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1.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 74(3-04): 120-128, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Discrimination can have a negative impact on mental health and thus can play a crucial role in the context of psychotherapy. This paper outlines the potentials and the relevance of an (intersectional) privilege awareness of psychotherapists for a discrimination-sensitive psychotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess the privilege awareness of psychotherapists in Germany for the first time as well as its thematization in the training of psychotherapists. In addition, the connection between belonging to a marginalized group and the privilege awareness was investigated. METHODS: 270 psychotherapists (in training) based in Germany participated in an online survey (2022). Privilege awareness was assessed with an adapted version of the Awareness of Privilege and Oppression Scale-2, translated into German, regarding the following axes of discrimination: heterosexism, classism, and racism. Three self-written items additionally surveyed the thematization of discrimination and privilege in psychotherapy training. The relationship between belonging to a marginalized group and privilege awareness was examined using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Nearly 65% (N=270) of participants felt unprepared or somewhat unprepared to deal with patients' experiences of discrimination, with approximately 40% (N=270) indicating that discrimination was not addressed in training. Privilege was addressed much less frequently. Belonging to a marginalized group was associated with higher privilege awareness (B=0,47, 95%-confidence interval: 0,27-0,67, F(2, 267)=15,41, p<0,001). CONCLUSION: There is a need to include the impact of discrimination and privilege on mental health and the therapeutic relationship as an integral part of psychotherapy training to enhance its quality as well as the quality of future psychotherapies.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicoterapeutas , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Alemanha , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental
2.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 74(3-04): 103-111, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552616

RESUMO

The negative attitude of psychotherapists towards the treatment of older patients in the past has weakened in the recent past. Nevertheless, the question remains as to how therapists perceive older patients in comparison to younger patients, what clinical judgements they arrive at and how they perceive the relationship with them. In the present study, which was conducted as part of the ÄPP study (Older Patients in Psychotherapy), therapists were asked to assess a self-selected younger (<40 years) or an older patient (>65) with regard to various variables. A total of 527 completed questionnaires were available. Two-factor analyses of variance were used to show, among other things, that younger therapists (compared to their older colleagues) rate older patients more negatively in terms of suitability for psychotherapy, the patient's ability to establish a therapeutic working relationship and other parameters. In comparison with their older colleagues, younger therapists perceive themselves as less competent in their relationships with older patients. There are only slight differences with younger patients.


Assuntos
Pacientes , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Psicoterapeutas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Raciocínio Clínico , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Competência Clínica
3.
Brain Behav ; 14(1): e3368, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376017

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sense of control is an integral part of well-being. Studies have reported on the connection between loss of control and psychological symptoms. However, loss of sense of control has not yet been studied from the perspective of psychotherapists. METHODS: This study had three research objectives: to find out how psychotherapists define loss of sense of control, whether they consider loss of sense of control to play a role in the start of psychological symptoms, and, if so, in what cases. Lebanese psychotherapists were interviewed and the data were then analyzed using frame analysis. RESULTS: The analysis revealed two definitions for loss of sense of control and conflicting views on whether it plays a role in the onset of disorders. Problems within relationships and stress were the most mentioned examples of loss of sense of control. CONCLUSION: The findings shed light on psychotherapists' diverse opinions and explanations regarding the role of loss of sense of control in the development of psychological symptoms.


Assuntos
Psicoterapeutas , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3888, 2024 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366010

RESUMO

This research focused on the intricacies of mental health within the psychotherapist community, a domain currently understudied. A recent study suggests a better overall mental health profile for Austrian psychotherapists compared to the general population. However, a substantial proportion of psychotherapists still exhibited scores beyond the cut-off for clinically significant mental disorders, potentially undermining the efficacy of patient outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April to June 2023, enrolling a cohort of 502 Austrian psychotherapists (79.7% female; mean age: 53.4 ± 9.26 years). The analysis leveraged indicators for symptoms of depression (PHQ-2), anxiety (GAD-2), insomnia (ISI-2), stress (PSS-4), and overall well-being (WHO-5). Key correlations were revealed using multivariable logistic regressions incorporating sociodemographic, work-related, and health behavior variables. Mental health symptoms in psychotherapists were associated with lower income, lesser physical activity, employment in outpatient facilities, less experience in the field, and a smaller patient load. Notably, physical activity emerged as a significant protective component, underscoring regular exercise as a vital self-care routine for psychotherapists. Adequate income also presented as a crucial contributor to mental health stability. These findings augment our understanding of the complex dynamics influencing psychotherapists' mental health, potentially enhancing their well-being and optimizing professional output.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Psicoterapeutas , Áustria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Pandemias , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia
5.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 61(2): 285-297, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38298011

RESUMO

The support of professional interpreters is an essential component of adequate mental health care for migrants with limited language proficiency. Nevertheless, for varied reasons, only a small proportion of outpatient psychotherapists provide interpreter-mediated psychotherapy for migrants. This study explored the perspectives of psychotherapists who have not worked with professional interpreters in outpatient mental health care to identify factors that may prevent the use of interpreters in outpatient care and explore possible incentives to provide interpreter-mediated psychotherapy for migrants with limited language proficiency. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 outpatient psychotherapists in Northern Germany who had not yet worked with professional interpreters in outpatient care. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using a structured content analysis approach. The psychotherapists named structural as well as subjective barriers and concerns. Findings suggest that improving structural factors, such as secure funding, minimal additional work, better preparation and training could facilitate the integration of professional interpreters into everyday treatment. Psychotherapists also mentioned concerns about their own confidence (e.g., insecurities regarding the triadic situation), the patient (e.g., reduced openness), the interpreter (e.g., doubts about suitability, motivation and empathy), as well as the therapeutic process (e.g., unclear allocation of roles). However, positive aspects and opportunities of interpreter-mediated psychotherapy were also described. These could be enhanced by the presence of conducive factors, such as existing trust between all parties and professional cooperation between interpreter and psychotherapist.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Psicoterapeutas , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Barreiras de Comunicação , Atitude , Tradução
6.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 74(2): 78-84, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study follows the question if psychotherapists with lived experiences of crisis and treatment address these experiences during their processes of self-experience. Further, the conceptual differentiation between self-experience and psychotherapy of this group of staff is explored. METHODS: 108 professionals with psychotherapeutic qualification were surveyed on their training self-experience. Relationships between processing of crisis experiences, crises frequency, and experienced benefit were analyzed using correlation analyses. Conceptual differences between self-experience and psychotherapy were gauged via nine content categories whose importance for self-experience and psychotherapy were rated by the participants. The means of these ratings were compared via t-test. RESULTS: Most participants reported that they had used their self-experience to process lived crisis experiences, and that they benefited from their self-experience, with processing and benefit being correlated significantly and positively. Conceptual differentiation of the two formats appeared to be complex. Participants ascribed biographical and personal categories rather to psychotherapy, and professional categories to self-experience. DISCUSSION: Given the prevalence of stigmatization towards individuals with mental health problems, it was surprising that most of the participants were able to address and process their lived experiences during their self-experience. It was surprising too that personal factors were ascribed to psychotherapy rather than self-experience, as the major importance of the therapeutic relationship and, by extension, personality development is well-known. CONCLUSION: Training self-experience should be a stigma-free setting, where future therapists are able to address their biographical burdens freely and thereby develop their personalities.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Berlim , Psicoterapia/educação , Psicoterapeutas , Personalidade
7.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(1): e2962, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38404160

RESUMO

Building a positive therapeutic relationship is a challenging, yet critical, first step in conducting youth psychotherapy. A number of studies in the youth treatment literature have indicated that a positive therapeutic alliance is related to increased treatment attendance, participation, and outcome. Some research has examined therapist behaviours for engaging therapy clients; however, developmental differences in alliance formation have had limited exploration. The current study surveyed clinicians about their use of specific engagement strategies and the developmental stage of their youth clients. It was hypothesised that participants would differentially rate the importance of different aspects of therapeutic engagement based upon a youth client's developmental stage and that these would correspond with differences in specific engagement strategies. A total of 64 clinicians with experience treating youth completed the study. The participants completed a questionnaire administered online that asked them to rate the importance of developmental differences to forming a therapeutic relationship and provide example client behaviours from their clinical experience for each developmental stage. Results showed clinicians felt the relative importance of collaboration, advocacy, and trustworthiness increased with age. These differences were also evidenced in the specific strategies clinicians endorsed in relation to each engagement factor across developmental stages. This program of research will eventually aid in the development of new guidelines for engaging clients in youth psychotherapy. In addition, the results may be used to enhance psychotherapy training for those working with children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Psicoterapeutas , Aliança Terapêutica , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Memory ; 32(2): 176-196, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285181

RESUMO

We report on a survey of 258 psychotherapists from Germany, focusing on their experiences with memory recovery in general, suggestive therapy procedures, evaluations of recovered memories, and memory recovery in training and guidelines. Most therapists (78%) reported instances of memory recovery encompassing negative and positive childhood experiences, but usually in a minority of patients. Also, most therapists (82%) reported to have held assumptions about unremembered trauma. Patients who held these beliefs were reported by 83% of the therapists. Both therapist and patient assumptions reportedly occurred in a minority of cases. Furthermore, 35% of participants had used therapeutic techniques at least once to recover presumed trauma memories. Only 10% reported assuming trauma in most patients and recovering purported memories in a majority of the attempts. A fifth believed memory recovery was a task of psychotherapy. This belief correlated with trauma assumptions, memory recovery attempts, and recovery frequency. Psychodynamic therapists more often reported to assume trauma behind symptoms and agreed more with problematic views on trauma and memory. No differences showed regarding suggestive behaviour in therapy. Most participants expressed interest in receiving support on dealing with memory recoveries. This interest should be taken up, ideally during therapist training.


Assuntos
Psicoterapeutas , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Alemanha
9.
J Couns Psychol ; 71(1): 48-62, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38059927

RESUMO

Experiences of nonbinary psychotherapists have largely gone unexamined in the present literature. Using critical-constructivist grounded theory, we explored the experiences of 13 nonbinary licensed psychotherapists through qualitative semistructured interviews. Interviews were an average of 1.36 hr, and participants were recruited via social media and professional listservs. We found that nonbinary therapists ground their professional praxis-the embodiment of professional theory, action, and practice-in identity across four interconnected areas: navigating minority stress, disclosing identity, utilizing identity, and centering anti-oppression ideologies. Findings add to the nascent examination of experiences of marginalized mental health professionals and note the value of identity integration into professional work. For this population, identity is used in praxis, as it permeates their entire professional sphere. We highlight how these clinicians use their identity in challenging binary understandings of the therapeutic profession. Furthermore, nonbinary therapists demonstrate resilience among systems of oppression and are empowered when challenging binary ways of thinking with clients, supervisors, and peers. Our results indicate the importance of supporting and training nonbinary clinicians in how to use themselves and identity disclosures as effective therapeutic tools and how to manage minority stress and microaggressions that occur in their professional practice. It also underscores the general need for increased training targeted to educators and binary mental health professions aimed at increasing competence in working with nonbinary people. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicoterapeutas , Humanos , Identidade de Gênero , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia
10.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 61(1): 68-81, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37956075

RESUMO

Alliance ruptures in youth psychotherapy can have a significant impact on treatment outcomes. However, there is currently limited guidance on how to effectively repair these ruptures with young people. This study aims to address this gap specifically in the context of psychodynamic psychotherapy with adolescents. The objectives of the study are (a) to understand the therapeutic interventions and attitudes that either facilitate or hinder the resolution of alliance ruptures and (b) to develop a model for repairing these ruptures within this particular treatment approach. To accomplish this, a task analysis of a previously developed rational model of resolving alliance ruptures was conducted using 16 sessions from short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy with depressed adolescents. The analysis supported some stages of the hypothesized rational model while revealing the need for revisions. As a result, the study developed a rational-empirical model that includes flexible strategies that therapists can use to repair alliance ruptures. This model emphasizes the significance of a collaborative, open, and empathetic approach to resolving ruptures. In contrast, rigid, defensive, or invalidating therapist attitudes can hinder the resolution process. The evidence-based model developed from the study can provide valuable guidance to psychodynamic psychotherapists working with young people, offering insights on how to approach ruptures and employ effective strategies to promote their resolution. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Psicoterapia Breve , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Aliança Terapêutica , Humanos , Adolescente , Resultado do Tratamento , Psicoterapeutas
11.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 61(1): 93-100, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38032633

RESUMO

The Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS) is a 20-item scale which aims to capture technical features distinguishing cognitive behavioral (CBT) from psychodynamic (PD) psychotherapy (and vice versa) in two corresponding subscales (CBT and PD Subscale). Our objective was to validate a German self-report version of the CPPS regarding a previous psychotherapy session in a psychotherapist- and in a patient-version. Fifty-three psychotherapists and their 53 patients answered to the according German CPPS Scale as well as to specific subscales of the Multitheoretical List of Therapeutic Interventions self-report-instrument (MULTI-30 subscales) assessing CBT- and PD-specific intervention characteristics. We analyzed (a) the correlation of the CPPS with the MULTI-30 subscales, (b) the ability of the CPPS to distinguish whether therapy sessions were either CBT or PD using logistic regression, and (c) the correlation between psychotherapists' and patients' self-report regarding the preceding session (correlation). Both the psychotherapist- and the patient-version showed acceptable to good values of internal consistencies (α = .78-.84). The CBT and PD Subscales of the MULTI-30 correlated with the CPPS subscales in both versions (CBT: rs = .85 [psychotherapist-version] and .80 [patient-version], PD: rs = .79 [both versions]). Subscales correctly discriminated whether the previous session was a CBT or a PD session (correct predictions in 88.7% in the psychotherapist-version, 73.6% in the patient-version; χ² ≥ 14.03, p < .001). The German version of the CPPS is a promising instrument to facilitate research on CBT- and PD-specific psychotherapy processes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Humanos , Psicoterapeutas , Autorrelato
12.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 74(1): 25-34, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37619602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since the reunification of Germany, a debate on the professional activities of GDR psychotherapists has rised up. This debate is partly conducted by the spirit of coming to terms with the past and partly by legitimizing therapeutic activities in the GDR. The aim of this work is to show in individual patterns the professional self-image of selected GDR psychotherapists. The study focused from a sociological perspective with the intention of differentiating this topic. In course of this, the range of political positioning of GDR psychotherapists will also be determined on a case-by-case basis and it will be shown how this was shaped in the often named "niche of psychotherapy". METHODS: Based on-biographical interviews, educational biographical trajectories of GDR psychotherapists were reconstructed. The interviews were analyzed using grounded theory in a circular process of material selection and theory development. According to the principle of maximum contrast (theoretical sampling), four women were selected for reconstruction from a sample of 39 interviews from the joint project Seelenarbeit im Sozialismus (Soul Work in Socialism) and analyzed using Teifel's (2005) coding guide based on educational theory. RESULTS: Within the four cases, extremely individual educational biographies emerge on the levels of the coding strategy (meaning/structure perspective and mode of action), each showing different characteristics with regard to their ability to adopt a reflexive stance and the adoption of professional agency. The cases also show different characteristics with regard to their different positions on the system of GDR. DISCUSSION: The results of the case reconstructions can be summarized in an overarching scheme. This shows that the role of each individual's educational access, their educational paths and their individual practice of action must be seen in relation to the influence of the political system and the ability to adopt a professional attitude. The psychotherapists of the GDR cannot be understood per se as a group acting subversively against the state.


Assuntos
Psicoterapeutas , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Feminino , Alemanha , Psicoterapia/métodos , Sistemas Políticos
13.
J Clin Psychol ; 80(1): 207-222, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37837638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The therapeutic alliance (TA) has been shown to be a predictor of psychotherapy treatment success. In the case of psychotherapy with children, there is a dearth of information on TA's role. The aims of the paper are: (1) To estimate the therapist effects on children TA; (2) to investigate if therapists' TA predicts children's TA; (3) to analyze if children's age and sex predict children's TA; (4) to evaluate if the therapist's characteristics predict children's TA. METHODS: The sample consisted of 77 children undergoing psychotherapy in Argentina, and the therapists (N = 29) providing services to those children. The assessment tools utilized for the study included the Therapy Alliance Scale for Children and the Personal Style of the Therapist Questionnaire (PST-Q). RESULTS: Findings indicated that 2% of the children's TA was explained by the therapists (ICC = 0.02), while 17% of the therapists' TA was explained by the therapists (ICC = 0.17). Therapists' TA predicted children's TA. Children's age and sex did not have an effect on their own TA. Moreover, therapists with more experience achieved higher scores of children's TA. Finally, the Operative dimension of the PST had a negative effect on children's TA (i.e., therapists who prefer more spontaneous interventions over structured ones may experience higher levels of therapeutic alliance with child patients). CONCLUSION: We found a positive effect of the therapist's TA on children's TA, especially in the preference for using more spontaneous intervention techniques. We discuss the implications of the findings on the training of psychotherapists who provide services to children.


Assuntos
Aliança Terapêutica , Criança , Humanos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapeutas , Psicoterapia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Masculino , Feminino
14.
Psychoanal Rev ; 110(4): 391-412, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38117516

RESUMO

In this article we seek to examine what we might learn about the therapist/psychoanalyst's function as selfobject by examining the relationship between the "vocal persona" and the "instrumental persona" in the art song. The comparison was born out of our own life partnership as a therapist, currently studying in a psychoanalytic-Buddhist training program that stresses the presence of the therapist/psychoanalyst as selfobject; and a collaborative pianist who instructs and performs with singers onstage. The concept of selfobject has offered a compelling and fruitful analogy. We explain and demonstrate this analogy using the terms selfobject and instrumental persona, which have in common the willingness to suspend selfhood in order to stand by another- a patient or a vocal persona- so that the latter might take root and flourish.


Assuntos
Budismo , Psicoterapeutas , Humanos
15.
Psychoanal Rev ; 110(4): 457-467, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38117518

RESUMO

The psychoanalytic journey and the psilocybin journey both reveal unconscious dynamics. In this article a psychoanalyst discusses his own psilocybin journey. Similarities and differences between these journeys are discussed. Possibilities are offered for a dialogue in which psilocybin may contribute to psychoanalytic understanding and psychoanalysis may contribute to the understanding of psychedelic sessions. Patients may benefit from this cross-fertilization.


Assuntos
Psilocibina , Psicanálise , Humanos , Psicoterapeutas , Ego
16.
Psychoanal Rev ; 110(4): 359-390, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38117520

RESUMO

In this article, I argue that psychopathology ubiquitously pervades individual and social life. As Freud wrote, each of us finds some way of distorting reality, and as Laing contended, human beings have an almost unlimited capacity for self-deception. History is a chronicle of fantasies, mirages, distortions, and metaphysical consolations believed as apodictic reality, and the bizarre magico-salvific stratagems people adopted to ward off disease, catastrophe, and death. And yet many (even psychoanalysts) maintain the notion (or fantasy) that we perceive reality clearly and sanely. I contend, on the contrary, that we have no epistemologically foolproof way of discerning our own deceptions and defects, and that we find all manner of ingenious excuses not to see ourselves.


Assuntos
Fantasia , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Psicoterapeutas , Síndrome , Redação
17.
PeerJ ; 11: e16235, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38099307

RESUMO

The ability to recognize and work with patients' emotions is considered an important part of most psychotherapy approaches. Surprisingly, there is little systematic research on psychotherapists' ability to recognize other people's emotional expressions. In this study, we compared trainee psychotherapists' nonverbal emotion recognition accuracy to a control group of undergraduate students at two time points: at the beginning and at the end of one and a half years of theoretical and practical psychotherapy training. Emotion recognition accuracy (ERA) was assessed using two standardized computer tasks, one for recognition of dynamic multimodal (facial, bodily, vocal) expressions and one for recognition of facial micro expressions. Initially, 154 participants enrolled in the study, 72 also took part in the follow-up. The trainee psychotherapists were moderately better at recognizing multimodal expressions, and slightly better at recognizing facial micro expressions, than the control group at the first test occasion. However, mixed multilevel modeling indicated that the ERA change trajectories for the two groups differed significantly. While the control group improved in their ability to recognize multimodal emotional expressions from pretest to follow-up, the trainee psychotherapists did not. Both groups improved their micro expression recognition accuracy, but the slope for the control group was significantly steeper than the trainee psychotherapists'. These results suggest that psychotherapy education and clinical training do not always contribute to improved emotion recognition accuracy beyond what could be expected due to time or other factors. Possible reasons for that finding as well as implications for the psychotherapy education are discussed.


Assuntos
Psicoterapeutas , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Psicoterapia/educação , Emoções , Estudantes , Expressão Facial
18.
Psychiatry ; 86(4): 317-328, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38133682

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to focus on an aspect of psychodynamic psychotherapy that includes psychoanalysis to illustrate the important element in the psychotherapeutic relationship called recognition. This involves an emotional sharing with the patient of the importance of particular life experiences that he has had and as such this not only cements the relationship but becomes the substrate of change and an internalization of the therapist that persists after the end of treatment. This interaction parallels the experience with a responsive mother able to echo the infant's experience. The experience of recognition is illustrated with 10 case presentations that demonstrate the power of this factor in a variety of patients ranging from brief consultations to psychoanalysis.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Masculino , Humanos , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Psicoterapeutas , Psicoterapia/métodos , Emoções , Mecanismos de Defesa
20.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 60(4): 525-535, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37796545

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate prospective psychotherapists' bias in assessing their own facilitative interpersonal skills (FIS) and predictors of high self-assessments. In this cross-sectional observational study, we examined 132 psychology students and trainee psychotherapists. Therapists' demographic variables and self-concepts were assessed through self-report questionnaires, and their therapeutic skills were assessed with the German version of the "FIS" task. A truth-and-bias model approach was applied in three different hierarchical linear models to test self-assessment bias of FIS, and to identify factors associated with overly positive self-assessments of therapeutic skills. Significantly higher self-assessments of skills were found in comparison to observer ratings for overall FIS and for the FIS dimensions hope, emotional expression, warmth, acceptance, and understanding, empathy, alliance bond capacity, and rupture-repair responsiveness. Despite this discrepancy, there was a significant congruence between self- and observer ratings. A greater self-assessed ego-strength and attractiveness were associated with self-assessments of skills that were higher than the observer-rated average. Age, gender, experience, and other self-concept variables showed no significant association with self-assessments. This present study demonstrates self-assessment bias in prospective therapists. However, when participants rated their own FIS to be high, observers also tended to rate participants' skills higher. Especially therapists who generally feel more confident and attractive tend to estimate themselves positively. Supervisors and trainees should be aware of the ubiquity of self-assessment bias. Future research is necessary to test the effect of self-assessment bias on patient outcomes and process variables. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Psicoterapia , Habilidades Sociais , Humanos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapeutas , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais
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