mental é comum devido à adversidade, falta apoio psicossocial (inclusive com falta de profissionais de saúde mental).


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Saúde Mental , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Psicologia , Comunidade Terapêutica
11.
Health Psychol ; 40(4): 227-229, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856829

RESUMO

The Editors are pleased to announce that Health Psychology has adopted the Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines (Center for Open Science, 2021). We and the other core American Psychological Association (APA) journals are implementing these guidelines at the direction of the APA Publications and Communications Board. Their decision was made with the support of the APA Council of Editors and the APA Open Science and Methodology Committee. The TOP Guidelines were originally published in Science (Nosek et al. 2015) to encourage journals to incentivize open research practices. They are being implemented by a wide range of scientific publications, including some of the leading behavioral and medical research journals. The TOP guidelines for Health Psychology are outlined in our recently revised Instructions to Authors. We are implementing most of the standards at TOP Level 1, which means that adherence is required. We are implementing other standards at Level 2, which means that authors are encouraged to adhere to them and required to disclose whether and how they have done so. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Medicina do Comportamento/métodos , Psicologia/métodos , Humanos
12.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896933

RESUMO

Events that occur during fetal and perinatal life can have consequences on the health and disease of the offspring. The pioneering work on the "Fetal Programming Hypothesis" focused on pregnant women exposed to a great famine that occurred in the Netherlands at the end of World War II. The intrauterine environment of the babies during that famine caused them to low birthweight and determined the appearance of cardiovascular diseases in themselves when they reached adulthood, a risk that was transmitted even to the following generation. In addition to the general stress that a pregnant woman may suffer as a result of the death of a family member, suffering a war or natural disaster such as the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, there is another specific type of stress that refers exclusively to the pregnancy process; this is the pregnancy specific-stress. Pregnancy-specific stress is capable of sensitively predicting negative maternal and neonatal outcomes. This type of stress refers to the specific stress of pregnant women related to medical problems, the health of the newborn, the changes that the pregnancy will produce in their social relationships, prematurity, physical changes of pregnancy and fear of labor and birth. The objective of this article was to offer an updated information on pregnancy-specific stress and its consequences for maternal and neonatal health. Thus, we also proposed to offer strategies that midwives and psychologists can use to reduce pregnancy-specific stress levels. In conclusion, midwives and psychologists can work together to reduce pregnancy-specific stress levels.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Tocologia/métodos , Gravidez/psicologia , Papel Profissional , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna , Resultado da Gravidez/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos , Psicologia , Espanha , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
13.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802889

RESUMO

The lack of access to a balanced diet, rich in vitamins and minerals, can predispose people to inflammatory diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and periodontitis. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient intake, sociodemographic behavioral characteristics, and periodontal health in adults assisted by a public health care system. Participants (n = 450) answered a food frequency questionnaire and were submitted to anthropometric and oral clinical examinations. Principal component analysis was used to summarize the number of components emerging from 17-micronutrient intake. Subsequently, cluster analysis was employed. The prevalence of at least one periodontal pocket ≥ 4 mm was 67.4%. Three clusters were identified according to periodontal status. Cluster 1 "poor periodontal status" was characterized by older individuals (n = 202; 85% females) with poor periodontal status, lower education level, mainly smokers with non-transmissible chronic diseases (NTCD), with lower energy, omega-3, fiber, Zn, K, Cu, and vitamin C intake. Cluster 3 "healthy periodontal status" included younger individuals (n = 54) with the healthiest periodontal status, a higher education level, without NTCD, and with higher energy, omega-3, fiber, Zn, calcium, retinol, and riboflavin intake. Cluster 2 was labeled as "intermediate periodontal status". Micronutrient ingestion was associated with periodontal status and may be considered in health promotion actions for low-income populations.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Bolsa Periodontal/epidemiologia , Assistência de Saúde Universal , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Bolsa Periodontal/etiologia , Bolsa Periodontal/prevenção & controle , Psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E33, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830913

RESUMO

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define chronic diseases as conditions that last 1 year or more and that require ongoing medical attention or limit activities of daily living, or both (1). Chronic diseases may be influenced by a combination of genetics, lifestyle and social behaviors, health care system factors, community influences, and environmental determinants of health (2). These risk factors often coexist and interact with each other. Therefore, a better understanding of determinants of chronic diseases such as tobacco use, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity stands to benefit from effective strategies for improving primary, secondary, and tertiary disease prevention and management in diverse global settings (3). Strategies to prevent and manage chronic disease outcomes such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have global commonalities (4-7). The impact of chronic diseases is disproportionately evident in Black and Brown communities (8,9). Chronic disease prevention and management typically focus on behavioral interventions such as healthy eating, increased physical activity, and cessation of unhealthy practices such as tobacco and alcohol use (10-15). In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic added to the fact that chronic diseases disproportionately affect low-resource communities, where many Black and Brown populations live (16,17). COVID-19 demonstrated that chronic disease disparities actually present as preexisting conditions in Black and Brown communities, who are disproportionately affected by COVID-19 outcomes. Although most of the articles in this Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD) collection were published before the pandemic, the insights they present, combined with the racial and ethnic data on the burden of COVID-19 thus far, support this reality. Many researchers and public health practitioners often consider the need to sufficiently address the relationships between chronic diseases and social, behavioral, and community factors (18). Global lessons in the prevention and management of chronic diseases, therefore, can help researchers and practitioners benefit from the shared lessons and experience derived from research and interventions conducted in different parts of the world. There are more than 7 billion people worldwide, who speak diverse languages and who have different nationalities, identities, and health systems. Yet, if we share challenges and opportunities for chronic disease prevention and management, many of the global adversities to improving health and well-being can be ameliorated, which is the purpose of this collection. The authors in this collection share lessons that represent experiences in diverse contexts across countries and regions of the world.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Saúde Global , Saúde Pública , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Causalidade , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Estilo de Vida , Psicologia , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/tendências , SARS-CoV-2 , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Health Psychol ; 40(4): 274-284, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646806

RESUMO

Objective: Health misinformation on social media threatens public health. One question that could lend insight into how and through whom misinformation spreads is whether certain people are susceptible to many types of health misinformation, regardless of the health topic at hand. This study provided an initial answer to this question and also tested four hypotheses concerning the psychosocial attributes of people who are susceptible to health misinformation: (1) deficits in knowledge or skill, (2) preexisting attitudes, (3) trust in health care and/or science, and (4) cognitive miserliness. Method: Participants in a national U.S. survey (N = 923) rated the perceived accuracy and influence of true and false social media posts about statin medications, cancer treatment, and the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine and then responded to individual difference and demographic questions. Results: Perceived accuracy of health misinformation was strongly correlated across statins, cancer, and the HPV vaccine (rs ≥ .70), indicating that individuals who are susceptible to misinformation about one of these topics are very likely to believe misinformation about the other topics as well. Misinformation susceptibility across all three topics was most strongly predicted by lower educational attainment and health literacy, distrust in the health care system, and positive attitudes toward alternative medicine. Conclusions: A person who is susceptible to online misinformation about one health topic may be susceptible to many types of health misinformation. Individuals who were more susceptible to health misinformation had less education and health literacy, less health care trust, and more positive attitudes toward alternative medicine. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comunicação , Psicologia/normas , Telemedicina/métodos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Hist Psychol ; 24(1): 1-12, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661676

RESUMO

This contribution aims to promote a dialogue between history and psychology by outlining a direction for future research at the intersection of these disciplines. In particular, it seeks to demonstrate the potential contributions of history to psychology by employing the category of mental health in a historical context. The analysis focuses on notions of psychological health that were developed in late antiquity, especially the equation between "health of the soul" and dispassion (apatheia) within the Christian monastic movement. This theologically informed notion of what constitutes positive human functioning and well-being is examined in view of modern attempts, in mainstream and positive psychology, to define mental health. The optimism concerning the naturalness of virtue and the malleability of human nature that underlies late antique notions of "health of the soul" becomes noticeable in its absence once we turn to modern notions of mental health. It thus provides an illuminating counter-example against which to compare and analyze modern attempts to define mental health. A comparison of these alternative notions human flourishing offers an opportunity to reflect on and test the validity of contemporary attempts to define this condition in a culturally sensitive manner. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cristianismo/história , Historiografia , Saúde Mental/história , Psicologia/história , Cristianismo/psicologia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Monges/história , Monges/psicologia
17.
Hist Psychol ; 24(1): 34-54, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661680

RESUMO

In the 1870s, Krausists and Catholics struggled for hegemony in Spanish educational institutions. In the midst of the fray, a group of neo-Kantian intellectuals, led by José del Perojo, set out to renew psychology in Spain by introducing Wundt's physiological psychology and Darwinian evolutionism. Neither Catholics nor Krausists welcomed the proposal. In the case of Catholics, the fundamentalist group led by professor of metaphysics Juan Manuel Ortí y Lara founded the journal La Ciencia Cristiana [Christian Science] to counter the neo-Kantian and Darwinian influences. In this article, I present a selection of texts from the journal to show how the editors tried to discredit the foundations of physiological psychology and evolutionism, as well as to promote a scholastic philosophy based on the literal interpretation of the texts of Saint Thomas Aquinas. Finally, I suggest that the identification of Catholic philosophy with fundamentalist scholasticism delayed the development of neo-scholastic psychology in Spain. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Psicologia/história , Catolicismo/psicologia , História do Século XIX , Espanha
18.
Hist Psychol ; 24(1): 55-76, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661681

RESUMO

Historians often focus on the most famous or radical, prolific theoreticians among psychoanalysts, thereby at times reproducing the self-centered biases of their subjects rather than providing a useful critique. I offer instead a revisionist view of this history of psychology, arguing that we should pay more attention to a variety of middle-way actors who combined diverse forms of often-dismissed labor that included practice, editorial, and administrative work, and who tried to find a less rigid theoretical middle ground to toil. These middle-way actors were often women and although scholars have commented on the prominence of women in the early societies of psychoanalysis, we have not conducted adequate research on all these early active members and their roles. This article presents an example of such an actor, Marjorie Brierley (1893-1984), one of the first women psychoanalysts in Britain who made unique, yet unresearched, varied contributions-intellectual and non-intellectual-to the famous interwar debate on femininity and to organizational and clinical work. If we are to fully understand the establishment, cultivation, and maintenance of the flourishing field of psychoanalysis in the early 20th century, we must account for the work of women like her. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Psicanálise/história , Psicologia/história , Feminilidade/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Reino Unido
19.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(4): 99-107, 2021 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728880

RESUMO

Within this work are approached some historical elements on the history of the evolution of the perception of the links between the soul and the body and the modification of the place of the soul within canon and Roman rights.


Assuntos
Relações Metafísicas Mente-Corpo , Cristianismo/história , Estado de Consciência , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Psicologia/história , Cidade de Roma
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