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1.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 52, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate whether iris blood flow and iris thickness at the iris smooth muscle region affect the pupil diameter at rest and after drug-induced mydriasis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: T1DM patients and healthy children were recruited from the SCADE cohort. T2DM patients and healthy adults were recruited from patients undergoing cataract surgery at Shanghai General Hospital. Iris vessel density, pupil diameter (PD) and iris thickness were measured in both the resting and drug-induced mydriasis states. Iris vessel density was measured by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), PD was measured by a pupilometer, and iris thickness at the iris smooth muscle regions were measured using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). RESULTS: The study included 34 pediatric T1DM patients and 50 adult T2DM patients, both groups without diabetic retinopathy, and age-sex-matched healthy controls. At baseline, T1DM children and healthy children showed no differences in iris blood flow, iris thickness, or PD. However, the adult T2DM group exhibited higher vessel density at the pupil margin, thinner iris thickness at the iris dilator region, and smaller PD compared to healthy adults, with these differences being statistically significant (P < 0.05). After pupil dilation, there were no changes in iris blood flow and PD in the T1DM group compared to healthy children, whereas the T2DM group showed a significantly smaller PD compared to healthy adults. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that in the T2DM group, glycated hemoglobin was an independent factor of PD after dilation (ß=-0.490, p = 0.031), with no such factors identified in the T1DM group. CONCLUSION: The insufficiently dilated pupil diameter after drug-induced mydriasis is correlated to the level of glycated hemoglobin among T2DM patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The registration number on the clinical trial website was NCT03631108.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Midríase , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , China , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dilatação Patológica , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Pressão Intraocular , Iris , Midríase/induzido quimicamente , Pupila/fisiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Masculino , Feminino
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2280, 2024 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280921

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that the visual system adapts to the specific aberration pattern of an individual's eye. Alterations to this pattern can lead to reduced visual performance, even when the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the wavefront error remains constant. However, it is well-established that ocular aberrations are dynamic and can change with factors such as pupil size and accommodation. This raises an intriguing question: can the neural system adapt to continuously changing aberration patterns? To address this question, we measured the ocular aberrations in four subjects under various natural viewing conditions, which included changes in accommodative state and pupil size. We subsequently computed the associated Point Spread Functions (PSFs). For each subject, we examined the stability in the orientation of the PSFs and analyzed the cross-correlation between different PSFs. These findings were then compared to the characteristics of a distribution featuring PSF shapes akin to random variations. Our results indicate that the changes observed in the PSFs are not substantial enough to produce a PSF shape distribution resembling random variations. This lends support to the notion that neural adaptation is indeed a viable mechanism even in response to continuously changing aberration patterns.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular , Olho , Humanos , Face , Refração Ocular , Pupila/fisiologia
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(5): e2312898121, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277436

RESUMO

Perceptual decision-making is highly dependent on the momentary arousal state of the brain, which fluctuates over time on a scale of hours, minutes, and even seconds. The textbook relationship between momentary arousal and task performance is captured by an inverted U-shape, as put forward in the Yerkes-Dodson law. This law suggests optimal performance at moderate levels of arousal and impaired performance at low or high arousal levels. However, despite its popularity, the evidence for this relationship in humans is mixed at best. Here, we use pupil-indexed arousal and performance data from various perceptual decision-making tasks to provide converging evidence for the inverted U-shaped relationship between spontaneous arousal fluctuations and performance across different decision types (discrimination, detection) and sensory modalities (visual, auditory). To further understand this relationship, we built a neurobiologically plausible mechanistic model and show that it is possible to reproduce our findings by incorporating two types of interneurons that are both modulated by an arousal signal. The model architecture produces two dynamical regimes under the influence of arousal: one regime in which performance increases with arousal and another regime in which performance decreases with arousal, together forming an inverted U-shaped arousal-performance relationship. We conclude that the inverted U-shaped arousal-performance relationship is a general and robust property of sensory processing. It might be brought about by the influence of arousal on two types of interneurons that together act as a disinhibitory pathway for the neural populations that encode the available sensory evidence used for the decision.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Encéfalo , Humanos , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Pupila/fisiologia , Sensação
4.
Neurobiol Aging ; 133: 107-114, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37939430

RESUMO

Physical exercise has positive impacts on hippocampal memory decline with aging. One of the postulated neurobiological mechanisms of the decline is reduced catecholaminergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the hippocampus. Recent human studies revealed that very light exercise rapidly enhances memory and pupil diameter, which suggests that light exercise may improve memory via neural circuits involved in the ascending arousal system, including the locus coeruleus, even in older adults. Thus, we aimed to clarify the effects of a single bout of light-intensity exercise (60% ventilatory threshold) on mnemonic discrimination performance, an index of hippocampal memory function, in healthy older adults using a randomized crossover design. Pupil diameter was measured during exercise as a physiological marker of the ascending arousal system. Discrimination of highly similar stimuli to the targets improved after exercise when compared to the resting control performance. Importantly, causal mediation analysis showed that pupil dilation during exercise mediated the memory improvement. These results suggest that brief light exercise rapidly enhances memory, possibly by upregulating the ascending arousal system.


Assuntos
Memória , Pupila , Idoso , Humanos , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hipocampo , Memória/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over
5.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 238: 105801, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37883903

RESUMO

In this study, it was investigated whether an emotional response would occur in pupil contagion by using skin conductance response (SCR) in 5- and 6-month-old infants. In the experiment, emotional responses to pupil diameter change (dilating/constricting) between the face and eyes regions were compared by using pupil diameter response and SCR. The results showed that pupil diameter responses to pupil diameter changes did not differ between face and eyes regions. The emotional response indicated by the SCR significantly increased when participants looked at dilating pupils of face stimuli compared with when participants looked at constricted pupils of face stimuli. In addition, we found a significant correlation between SCR and pupil dilation in the face. This means that pupil diameter expansion significantly increases emotional response in pupil dilation of the face region.


Assuntos
Emoções , Pupila , Lactente , Humanos , Pupila/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Face
6.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 44(1): 168-176, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37966110

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous transverse and a handful of longitudinal studies have shown that the slope of the static accommodation response/stimulus curve declines as complete presbyopia is approached. Changes in pupillary miosis and ocular spherical aberration (SA) are also evident. This study further investigated longitudinal changes in the relationships between the monocular static accommodative response, pupil diameter and SA of a single adult. METHODS: A wavefront analysing system, the Complete Ophthalmic Analysis System, was used in conjunction with a Badal optometer to allow continuous recording of the aberration structure of the dominant eye in a low myope for a range of accommodative demands (-0.83 to 7.63 D) over a period of 17 years until the age of 50. Monocular accommodative response was calculated as the equivalent refraction minimising wavefront error. The associated longitudinal changes in pupil size and SA with accommodation were also recorded. RESULTS: A decrease in accommodation response with age was found at almost all target vergences, with the changes being greatest for higher vergences. In addition, although absolute pupil diameter decreased with age, the rate of change in pupil diameter with accommodative stimulus remained approximately constant with age. Pupil constriction occurred for near stimuli even in full presbyopia. SA changed linearly with the accommodation response at all ages. CONCLUSIONS: The objective amplitude of accommodation declined linearly with age as complete presbyopia was approached, while the slope of the response/stimulus curve also fell. It was hypothesised that the retinal image blur associated with the larger lags of accommodation at higher accommodative stimuli was reduced by pupil constriction and the resulting lower levels of SA.


Assuntos
Miopia , Presbiopia , Adulto , Humanos , Pupila/fisiologia , Refração Ocular , Acomodação Ocular , Miose
7.
J Vis ; 23(15): 77, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38109571

RESUMO

The pupillary light response is driven by three classes of retinal photoreceptor. Cones and rods are involved in the initial constriction of the pupil, whereas melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) maintain constriction over longer timescales. Previous work has characterized the contributions of photoreceptor signals to pupil control, but relatively little is known about binocular combination of these signals when simultaneously stimulating the retina in both eyes. We measured changes in pupil size in 48 participants using a binocular eye-tracker, targeting specific photoreceptor classes with a binocular 10-primary light engine and the silent substitution method. We stimulated the periphery of the retina using light flickering at 0.4 and 0.5 Hz. Participants viewed a disc of either achromatic flickering light, or contrast modulations that targeted the ipRGCs, or the opponent colour pathways L-M or S-(L+M). Using a modified virtual reality headset, we presented the stimuli at a range of modulation amplitudes in three different ocular configurations: monocular, binocular, and dichoptic. We obtained clear pupil responses at both the first and the second harmonic frequencies. Suppression levels differed across conditions with the strongest suppression measured for the L-M condition. We account for the results in a single modelling framework where the weight of interocular suppression determines the binocular combination properties.


Assuntos
Pupila , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones , Humanos , Pupila/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/fisiologia , Retina , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/metabolismo , Opsinas de Bastonetes/metabolismo , Luz , Reflexo Pupilar/fisiologia
8.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 154(6): 3973-3985, 2023 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38149818

RESUMO

Face masks offer essential protection but also interfere with speech communication. Here, audio-only sentences spoken through four types of masks were presented in noise to young adult listeners. Pupil dilation (an index of cognitive demand), intelligibility, and subjective effort and performance ratings were collected. Dilation increased in response to each mask relative to the no-mask condition and differed significantly where acoustic attenuation was most prominent. These results suggest that the acoustic impact of the mask drives not only the intelligibility of speech, but also the cognitive demands of listening. Subjective effort ratings reflected the same trends as the pupil data.


Assuntos
Máscaras , Percepção da Fala , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Pupila/fisiologia , Cognição , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
9.
Cell Rep ; 42(11): 113405, 2023 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37950868

RESUMO

Detection of deviant stimuli is crucial to orient and adapt our behavior. Previous work shows that deviant stimuli elicit phasic activation of the locus coeruleus (LC), which releases noradrenaline and controls central arousal. However, it is unclear whether the detection of behaviorally relevant deviant stimuli selectively triggers LC responses or other neuromodulatory systems (dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine). We combine human functional MRI (fMRI) recordings optimized for brainstem imaging with pupillometry to perform a mapping of deviant-related responses in subcortical structures. Participants have to detect deviant items in a "local-global" paradigm that distinguishes between deviance based on the stimulus probability and the sequence structure. fMRI responses to deviant stimuli are distributed in many cortical areas. Both types of deviance elicit responses in the pupil, LC, and other neuromodulatory systems. Our results reveal that the detection of task-relevant deviant items recruits the same multiple subcortical systems across computationally different types of deviance.


Assuntos
Tronco Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Locus Cerúleo/diagnóstico por imagem , Nível de Alerta , Pupila/fisiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 20331, 2023 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37989756

RESUMO

Pupil dilation response (PDR) has been proposed as a physiological marker of conscious access to a stimulus or its attributes, such as novelty. In a previous study on healthy volunteers, we adapted the auditory "local global" paradigm and showed that violations of global regularity elicited a PDR. Notably without instructions, this global effect was present only in participants who could consciously report violations of global regularities. In the present study, we used a similar approach in 24 non-communicating patients affected with a Disorder of Consciousness (DoC) and compared PDR to ERPs regarding diagnostic and prognostic performance. At the group level, global effect could not be detected in DoC patients. At the individual level, the only patient with a PDR global effect was in a MCS and recovered consciousness at 6 months. Contrasting the most regular trials to the most irregular ones improved PDR's diagnostic and prognostic power in DoC patients. Pupillometry is a promising tool but requires several methodological improvements to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio and make it more robust for probing consciousness and cognition in DoC patients.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência , Pupila , Humanos , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Potenciais Evocados , Cognição , Transtornos da Consciência/diagnóstico
11.
Curr Biol ; 33(22): 5003-5010.e6, 2023 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875110

RESUMO

The noradrenaline (NA) system is one of the brain's major neuromodulatory systems; it originates in a small midbrain nucleus, the locus coeruleus (LC), and projects widely throughout the brain.1,2 The LC-NA system is believed to regulate arousal and attention3,4 and is a pharmacological target in multiple clinical conditions.5,6,7 Yet our understanding of its role in health and disease has been impeded by a lack of direct recordings in humans. Here, we address this problem by showing that electrochemical estimates of sub-second NA dynamics can be obtained using clinical depth electrodes implanted for epilepsy monitoring. We made these recordings in the amygdala, an evolutionarily ancient structure that supports emotional processing8,9 and receives dense LC-NA projections,10 while patients (n = 3) performed a visual affective oddball task. The task was designed to induce different cognitive states, with the oddball stimuli involving emotionally evocative images,11 which varied in terms of arousal (low versus high) and valence (negative versus positive). Consistent with theory, the NA estimates tracked the emotional modulation of attention, with a stronger oddball response in a high-arousal state. Parallel estimates of pupil dilation, a common behavioral proxy for LC-NA activity,12 supported a hypothesis that pupil-NA coupling changes with cognitive state,13,14 with the pupil and NA estimates being positively correlated for oddball stimuli in a high-arousal but not a low-arousal state. Our study provides proof of concept that neuromodulator monitoring is now possible using depth electrodes in standard clinical use.


Assuntos
Atenção , Norepinefrina , Humanos , Atenção/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Encéfalo , Locus Cerúleo/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia
12.
Neuroimage ; 283: 120420, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37871758

RESUMO

The size of the eyes' pupils determines how much light enters the eye and also how well this light is focused. Through this route, pupil size shapes the earliest stages of visual processing. Yet causal effects of pupil size on vision are poorly understood and rarely studied. Here we introduce a new way to manipulate pupil size, which relies on activation of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) to induce sustained pupil constriction. We report the effects of both experimentally induced and spontaneous changes in pupil size on visual processing as measured through EEG. We compare these to the effects of stimulus intensity and covert visual attention, because previous studies have shown that these factors all have comparable effects on some common measures of early visual processing, such as detection performance and steady-state visual evoked potentials; yet it is still unclear whether these are superficial similarities, or rather whether they reflect similar underlying processes. Using a mix of neural-network decoding, ERP analyses, and time-frequency analyses, we find that induced pupil size, spontaneous pupil size, stimulus intensity, and covert visual attention all affect EEG responses, mainly over occipital and parietal electrodes, but-crucially-that they do so in qualitatively different ways. Induced and spontaneous pupil-size changes mainly modulate activity patterns (but not overall power or intertrial coherence) in the high-frequency beta range; this may reflect an effect of pupil size on oculomotor activity and/ or visual processing. In addition, spontaneous (but not induced) pupil size tends to correlate positively with intertrial coherence in the alpha band; this may reflect a non-causal relationship, mediated by arousal. Taken together, our findings suggest that pupil size has qualitatively different effects on visual processing from stimulus intensity and covert visual attention. This shows that pupil size as manipulated through ipRGC activation strongly affects visual processing, and provides concrete starting points for further study of this important yet understudied earliest stage of visual processing.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Percepção Visual , Humanos , Visão Ocular , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa
13.
Biol Psychol ; 183: 108699, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37775034

RESUMO

Interoceptive cardiac arousal signals (e.g., from baroreceptor firing at ventricular systole compared to diastole) have been found to enhance perception of fearful versus neutral faces. They have also been found to amplify racially biased misidentification of tools as weapons when preceded by facial images of Black versus White individuals. Since pupil size is strongly coupled to arousal, we tested if experimental manipulation of pupil size influences fear processing in emotional judgement and racial bias tasks involving measurement of cardiac signals. In a sample of 22 non-clinical participants in an emotional intensity judgement task, pupil size did not affect emotional intensity ratings. Nor did it interact with differential effects of cardiac systole versus diastole on intensity judgements of fearful and neutral faces, replicated here. In a sample of 25 non-clinical participants in a weapons identification task, larger pupil size resulted in faster response times and lower accuracy when identifying tools and weapons. However, pupil size did not interact with weapon versus tool identification, race of prime, or cardiac timing. We nevertheless replicated the observed increase in racially biased misidentification of tools as weapons following Black face primes presented at cardiac systole. Together our findings indicate that pupil dilation does not directly influence the processing of fear cues or perceived threat (as in racial bias) yet affects task performance by decreasing response times and accuracy. These findings contrast with the established effect of cardiac arousal signals on threat processing and may help focus interventions to mitigate related decision errors in high-pressure occupations.


Assuntos
Pupila , Racismo , Humanos , Pupila/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Expressão Facial
14.
Cereb Cortex ; 33(21): 10736-10749, 2023 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37709360

RESUMO

Pupil dynamics presents varied correlation features with brain activity under different vigilant levels. The modulation of brain dynamic stages can arise from the lateral hypothalamus (LH), where diverse neuronal cell types contribute to arousal regulation in opposite directions via the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, the relationship of the LH and pupil dynamics has seldom been investigated. Here, we performed local field potential (LFP) recordings at the LH and ACC, and whole-brain fMRI with simultaneous fiber photometry Ca2+ recording in the ACC, to evaluate their correlation with brain state-dependent pupil dynamics. Both LFP and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data showed various correlations to pupil dynamics across trials that span negative, null, and positive correlation values, demonstrating brain state-dependent coupling features. Our results indicate that the correlation of pupil dynamics with ACC LFP and whole-brain fMRI signals depends on LH activity, suggesting a role of the latter in brain dynamic stage regulation.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Pupila , Pupila/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
15.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 66(10): 4083-4099, 2023 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37699194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current evidence regarding the influence of hearing loss on the pupil response elicited by speech perception is inconsistent. This might be partially due to confounding effects of age. This study aimed to compare pupil responses in age-matched groups of normal-hearing (NH) and hard of hearing (HH) listeners during listening to speech. METHOD: We tested the baseline pupil size and mean and peak pupil dilation response of 17 NH participants (Mage = 46 years; age range: 20-62 years) and 17 HH participants (Mage = 45 years; age range: 20-63 years) who were pairwise matched on age and educational level. Participants performed three speech perception tasks at a 50% intelligibility level: noise-vocoded speech and speech masked with either stationary noise or interfering speech. They also listened to speech presented in quiet. RESULTS: Hearing loss was associated with poorer speech perception, except for noise-vocoded speech. In contrast to NH participants, performance of HH participants did not improve across trials for the interfering speech condition, and it decreased for speech in stationary noise. HH participants had a smaller mean pupil dilation in degraded speech conditions compared to NH participants, but not for speech in quiet. They also had a steeper decline in the baseline pupil size across trials. The baseline pupil size was smaller for noise-vocoded speech as compared to the other conditions. The normalized data showed an additional group effect on the baseline pupil response. CONCLUSIONS: Hearing loss is associated with a smaller pupil response and steeper decline in baseline pupil size during the perception of degraded speech. This suggests difficulties of the HH participants to sustain their effort investment and performance across the test session.


Assuntos
Surdez , Perda Auditiva , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pupila/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Ruído , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
16.
eNeuro ; 10(10)2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37699706

RESUMO

Similar to a camera aperture, pupil size adjusts to the surrounding luminance. Unlike a camera, pupil size is additionally modulated both by stimulus properties and by cognitive processes, including attention and arousal, though the interdependence of these factors is unclear. We hypothesized that different stimulus properties interact to jointly modulate pupil size while remaining independent from the impact of arousal. We measured pupil responses from human observers to equiluminant stimuli during a demanding rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task at fixation and tested how response amplitude depends on contrast, spatial frequency, and reward level. We found that under constant luminance, unattended stimuli evoke responses that are separable from changes caused by general arousal or attention. We further uncovered a double-dissociation between task-related responses and stimulus-evoked responses, suggesting that different sources of pupil size modulation are independent of one another. Our results shed light on neural pathways underlying pupillary response.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Pupila , Humanos , Pupila/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Visão Ocular , Estimulação Luminosa
17.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 192: 26-34, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37558096

RESUMO

Insecure attachment is thought to impair romantic relationships, presumably also contributing to mental health problems. Previous research has suggested a link to biased automatic processing of social information, potentially reflected in pupil dilation responses. To address this hypothesis, 37 adults were presented with attachment-related, emotional pictures of erotic couples, everyday couples, or interpersonal violence after assessment with the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale. Considerable variation in self-reported attachment behaviors regarding both attachment anxiety and avoidance was observed in our sample. Overall, pupil dilation was most pronounced during viewing of erotica and violence-related pictures. Relative to nature pictures as control, attachment avoidance was associated with attenuated pupillary responses to social content. However, this was not significant with erotica. For pictures of violence, this avoidant bias was also evident in reduced subjective arousal. In contrast, attachment anxiety was unrelated to differential pupil dilation. Our findings, although preliminary, suggest that previous attachment-related experiences may bias the processing of social stimuli, which in turn may be reflected in altered patterns of pupillary responses.


Assuntos
Emoções , Pupila , Adulto , Humanos , Pupila/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Autorrelato
18.
Psychophysiology ; 60(12): e14405, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37539654

RESUMO

Pupillary synchrony or contagion is the automatic unconscious mimicry of pupil dilation in dyadic interactions. This experiment explored electrophysiological event-related potential (ERP) concomitants of pupillary synchrony. Artificial pupils (black dots) were superimposed on either partial faces (eyes, nose, brow) or random textures. Observers were asked to judge dot size (large, medium, or small). There was clear evidence of pupillary synchrony with observer pupil dilation greater to large dots than to small or medium dots. The pupillary synchrony increased in magnitude throughout the trial and was found both with faces and with textures. When the stimuli were partial faces with artificial pupils (dots), there was ERP activity related to target dot size in the period at P250 and P3. A face specific N170 was also found. When the stimuli were random textures with dots, there was ERP activity at P1 and in the interval from 140 to 200 ms post-stimulus onset. The use of ERP with pupillometry revealed results for faces that were consistent with a social explanation of pupillary synchrony whereas results for textures were consistent with a local luminance explanation.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Pupila , Humanos , Pupila/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia
19.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 59(7): 509-513, 2023 Jul 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37408420

RESUMO

Pupil abnormalities may be physiological, pathological or pharmacological. It can indicate the underlying disease of the visual afferent system or visual efferent system. Examination of the pupils is therefore a part of eye examination. Insufficient knowledge and inconsistent methods in the pupillary examination by some ophthalmologists lead to mistakes or unreliable results, hampering the disease diagnosis and clinical assessment. This article emphasizes the significance of pupillary examination outcomes, advocates for standardized examination methods, and highlights the need to enhance the awareness of pupillary abnormalities, aiming to provide a guide on how to recognize and interpret the clinical implications of pupillary abnormalities, and to offer valuable insights for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Relevância Clínica , Distúrbios Pupilares , Humanos , Distúrbios Pupilares/diagnóstico , Pupila/fisiologia , Corpo Ciliar , Reflexo Pupilar/fisiologia
20.
J Vis ; 23(6): 9, 2023 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37318440

RESUMO

What determines how much one encodes into visual working memory? Traditionally, encoding depth is considered to be indexed by spatiotemporal properties of gaze, such as gaze position and dwell time. Although these properties inform about where and how long one looks, they do not necessarily inform about the current arousal state or how strongly attention is deployed to facilitate encoding. Here, we found that two types of pupillary dynamics predict how much information is encoded during a copy task. The task involved encoding a spatial pattern of multiple items for later reproduction. Results showed that smaller baseline pupil sizes preceding and stronger pupil orienting responses during encoding predicted that more information was encoded into visual working memory. Additionally, we show that pupil size reflects not only how much but also how precisely material is encoded. We argue that a smaller pupil size preceding encoding is related to increased exploitation, whereas larger pupil constrictions signal stronger attentional (re)orienting to the to-be-encoded pattern. Our findings support the notion that the depth of visual working memory encoding is the integrative outcome of differential aspects of attention: how alert one is, how much attention one deploys, and how long it is deployed. Together, these factors determine how much information is encoded into visual working memory.


Assuntos
Atenção , Memória de Curto Prazo , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia
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